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Name: Randy Do


Class: AP Bio

Chapter 36 Outline
Plant Structure and Growth K 1. 2. 3. W 1. Why do plants need carbon dioxide? 2. What is the process of photosynthesis? 3. How do plants transport oxygen? L Things I LEARNED from the chapter: (minimum of 3) 1. 2. 3. An Overview of Transport Mechanisms in Plants Plant cells maintain an internal environment from their surrounding, thus transporting specific proteins from the plant. The proton pumps creates the membrane potential and H+ gradient, afterwards the two ingredients then transport to variety of solutes. Solutes decrease water potential, while pressure increases water potential. Aquaporins are water-specific channels in membranes that help regulate the rate of osmosis. The plasma membrane regulates transport between the cytosol and the wall solution. The tonoplast regulates transport between the cytosol and the vacuole. Pressure differences at opposite ends create transport of xylem sap and phloem sap. Transport at the cellular level depends on the selective permeability of membranes Transport proteins- A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane. Selective channels- Selective passageways across a cell membrane formed by specialized membrane transport proteins. 1. The selective permeability of a plant cells membrane controls movement of the solute or extracellular solution. 2. Active transporters are a special class of membrane proteins, each responsible for pumping specific solutes. 3. Transport protein simply facilitate diffusion cannot perform active transport.

Proton pumps play a central role in transport across plant membranes Proton pump- An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consume ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and, in the process, generates a membrane potential Cotransport- A transport protein couples the downhill passage of one solute to the uphill passage of another. Chemiosmosis- Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs chemiosmosis. An energy mechanism that use stored energy to take out hydrogen ion gradient and converting them to ATP. 1. Gradient is a form of stored energy because the hydrogen ions tend to diffuse downhill back into the cell. Also the proton pump moves positive charge out of the cell. 2. Potential energy and Hydrogen Gradients, which is created from the proton pump, moves solutes through the membrane. 3. Chemisomosis key feature is a transmembrane proton gradient, which links energyreleasing processes to energy-consuming process in cells. Differences in water potential drive water transport in plant cells Osmosis- The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Water potential- The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure. Megapascals- A unit of pressure equivalent to 10 atmospheres of pressure Tension- Negative pressure on water or solution. Flaccid- Limp. Walled cells are flaccid in isotonic surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter Plasmolyze- A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment. Turgor pressure- The force directed against a cell wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis Turgid- Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment. 1. Water will move across a membrane from the solution with the higher water potential to the solution with the lower water potential. 2. Water flows by osmosis from a compartment with a higher water potential to one with a lower potential.

Aquaporins affect the rate of water transport Aquaporins- Specific channels for passive traffic of water are transport proteins. 1. Water molecules are so small, they move relatively freely across the lipid bilayer of membranes. 2. Aquaporins do not affect the water flow, but rather the rate at which water diffuses down its water potential gradient. Vacuolated plant cells have three major compartments Tonoplast- Regulates molecular traffic between the cytosol and the vacuolar contents. Symplast- In plants, the continuum of cytoplasm connected by plasmordesmata between cells. Apoplast- In plants, the nonliving continuum formed by the extracellular pathway provided by the continuous matrix of cell wall 1. The role of membrane serves as a barrier between two major compartments a. The cell wall and cytosol, inside the plasma membrane but outside the intracellular organelles b. Third major compartments: Ribosomes 2. Plasmodesmata connect the cytosolic compartments of nighboring cells, forming a continuous pathway for transport certain molecules between cells. Both the symplast and the apoplast function in transport within tissues and organs 1. Lateral transport is a short-distance transport, which its direction is along the radial axis of plant organs. a. First route-substance move out of one cell and into the neighboring cell. b. Second route- The continuum of cytosol within a plant tissue. Solutes and water can then move from cell to cell then to the plasmordesmata c. Plant tissue or organ is along the apoplast. Before enter a cell, water and solute can move from one location to another with a root. 2. Transmembrane route requires repeated crossing of plasma membranes, as the solutes exit one cell and enter the next Bulk flow functions in long-distance transport Bulk flow- The movement of fluid driven by pressure. 1. Transpiration, the evaporation of water from a lead, reduces pressure in the leaf xylem. This creates tension that pulls xylem sap upward from the root. 2. Water and solutes move through xylem vessels and sieve tubes by bulk flow.

Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Mycorrhizae are responsible for the most absorption by the whole root system. Once soil solution enters the root, the surface area of the cortical cell membranes enhances. The cell uptakes more water and selected minerals. Water can travel through the cortex, which then reaches to the symplast or apoplast. However, minerals are an exception because after they travel through the endodermis, then to the apoplast, they must cross the selective member of the endodermal cells. Soil-> epidermis-> root cortex-> xylem segments of this transport pathway

Root hairs, Mycorrhizae, and a large surface area of cortical cells enhance water and mineral absorption Mycorrhizae- symbiotic structure consisting of the plants roots united with the hyphae of the fungi. 1. Soil solution flows in the hydrophilic walls of epidermal cells and passes freely along the apoplast into the root cortex. This exposes all the parenchyma cells of the cortex to soil solution. 2. Hyphae absorb water and selected minerals, transferring much resource to the host plant. 3. Mycorrhizae enable even older regions of roots to supply water and minerals to the plant.

The endodermis functions as a selective sentry between the root cortex and vascular tissue Endodermis- The innermost layer of cells in the root cortex Casparian strip- A belt made of suberin 1. Water cam crpss the cortex then to the symplast or apoplast, but minerals that reach the endodermis then to the apoplast must finally cross the selective membranes of endodermal cells. 2. The waxy Casparian strip of the endoderm wall blocks apoplectic transfer of minerals from the cortex to the stele. Transport of Xylem Sap Loss of water vapor, transpiration, lowers water potential in the lead by producing a negative pressure, tension. This low water potential draws water from the xylem. Cohesion and adhesion of the water transmits the pulling force all the way down to the roots. The movement of xylem sap against gravity is maintained by transpiration. Transpiration- The loss of water vapor from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant

The ascent of xylem sap depends mainly on transpiration and the physical properties of water Root pressure- The upward push of water within the stele of vascular plants, caused by active pumping of minerals into the xylem by root cells. Guttation- The exudation of water droplets that can be seen in the morning on tip of grass blades or leaf margins of some small 1. As water evaporates the remaining film of liquid water retreats into the pores of cell walls, attracted by adhesion to the hydrophilic walls. 2. Loss of water vapor lowers water potential in the leaf by producing a negative pressure. 3. This low water potential draws water from the xylem. 4. Cohesion and adhesion of the water transmits the pulling force all the way down to the roots Xylem sap ascends by solar-powered bulk flow: a review 1. The movement of xylem sap against gravity is maintained by transpiration. 2. Gradient of water potential drive the osmotic movement of water from cell to cell within root and leaf tissue. The Control of Transpiration Stomata support photosynthesis by allowing Co2 and O2 exchange between the lead and atmosphere. The pores are the main avenues for transpirational loss of water. Guard cells regulate the size of the stomatal openings. Turgot changes in guard cell by transporting K+ and water in and out of the cell. The leaf is able to protect the stomata because of the behavior of the adaptations. Indentations and other structural adaptations enable certain plants to survive in extreme environments. Guard cells mediate the photosynthesis- transpiration compromise Transpiration-to-photosynthesis ratio- The amount of water lost per gram of Co2 assimilated into organic material by photosynthesis. Circadian rhythms1. Stomata support photosynthesis by allowing Co2 and O2 exchange between the lead and atmosphere 2. Turgor changes in guard cells regulate the size of the stomatal opening. Xerophytes have evolutionary adaptations that reduce transpiration Xerophytes-

Translocation of Phloem Sap Mature leaves are the main sources of storing phloem sap. A developing roots and shoot tips are examples of sugar sinks. Sugar sinks is an organ that is a net consume or storage sugar. Phloem loading and unloading depend on active transport of sucrose. The sucrose is cotransported along with H+. TranslocationPhloem translocates its sap from sugar sources to sugar sinks Sugar sourceSugar sinkTransfer cells Pressure flow is the mechanism of translocation in angiosperms