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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

True Education, it must be noted at the outset, is a powerful


force in bringing about desired change. It is education and
education alone that can bring about changes in knowledge,
skills, attitudes, appreciations and understanding things around
us.
The definitions of education formulated by a group of
experts for the dictionary of Education stressed two important
things in education. Firstly, Education is a process, which would
develop the required ability, attitude and other forms of
behaviour for the full development of the personality. This is the
most comprehensive definition of education and explains it vital
role in ones’ life. Secondly, the process of education includes
learning, training, instruction and discipline. Briefly we can
define education as the full and harmonious development of
child’s powers and faculties of head, heart and hand.
J.S.Mill defined education as ‘the culture which each
generation personality gives to those who are to be its successors
in order to qualify them for at least keeping up, and if possible by
raising the level of improvement, which has been attained’.
Education to-day, is considered to be a preparation for life-for a
nobler and fuller life. That is why Alexander of Macedon once
declared, “I am indebted to my father for living, but to my
teacher for living well”.
Will Durant aptly observes, “consider it (education) as the
painful accumulation of facts and dates, but an ennobling
intimacy with great men. Consider it not as a preparation of the
individual to make a living, but as the development of every

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potential capacity in him, for the comprehension, control and
appreciation of his world. Above all consider it, in its fullest
definitions, as the techniques of transmitting as completely as
possible to as many as possible that technological, intellectual,
moral and artistic heritage though which the rate forms the
growing individual and makes him human. Education is the
reason – why we behave like human beings’.
Aristotle called education as “the creation of a sound mind
in a sound body”. This definition obviously includes physical
education also. Gandhiji thought education to be “drawing-out of
the best in child and man – body, mind and spirit.”
John Dewey, world famous educationists, defined education
as “development of all those capacities in the individual, which
will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his
possibilities”. Sir, John Adam remarks that “education is the
dynamic side of philosophy”.
Swamy Vivekananda defined education as the
‘manifestation of the perfection already in man…we want that
education by which character is formed, strength of mind is
increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand
on his own’.
Pestolozzi observes that ‘Education is a natural progressive
and harmonious development of all the child’s powers and
faculties’.
Pandit Nehru, the late Prime Minister of India holds
‘Education is not something in the air cut off from the daily life of
the student or from his future work as a citizen. Real education, it
is felt, must be based on the actual environment and experience

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of the child and it must fit him for the work he will have to do in
later life.”
Dr.S.Radhakrishnan, eminent Indian Educationist defined
education as ‘the means by which the youth is trained to serve
the cause of drastic social and economic changes.’

1.1.0:Objectives of Education:
There is a consensus of opinion among educationists today
that education besides developing the faculties of mind and
body, should also contribute for achieving certain social ends
such as integration, democracy, equal distribution of wealth etc.
Herbert Spencer attached great importance to character
building aspect of education and the aim of education is to
prepare the child to live in the existing social order. Hence, the
stress was to be not merely on knowledge but on the
development of character and social morality. It may be noted
that Gandhiji emphasized this aspect of education when he says,
‘the end of all knowledge is character building’.
John Ruskin says that the entire object of true education is
to make people not merely to do right things, but enjoy the right
things; not merely to be industrious, but to love industry, not
merely learned, but to love knowledge; not merely be pure but to
love purity; not merely be just, but to hunger and thirst for
justice.
The purpose of education as Sir, John Lublock puts its, ‘is
not to make lawyers or clergymen, soldiers or schoolmasters,
farmers or artisans but men.’

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Education should serve three primary purposes. Firstly,
education must furnish the youth of the country who enter the
schools and colleges with minimum knowledge that is needed to
enable them to adjust themselves to their social and physical
environment and to feel themselves quite at ease in the
environment in which they have to spend their lives. Secondly,
education is expected to provide the youth with the skills
necessary to enable them to obtain a decent living. Thirdly,
education should shape the character of youth by inculcating in
their minds a sense of discipline and tolerance and right attitudes
and values.
An educated man should develop a healthy and strong
body; he should develop the ability to think logically, to plan
wisely, to distinguish right from the wrong, good from evil, beauty
from ugliness and truth from falsehood.
Education makes the student a better member of a better
society and without education we should have to lose, in the
words of R.H.Lowie ‘all the accumulated knowledge of the ages
and all standards of conduct’. Education is the social economy
that forestalls such wastage.
The ‘teacher’ is an important personality to achieve the
educational tasks. To achieve these objectives, which depend on
the active participation and acceptance of the Teachers in the
Society. Further, better Proneness in teacher will enrich with
positive or negative stress and ultimately influence on Teacher
job satisfaction.
1.2.0:Importance of Teacher:

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The success of an educational institution depends on the
quality of its staff, as no system of education can rise above the
level of its teachers. The teacher is the noblest symbol of the
country’s culture. The teacher, therefore, occupies the central
position in any system of education. Teacher has been regarded
as the architect of a nation.
In ancient India, the teacher was given the status next to
God. It is the teacher who makes man. It is the teacher who
makes one’s life worth living. Several eminent persons have paid
tributes to the teachers. Sir John Adams calls him ‘a maker of
man’. H.,G.Wells has described the teacher as the real maker of
history.
The keystone in the educational edifice is doubtless the
teacher. On him depends much more than any other, the
progress and prosperity of children. Nobody can effectively take
his place or influence children in the manner and to the degree; it
is possible, for him alone to do. It is strongly believed that to be
a teacher is to be the member of a holy order.
The Secondary Education Commission (1953) disclosed that
‘we are however, convinced that most important factor in the
contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher – his
quality, his educational qualifications, his professional training
and the place he occupies in the school as well as in the
community. The reputation of a school and its influence on the
life of the community invariability depend on the kind of teachers
working in it’.
The Indian Education Commission (1964-66) has expressed
similar views regarding the role of the teacher. The Commission

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opined, ‘of all different factors, which influence the quality of
Education and its contribution to national development, the
quality, competence and character of teachers are undoubtedly
the most significant’.
Prof.Humayun Kabir stated ‘without good teachers even the
best system of education is bound to fail. With good teachers
even the defects of the system can be largely overcome’.
A teacher is rich without money. His wealth is to be
reckoned not in terms of bank balances but in the bounteous love
and loyalty he has evoked in his pupils. He is an emperor whose
empire is carved in the grateful minds of his pupils, which no
power on earth can shake no atom bomb can destroy.
Teaching is a divinely ordained mission. Blessed is he who
is a teacher; twice blessed is he who is born as a teacher in this
great land of ours long ago the preceptor has been loved,
honoured and lifted to the rank of Gods, where prince and
peasant have vied with each other in showing him reverence;
thrice blessed is he who is a teacher here in this glorious dawn,
which is flushed with possibilities of unprecedented progress and
prosperity, when the mother land is on the threshold of a golden
era.
1.3.0:Role of the Teacher:
“Schools are the nurseries of the Nation” and “Teachers are
the Architects of the future” are no mere figurative expressions
but truthful statements, as significant as they are suggestive.
Victories are won, peace is preserved, progress is achieved,
civilization is built up and history is made in educational
institutions, which are the seed beds of culture, where children in

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whose hands quiver the destiny of the future, are trained and
from their ranks will come out when they grownup, statesman
and soldiers, patriots and philosophers who will determine the
progress of the land. In their attitude to life and their approach to
problems they will bear the imprint and the influence of the
training they received at the hands of their teachers. The
teacher’s role is thus as important as his responsibility is onerous.
Parents who are the first teachers and who have a
legitimate part to play in the education of their children often
shirk or abdicate their responsibility. The training that children
receive at home is unsystematic, haphazard, sporadic and
perfunctory. This heightens the responsibility of the teacher
under whose care the children spend the best part of the day in
their impressionable period and he becomes literally and
figuratively their second parent.
Education in its truest sense is nourishment of the body,
mind and spirit. The teacher who has to impart education has,
therefore, to feed the bodies of the pupils, supply them mental
pabulum and nurture their spirits. He has thus to play the role of
a parent, physician, psychologist and philosopher to his pupils.
His is a multiple role.
The teacher has to create and quicken in the pupils noble
ideals, preserve in them with tender care healthy tendencies and
destroy ruthlessly all that is ugly and unholy. After all it is the
right attitude to men and things that forms the hallmarks of
culture and not the quantum of knowledge.
But today’s aim of education is not to impart knowledge
alone. Teachers have to face a great challenge today, since the

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demands on them are many. They are responsible for the overall
development of children who are kept under their charge. Hence,
there should also be an overall improvement in the professional
preparation of teachers.
This is the right time to focus the significance of relationship
between Job Satisfaction, Stress and Change-proneness of the
Teachers. So, what are Job Satisfaction, Stress and Change-
proneness? How far the Change-proneness and Stress played an
effective role in Teacher Job Satisfaction? The impact of Teacher
Job Satisfaction, Stress and Change-proneness, which will be
reflected in the achievement of educational objectives designed
by the Educational Planners.
1.4.0: Need for the Study:
Let teachers realize that their profession demands exacting
standards of life and conduct the nature of their work is such that
they have to be sober models to the youngsters who are placed
under their charge and who are going to be profoundly influenced
by what they are. It is their duty to maintain the high standards
expected of them. Efficient and dedicated service is the
foundation on which teacher reputation rests.
Earlier investigations are made on the Teacher Job
Satisfaction but very few of them attempted the aspects of
Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-proneness. Rao, R.B. (1989)
stated that the quality or effectiveness of Teacher is considered
to be associated with his attitude towards his profession, his
attainment of values, his adjustment in the job and professional
interest.

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Similarly, the Education Commission of 1964-66 observed
that ‘the weakening of social and moral values in the younger
generation is creating many serious social and ethical conflicts. It
has become necessary and urgent to adopt active measures to
give a proper value orientation to education.
The National Policy on Education (1986) stressed the need
of ‘readjustment in the curriculum in order to make education a
forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values’ in the
interest of future generation as well as national development.
In the present society of the universe Teacher Profession is
the most crucial, responsible to achieve the educational tasks.
Now a days ‘Teacher’ is facing many problems in his profession.
The educational planners as one of the most important aspects
consider the Teacher Job Satisfaction. Similarly, the ‘Stress’ and
‘Change Proneness’ aspects are also played pivotal role among
the Teachers in their Job Satisfaction. Owing to many changes
taken place in the universe, there is inevitable need of
implementing the new tasks so as to achieve the educational
objectives according to the changing situations whenever they
considered. Due to this the teacher has to overcome from Stress
creators by considering his change-proneness to mould better
future generations. Hence, Teacher Job Satisfaction with
reference to need of his change-proneness and Stress is
attempted to investigate in this regard.
Thus, from the above observations it is clear that the
significance of inculcation of Teacher Job Satisfaction is
considered as primary object to achieve the academic objectives.
Hence, education will be enriched with the change-proneness of a

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teacher to achieve the national objectives. Similarly, the Teacher
Stress is also considered his proper performance with a positive
attitude of better Job Satisfaction. Therefore, the need of the
present investigation is to probe into the relationship between
‘Job Satisfaction’, ‘Stress’ and ‘Change-proneness’ among the
Secondary School Teachers in Vizianagaram District of Andhra
Pradesh. The conceptual framework on the above three aspects
is being attempted and presented in the following chapter.

CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS
Education is a natural harmonious development of child’s
talent powers and innate talents. Teacher’s role is pivotal in
providing education and making the nation literate. To make the
nation totally literate, and to attain the slogan ‘Education for All’

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to march, ahead into 21st Century and to successfully implement
universal education, enrolment of children into schools in vital. To
improve educational standards, and to increase the level of
achievement teacher should not only committed and devoted but
also competent, proneness without stress and job satisfaction in
terms of changing situations taken place from time to time.
2.1.0: Job Satisfaction:
Locke gives a comprehensive definition of job
satisfaction as involving cognitive, affective and evaluative
reactions or attitudes and states it is ‘a pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job
experience’ (E.A.Locke, ‘The Nature and Cause of Job Satisfaction’
in M.D., Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, Rand Mc.Nally, Chicago, 1976,
p.1300).
Job satisfaction is a result of employees’ perception of how
well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
It is generally recognized in the organizational behaviour field
that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied
attitude.
Although recent theoretical analyses have criticized job
satisfaction as being too narrow conceptually, there are three
generally accepted dimensions to job satisfaction. First, job
satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such,
it cannot be seen; it can only be inferred. Second, job
satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or
exceed expectations. For example, if organizational participants
feel that they are working much harder than others in the

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department but are receiving fewer rewards, they wil probably
have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and/or
coworkers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they
feel they are being treated very well and are being paid
equitably, they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the
job. They will be job-satisfied. Third, job satisfaction represents
several related attitudes. Through the years five job dimensions
have been identified to represent the most important
characteristics of a job about, which employees have affective
responses. They are –
(1) The work itself: The extent to which the job provides the
individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for
learning, and the chance to accept responsibility.
(2) Pay : The amount of financial remuneration that is
received and the degree to which this is viewed as
equitable vis-à-vis that of others in the organization
(3) Promotion opportunities: The chances for advancement
in the organization
(4) Supervision: The abilities of the Supervisor to provide
technical assistance and behavioural support – and
(5) Coworkers: The degree to which fellow workers are
technically proficient and socially supportive.
2.1.1: Influences on Job Satisfaction:
There are a number of factors that influence job
satisfaction. However, the main influences can be summarized
along the preceding five dimensions.
The Work Itself: The content of work itself is a major source of
satisfaction. Recent research has found that such job

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characteristics and job complexity mediate the relationship
between personality and job satisfaction, and if the creative
requirement sof employees’ jobs are met, then they tend to be
satisfied. At a more pragmatic level, some of the most important
ingredients of a satisfying job uncovered by surveys over the
years include interesting and challenging work, and a recent
survey found that career development (not necessarily
promot8on) was most important to both younger and older
employees (IT Workers Expect Career Development and Job
Satisfaction’, HR Focus, August, 1999, p.4.)
Pay: Wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant but
cognitively complex and multidimensional factor in job
satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic
needs but is also instrumental in providing upper-level need
satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how
management views their contribution to the organization. Fringe
benefits are also important, but they are not influential. One
reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know
how much they are receiving in benefits. Moreover, most tend to
undervalue these benefits because they do not realize their
significant monetary value. However, research indicates that if
employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of
benefits they prefer within a total package, called a flexible or
cafeteria benefits plan, there is a significant increase in both
benefits satisfaction and overall job satisfaction (Alison E.Barber,
Randall B.Dunham and Roger A. Formisano, ‘The Impact of
Flexible Benefits on Employees Satisfaction: A Field Study’,
Personal Psychology, Sep.1992, pp.55-76).

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Promotions: Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying
effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take a
number of different forms and have a variety of accompanying
rewards. Individuals who are promoted on the basis of seniority
often experience job satisfaction but not as much as those who
are promoted on the basis of performance. Additionally, a
promotion with a 10 percent salary raise is typically not a
satisfying as one with a 20 percent salary raise. These
differences help explain why executive promotions may be more
satisfying than promotions that occur at the other level
organizations. Also, in recent years with the flattening of
organizations and accompanying empowerment strategies,
promotions in the traditional sense of climbing the hierarchical
corporate ladder of success is no longer available at it once was.
A positive work environment and opportunities to grow
intellectually and broaden their skill base has for many become
more important than promotion opportunities.
Supervision: Supervision is another moderately important
source of job satisfaction. It can be said that there seem to be
two dimensions of supervisory style that affect job satisfaction.
One is employee-centeredness, which is measured by the degree
to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares abut the
employee. It commonly is manifested in ways such as checking
to see how well the employee is doing, providing advice and
assistance to the individual, and communicating with the
associate on a personal as well as an official level. American
employees generally complain that their supervisors don’t do a
very good job on these dimensions. There is considerable

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empirical evidence that one of the major reasons employees give
for quitting a company is that their supervisor does not care
about them (Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman, ‘First, Break
All the Rules’, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1999, p.264).
The other dimension is participation or influence, as
illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in
decisions that affect their own jobs. In most cases, this approach
leads to higher job satisfaction. According to meta-analysis
disclosed that participation doe have a positive effect on job
satisfaction. A Participative climate created by the supervisor has
a more substantial effect on workers’ satisfaction than does
participation in a specific decision (Katharine, I. Miller and Peter
R.Monge, ‘Participation, Satisfaction, and Productivity: A Meta-
Analytic Review’, Academy of Management Journal, Dec.1986,
p.748).
Work Group: The nature of the work group or team will have an
effect on job satisfaction. Friendly, cooperative coworkers or tem
members are a modest source of job satisfaction to individual
employees. The work group, especially a ‘tight’ team, serves as
a source of support, comfort, advice, and assistance to the
individual members. A ‘good’ work group or effective team
makes the job more enjoyable. However, this factor is not
essential to job satisfaction. On the other hand, if the reverse
conditions exist – the people are difficult to get along with – this
factor may have a negative effect on job satisfaction.
Working Conditions: Working conditions have a modest effect
on job satisfaction. If the working conditions are good (clean,
attractive surroundings, for instance), the personnel will find it

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easier to carry out their jobs. If the working conditions are poor
(hot, noisy surroundings, for example), personnel will find it more
difficult to get things done. In other words, the effect of working
conditions on job satisfaction is similar so that of the work group.
If things are good, there may or may not be a job satisfaction
problem; if things are poor, there very likely will be.
Most people do not give working conditions a great deal of
thought unless they are extremely bad. Additionally, when there
are complaints about working conditions, these sometimes are
really nothing more than manifestations of other problems. In
recent years, because of the increased diversity of the workforce,
working conditions have taken on new importance. There is also
evidence of a positive relationship between job satisfaction and
life satisfaction and that the direction causality is that people who
are satisfied with their lives tend to find more satisfaction in their
work (T.A.Judge and S.Watanabe, ‘Another Look at the Job
Satisfaction – Life Satisfaction Relationship’, Journal of Applied
Psychology, Vol.78, 1993, pp.939 – 948).
2.1.2: Outcomes of Job Satisfaction:
To society as a whole as well as from an individual
employee’s standpoint, job satisfaction in and of itself is a
desirable outcome. However, from a pragmatic managerial and
organizational effectiveness perspective, it is important to know
how, if at all, satisfaction relates to outcome variables. There are
no simple answers and the results range from weak to strong. In
examining the outcomes of job satisfaction, it is important to
break down the analysis into a series of specific outcomes.
Satisfaction and Performance:

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Do satisfied employees perform better than their less
satisfied counterparts? This ‘satisfaction – performance
controversy’ has raged over the years. Although most people
assume a positive relationshi, the research to date indicates that
there is no strong linkage between satisfaction and performance.
Conceptual, methodological, and empirical analyses have
questioned and argued against these weak results. Perhaps the
best conclusion about satisfacton and performance is that there
is definitely a relationship, probably higher than the well-known
.17, but also not as high as conventional wisdom assumed
concerning happy workers are productive workers. Moreover, the
relationship may even be more complex than others in
organizational behaviour. Finally, there is still considerable
debate whether satisfaction leads to performance or performance
leads to satisfaction.
Satisfaction and Turnover:
Does high employee job satisfaction result in low turnover?
Unlike that between satisfaction and performance, research has
uncovered a moderately negative relationship between
satisfaction and turnover. (W.Lee and Richard T.Mowday,
‘Voluntarily Leaving an Organization: An Empirical Investigation of
Steers and Mowday’s Model of Turnover’, Academy of
Management Journal, Dec.1987, pp.721 – 743).
High Job Satisfaction will not, in and of itself, keep turnover
low, but it does seem to help. On the other hand, if thee is
considerable job dissatisfaction, there is likely to be high
turnover. Obviously, other variables enter into an employee’s
decision to quit besides job satisfaction. When things in the

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economy are going well and there is little unemployment,
typically there will be an increase in turnover because people will
begin looking for better opportunities with other organizations.
Even if they are satisfied many people are willing to leave if the
opportunities elsewhere promise to be better. On the other hand
, if jobs are tough to get and downsizing, mergers, and
acquisitions are occurring, as in recent years, dissatisfied
employees will voluntarily stay where they are. On an overall
basis, however, it is accurate to say that job satisfaction is
important in employee turnover. Although absolutely no turnover
is not necessary beneficial to the organization, a low turnover
rate is usually desirable because of the considerable training
costs and the drawbacks of inexperience.
Satisfaction and Absenteeism:
Research has only demonstrated a weak negative
relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. As with
turnover, many other variables enter into the decision to stay
home besides satisfaction with the job. For example, there are
moderating variables such as the degree to which people feel
that their jobs are important. Hence, it is important to remember
that although high job satisfaction will not necessarily result in
low absenteeism, low job satisfaction is more likely to bring about
absenteeism.
Other Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction:
In addition to those noted previously, there are a number of
other effects brought about by high job satisfaction. Research
reports that highly satisfied employees tend to have better
physical health, learn new job-related tasks more quickly, have

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fewer on-the-job accidents, and file fewer grievances. Also on the
positive side, it has been found that there is a strong negative
relationship between job satisfaction and perceived stress
(M.A.Blegen, ‘Nurses’ Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis of Related
Variables’, Nursing Research, January-February, 1993, pp.36-41.).
2.1.3:How to Improve Job Satisfaction:
To mitigate dissatisfaction or to improve job satisfaction a
number of interventions can be undertaken. Some of the most
important of them are – Improving working conditions,
Transferring discontented workers, Changing perceptions, Initiate
morale building programmes and Criticism.
Improving working conditions:
One simple, prescribed solution to increase job satisfaction
is to improve those conditions, which are organizational sore
parts. In one company job enrichment raised the morale of
electronic technicians. Thus by identifying the root cause of job
dissatisfaction the management can evolve a strategy for
remedial action.
Transferring discontented workers:
In some cases it is also possible to mitigate dissatisfaction
by transferring the disgruntled employee to another job matching
his tastes and preferences. This transfer achieves a better fit
between individual and job characteristics and promotes job
satisfaction. This kid of transfer may not be without certain
constraints. The dissatisfied person may be unwilling to move
from the existing position or he may be incompetent to hold other
challenging job.
Changing perceptions:

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Employees sometimes have misconceptions about many
aspects of job. Dissatisfaction stems from the misperceptions
about the organization. Employees may be misinformed about
certain issues, i.e., the misperceptions might be based on
inadequate or incorrect information’s. In these cases,
management can change the perceptions of dissatisfied
employees and restore job satisfaction. By furnishing the correct
information, discontent gets subsided over time.
Initiate morale building programmes:
Organization conducts of development wherein morale
building becomes a major part. Even the successful
organizations also conduct new programmes to keep the morale
and job satisfaction at higher level. For instance, USAA (United
Service Automobile Association) – the effective organization from
the viewpoint of profitability and having a resdord of good service
to public and with high morale among employees, has recently
introduced a programme called ‘vanpooling’, which increased job
satisfaction of a larger number of employees (‘Energy Savings at
USSA: Aide’, The Insurance Magazine from USSA, 10, Summer,
1979, p.24).
Criticism:
Job Satisfaction has been and is the center of attraction for
organizational researchers. But the approaches to job
satisfaction are either incomplete or biased and unrealistic.
According to Walter R.Nord, a famous researcher, the following
points are worth noting in this connection.(Walter, R.Nord, ‘Jo
Satisfaction: Reconsidered’, American Psychologist, 32, 1977,
p.1028) – (a) Researchers on job satisfaction have concentrated

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on a narrow range of variables rendering their studies largely
incomplete; (b) Researchers have ignored the simple fact that
organizations have no specific incentives for experimenting with
the ways of increasing job satisfaction; (c) No consideration has
been given to the nature of commodity produced and the quality
of the product and (d) Adequate attention has not been given to
the relationship of power and control to job satisfaction and
alienation.
2.1.4:Teacher Job Satisfaction in India:
The Kothari Commission (1964-66) has aptly opined in its report
that nothing is more important than providing teachers best
professional preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of
work in which they carefully be effective’. Stapleton, Croft and
Frankiewiz (1979) found a positive relationship between Job
Satisfaction and effective teacher behaviour. ‘The future of our
nation is being built in today’s classrooms’ (Education
Commission, 1964-66). Teachers are responsible for organizing
these classrooms. That is why teacher are called the builders of
the nation; and teaching has been considered as the noblest
profession. Keeping this into consideration, various commissions
and committees have also given an importance to the Profession
and Job Satisfaction of the Teacher Community at various levels in
India.
The National Policy on Education (1986) has stressed the
need of Pre and In-service training programmes to the Teachers.
The facility like providing necessary assistance to the Faculty
Members so as to enable them to upgrade their professional
career has been recommended. Similarly, facilities like pay

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scales, promotion career, and medical care, encouraging
participating in the symposia, workshops, conferences and other
academic activities to enhance their teaching career. Further,
necessary measures are also taken into consideration to restrict
the teacher-pupil ratio. Further, the Teachers are accorded
permission to start the Teacher organizations to strengthen their
professional skills and rights. Similarly, they are also accorded to
participate in the social activities in the interest of public with
certain limitations. The Governments and public organizations
have also confined to achieve the object Teacher Job Satisfaction
in the interest of National development and make necessary
provisions to the rules from time to time according to the needs
and situations.
2.1.5:Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction:
The researcher considers with the following dimensions for
measuring Teacher Job satisfaction. They are – (1) Professional,
(2) Teaching Learning, (3) Innovation and (4) Inter-Personal
relations.
Professional aspect disclosed the job security and social
prestige, moulding the young minds, getting appreciation from
others, reaching problems of the students.
Teaching Learning aspect envisaged the problems of
students, new situations, successfully managing the classes,
students active participation in the classes, innovative technique
in teaching, systematic plan of the work.
Innovation relates to creativity, innovative techniques in
teaching, participation of cultural activities, co-curricular and
social welfare activities.

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Inter-personal relations refers the relations with
colleagues, parents, students, authorities or any personnel in
relation to school activities.
As far as the performance Satisfaction effort loop, which
was dia-graphically (Figure –1) presented hereunder is also
strengthening that high satisfaction always leads to high
employee performance.
Diagram showing the Performance – Satisfaction – Effort loop

Better Rewards Reception of Greater


Satisfaction

Performance: Intrinsic Equity in New Words


Extrinsic

Feedback

(Source: ‘The Performance Satisfaction – effort loop’, Page.261,


Organizational Climate by Keith Devis, 1977)

2.1.6: Measurement of Teacher Job Satisfaction:


Teacher Job Satisfaction measuring procedures appear to be
complicated at a first glance. It seems simple to go to the
employees and get data from them and then interpret. But
experiences are shown that careless procedural class can limit
seriously the validity and usefulness of the survey. Keen
attention should be given to question construction, maintenance

23
of anonymity for employees and sampling procedures. Even in
Education field, it is very difficult to measure the Teacher Job
Satisfaction.
After careful observation of the literature it is found that
teachers job satisfaction can be measure mainly in two ways viz.,
(1) Observation and Interviews, (2) Use of tests including
inventories and writing scales developed by some psychologists
and educational researches like Crook, Maslach, Herhier and
other, and Gaba Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, Gupta and
Srivatsava Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, Lodahl and Kejher’s Job
Involvement Scale and Job Satisfaction Scale developed by Dixit
are some of the tools available for measuring job satisfaction.
However, they are context specific and may not be suitable for
the present study. Hence, the researcher developed and a
teacher job satisfaction self-rating scale.
The shape will undoubtedly depend on what goes on in the
classroom and how it goes on. These two facets of classroom
situation entirely revolve around the qualities of teacher who
virtually steer the whole process. Hence, teacher is an important
instrument in the teaching learning process and more so his
qualities, which contribute for better teaching. The more active,
influential, forceful and effective, the more effective and useful is
the education. Thus, teacher profile is the first tool, which
influencing the learner in terms of day-to-day changing needs in
the nation and universe.
From the time teaching started to gain recognition as a
profession experts as well as common man began to wonder
about the effectiveness of the teacher. The need and often

24
proneness in the Teaching learning process is the concept of good
teacher. However, the teacher is facing many barriers in his
teaching learning process on account of various stress creators in
his profession. No teacher is to make justice to his profession
without support of the Society and National policies. So much of
importance is given to the Teacher Profession because, that alone
determines the better of any educational system of any country.
The educational system might have well formulated aims and
objectives. It might have developed excellent administrative
structure. But without an army of efficient teachers the system
cannot function well. The teachers should ultimately translate
the aims and objectives into practice.
The above discussion on Teacher Job Satisfaction is
presented in Figure –2, which clearly shown to understand the
inter-relations between the dimensions of the study.

PROFILE OF TEACHER JOB SATISFACTION

Professional Teaching Learning

Innovation Inter-personal
Relations

2.2.0:STRESS:

25
Stress is a term used to designate a wide range of man’s
arising in response to various extreme effects. The work is
broadly used to designate non-specific body responses to any
unfavourable effect. In attempting to satisfy the needs, an
individual may have to face failure sometimes. When an
individual’s efforts in satisfying a need are thwarted, he is
subjected to a number of stresses. Frustration, anxiety, conflicts
or pressures may cause stress. A mentally healthy person will
have a few occasions of stressful situations, which he will meet
successfully.
2.2.1:Meaning and Nature of Stress:
Stress is usually thought of in negative terms. It is thought
to be caused by something bad. This is a form of distress. But
there is also positive and pleasant side of stress caused by good
things, for example an employees is offered a job promotion at
another place. This is a form of ‘Eustress’. The pioneers of stress
research, from the Greek ‘eu’, which means good, coined this
term. In other words stress can be viewed in a number of
different ways and has been described as the most in precise
word in the scientific dictionary.
Concern about the impact of stress on people has its roots
in medicine and specifically the pioneering work of Hans Selye,
the recognized father of stress. While searching for a new sex
harmone, he serendipitously discovered that tissue damage is a
non-specific response to virtually all-noxious stimuli. He called
the phenomenon the ‘general adaptation syndrome’ (GAS) and
about a decade later he introduced the term ‘Stress’ in his
writings. The three stages of ‘GAS’ are alarm, resistance and

26
exhaustion. The ‘GAS’ model represented the physiological
approach to stress. But later, attention is also being given to
psychological and behavioural dimensions. All the three
dimensions of stress are important to the understanding of job
stress.
Although there are numerous definitions and much debate
about stress Invancevich and Matteson defined stress simply as
‘the interaction of the individual with the environment’. But then
they go on to give a more detailed working definition as follows.
‘An adaptive response, mediated by individual differences
and for psychological process, that is a consequence of any
external (environmental) action, situation or event that places
excessive psychological and/or physical demands upon a person’.
Buher and Newman define job stress as ‘a condition arising from
the interaction of people and their jobs and characterized by
change within people that force them to deviate from their
normal functioning.’
A more general definition of stress may be given as ‘an
adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical,
psychological and or behavioural deviations for organizational
participants’.
So, it is important to note that stress is not simply anxiety,
stress is not simply nervous tension and stress is not necessarily
something damaging, bad, or to be avoided. Eustress is not
damaging or bad and is something people should seek out rather
than avoid. The key of course, is how the person handles the
stress. Stress is inevitable; distress may be prevented or can be
effectively controlled.

27
Depending upon the stress factors and the nature of its
effects, various types of stresses are commonly classified as (1)
Physiological and (2) Psychological Stress.
Physiological stress factors involve excess physical loads,
high and low temperatures, pain stimuli difficult respiration etc.
Psychological stresses are subdivided into informational and
emotional factors. Informational stress occur in situations
involving informational over loads, when a person fails to cope
with the problem, or is slow in making correct decisions or when
his responsibility for the results is high. Emotional stress appears
in situations involving thread, danger, offence etc.
The subject of work related stress has received increasing
attention in recent years on several fronts. Policy makers are
recognizing the negative aspects of work stress in human
resources. Researchers in the areas of organizational behaviours
and social psychology are amassing a credible body of empirical
evidence abut effects of stress on the organization, worker out
put and the physical and emotional well being of the worker and
his/her family. Counsellors and therapists are receiving an
increasing clientele who report negative effect from work stress.
Majority of these studies have been confined to industrial
organizations. There is however, increasing speculation that
stress may be particularly prevalent among the human service
professions (Cherrniss, 1980, Cooper amd Marshall, 1980).
Especially the impact of stress in teaching profession is alarming
and is being focused and given due attention in recent times.
Although the term job stress or occupational stress has been

28
widely used, there is little understanding as to how the term
should be used.
Cox (1975) distinguishes three common usages of the term
‘Stress’. The engineering model conceptualizes ‘Stress’ as
negative pressure exerted by the environment on the individual.
This model defining occupational stress as negative
environmental stressors like work overload, role-
conflict/ambiguity, poor working conditions associated with a
particular job has been widely used (Khan et.al 1964; Cooper and
Marshall, 1976).
The physiological model conceptualizes stress as something
that happens within the individual. The identification and the
quantification of individual as stress was initially carried out with
response to the physiological response pattern of the individual
(Selye, 1956).
The transactional model conceptualizes stress as the result
of the imbalance or discrepancy between the demands made by
the environment upon the individual and his ability to meet or
cope with these demands.
2.2.3:Sources of Stress or Stress Creators:
There are technically called ‘Stressors’. They come from
both outside and inside the organization and from the groups that
employees are influenced by and from employees themselves.
The common stressors affecting to-day’s employees can be
categorized into (1) extra-organizational, (2) organizational, (3)
group stressor – and (4) individual stressors.
In combination or singly they represent a tremendous
amount of potential stress impinging upon to-day’s job holder at

29
a every level, and in every type of organization or profession.
The effects of such stress can create not only physical problems
(heart diseases, ulcers, arthritis and even cancer) and
psychological problems (mood change, lowered self-esteem,
resentment of supervision, inability to make decisions, and job
dis-satisfaction) but also social problems (tardiness, absenteeism,
turnover and accidents). To cope with these stresses induced
problems a number of individual and organizational strategies are
developed. Exercise, relaxation, behaviour self-control technique,
cognitive therapy technique and net working are some of the
potentially useful comping strategies that individuals can apply to
help combat existing stress. Organizational coping strategies to
prevent or reduce job stress include the measures such as
making performance reviews, removal of safety hazards,
improving lighting, noise and temperature, improving
communication and information, clarifying ambiguous or
conflicting roles etc. In addition to these more general strategies
might include creating a supportive organizational climate,
enriching the design of the tasks, clarifying organizational roles
and planning career paths and providing counseling. The
Diagramatic representation of Job Stress and various stressors is
given hereunder.
Diagrammatic Representation of Job Stress

30
STRESS

2.2.4: TEACHER STRESS:


Hans Selye feels that, complete freedom from stress is
‘death’. Stress appears to be as common as ‘Sweat’ to anybody
now-a-days. It appears at every level, and in every profession.
‘Teaching’ is no exception. In fact, it is strongly felt that teachers
are more prone to stress because dealing with children all day is
in itself a stressful occupation.
School is considered to be a major source of stress in the
lives of both students and teachers. The potential of stress is
present in a bureaucratic setup, intense interpersonal
relationships, time-space restrictions and constant evaluation of
effort.
Kyriacou and Sutcliffe (1977, 1978) have defined teachers
stress as a response syndrome of negative effects (such as anger,
anxiety or depression) arising from aspects of the teacher’s job
and mediated by the perception that the demands made upon
the teacher constitute a threat to his self-esteem or well being

31
and by coping mechanisms activated to reduce the perceived
threat.
Research on teacher stress is in an early stage or
development. A model of teacher stress given by Kyriacou and
Sutcliffe (1978) attempts to integrate the available research
findings and current approaches to stress.

Characteristics of the Individual Teacher – Biographical –


Personality – Higher Order needs Ability to meet or cope with
Demands Beliefs – Attitudes – Values – Systems

Potential Stressors Coping Mechanisms to


reduce
Perceived threat
Physical
Psychological

Appraisal threat to Teacher Stress Negative


affects
Self-esteem well being response correlates
Psychological - Physiological
Behavioural

32
Actual Stressors Chronic symptoms
Psycho-somatic
Coronary
Mental

Potential
Non-occupational
Stressors
Illhealth
Life crisis

(Based on Kyriacou & Sutcliffe – 1978)

The above figure discloses those Potential occupational


stressors are objective aspects of teachers job (e.g., too much
work, high noise levels which may result in actual occupational
stressors and Teacher stress if only they are perceived by the
teacher to constitute a threat to his self-esteem or well being. A
distinction is made between potential occupational stressors that
are essentially psychological (i.e., demanding high quality work,
poor relationship with colleagues and those, which are essentially
physical (i.e., dashing between classes, noisy classrooms, which
recognizing that some potential occupational stressors (i.e., too
much correction work) may be a mixture of the two. Potential
occupational stressors, which are perceived as threatening,
become actual occupational stressor for the person concerned.

33
Such an appraisal or perception may occur in two ways.
Firstly, the teacher may feel he is unable to meet or cope up with
the demands made upon him and such failure has important
consequences for him. Secondly, the demands made upon him
conflict with his higher order needs (self-actualization).
This appraisal again will depend on the interaction between
the teachers individual characteristics and his perception of the
demands made upon him. The individual characteristics that
may be of primary importance include biographical details (e.g.,
sex, age, and teaching experience) personality traits (e.g.,
anxiety, proneness, flexibility, rigidity) higher order (e.g., self-
actualization) ability to meet or cope with the demands and the
teacher’s beliefs, attitudes, value system. It should be noted,
however, that it is the teacher’s perception of his own ability to
meet or cope with, rather than his actual ability that will partly
determine his appraisal. And research has indicated that people
differ in the degree to which they perceive themselves to have
control over the environment (e.g., locus of control, attribution).
The appraisal may also be affected by potential stressors that are
not specifically aspects of the job (e.g., life crisis or ill-health).
These have been termed ‘potential non-occupational stressors’.
Coping mechanisms are introduced to deal with the actual
occupational stressors and are also partly determined by the
teacher’s individual characteristics. Teacher stress is directly
related to the degree to which the coping mechanisms are able or
unable to deal with actual stressors and the degree to which the
teacher appraises threat.

34
Thus teacher stress is primarily conceptualized as a
response of negative effect such as anger or depression, which is
usually accompanied by other response correlates. These
response correlates may be psychological (e.g., high job dis-
satisfaction, burnout) psychosomatic like asthma, allergies and
even more serious ones like heart disease and mental ill-health.
Concern regarding stress among school teachers has been
raised for over 40 years (Turnk, Meeks and Turk, 1982). Thus
although the issue of teacher stress is not new, the severity and
scope of the problem appear unprecendented. Research studies
show that more and more teachers are reporting or experiencing
stress in their job and feeling more stressful than other
comparable professionals. Pratt (1978) reports that 60.4% of
teachers surveyed reported some nervous strain, in contrast with
51.1% of ‘other professionals’ and 36.1% of the sample of
employed people. Cox, Mackay, Cox, Watts and Brockley (1978)
likewise report that, in a study comparing school teachers with
semi-professional matched for sex, age and material status, 79%
of the teachers mentioned their jobs as a ‘main source of stress’
in their life, whereas only 38% of the non-teachers did so.
2.2.5: Dimensions of Teacher Stress:
Of many dimensions, the investigator considered the following
dimensions for measuring the Teacher Stress. They are –
Intensity of Work, (2) Students Behaviour, (3) Professional growth
and (4) Extrinsic Annoyers.
(1)Intensity of Work refers to teaching, recess schedule, Record
work, Time for preparation of lessons, devotion of work, working

35
responsibilities, professional training related aspects are
discussed.
(2)Students Behaviour refers to students behavioural attitude,
respected towards teacher recognition, classroom discipline,
measuring the student interest, maintenance of classroom
teaching, monitoring the disruptive classroom and inadequate
financial support aspects.
(3)Professional Growth discloses the leisure problems,
professional skills, interest in social activities, opinion/feelings
towards teaching profession, personal activities, promotional
opportunities aspects are included.
(4)Extrinsic Annoyers refers to recognition for attending extra
work, interest towards teaching, interest to teach below average
students, feeling locked up to into a routine in job, lack of
providing teaching material, lack of appreciation towards
innovative ideals, participation in decision making, poorly
organized meetings, relation with colleagues, relation with the
head-teacher, administrative problems, head-teacher attitude
towards faculty members, self-control, taking responsibility for
pupil’s success in examination and maintaining to uphold values
are incorporated.

The following figure disclosed the variables involved in the


definition of Teacher Stress.

TEACHER STRESS

36
Intensity of Work Students Behaviour

Professional Growth Extrinsic Annoyers

2.3.0:CHANGE-PRONENESS:
Change-proneness, though quite recent in origin, with
astonishing rapidity has become almost a catchword. It is the
tendency to accept any thing, which is new novel, to be imbibed
in their style of work. It is the state of flux and dilemma brought
about by devotion to a cause which may promote and result at
expected rewards or fail to produce unexpected revolts (Uday
Koundinya, 1999).
Change is the order of day. Everybody should accept this
truth and those changes too. From ancient times, whenever a
new discovery, a strange concept and a novel theory has
proposed, there has been an ‘upsurge’ among others. As
Vivekananda rightly quoted ‘every new activity evidently has to
pass through the three stages – better ridicule, severe opposition
and final acceptance’.
‘To accept that each is round but not flat’ also requires
much emotion in the minds of people. Members of ‘Flat earth
society opposed the truth severely. Accepted truths are really
difficult to be wiped of from minds and the new changes in those
are as really taken a long time and they evidently be the butt of
ridicule.

37
Helio Centric theory took a long time to be accepted and it
was severely opposed and bitterly refused by persons who accept
geo-centric theory by that time. Atomic division in Chemistry,
Darwin’s theory of Evolution in Biology, Sigmond Freud’s
contributions to psychology all these are not at all exceptions for
the basic truth. This truth holds good even in social sciences and
in culture revival. Social changes, which total alter tradition and
cultural heritage evidently depend upon the sudden changes.
Sudden change but not slow transition, revolution but not
evolution out right change but not graded stepwise modification
is the predominant nature of change proneness. Many scientific
truths, which emerged as a result of eminent thinking by great
scientists, told to replace established facts up to the day and
required long time to be accepted. Becqueral and Madam Curie’s
Radio activity, Newton’s gravitational theory, Einsten’s theory of
Relativity law of E = mc², and Darwins theory of Evolution,
Mendal’s heredity, Freud’s buffing contributions regarding
abnormal behavour… All these are clear vivid and valid
examples. Change proneness means inclination or readiness one
has to change or alter his behaviour, attitudes, feelings and
thoughts by being flexible rather restraining oneself to be rigid
(Mukhopadhayay, 1980).
If at all some people who accept and invite such crucial,
vital changes are not there in those days, these mightily truths
may not have emerged out to be existent before us not. ‘The
tendency of possessing an inclination to new novel, strange, at
times totally afresh, baffling inventions and innovations, which
can even shake and wipe of old existing traditional views is

38
‘Change Proneness (Uday Koundinya, 1996). Regarding the origin
and genes is of the word ‘Change Proneness’; Miller (1967) for
the first time has coined the concept of Change Proneness is the
congregation’s effect of curiosity, open mindedness and mental
flexibility. Miller rightly gages the comprehensive nature of the
concept. Radical change, innovativeness, tendency to inquire,
being shrewd and proneness in thought in quietness, all these
traits facilitate change proneness.
2.3.1:Rigidity and Flexibility:
This change proneness evidently relies upon two opposing
ideological aspects rigidity and flexibility. A clear understanding
of the two aspects rigidity and flexibility, will evidently help the
investigator by throwing enormous light on the concept ‘Change
Proneness’. The main hurdle to accept a new theory and invite a
novel, sudden change is rigidity Warner defined ‘Rigidity’ as a
lack of variability in a response or lack of adaptability in
behaviour.
In life situations, some people are rigid in their behaviour
some are not. The same people, who are rigid in one type of
situation, may be non-rigid in other situations. For example some
may be good at problem solving in the science laboratory but
may not apply the problems in the community (Klausner, 1972).
The dictionary meaning of rigidity is a personality trait
characterized by inability to change one’s attitudes opinions or
manner of adjustment (Atkinson, 1964).
From various studies it seems that these are the few bias
factors, which go to make up this rigid tendency.

39
Goldstein defined rigidity as adherence to a performance
that is inadequate for the present task i.e., a rigid term does not
shift from one performance to another as required by the fresh to
be fulfilled’. (quoted by Broundy, H.S., in ‘Building Philosophy of
Education’, 1965).
Research tries to relate problem solving rigidity with
attitudinal dispositions of persons. He states that it is the
inability to change one’s set or attitudes.
Wolfert opined ‘Rigidity is restricted range of behaviour as
this type of rigidity prevails in human minds; they act as
stumbling blocks and hurdles. They approve oneself to have a
new concept alter the type of learning, to invite change in the
approaches. (quoted by Jones, M.R. (Ed) in ‘Nebraska Symposium
on Motivation’, 1955).
The opposing ideological aspect for rigidity is ‘flexibility is
the personality trait characterized by ability to change one’s set,
opinion line of thinking and process of adjustment. Exhibiting
inclination to a new and strange thing will be possible and it is
due to flexibility.
In life situations, some people are flexible in their behaviour
some are not. The people who are flexible on one occasion may
not be much flexible on other occasions. They at times with
flexible out alter their responses and behavioural patterns. But
they decline at times to be flexible and then they stick to old
ideologies.
Flexibility is the outstanding quality of exhortative tendency
and ability to change one’s set or attitude and opinions even one
should be effective understanding line of thinking and even

40
process of adjustment. Psychologists in accordance with their
standpoints have advanced the concept of rigidity and flexibility
and different definitions. The definitions may be prepared from
psychomotor developmental, attitudinal intellectual and
behavioural aspects.
Change proneness, though quite recent in origin with
astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word change
proneness can be defined as a tendency to accept any thing
which is new, novel to be imbibed in their style of work. Change
proneness is state of acceptance of new and creative ideas,
which might at time create criticism and failure or result at
appreciation and success. It is a sense of satisfaction,
commitment and success in the quest for new techniques, ideals
and methods. Change proneness is defined as a state of flux and
dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause or a way of life,
which may promote to result at expected rewards or fail to
produce unexpected revolts.
2.3.2:Change Proneness among Teachers:
How a Teacher should be? Is a puzzling question? Teacher
at his best should be active not reactive, must strive rather than
submit he must be author of his behaviour rather than have it
dictated by authority. The teacher should perform his duties in
his own style. The pattern of functioning of teachers reveals the
existence of two categories of teachers.
Being very flexible in approach, those adopt new strategies
and innovate those who may not accept new strategies and
implement novel techniques.

41
The first category of teachers possesses state of acceptance
of creative ideas. The later fall to own the tendency to accept
new strategies with a feeling of fear or failure. Those who are
rigid in their out look do not take any risk by innovating new
learning strategies and their teaching style will be routine. Those
who are flexible possess a rare quality of distinguished creativity
with an inborn talent. They are change prone, ventilate their
creative thoughts and successfully satisfy the children in the
class.
Carl Rogers classified all the types of people working in a
field in to five categories. They can be described in a parabolic
curve. The first category is ‘innovators’ – persons with utmost
change proneness who always think afresh, accept any changes
and invent new strategies by being exemplary. Second category
is ‘immediate adopters’ who may not think new, but who would
adopt and implement any new idea. Third category are ‘early
majority’ normally large in numbers who propagate and follow
the successful innovations. Forth category is ‘late majority’ who
would not like to accept and join the innovation willingly of their
own with the compulsion of many, slowly they may join the
group, accept the novely of a strange strategy. The fifth category
is ‘Laggards’ persons, who lag behind, will not accept the
innovations. Being rigid, they criticize and cause hindrance to
the new innovations (quoted by Mukhopadhyay, M. in ‘Education
Innovations towards better schooling in Indian Education’, 1982).
Now the researcher felt the need of blending the concept of
Change proneness and Carl Roger’s classification. Innovators and
immediate adopters constitute the group of persons with high

42
change proneness. Early majority constitute moderate change
prone teachers. The last two categories of Carl Roger’s
classification late majority and laggards constitute teachers who
possess how change process.
High change prone and low change prone teachers are
opposed to each other in their basic ideologies. The first
category is confident, accepting the challenge. They have feeling
of commitment competence as opposed to the members of
second category. Both of them are exactly theoretically opposite
poles and in the continuum scale. High and low change prone
teachers lie at the opposing extremities with moderately change
prone teachers scattering in the middle.
Teachers –
1.who can alter the old traditional teaching methods, substituting
them with novel concepts?
2.Feel their job not as a burden but a symphony.
3.Abreast with recent trends, techniques and explosion of
knowledge.
4.Give required guidance to students and enable them to learn
things in their own way and at their own pace.
5.Appreciate others for their creative and innovative ideas and
innovative new play way techniques.
6.Make their teaching as easy job can easily dart into the minds
of ‘hard to reach’ pupils with their high change proneness.
2.3.3:Measurement of Change Proneness:
Change proneness is recently developed concept in relation
to global changes in the curriculum transactions. It seems simple
to go to the teachers and get data from them and to start

43
interpretation. But experiences are shown that careless
procedural can limit seriously the validity and usefulness of the
survey. Keen attention is concentrated while construction and
administration of the tool. After careful observation of the
literature, it is found that this tool can be measure in various
procedures adopted by Mukhopadyay (1980) and Devagiri (1999).
However, they are context specific and may not be suitable for
the present study. Hence, the researcher after re-test the tool
and developed the Change Proneness tool with necessary
modifications made before administering this tool among the
selected sample of teachers.
2.3.4:Dimensions of Change Proneness:
Out of many dimensions of Teacher Change Proneness, four
dimensions are very important viz., (1) Innovativeness, (2)
Hesitating nature, (3) Consideration and (4) Acceptance of help.
The Innovativeness refers to the ideals, expression and
acceptance of novelty. The hesitating nature refers to
disagreeing the changes now in existence and refusing to accept
the new ideas. Regarding consideration refers to examine the
changes in curriculum transactions. Whereas the acceptance of
help is refers to measure the opinion towards curriculum changes
in classroom teaching.
Educational objectives can be achieved only when teachers
are efficient in performing their job in a given classroom or
learning situation, manifesting their potentialities into realities. A
teacher is able to under take this complex task, only when he is
able to motivate himself towards fast changing in teaching styles,
strategies and in the execution of innovative process. If a

44
teacher is unable to cope with the rapid changes that are taking
place in teaching learning transaction, then the primary objective
of teaching-learning process will be disturbed.
2.3.5:Physiological and Psychological Experiences:
Of all the above dimensions discussed, Teacher’s
physiological and psychological experiences are occupied
prominent place to measure the Teacher Change proneness.
Generally, teachers are often rely how they feel, physically and
emotionally, in order to assess their capabilities. More than the
other sources of information, if these are negative (i.e., the
teacher is very tired person or not physically well or particularly
anxious/distressed or facing a lot of pressure), which will
generally detract from proneness. On the other hand, if these
physical and mental states are well off, they need not process as
contributing much to the individual’s proneness. On balance,
however, if the teacher is in excellent physical and mental state,
this might be served as good point of departure to build
proneness other ways and might be even in and of itself aroused
a teacher’s prone on physical or psychologically demanding
tasks. The following figure disclosed the variables involved in the
definition of Teacher Change-Proneness.

TEACHER CHANGE-PRONENESS

Innovativeness Consideration

45
Hesitating nature Acceptance of help

Importantly for organizational behaviour and human


resources management, each of these resources is highly
malleable and changeable. As discussed earlier clearly disclosed
that the Change proneness is as stated earlier (Devagiri, 1999)
that it is the tendency to accept any thing, which is new novel, to
be imbibed in their style of work and it is the state of flux and
dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause which may
promote and result at expected rewards or fail to produce
unexpected revolts. However, the teacher needs a strong sense
in his change proneness before they will try to apply what they
have in their professional experiences. They will also trying to
learn new things. The belief of Teacher in his ability to perform in
his profession makes them vulnerable to on-the-job conditions,
which are not supportive in his job career. It helps the teachers
to survive rejection and helps them to preserve in face of
obstacles and setbacks.
Though the conceptual framework is systematic and sound
in its presentation, in reality, how far the Teacher Job Satisfaction,
Stress and Change Proneness are correlated and inter-dependent,
if so, to what extent, and how far inter and intra relations
between the dimensions of these aspects are the immediate
queries to solve the problem. The following figure disclosed the
relationship between the three aspects.

Diagram showing the relationship between


Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and
Teacher Change Proneness

46
Job Satisfaction Stress Change Proneness

Professional Intensity of Work Innovativeness

Teaching Learning Student Behaviour Hesitating nature

Innovation Professional Growth Consideration

Inter-personal Extrinsic Annoyers Acceptance of help


Relations

Thus the investigator is probing into the problem in detail.


To substantiate the present problem, the researcher reviewed and
presented the available literature relating to Teacher Job
Satisfaction, Stress and Change Proneness in the following
Chapter.

47
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
From the time teaching started to gain recognition as a
Profession, experts as well as common men began to wonder
about the effectiveness of the teacher. The examples of
Socrates, Drona, Plato, Christ and Buddha are of common
knowledge. Whether mythological or historical, both the eastern
and the western records strongly suggest that the famous
teachers were known to attract a large number of pupils around
them and their glory used to be reflected in terms of the
achievements of their pupils.
It has been documented in our ancient literature that after a
training period, testing competitions of Kshatriya princes were
held to ascertain the learning outcomes attained by them. Put
differently, it was a sort of public trial (test) of both the teacher

48
and the taught. If a pupil failed to show mastery of knowledge
and skills it indeed indicated a failure of the both, may be more of
the teacher. The episode of Arjuna-Ekalavya (Maha Bharatha)
rivalry is a classic example of the pupil-outcome criterion for
judging teacher effectiveness. Traces of such tradition are
evident even today in the fields of Indian music and dance. Our
famous musicians and dancers proudly declare who their
teachers are. Even in the academic field, it is customary for
students to boast which famous university – Oxford, Harward or
Yale – they studied in or under whom they worked for their
research. In turn, the institutions are proud to display and
publicize the names of the students who have become
accomplished in their respective fields. Thus, there is sufficient
evidence to believe that teacher (teaching) effectiveness has
been viewed more in terms of what happens to a learner than
what a teacher does. In other words, what is crucial is not the
teacher’s act or behaviour, but the pupil’s act or behaviour.
Hence, the investigator has reviewed the previous investigations
on the aspect of Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and
Teacher Change Proneness both in India and abroad in the
following pages.
Kerlinger (1973, III Survey of Educational Research) gave
two main reasons for discussing the general and research
literature related to the research problem. The first of this is to
clarify the theoretical rationale of the problem. The second
reason is to locate the present research in the existing body of
research on the subject and to point out what it contributes to the
subject.

49
The major purpose of this review of the available literature
is to determine the significant facts, which are essentially related
to the problem under investigation. For the knowledge emerging
from the investigation would enable the investigator to avoid
unintentional duplication, as well as to provide to understand and
insight for the development of logical framework for the present
problem under investigation. Moreover, studies that have been
done would help in formulating research hypothesis and
indicating ‘what needs to be done will form the basis for the
justification of the study under investigation’. The purpose of this
chapter is to provide a comprehensive and clear picture of the
related studies and to show how the present study contributes in
extending the knowledge in the attempted area under study.
3.1.0:TEACHER JOB SATISFACTION
3.1.1: Studies in Abroad

Ali Murat Sunbul (2003) studied “An analysis of


relations among locus of control, burnout and job satisfaction in
Turkish high school teachers”. The aim of this study was to see
how teachers' burnout is related to different aspects of locus of
control, job satisfaction and demographic characteristics such as
age and gender. The Job Satisfaction Scale was used to measure
the subjects' job satisfaction level. In addition, the Maslach
Burnout Inventory, which was used to measure dimensions of
teachers' burnout consisted of three subscales: emotional
exhaustion, personal accomplishment and depersonalisation. The
Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was used to measure the
extent to which teachers had an internal or external locus of
control. The findings showed that all burnout dimensions were

50
either positively or negatively related to independent variables.
All variables were statistically significant in predictive effect on
depersonalisation. External locus of control and age (predictor
variables) were positively and directly related to emotional
exhaustion dimension of burnout. Only one variable--age
(predictor variable) - was significantly predictive of personal
accomplishment. Literature (Australian Journal of Education,
Vol.47, 2003).

Athanasios Koustelios (2006) studied ‘The relationship


between burnout and job satisfaction among physical education
teachers: a multivariate approach’. The present study examined
the multivariate relationship between job satisfaction and
burnout, experienced by Greek physical education school-based
teachers. The sample consisted of 175 physical education
teachers, from primary and secondary education. The Maslach
Burnout Inventory (Maslach and Jackson, 1986) and the Employee
Satisfaction Inventory (Koustelios and Bagiatis, 1997) used to
assess burnout and job satisfaction respectively. Canonical
correlation analysis revealed a negative multivariate relationship
between the two constructs (r c=.61). Canonical loadings indicate
that job satisfaction is primarily affected by ‘job itself’ followed by
‘supervision’ and ‘working conditions’, whereas burnout is
affected by ‘personal accomplishment’ and ‘emotional
exhaustion’. Intrinsic aspects of job satisfaction seemed to
correlate stronger to burnout than the extrinsic (Nikolaos Tsigilis,
University of Thessaly, Greece, 2006).
Beverly M.Klecker and William E.Loadman (1999) studied
‘Male Elementary School Teachers' Ratings of Job Satisfaction by

51
Years of Teaching Experience’. The authors Teaching in American
public schools in grades K-12 is largely a female pursuit.
Discussions of the diversification of the American teaching force,
have generally focused on two areas: (1) the under-
representation of people of color in the teaching force and (2) the
under-representation of females in administrative positions
(Montecinos & Nielsen, 1997). Few researchers have chosen to
focus on the need for more males in the teaching force. The
scarcity of male teachers as student role models is a subject of
concern at all levels, but it is of particular concern in the early
grades (Wood and Hoag, 1993). National statistics of teacher
demographics indicate that the national teaching population is
72% female and 28% male. However, the gender statistics are
even more disproportionate at the elementary level. Fewer than
2% of pre-K/Kindergarten and 14.6% of elementary teachers are
male (Snyder & Hoffman, & Geddes, 1996). This lack of male role
models in the early years of schooling may be a limiting factor in
recruiting more males.
One of the principal problems the Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) has in carrying out its responsibility to educate Indian
children is the high turnover rate among its teachers; a large
proportion of teachers in the BIA school system leave after their
first year or second year of work. Teachers at six elementary
schools on the Navajo Reservation were interviewed to determine
the features they considered rewarding and the drawbacks
associated with their place of work. The countryside itself and the
cultural characteristics of the children were cited as the most
rewarding aspects. Isolation in some form was the major

52
drawback. Long distances had to be traveled for services of any
kind. Medical services were not available on the reservation,
although the Public Health Service had clinics established there.
Because of lack of competition on the reservation there were high
prices in the local area for food and automobile repairs. Social life
was especially restricted. Job related problems were most
frequently concerned with administration. A fourth of those
interviewed, all Anglo, were dissatisfied with the BIA's
implementation of the Indian Preference Policy; they felt some
Indians were given preference for jobs for which they were not
fully qualified. The BIA reward structure is complicated by the
need for substantial documentation and reward is not given
consistently enough to affect teacher attitudes.
Recommendations to increase level of satisfaction among BIA
teachers conclude the report. (Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of
Interior), Washington, DC., Journal of Education Research Bulletin,
Vol.119, 1999, USA).
Bolin, Feng (2007) investigated into “A Study of Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Factors that Influence it “. Research on job
satisfaction, an extremely important topic in organizational
administration and social psychology, has a history of nearly sixty
years, beginning with the publication of Hoppock's (1935) classic
work. The study of organization administration and behavioral
sciences started fairly late on the Chinese mainland. There are
few studies on job satisfaction, and even fewer in the educational
field. This study is an exploration into the current situation using
questionnaires and interviews. (Source: US Department of

53
Education Publication, M.E.Sharpe, Inc. 80 Business Park Drive,
Armonk, NY 10504,The entity from ERIC, 2007 (e-publication).
James S.Rinehart, Paula M.Short and Paula M.Short (1994)
studied “Job Satisfaction and Empowerment among Teacher
Leaders, Reading Recovery Teachers and Regular Classroom
Teachers”. Empowering teachers is an essential part of school
restructuring as evidenced b projects such as Sizer's Coalition of
Essential Schools (Muncey & McQuillan, 1993), the New
Standards Project (Simmons & Resnick, 1993), school-based
decision making in Chicago and Kentucky, or teacher involvement
in developing standards (Alexander, 1993). Another project,
developed by Short and Greer (1991), educated teachers to
competently analyze a problem and reach reasonable conclusions
because effective decision making is an important attribute in
today's schools. Even though making judgments is an essential
part of empowerment, other factors may exist and should be
identified as researchers begin to study re-structured
organizations.
A few researchers are beginning to investigate
empowerment and its effects on selected organizational
variables. For example, Short and Rinehart (1992) developed an
instrument to measure empowerment and, sequentially, utilized
it with teachers to examine the relationship to school climate. An
inverse association was found between these two variables,
which were attributed to teachers expressing more divergent
beliefs and ideas, raising levels of conflict, and lowering
perceptions of school climate. Short and Rinehart indicated a
need to explore the relationship to other psychological constructs

54
Education, Vol. 114, 1994, by James S. Rinehart, ERIC, e-Journal
publication).
Jennifer, McLean (2006) studied “Forgotten Faculty: Stress
and Job Satisfaction Among Distance Educators”. As distance
education initiatives flourish throughout higher education, new
avenues of opportunity have opened for students and faculty
alike. The literature is rich in findings related to factors, which
foster student satisfaction and success in the virtual
environment. Despite the rising numbers of faculty teaching
exclusively at a distance, the literature is silent on the
identification of factors that support faculty well being in the
areas of stress and job satisfaction for those teaching exclusively
online. This descriptive study used Delphi methodology to identify
stressors and levels of job satisfaction among faculty teaching
exclusively at a distance.
Background: With growing numbers of faculty moving
toward a teaching load that is geographically independent of both
students and colleagues, it is critical that the support needs of
these faculty are identified and addressed. Higher education
administrators and faculty developers face the challenge of
identifying and meeting the needs of this often highly diverse and
geographically dispersed faculty. The information gathered can
be used to inform administrators about those factors that induce
and prevent stress and burnout, sustain occupational satisfaction
and promote employee retention. The purpose of this study was
to provide an initial exploration into the experiences of distance
education faculty with regard to occupational stress and job
satisfaction. The data collected from this study provides

55
descriptive information on stressors experienced by distance
educators. Data was collected by way of a Delphi panel of higher
educators who teach exclusively at a distance, moving them
through adapted versions of Gmelch's (1986) Faculty Stress
Index, a measurement of faculty stress levels, and the Abridged
Job Descriptive Index (aJDI) which provided a measurement of job
satisfaction for consensus within the panel.
The central question this study sought to answer was: How
do distance educators characterize their stress and stressors? In
addition to stress, the study also asked: How satisfied are
educators working exclusively in a distance environment?
Implications for Administrative Practice: For distance
education administrators, it is important to recognize that
distance educators view themselves as dedicated almost
exclusively to instruction. The traditional triad of higher educators
sharing their time between teaching, service and scholarship is
not perceived as applicable to most distance educators who
consider themselves first and foremost teachers. Further, their
separation from campus demands that faculty identified for
distance teaching be intrinsically motivated and independent.
Faculty with a strong need for affiliation and supervision are less
likely to thrive as distance educators. Conversely, the panel's
comments suggest those faculties who take great enjoyment in
teaching and are comfortable working under little supervision are
well suited to this endeavor.
Administrators would be wise to note, however, that the
strong independence shown by this panel makes conformity to
institutional regulations less likely among distance educators, as

56
they frequently see themselves as operating outside the
boundaries of their campus-bound peers. Further, their strong
independence has the potential to impact retention, as distance
educators who feel no strong ties to their home institutions may
feel less inclination to dedicate their career to any one institution.
A final warning to distance education administrators relates
to the frequency of the panelists' comments about distance
education being a round-the-clock endeavor and the stress that
comes from having a job with no clear start and finish time. While
the panelists appear to believe that they are responsible for
setting their own guidelines in this area, it is important for
program administrators to recognize this stress and to realize
that if faculty members are unable to temper it themselves,
burnout is likely. Placing strong emphasis on the need for
distance educators to place reasonable demands on themselves
and to establish their own boundaries between work and personal
life is critical to retaining a healthy and productive faculty body.
Care should be taken to make even remote faculty feel a
part of the greater whole of this institution thorough regular
communication and support. This will enhance their sense of
affiliation to both the school and the individuals that comprise it,
increase compliance with regulation and – ideally – positively
impact occupational satisfaction.
The results of this study indicate that distance education is
a rewarding career path for many higher education faculty. The
challenges faced by faculty teaching exclusively at a distance are
not entirely different from those of their on-campus counterparts,
but the form those challenges take and the avenues by which

57
they are managed are necessarily changed in the distance
environment. (Source: Jennifer McLean, Pennsylvania College of
Technology (Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration,
Volume IX, Number II, Summer 2006, University of West Georgia,
Distance Education Center, Back to the Online Journal of Distance
Learning Administration Content).
John, De Nobile (2006) studied ‘ Organizational
Communication and Job Satisfaction in Australian Catholic
Primary Schools’. This study disclosed that Job satisfaction has
been associated with a variety of behaviours relating to
communication. However, very little research has been conducted
in primary schools encompassing job satisfaction and a range of
communication variables. This study investigated the
relationships between aspects of organizational communication
and facets of job satisfaction. The participants were 356 staff
members from 52 primary schools of six Catholic education
systems in New South Wales, Australia. The participants
completed a survey consisting of the Organizational
Communication in Primary Schools Questionnaire and the Teacher
Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ). Ten organizational
communication factors and nine job satisfaction factors were
identified. Multiple regression analyses identified several
organizational communication factors that were predictors of job
satisfaction. The results suggest implications for policy and
practice with regard to communication in these schools
(Macqueries University, NSW 2109, Australia, ERIC – e-journal
article, 2006).

58
Nancy Tsui Yee Yeung & Alexander Seeshing Yeung (2002)
studied ‘Teacher Motivation, Stress and Satisfaction : Do Teachers
in a Secondary and Tertiary Institution Differ?
Survey data from 15 lecturers in a tertiary education
institution and 39 teachers in a secondary school in Hong Kong
were analyzed to investigate their work motivation and its
relationship with job-related stress and satisfaction. The
relationship between job-related stress and job satisfaction was
negative. However, both levels of stress and job satisfaction were
high. In terms of work motivation, for both groups, achievement
and affiliation orientations were high but power orientation was
not. These results indicate that the job nature of teaching itself
may have a driving force that makes teachers strive for
professional development that is stressful yet satisfying and
fulfilling. Analysis of variance found that the two groups (lecturers
vs. teachers) did not differ in work-related psychological
outcomes (job stress and satisfaction), nor did they differ in their
power orientation. For both groups, the achievement and
affiliation orientations were higher than power orientation
whereas between-group comparisons found that achievement
and affiliation orientations were significantly higher for lecturers
in the tertiary institution. The relatively high stress level of both
the lecturers and teachers warrants attention. Further work
should focus on effort to reduce teacher stress and increase job
satisfaction. (Paper presented at the International Conference
AARE 2002 at Brisbane, Australia on 3 December, 2002).
Ronit Bogler (2001) studied ‘The Influence of Leadership
Style on Teacher Job Satisfaction’. The article examines the

59
effects of principals’ leadership style (transformational or
transactional), principals’ decision-making strategy (autocratic
versus participative), and teachers’ occupation perceptions on
teacher satisfaction from the job. More specifically, it attempts to
find out how much of the variation in teachers’ job satisfaction
can be attributed to their perceptions of their occupation, as
compared to their perceptions about their principals’ leadership
style and decision-making strategy. A quantitative questionnaire
using Likert-type scales was administered to 930 teachers in
Israeli schools, of whom 745 responded. Path analysis was used to
explain teacher job satisfaction by the exogenous variables. The
most salient finding was that teachers’ occupation perceptions
strongly affected their satisfaction. Principals’ transformational
leadership affected teachers’ satisfaction both directly and
indirectly through their occupation perceptions. Implications of
the study are discussed in relation to supervisors and principals,
as well as to policy makers at the government level (Educational
Administration, Quarterly, Vol.37,No.5,662-
683(2001)DOI:10.1177/00131610121969460).

60
Salome Schulze (2002) studied ‘Job Satisfaction Amongst
Black Female and White Male Academics: Implications for
Management’. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of black,
female and white, male academics at a distance education
institution in South Africa. A qualitative research approach was
employed. By means of purposeful and snowball sampling, ten
female participants from different departments in the humanities
were recruited and interviewed. In the second phase, reflexive
photography was used to gather data. Eight white males from the
same sector were provided with a camera and requested to take
pictures of the agonies and the ecstasies of their work. Thereafter
photo elicitation interviews were conducted. Data analysis
indicated how participants felt about teaching, research,
community service, administration, compensation and job
security, promotions, management, co-workers' behaviour and
their physical environment. Their overall, general job satisfaction
was also determined. Findings indicated how diverse the
perceptions and needs of the two groups are. Implications for
managing such a diverse human-resource base are indicated
(Department of Further Teacher Education, UNISA, Pretoria, South
Africa, 2002).
Smith, Frederick, D. (1977) studied “Factors Involved in Job
Satisfaction Among Teachers in the Bureau of Indian Affairs
System on the Navajo Reservation”. This study disclosed that
one of the principal problems the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
has in carrying out its responsibility to educate Indian children is
the high turnover rate among its teachers; a large proportion of
teachers in the BIA school system leave after their first year or

61
second year of work. Teachers at six elementary schools on the
Navajo Reservation were interviewed to determine the features
they considered rewarding and the drawbacks associated with
their place of work. The countryside itself and the cultural
characteristics of the children were cited as the most rewarding
aspects. Isolation in some form was the major drawback. Long
distances had to be traveled for services of any kind. Medical
services were not available on the reservation, although the
Public Health Service had clinics established there. Because of
lack of competition on the reservation there were high prices in
the local area for food and automobile repairs. Social life was
especially restricted. Job related problems were most frequently
concerned with administration. A fourth of those interviewed, all
Anglo, were dissatisfied with the BIA's implementation of the
Indian Preference Policy; they felt some Indians were given
preference for jobs for which they were not fully qualified. The BIA
reward structure is complicated by the need for substantial
documentation and reward is not given consistently enough to
affect teacher attitudes. Recommendations to increase level of
satisfaction among BIA teachers conclude the report. (DS)
(Source: The entity from which ERIC acquires the content,
including journal, organization, and conference names, or by
means of online submission from the author; BIA Education
Research Bulletin, v5 n2 p21-33 May 1977 , Peer-Reviewed: An
indication of whether the document came from a peer-reviewed
journal or U.S. Department of Education publication. Note: Used
from 2005 onward; Publication Date: 1977-05-00; Institutions:
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.).

62
Generally, the results of this research are relevant psychology
as they pertain to relationship issues, communication strategies,
and attitudes developed by employees. Specifically, the results are
relevant to directors who wish to increase the job satisfaction of
their employees as well as prevent turnover. The results of the
research can be disseminated in director training programs, thereby
promoting social change by focusing on the impact of leadership
style on employee job satisfaction. In this exploratory study, a need
for structured leadership was related to higher global job
satisfaction as well as satisfaction with supervision. Further, the
results can contribute to social change by examining the impact of
leadership style in other nonprofit agencies having an organizational
structure similar to child care agencies. With the flux of change in
nonprofit organizations, such as child care centers, the need for
structure seems to be critical to employee job satisfaction,
particularly on satisfaction with supervision and has important
implications for child care director training programs.
Stephanie, L.Brooke (2007) studied ‘Leadership and Job
Satisfaction”. The results imply social change effort at a broader
level of nonprofit organizations. Leadership style is critical in
terms of an employee’s level of job satisfaction. By vicariously
watching the leader, employees attach meaning to the leader’s
behavior and evaluate that in terms of his or her expectations of
supervision. Thus, employees will use the evaluation to
determine satisfaction with supervision and satisfaction with the
organization. The study of job satisfaction is important given its
effect on employee retention (Bogler, 2002).
Given the quality issues with respect to the shortage of
highly qualified directors of child care agencies (Whitebook &

63
Sakai, 2003), training issues must be addressed. First, directors of
child care centers need to be aware of their leadership style and
the relationship of style to employee job satisfaction. It would
appear that developing a leadership style high on consideration
and high on structure is important for increasing employee
satisfaction (Bass, 1990). Research supports that when leaders
change their definitions of leadership, job satisfaction increases
and turnover is decreased to near zero (Bissell & Beach, 1996).
Specifically, if leaders are low in structure, they need training that
focuses on increasing skill in planning, communicated
information, scheduling, and providing informative and
constructive feedback to employees (Fleishman, 1996).
Training programs can also focus on strategies for improving
employee retention, as suggestion by Armour (2000). Specifically,
directors need to have training on the attitudinal facets which
lead to dissatisfaction (Spector, 1997). Leaders should be trained
to recognize aspects of the organizational climate which create
uncertainty for employees, a critical issue when bring a new
employee on board. A telling style is going to be more effective
for leaders to adopt when working with new employees. When
employees perceive their director as initiating structure through
setting goals, problem solving, and providing feedback on
performance, employees were more satisfied, experienced less
strain, and the position was less likely to turnover (O’Driscoll &
Beehr, 1994). Director training can focus on the need for
frequent assessment feedback for new employees (Source:
Stephanie L. Brooke, PhD, Volume 4 - Issue 1, Feb 13, 2007, ERIC
e-publication).

64
Timothy A.Judge, Daniel Heller & Michael K.Mount (2001)
studied “Five-Factor Model of Personality and Job Satisfaction A
Meta – Analysis’ This study reports results of a meta-analysis
linking traits from the 5-factor model of personality to overall job
satisfaction. Using the model as an organizing framework, 334
correlations from 163 independent samples were classified
according to the model. The estimated true score correlations
with job satisfaction were -.29 for Neuroticism, .25 for
Extraversion, .02 for Openness to Experience, .17 for
Agreeableness, and .26 for Conscientiousness. Results further
indicated that only the relations of Neuroticism and Extraversion
with job satisfaction generalized across studies. As a set, the Big
Five traits had a multiple correlation of .41 with job satisfaction,
indicating support for the validity of the dispositional source of
job satisfaction when traits are organized according to the 5
-factor model. (Timothy, A Judge, Department of Management,
University of Florida; Daniel Heller, Department of Psychology,
University of Iowa & Michael, K.Mount, Department of
Management and Organizations, University Iowa, USA,
Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 5, 662-683
(2001), DOI:10.1177/ 00131610121969460
Weiqi Chen, (2007) studied “The Structure of Secondary
School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Attrition
and Work Enthusiasm”. This study used the results of a
questionnaire survey of 230 secondary school teachers to
analyze the factors constituting job satisfaction and its effects on
teacher attrition and work enthusiasm. The results show that (a)
the structure of secondary school teacher job satisfaction is made

65
up of ten components and is consistent with the model put
forward by Locke et al. (1976); (b) secondary school teachers are
dissatisfied with their jobs as a whole and with dimensions such
as the educational system, student quality, leadership and
administration, work achievements, working conditions, salaries
and welfare, and work stress; and (c) teacher overall job
satisfaction and satisfaction with the educational system, income
and welfare, leadership and administration, status, and work
environment and conditions are closely related to work
involvement and retention. External rewards and commendations
also stimulate the teachers' work motivation (Chinese Education
and Society, Vo.40, N.5, p.17-31, China, 2007).
3.1.2: Studies in India:
Agarwal, M (1991) in a study on job satisfaction of primary
and secondary school teachers, concluded that caste, place of
work and mother tongue were significantly related to job
satisfaction. Male graduate trained teachers, single family
teachers, more experienced and government school teachers,
were more satisfied than others; age and Marital Status status,
however, had no relationship with job satisfaction. Economic and
political values were found to be correlates of job satisfaction (V
Survey of Educational Research, 1997, p.452).
Ausekar (1996) compared the job satisfaction among
teachers working in government and private secondary schools
(VI Survey of Educational Research, 2006, p.18).
Bhatt (1997) made a correlational study of job stress, job
involvement and job satisfaction(VI Survey of Educational
Research, 2006, p.18).

66
Chandraiah (1994) attempted to study job satisfaction of
college teachers as an effect of age (VI Survey of Educational
Research, 2006, p.18).
Clemence, S.M. (1989) found that role conflict affected job
satisfaction of women teachers but social simension of value
influenced their job satisfaction rather favourably (V Survey of
Educational Research, 1997, p.452).
Dixit (1993) aimed to analyze the effect of sex on different
factors – intrinsic (physical and psychological) and extrinsic
(salary etc., benefits) – of job satisfacton among primary teachers
(VI Survey of Educational Research, 2006, p.18).
Godiyal and Srivastava (1995) studied work involvement,
job involvement and job satisfaction of male primary teachers of
Garhwal (VI Survey of Educational Research, 2006, p.17).
Goyal, J.C. (1980) studied ‘A Study of the Relationship
among Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, Adjustment and Professional
Interests of Teacher-educators in India’. The main objectives of
the study were (i) to measure attitudes, job satisfaction,
adjustment and professional interests of teacher-educators of
different categories based on sex, age, qualification and
experience, (ii) to find out the difference in attitude, job
satisfaction, adjustment and professional interests among group
of teacher-educators based on sex, age, qualification and
experience, (iii) to find out the relationship among attitude, job
satisfaction, adjustment and professional interests of teacher-
educators of different categories, and (iv) to predict job
satisfaction of teacher-educators by treating their attitudes,
adjustment and professional interests as independent variables.

67
The sample consisted of 314 teacher-educators working in
thirty-eight institutions, which included men and women of
different age groups possessing different qualifications and
teaching experience. The tools used were a self-constructed
attitude scale, Indiresan’s Job Satisfaction Inventory, Bell’s
Adjustment Inventory and a self-developed inquiry form for
professional interests of teacher-educators. Mean, standard
deviations, t-test, analysis of variance, product moment
correlation, multiple linear regression analysis were used for
statistical interpretation.
The major findings of the study were (i) A large majority of
the teacher-educators were favourably inclined towards their
profession and were satisfied in the job. However, they were not
well adjusted and had low professional interest. (ii) The attitude
and job satisfaction of different groups did not differ significantly.
(iii) Emotional stability among the teacher-educators had low
interest in the profession. (iv) Emotional stability among the
teacher-educators increased with age. (v) Professional interest
among teacher-educators increased with teaching experience in a
school, (vi) Attitude, Job Satisfaction and occupational adjustment
among teacher educators were associated with one another,
whereas social and emotional adjustment and Professional
interests were not related with other variables, (vii) Job
Satisfaction could be predicted by attitude and occupational
adjustment but not by other variables (Abstract:1150, Ph.D.,Edu.,
Delhi, University, III Survey of Educational Research, 1986).
Gupta, S.P. (1980) studied ‘A Study of Job Satisfaction at
Three Levels of Teaching’. The objectives of the study were: (1)

68
to measure the job satisfaction of primary school teachers,
secondary school teachers and college teachers, (2) to find out
the relationship between selected psychological variables and job
satisfaction exhibited by primary school teachers, secondary
school teachers and college teachers, (3) to compare the job
satisfaction of married teachers with that of unmarried teachers,
(4) to compare the job satisfaction of teachers of different age
groups, (5) to compare the job satisfaction of teachers of different
experience groups, (6) to work out multiple regression equations
that could predict the job satisfaction of primary school teachers,
secondary school teachers and college teachers, separately, and
(7) to compare the job satisfaction of primary school teachers,
secondary school teachers and college teachers.
The findings of the study were: (i) Needs of achievement,
affiliation and endurance were positively related while needs of
autonomy, dominance and aggression were negatively related to
the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. Needs of
exhibition, succorance, abasement and nurturance were not
related significantly with the job satisfaction of primary school
teachers. (ii) Attitude towards teaching as a career and
personality maturity were positively related to the job satisfaction
of primary school teachers, (iii) Marital Status status, age and
teaching experience were not associated to the job satisfaction of
primary school teachers, (iv) Out of twelve variables only eight
were significant contributors to the prediction of job satisfaction
of primary school teachers. These eight variables were : attitude,
n-aut, n-ach, n-aff, personality maturity, n-exh, n-end, and n-suc
(R = 0.675). (v) Need achievement was positively related while

69
needs of exhibition, autonomy and aggression were negatively
related to the job satisfaction of secondary school teachers.
Needs of affiliation, succorance, dominance, abasement,
nurturance and endurance were not related significantly to the
job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. (vi) Attitude
towards teaching as a career and personality maturity were
positively related to the job satisfaction of secondary school
teachers. (vii) Marital Status status, age and teaching experience
were not associated significantly with the job satisfaction of
secondary school teachers. (viii) out of twelve variables only
eight were significant contributors to the prediction of job
satisfaction of secondary school teachers. These variables were:
attitude, n-ach, n-aut, personality maturity, n-end, n-dom, n-aba,
and n-suc (R = 0.767). (ix) Needs of achievement of abasement
were positively related while needs of nurturance and aggression
were negatively related to the job satisfaction of the college
teachers. Needs of exhibition, autonomy, affiliation, succorance,
dominance and endurance were not related significantly to the
job satisfaction of college teachers. (x) Attitude towards teaching
as a career and personality maturity were positively related to
the job satisfaction of college teachers. (xi) Unmarried college
teachers were more satisfied than married college teachers.
There was a U-shaped relationship between age and job
satisfaction of college teachers. Teaching experience was not
associated significantly with the job satisfaction of college
teachers. (xii) Out of the twelve variables only five were
significant contributors to the prediction of job satisfaction of
college teachers. These variables were: attitude n-agg, n-nur,

70
personality maturity and n-aba (R = 0.732). (xiii) Primary school
teachers were significantly less satisfied than secondary school
teachers or/and college teachers. (xiv) Secondary School
Teachers and college teachers were almost equally satisfied with
their job. (Abstract:1160, III Survey of Education Research, Ph.D.,
Edu., Meerut University, 1981).
Jyothi and Reddy (1998) attempted to study the professional
satisfaction of teachers working in the schools for the hearing
impaired to Andhra Pradesh (VI Survey of Educational Research,
2006, p.18).
Kolte, N.V.(1978) studied ‘Job Satisfaction of Primary School
Teachers: a Test of the Generality of the Two Factor Theory’. The
study was undertaken (1) to identify the factors that are
responsible for both the teacher’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction,
and (2) The extrinsic factors caused feelings of dissatisfaction but
not feelings of satisfaction.
The study yielded the findings: (1) Achievement was
responsible for the feelings of satisfaction in about forty-two of
the collected satisfaction incidents. (2) Thirty good incidents
revealed recognition as a factor for the feeling of satisfaction
from the job. (3) Advancement emerged as a satisfier in eighteen
of the incidents collected in connection with the feelings of
satisfaction. (4) Work itself was found to be responsible for
satisfaction in six of the good wok incidents. (5) Policy and
administration was cited as a satisfier in incidents where both
husband and wife were teachers and were posted at the same
place. (6) Unfair policy and administration emerged as a
dissatisfier in thirty-five of the dissatisfaction incidents. (7)

71
Working conditions were cited as the cause of dissatisfaction in
twenty five of the bad work incidents. (8) Salary was mentioned
as a dissatisfier in ten of the bad work incidents. (9)
Interpersonal relations emerged as a dissatisfier in ten of the
incidents that described the feeling of dissatisfaction with the job.
(10) Advancement emerged as a dissatisfier in five of the bad
work incidents. (11) Herzberg’s dual factor theory was not
supported, in toto, by the study.
Naeema and Ayishabi (1995) studied satisfaction as a
predictor of perceived teaching competence (VI Survey Report,
2006, P.17).
Naik, G.C. (1990) found that ad hoc teaching assistants of
the M.S.Univesity, Baroda, were satisfied with their jobs mainly
because of their favourable attitude towards the teaching
profession, financial consideration and the facilities which they
were getting for further studies; Marital Status status, age,
experience and gener did not affect their level of job satisfaction;
leadership qualities of heads of institutions promoted job
satisfaction, and group goals and objectives were essential
parameters in determining the job satisfaction of teachers. Sex,
experience and background variables had no bearing on job
satisfaction (V Survey of Educational Research, 1997, p.452).
Paranjpe (1993) attempted to assess the quality Working
Life in the educational setting of special education teachers and
relationship between QWL perception, Job Satisfaction, Job
involvement and work involvement (Sixth Survey of Educational
Research, 2006, p.17).

72
Porwal, N.K. (1980) investigated into ‘Personality Correlates
of Job satisfied Higher Secondary School Teachers’. The
objectives of the study were: to identify the personality traits of
satisfied and dissatisfied teachers, and to examine the impact of
variables like age, sex, Marital Status status, length of service,
scale of pay, location of working place, type of management and
extent of employment of their job satisfaction.
The sample of teachers from higher secondary schools was
selected using the stratified random technique in the first stage
and out of them 100 satisfied teachers and 100 dissatisfied
teachers were identified. The tools used were Job Satisfaction
Questionnaire (Jumar and Multra) and Sixteen Personality Factor
Questionnaire (in Hindi) by Kapoor. The data were analyzed using
critical ratios, and chi-square and by calculating coefficients of
correlation.
The main findings of the study were – (1) Personality
characteristics of satisfied teachers were: reserved, detached,
critical, cool, emotionally mature, stable, faced reality, humble,
mild, accommodating, conforming and giving way to others, shy,
timid, restrained, diffident, withdrawing, cautious, retiring
trustworthy, adaptable, free from jealousy, easy to get on with,
practical, careful, conventional regulated by external realities,
proper, placid, self-assured, confident and serene, controlled,
socially precise, having strong control over emotions and general
behaviour, relaxed tranquil, unfrustrated and calm. (2) The
personality characteristics of the dissatisfied teachers were:
warm-hearted, easy-going, participating, less afraid of criticism,
emotionally less stable, assertive, independent, stubborn,

73
venturesome, socially bold, uninhibited, spontaneous, self-
opinionated, hard to fool, imaginative, rapt in inner urges,
careless of practical matter, Bohemian and frustrated. (3) The
satisfied and dissatisfied teachers were similar on factors B, F, G,
I, N, Q1 and Q3 of 16 PF. (4) Age appeared to exert an adverse
impact on job satisfaction. (5) Sex produced differences in the
level of job satisfaction. (6) The female unmarried teachers were
more satisfied than the married teachers of both sexes. (7) A
negative relationship existed between the length of service and
the level of job satisfaction. (8) Rural-Urban setting had no
significant difference on the level of job satisfaction. (9) Job
satisfaction did not vary with different scales of pay. (10) Well-
employed and under-employed teachers did not differ on job
satisfaction. (11) The teachers of government schools were more
satisfied than those in privately managed schools.
(Abstract:1200, III Survey of Educational Research, Ph.D., Psy.,
Agra University, 1980).
Rakesh Patel & Pritesh Tailor (2005) studied “A Comparative
Study of Teacher Efficiency and Job Satisfaction with Concern to
Gender and Work Experience in Rural Area Teacher”. The aim of
this research was to find out that whether there is any significant
difference in the teacher efficiency and job satisfaction of male &
female rural teacher and first stage (1 to 7 year) & Second
stage(more then 7 year) work experience. Besides this the
second aim was to test the relationship between teacher
efficiency and job satisfaction. The analysis of the result indicates
that there is no significant difference in the matter of teacher
efficiency and job satisfaction between male and female teacher.

74
There is no significant difference in the matter of teacher
efficiency and job satisfaction between first stage and second
stage work experience. There is a noticeable correlation between
teacher efficiency and job satisfaction in rural teacher (Rakesh
Patel, Lecturer, NLITE, & Pritesh Tailor, Lecturer, BMKIETE,
Navsari, Gujarat, Paper Presentation in International Conference
of All India Association for Educational Research on Improving
Rural Education held in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, October,
2005).
Ramakrishnaiah, D. (1980) concluded that college teachers
attitude towards teaching had a bearing on job satisfaction and
that the job involvement and job satisfaction are independent of
each other.
Rama Mohan Babu, V. (1992) found that less experience,
favourable attitude towards teaching and efficiency of teaching
corresponded with higher job satisfaction. Teachers working in
open and autonomous climates were found to be having high job
satisfaction compared to those working in a closed climate. Job
involvement and general state of health and life had a positive
effect on the level of job satisfaction (V Survey of Educational
Research, 1997, p.452).
Rao, S.N. (1981) studied ‘A Psychological Study of Work
Adjustment and Teaching Success of Primary School Teachers’.
The study aimed at investigating the relation of job satisfaction to
several intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the teaching job
assuming job satisfaction to depend on work adjustment. It
concerned itself with primary school teachers of Nellore and
Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh.

75
The findings of the study were: (1) There were no difference
between the female and male teaches with regard to job
satisfaction, job involvement, work identification, and
organizational identification. However, the male teachers were
more intrinsically motivated. (2) A significant relationship
between intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction was identified.
The length of service was not related to job satisfaction,
organizational identification and job involvement. The long and
the short tenure of service groups differed on intrinsic motivation,
the former showing higher intrinsic motivation. (3) The urban
and the rural teachers differed with regard to intrinsic motivation
but not with regard to job satisfaction, work identification and
organizational identification. (4) The external locus of control of
the teachers was significantly related to job satisfaction, work
identification and organizational identification but not to job
participation, job involvement and intrinsic motivation. Job
involvement was also related to intrinsic motivation and job
satisfaction. (5) With regard to work values, job satisfaction was
related to job involvement and upward striving. Job satisfaction
was also significantly related to work identification and
organizational identification. (6) Work identification, organization
identification, work involvement and organizational involvement
of the teachers was distressingly disappointing and job
satisfaction of the teachers left much to be desired.
(Abstract:1206, III Survey of Educational Research, Ph.D., SV
University, Tirupati, NCERT financed, 1981).
Ratnappa (1998) studied the personal and professional
satisfaction of women teachers of schools, colleges and

76
universities in Andhra Pradesh (VI Survey of Educational
Research, 2006, p.18).
Rawat, S. (1992) found that level of job expectation played
a significant role in determining job realities of teachers as also
the job satisfaction which had positive relations with humanistic,
creative, social and aesthetic values and negative correlation
with political and economic values Ratnappa (1998) studied the
personal and professional satisfaction of women teachers of
schools, colleges and universities in Andhra Pradesh (VI Survey of
Educational Research, 2006, p.18).
Ray, S. (1992) concluded that the mental health of teachers
was positively correlated with job satisfaction and attitude
towards pupils Ratnappa (1998) studied the personal and
professional satisfaction of women teachers of schools, colleges
and universities in Andhra Pradesh (VI Survey of Educational
Research, 2006, p.18).
Ray, S (1990) attempted to study the relationship among
teachers’ attitude towards pupils, mental health and job
satisfaction (V Survey of Educational Research, 1997, p.452).
Reddy and Babu (1995) analyzed the level of job
satisfaction of male and female teachers of residential and non-
residential schools (VI Survey of Educational Research, 2006,
p.18).
Reddy, B.P. (1989) in his study found that over qualified primary
school teachers had low job satisfaction while teachers younger
in age had higher level of job satisfaction, which had positive
correlation with attitude towards teaching and job involvement
Ratnappa (1998) studied the personal and professional

77
satisfaction of women teachers of schools, colleges and
universities in Andhra Pradesh (VI Survey of Educational
Research, 2006, p.18).
Saxena, N. (1990) while studying a sample of higher
secondary school-teachers in Madhya Pradesh, did not find any
difference due to gender, stream (science or arts), experience
and other variables, on job satisfaction Ratnappa (1998) studied
the personal and professional satisfaction of women teachers of
schools, colleges and universities in Andhra Pradesh (V Survey of
Educational Research, 1997, p.453).
Sekhar, G and Ranganathan, S. (1988) studying job
satisfaction of graduate teachers in Coimbatore. The results of
the study disclosed that most of the teachers were satisfied with
their nature of work, personnel policies, salary, personal
achievement and their relationship with superiors and colleagues,
working conditions in schools, appreciation of good work and job
security (V Survey of Educational Research, 1997, p.452).
Shaheen, F. (1973) studied ‘A Sociological Study of 300
Higher Secondary School Female Teachers in the City of Lucknow.
The objectives of the study were: (1) to trace the development of
higher secondary school education for girls in Uttar Pradesh; (2)
to understand the personal and social background of the
respondents with a view to establishing necessary associations
and correlations; (3) to enquire into the family size and its
composition and to see its impact on the efficiency of women
teachers; (4) to ascertain the socio-economic status of the
respondents in order to see its effect on job efficiency, job
satisfaction and morale; (5) to find out the conditions of

78
employment of the respondents; (6) to highlight the social
security and welfare measures organized for higher secondary
women teachers; (7) to probe into the leisure time pursuits and
interests for studying their bearing on the mental health of the
respondents and (8) to know the attitudes and beliefs of the
respondents with a view to suggest various reforms in the
present system of education. The findings in relation to Job
satisfaction disclosed that the bulk of women teachers were from
middle and lower socio-economic status. The main motivating
force behind the respondents’ joining the profession was
economic. Ample leisure time, a stepping-stone for better job
and opportunity for hither studies were other main motivating
factors. (III Survey of Educational Research, Ph.D., Sociology,
Lucknow University, 1973).
Sinha and Prabhat (1993) examined the relationship of Job
Satisfaction with ego strength of Secondary School Teachers. (VI
Survey of Education Research, 2006, p.17).
Sudhira (1994) investigated Teacher Job Satisfaction and job
stress of Secondary School physical education Teacher (VI Survey
of Educational Research, 2006, p.17).
Thaker (1996) designed to know whether the government
and non-government secondary school Principals differ in their
job satisfaction. Thaker studied the relationship between the
Saurashtra Secondary School Principals’ Job Satisfaction and
gender, age, experience, qualification, Marital Status status, type
of schools, residential area and geographical locale (VI Survey of
Educational Research, 2006, p.18).

79
3.2.0: TEACHER STRESS
The term stress is a problematic one, not least because of
its common use. Everyone knows what stress means to them but
it is hard to tie down a strict definition due to the subjective
nature of the definition.
If we define stress as a reaction to a situation that results in
negative emotions then, "Teachers have been identified as an
occupational group that function under conditions of high
stress."(Malik, Mueler & Meinhe, p.57) This stress is caused by
many factors such as time pressures, poor pupil motivation, poor
working conditions, conflict with colleagues etc.
Now while it may be true that teachers are under no more
or less stress than certain other professionals they are in the
unique position that this stress has a direct influence on the lives
of the young people they are there to teach. "Of concern is that
stress may significantly impair the teacher / pupil relationship,
reducing both quality of teaching and the teachers commitment
to his or her pupils"(ibid.)
Teachers suffering stress then seem to get caught in a
vicious circle where the are fatigued due to the time pressures
that they are under and so do not take advantage of free time if
they have any which only creates more time pressure for them.
The may lose their creativity and concentration leading to poorly
motivated pupils who are only a factor, through no fault of their
own, in causing more stress for the teacher and exacerbating the
problem. And so the circle turns.
The aim to reduce teachers' stress levels is one of the most
important challenges facing education and to go about this we
need to develop a climate in our schools where stress is seen "as

80
an interesting, understandable and, up to a point, an inevitable
accompaniment to high levels of demand and uncertainty". It
needs to be on the agenda, both formal and informal, of most if
not all staff rooms."(Claxton, 1989, p.73)
This change can come from three areas; ordinary teachers
becoming aware of the problems they face; teachers speaking
out publicly about their problems; and the school as an
organization adopting, "those management practices,
organizational and administrative arrangements, staff
relationships, working conditions and curriculum processes that
minimize those sources of stress within the schools'
control."(Kyriacou, 1987, p.150)
3.2.1:Studies in Abroad:
Akihito Shimazu, Yusuke Okada, Mitsumi Sakamoto and
Masae Miura (2003) studied “Effects of Stress Management
Program for Teachers in Japan: A Pilot Study”. The aim of this
study was to examine the effects of a stress management
program for teachers on their stress responses, social support,
and coping. Participants (n=24) were assigned to either an
intervention or a waiting list control group. A five-session
program, including psycho-education, group discussion, role-
playing and relaxation training, was conducted for the
intervention group at two-week intervals. Eight participants from
each of the groups responded to pre- and post-intervention
questionnaire surveys. The positive intervention effect was
significant for social support from co-workers (p=0.035), whereas
the negative intervention effect was significant for proactive
coping (p=0.033). No significant effect was observed for stress

81
responses (vigor, anger, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and somatic
stress responses) (p>0.05). The positive intervention effect was
marginally significant for social support from co-workers
(p=0.085) and anger (p=0.057) among those who at first had
high stress response scores in the pre-intervention survey (n=5
and n=4 for the intervention and waiting list control groups,
respectively). Furthermore, the positive intervention effect was
significant for social support from co-workers (p=0.021) and
marginally significant for resignation coping (p=0.070) among
those who at first had high job control scores (n=4 and n=5 for
the intervention and waiting list control groups, respectively).
Results showed that the stress management program conducted
in this study contributed to increasing social support from co-
workers. This study suggests that a program that focuses on a
particular subgroup (e.g., those with high stress responses or
high job control) might be effective in enhancing coping skills,
increasing social support, and reducing stress responses (Akihito
Shimazu, Yusuke Okada, Mitsumi Sakamoto and Masae Miura,
“Effects of Stress Management Program for Teachers in Japan: A
Pilot Study”, Department of Clinical Psychology, Hiroshima
International University School of Human and Social Environment,
Journal of Occupational Health, Vol.45, 2003, No.4, pp.202-208 ,
On line ISSN: 1348-9585)
Arikewuyo and M.Olalekan (2004) studied ‘Stress
Management Strategies of Secondary Teachers in Nigeria – Short
Report’. The study provides empirical evidence for the
management of stress by teachers of secondary schools in
Nigeria. A total of 3466 teachers, drawn from secondary schools

82
in Ogun State of Nigeria, returned their questionnaire for the
study. Data were analyzed using simple percentage and chi-
square. The findings indicate that teachers frequently use the
active behavioural and inactive (escape) strategies in managing
stress. This is an indication that the average Nigerian teacher
prefers to organize him/herself in such a way that his/her
pedagogic duties will not be hampered by domestic chores. It
also implies that, whenever the teacher is stressed, he/she
consoles him/herself with the fact that work is not everything and
therefore feels less stressed. The teachers never use the active
cognitive strategies. Their feeling is that nothing probably can be
challenged in stressful situations. The teachers also express
mixed feelings about the adoption of inactive behavioural
strategies. While the majority of the teachers never engage in
physical exercises or, say, watch films in order to manage any
stressful situation, they prefer to keep away from any situation
that could cause stress, as well as endeavouring to separate
themselves from people who cause stressful situations (Publisher
Customer Services for Taylor & Francis Group Journals, 325
Chestnut Street, Suite 800, Philadelphia, e.Journal 681628 of
ERIC).
Catherine So-Kum Tang, Wing-Tung Au, Ralf Schwarzer,
Gerdamarie Schmitz (2001) studied “Mental health outcomes of
job stress among Chinese teachers: role of stress resource factors
and burnout”. This study examined the mental health outcomes
of job stress among Chinese teachers in Hong Kong. A total of
269 Chinese teachers participated in Study 1, which provided
cross-sectional data regarding the associations among stress

83
resource factors, burnout, and negative mental health. Study 2
was a six-month longitudinal study, which aimed to establish the
direction of the associations among the hypothesized variables
across two time points with a separate sample of 61 Chinese
secondary school teachers. Results of the structural equation
modelling analyses on the cross-sectional data at T1 showed that
stress resource factors of self-efficacy and proactive attitude were
negatively related to burnout, which in turn had a direct effect on
negative mental health. Stress resource factors were also directly
linked to mental health status of teachers. Results of similar
analyses on the longitudinal data at T2 further indicated that
burnout at T1 had a direct impact on burnout at T2, which in turn
had a direct effect on negative mental health at T2. Findings and
limitations of the study were discussed. (Catherine So-Kum Tang,
Wing-Tung Au, Ralf Schwarzer, Gerdamarie Schmitz, The Chinese
University of Hong Kong, Shatin NT, Hong Kong, “Mental health
outcomes of job stress among Chinese teachers: role of stress
resource factors and burnout”, Journal of Organizational
Behaviour, 10.1002/job.120 Dec.2001), e-Journal).
Chan, David W. (2002) studied ‘Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social
Support, and Psychological Distress among Prospective Chinese
Teachers in Hong Kong’. In this Study the investigator examines
teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological
distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in
Hong Kong. Reports that the teacher’s experienced higher levels
of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and
dysphasia. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as
protective factors for teacher stress management. (CMK) (Chan,

84
David, ‘Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social Support and Psychological
Distress among Prospective Teacher in Hong Kong’, An
International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology,
Vol.22, No.5, p.557-69, Dec.2002) published in e-Journal, ERIC –
EJ668911).
David, W.Chan and Eadaoin, K.P.Hui (1998) studied “Stress,
Support and Psychological Symptoms Among Guidance
Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong’. The researchers
investigated the perceived stress, support and psychological
symptom levels were assessed in a sample of 415 guidance and
non-guidance secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Results
indicated that, regardless of gender and guidance status,
teachers with low stress and high support levels generally
reported less general psychological symptoms, and teachers with
high support level reported less specific symptoms related to
anxiety and sleep problems, social dysfunctioning and severe
depression with suicidal ideas. Although the levels of general and
specific psychological symptoms of teachers were lower than
those of general psychiatric patients, they were no higher than
those of nurses and undergraduate students, yielding no
evidence that the teaching profession was more stressful than
other occupational groups (David, W.Chan and Eadaoin, K.P.Hui,
‘Stress Support and Psychological Symptoms Among Guidance
and Non-Guidance Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong, The
Chinese University of Hong Kong, School Psychology
International, Vol. 19, No. 2, 169-178 (1998) Sage Journal –Online,
DOI: 10.1177/0143034398192005).

85
Felicia Ofoegbu and Mon Nwadiani (2006) studied “Level of
perceived stress among lectures in Nigerian universities”. The
purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the
level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the
whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228
(123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to
the variables of age, sex, Marital Status status, experience,
domicile, areas of specialization, and administrative
responsibilities. The Stress Research Questionnaire developed by
the researchers was used to collect data on the level of stress in
relation to the variables. The finding revealed that the level of
stress among academics is significantly high. Recommendations
were made for policy options to reduce stress in Nigerian
universities.
Stress has become a popular concept for explaining a wide
range of behaviours that appear to defy explanation. Indeed it
has become fashionable in the Nigerian society to attribute
erratic or unexplainable behaviour of people to the fact that they
are under stress.
Stress is a process in which environmental events or forces
threaten the well being of an individual in the society. Stress is a
disruption of the emotional stability of the individual that induces
a state of disorganization in personality and behaviour (Nweze,
1984). It is a biological phenomenon that is experienced by all
persons regardless of their socio-economic status, occupation or
age (Wiley, 2000). Egor (2000) viewed stress as the way the
individual responds to conditions that scare, threaten, anger,
bewilder or excite them. McGrath (1976) defines stress generally

86
as a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with
an opportunity, constraints, or demand on being, having and
doing what he or she desires.
Evidently, in Nigeria there are life threatening, harmful and
challenging situations, which are stressful to peoples' existence
and well-being. Some of these include economic instability,
driving on poorly maintained roads, religious intolerance and
insecurity. The professional and personal concerns that seem to
produce stress among university teachers in Nigeria include poor
salaries, the status of the profession and the feeling of
inadequacy as a lecturer.
Contemporary Nigerian universities have not been immuned
from emerging forces of stress in the country. Despite the nation's
declaration of the importance of university education in national
development and the role it plays in satisfying manpower needs,
there is growing evidence that there are really no universities
private, states or federal that will genuinely claim to enjoy the
basic facilities for teaching, learning and research. Today virtually
all necessary facilities and resources, except students, are in
acute short supply (Nwadiani and Ofoegbu, 2001). These could
expose lecturers to such levels of stress that could force them to
deviate from normal functioning.
Stress inducing factors in universities include lack of
instructional resources, poor interpersonal relationship among
staff (academic and non-academic) and between students and
the administration, waves of student campus militancy and
unmanageable student population. For example, during the
1995/1996, 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 academic sessions the

87
student population of the University of Benin was 16281, 20364,
and 24,914 respectively (University of Benin, 2003). An important
related factor is government intervention in university
governance. Efforts by the academicians to make the universities
more responsive to the industrial and economic needs of the
country have been viewed as a major attack on the political elites
and on intellectuals who "play politics" with the educational
policies of the country; policies which according to Nwagwu
(2002) should be guarded by academic considerations.
Consequently some lecturers in contemporary Nigeria are
constantly faced with a complex array of stress inducing factors
while meeting the daily learning and behavioural needs of
students.
The United Kingdom National Health Service (2001) asserts
that stress is not a weakness, but if unnoticed it can lead
progressively to a decrease in performance, poor health and long
term absence from work. Simply put stress is essentially the rate
of wear and tear of the body occasioned by certain stimuli. It is
impossible to live without experiencing some degree of stress at
some point in ones life time (Wiley, 2000). Job stress is a
condition wherein job-related factors interact with the worker to
change his/her psychological or physiological condition such that
he/she is forced to deviate from normal functioning (Beehr and
Newman, (1978). According to Overland (2000) the term stress is
a problematic one, not least because of its common use but
because it is hard to tie it down to a strict definition due to the
subjective nature of the word. It might also be confusing because
it is used quite loosely in conversation.

88
Teacher stress is defined as experience by a teacher of
unpleasant emotions, such as tension, frustration, anger and
depression resulting from aspects of his work as a teacher
(Kyriacou, 1987). Malik, Mueler and Meinhe (1998) identified
teachers as an occupational group that functioned under
conditions of high stress. Smith and Bourke (2000) UK national
Union of Teachers (2000) and the UK Health and Safety Executive
(2000) reported that two out of every five teachers were highly
stressed as against one in every five in other occupations such as
nursing, management, road haulage and security. Stress and its
effects on teachers in the university had been studied in
developed countries under such variables as workload
(Johnstone, 1993), working conditions, poor motivation, external
forces and low status (Boyd and Wylie, 1994; Kyriacou in Cole and
Walker 1998 and Lam and Punch, 2001).The recent study on
stress in Nigerian universities by Nwadiani and Ofoegbu (2001)
investigated the level of stress among fresh students in Nigerian
universities and found out that their level of stress was very high.
The result of the analysis established that several factors
contribute to the high level of stress among university teachers in
Nigeria (Table 4). There is strong influence of the level of
university teachers stress by lecturers' strike actions and
unstable school calendar (F = 87.2), lack of instructional facilities
and irregular payment of salary (F = 66.0), campus militancy,
violence and cultism (f = 46.6) among others. The finding is not
contrary to expectations. Stress becomes apparent where one is
faced with poor working conditions, which is compounded by
frequent shortage of life basic needs such as water, electricity

89
and roads in very poor state of disrepair akin to death traps even
at this level of development of Nigeria.
The study identifies lecturers in Nigerian universities as one
occupational group that functions under conditions of high stress.
The stress is induced by several factors (see Table 4). It can
therefore be concluded that once the identified factors remained
constant the level of stress among male and female lecturers
would remain a permanent feature in Nigerian universities.
(Journal of Instructional Psychology, March, 2006, BNET - Online).
Goto Yasuhiro (2001) investigated into “The Characteristics
of Stress on the Female Teacher of Elementary and Junior High
School”. The purpose of this study of the investigator is to
examine the characteristics of stress on the female teacher. A
questionnaire investigation was conducted in Oita City. A factor
analysis was done about the distress and the view of values of
the teacher. As a result, the following suggested: A junior high
school female teacher is placed under a social stress factor which
is much more severe than an elementary school female teacher.
The social stress factor is the prejudice to the sexual role of the
woman and the social pressure, which is based on it (Goto
Yasuhiro, Research Bulletin of the Faculty of Education and
Welfare Science, Oita University, Japan e-Journal, Vol.23, No.1,
p.127-135(2001), ISSN:1345-0875).
Keith F.Punch & Elizabeth Tuetteman (1996) studied
“Reducing Teacher Stress : The Effects of supports in the Work
environment” on Teachers in Western Australia.
This article investigates the effects of the level of support
teachers receive on the reduction of stress, which they

90
experience, associated with four factors in the work environment.
The four factors, or stressors, are inadequate access to facilities,
the intrusion of schoolwork into out-of-hours time, student
misbehaviour and excessive societal expectations. The two
aspects of support are the support teachers receive from
colleagues, including the principal, and the amount of praise and
recognition they receive. These two variables are potential
destressors. The hypothesis tested here is that, while the four
stressors promote levels of teacher distress, the build-up of stress
can be reduced or countered by supportive relationships within
the work environment, and by teachers receiving
acknowledgement of the work they do. At a time when teacher
distress and 'burn-out' are at high levels it is important to identify
factors, which reduce stress, particularly factors in the school
environment which are amenable to manipulation. The evidence
presented here is drawn from a major study of teacher stress
conducted in Western Australia.
The research used a comprehensive mailed questionnaire
with a large and representative sample of Western Australian
teachers. Of the initial 789 secondary teachers in the study who
returned the mailed questionnaire, only those with complete
responses to all variables were included in the research.
Furthermore, all but full-time classroom teachers, without senior
master/mistress status or 'support teacher' function, were
eliminated. This left 574 teachers-335 males and 239 females-
who were full-time classroom teachers only. Thirty-five per cent of
the sample were teaching in rural secondary schools, while the
remaining majority were secondary school teachers in the Perth

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metropolitan area. The mean number of teachers at these
schools was sixty-four, with a standard deviation of 24. Sixty-two
per cent of the 574 teachers selected for the study were at
schools with staff numbers between thirty and eighty; for males
this percentage was 69, and for females, 59. The majority of
teachers, both male and female, were aged between 20 and 40
years, clustering-for males-around the 31-40 age range, and-for
females-around the 20-5 age range. The teaching experience of
these 574 secondary teachers ranged from zero to thirty-eight
years, with 55 per cent of them reporting between one and eight
years of teaching. The mean number of years taught was 9.4,
with a standard deviation of 4.4. Only 8 per cent of teachers in
the sample had taught for more than twenty years. As they were
classroom teachers, the skewed distribution no doubt indicates
that, after twenty years of teaching, many secondary-trained
teachers are senior masters/mistresses, senior assistants,
deputies or principals, and these categories have been eliminated
from the present data set. The questionnaire was administered to
teachers between May and July, approximately halfway through
the Australian school year.
For the variable 'adequacy of access to facilities' teachers
were asked to rate the adequacy of their access to the following
general facilities as 'very satisfactory', 'satisfactory',
'unsatisfactory' or 'very unsatisfactory': access to photocopiers
and other facilities used to make teaching aids, access to a
telephone, the availability of lesson preparation and marking
areas, the availability to staff of a private withdrawal area, and
the quality of staff amenities. The direction of scoring was such

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that the score (which could range from 5 to 20) indicates the
extent of perceived inadequacy of access to facilities.
For teacher perceptions of student misbehaviour, teachers'
responses to five items indicated the frequency (very
often/often/sometimes/rarely) with which they encountered
disobedience, insolence, late arrival for lessons and physical
violence (among students or directed at the teacher). A reversed
mode of scoring gave the highest scores to the highest incidence
of student misbehaviour.
Teachers' perception of the extent to which school work
intruded into out-ofschool time was measured using the item
'Does your work cut unduly into your spare time?'
(usually/often/sometimes/rarely) with a high score indicating high
exposure to this stressor. Similarly, the variable 'excessive
societal expectations' was measured using the item 'How often
do you feel society asks you to do too much for students?' (very
often/often/sometimes/rarely) scored in the same way as the
'intrusion of school work' variable.
For the variable 'adequacy of access to facilities' teachers
were asked to rate the adequacy of their access to the following
general facilities as 'very satisfactory', 'satisfactory',
'unsatisfactory' or 'very unsatisfactory': access to photocopiers
and other facilities used to make teaching aids, access to a
telephone, the availability of lesson preparation and marking
areas, the availability to staff of a private withdrawal area, and
the quality of staff amenities. The direction of scoring was such
that the score (which could range from 5 to 20) indicates the
extent of perceived inadequacy of access to facilities.

93
For teacher perceptions of student misbehaviour, teachers'
responses to five items indicated the frequency (very
often/often/sometimes/rarely) with which they encountered
disobedience, insolence, late arrival for lessons and physical
violence (among students or directed at the teacher). A reversed
mode of scoring gave the highest scores to the highest incidence
of student misbehaviour.
Teachers' perception of the extent to which school work
intruded into out-ofschool time was measured using the item
'Does your work cut unduly into your spare time?'
(usually/often/sometimes/rarely) with a high score indicating high
exposure to this stressor. Similarly, the variable 'excessive
societal expectations' was measured using the item 'How often
do you feel society asks you to do too much for students?' (very
often/often/sometimes/rarely) scored in the same way as the
'intrusion of school work' variable.
The two aspects of support which were measured are
teachers' perceptions of colleaguial support (colleaguial support)
and teachers' perceived levels of praise and recognition of work
(praise/recognition). The measure of colleaguial support was
derived from responses to the questions 'In your opinion, how
characteristic of your school are the following features?'
(very/fairly/not very/not at all), 'The principal makes an effort to
help teachers in their work', 'The principal is friendly and
approachable', 'The teachers at the school have much school
spirit', 'There is plenty of opportunity at the school to exchange
useful ideas', 'Teachers have opportunities to meet socially and
unwind'. High scores indicate high levels of colleaguial support.

94
As the items indicate, the term includes the support of the
principal.
The measure of praise/recognition was arrived at by asking
the questions `To what extent do you feel the value of the work
you do is acknowledged by your students, your immediate
superiors, your superintendents?' (large extent/fair extent/not
much/ not at all) and'To what extent do you receive praise or
recognition for a job well done from your students, your
immediate superiors, your superintendent?' (large extent/ fair
extent/not much/not at all). Scores were ordered so that high
scores indicate high levels of praise/recognition.
The five-item measure of colleaguial support has a
Cronbach alpha of 0.74; the six item measure of
praise/recognition has an alpha of 0.75. The alpha coefficients of
inadequate access to facilities and student misbehaviour are 0.79
and 0.77 respectively.
The conclusion of the researchers disclosed that the
correlations indicate that teachers' psychological distress is
associated with inadequate access to facilities, intrusion of
schoolwork into out-of-hours time, student misbehaviour and
excessive societal expectations. To what extent, then, do the two
support factors, colleaguial support and praise/recognition;
alleviate the psychological distress associated with these four
stressors? The question is answered by contingency table
analysis, the logic of which is as follows. When those teachers
who report a high level of each individual stressor are classified
according to their perceived level of support in these two aspects
of their work environment, the level of distress will decrease as

95
the level of support increases if the perceived level of support is
ameliorating the stressor-distress relationship. That is, in
situations, which are potentially stressful, the proportion of
teachers with high GHQ should fall and the proportion of teachers
with low GHQ should rise as the level of support increases. The
significance of trends can be tested by chi-square. The analysis
is now reported in those terms for each of the four stressors, with
the sub-set of teachers reporting high levels of each stressor.
Forty-nine per cent of all teachers (47 per cent of males and
53 per cent of females) reported high levels of the first stressor,
inadequate access to facilities. The effect of increasing levels of
colleaguial support on the extent to which male and female
teachers experience psychological distress when exposed to
inadequate access to facilities, and also the effects of increasing
levels of praise/recognition on the extent to which male and
female teachers experience distress when exposed to inadequate
access to facilities. As can be seen, colleaguial support has an
ameliorating effect for both males and females, but the effect is
stronger and clearer for males, as is reflected in the chi-square
values. Praise/recognition also has an ameliorating effect for
teachers of both sexes, but this time the effect is stronger on
females.
With respect to the next stressor, 65 per cent of all teachers
(60 per cent of males and 72 per cent of females) reported that
schoolwork often or usually intrudes into out-of-hours time. The
effect of increasing levels of colleaguial support and the effect of
increasing levels of praise/recognition on the extent to which
teachers experience distress when exposed to excessive intrusion

96
of school work into out-of-hours time. Clearly, colleaguial support
ameliorates such distress very strongly indeed. The proportions of
teachers of both sexes rise and fall as they should, and both chi-
square values are highly significant. With praise/recognition the
ameliorating effect is present for both sexes, though not strongly
so, and somewhat stronger for females.
Twenty-six per cent of all teachers (24 per cent of males and
29 per cent of females) reported frequent student misbehaviour.
The colleaguial support has a quite clear ameliorating effect for
both male and female teachers in this situation. It also shows that
praise/recognition has only a very slight effect for males, and a
somewhat stronger, though still not statistically significant effect,
for females.
Forty-nine per cent of all teachers (48 per cent of males and
51 per cent of females) reported that society asks teachers to do
too much for students. For both males and females, colleaguial
support has a clear, strong effect in alleviating distress
associated with excessive societal expectations. Again, for
praise/recognition the ameliorating effect is present, though less
strongly so. Figure 4 shows these results (Keith F.Punch &
Elizabeth Tuetteman, Nov.1996, Resarch Article ‘Reducing Teacher
Stress: The Effects of supports in the Work environment’, b-Net,
e-journal).
Kyriacou, C. & Sutcliffe, J. (1979) studied “Teacher Stress
and Satisfaction”. The present study investigated the association
between self-reported teacher stress and three response
correlates of teacher stress: job satisfaction, absenteeism and
intention to leave teaching. The study took the form of a

97
questionnaire survey involving a sample of 218 teachers in 16
medium-sized mixed comprehensive schools in England. The
results indicated that self-reported teacher stress was negatively
associated with job satisfaction (r = -.27; p<.01), and positively
associated with intention to leave teaching (r = .18; p<.01), as
predicted. The association between self-reported teacher stress
and frequency of absences failed to reach significance, but for
total days absent the association was significant and in the
predicted direction, positive (rho = .12; p<.05). The relationship
between particular sources of stress and the three response
correlates was also investigated, as were biographical differences
and the effects of biographical characteristics in moderating
these relationships (Kyriacou, C. & Sutcliffe, J. (1979) studied
“Teacher Stress and Satisfaction”, Department of Education,
Cambridge University, UK, Published in: Educational Research,
Volume 21, Issue 2 February 1979 , pages 89 – 96).
Michael.R.Bertoch, Elwin C.Nielsen, Jeffrey R.Curley, Walter
R.Borg (2003) studied “Reducing Teacher Stress”. The research
report disclosed a prototype treatment developed to significantly
reduce symptoms of stress among in-service teachers was tested
in this experiment. Thirty participants selected for high stress
levels were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups.
They were assessed on environmental, personality, and
emotional variables, using self-report and expert-judge measures,
at both pre- and post treatment. The experimental treatment was
holistic, incorporating all processes previously found to be related
to reducing teacher stress. At post treatment, the treatment
group averaged 1.02 standard deviations lower on the stress

98
measures than the control group. Significant differences in the
posttest means, favoring the experimental group, were found for
23 of the 39 variables measured on the three self-report
instruments. As a group, the participants demonstrated
substantially lower stress levels than the control group after the
treatment, with a substantial decrease from their pretreatment
stress levels. Since the control group received no treatment,
some of the difference may be due to Hawthorne effect.
The present study reflects the authors' concern with the
serious threat to teacher mental health caused by occupational
stress. Teacher stress is recognized as serious by virtually
everyone who has studied the problem (Phillips & Matthew,
1980). A recent search of the ERIC database revealed a
substantial amount of descriptive and correlational research
regarding teacher stress. However, an extensive literature review
failed to produce any reports of projects that used experimental
design to evaluate the validity of stress reduction treatments by
demonstrating reductions in stress symptomatology. Descriptive
and correlational studies have provided important information on
possible causal factors. However, these studies are frequently
restricted because of research design characteristics and
theoretical limitations. The authors' interest was to develop and
evaluate a prototype treatment focused on the apparent causal
factors of stress, utilizing the most promising treatment
strategies that have emerged from previous research (R.Bertoch,
Utah State University, Journal of Experimental Education, 1989,
Volume 57, Issue: 2, Page.117, Questia Media, USA).

99
Peter Akinsola Okebukolal (1992) studied “The Concept of
Schools Village and the Incidence of Stress Among Science
Teachers” in Nigeria. This study envisaged that the primary
interest of this study lay in exploring the potential of the
personnel relations in "schools villages" in reducing science
teacher stress. The schools-village concept, which has a Greek
origin and is gaining wide acceptance in many countries of the
world, is built on the philosophy of maximum resource utilization
and the engendering of communal spirit. Data gathered from 368
science teachers in Nigeria indicate that science teacher
interactions in the "schools villages" had a significant depressing
effect on stress level on five clusters of stressors: curriculum,
facilities, student characteristics, administrative, and professional
growth and self-satisfaction. The implications of the results for
science teacher welfare and for preparing the citizenry for the
science and technology-dominated world of the twenty-first
Century are drawn.(Peter, Akinsola, ‘The Concept of Schools
Village and the Incidence of Stress Among Science Teachers’,
Department of Curriculum Studies, Lagos State University,
P>M>B.1087, Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria, Human Relations, Vol. 45,
No. 7, 735-751 (1992) Sage Jounral – Online, DOI:
10.1177/001872679204500705).
Reidar J.Mykletun (1985) studied “Work Stress and
Satisfaction of Comprehensive School Teachers: An Interview
Study”. The levels of stress and satisfaction at work in 73
comprehensive school teachers were investigated by a structured
interview. Satisfaction was positively related to the negative
affects labeled anger, helplessness and failure, all rated on ten

100
points rating scales, but negatively related to frequencies of
experiencing relaxation difficulties after work. Stress and
satisfaction were primarily attributed to social interaction at work,
but also to control over the work process, adequacy of job
demands, and perception of meaning and pride from work. Anger
and helplessness were the dominant negative emotions. These
emotions may impair classroom climate, and be
counterproductive to teacher effectiveness (Reidar J. Mykletun,
Senior Research Associate, Rogaland Research Institute/
Stavanger Teacher Training College, Norway, Ulland-haug, N-4001
Stavanger, published in Scandinavian Journal of Educational
Research, Volume 29, Issue 2 June 1985 , pages 57 – 71).
Vanzyl, E. and Pietersen, C. (1999) studied ‘An investigation
into work stress experienced by a group of secondary school
teachers’ The research has indicated that South African
secondary school teachers experience high levels of stress and
that biographical variables (for example age and sex), as well as
factors related to organizational climate, have an effect on these
stress levels. In this exploratory study an random sample of 66
teachers was used and the Pearson correlation coefficient
calculated to determine the relation between factors pertaining to
organizational climate and stress levels. One-way analysis of
variance was used to determine the effect of biographical
variables on levels of stress. Results showed that these
secondary teachers are experiencing high levels of stress and
that the age and Marital Status status of the group have a
significant effect on their levels of stress. In addition, it appears
that teachers, functioning in an atmosphere of inadequate

101
autonomy, poor recognition of good performance, and especially
lack of opportunities for innovation, experience high levels of
stress. In the light of this, a number of recommendations are
made.( South African Journal of Education, Pretoria, South
Africa,1999, Vol.19, No.1, pp.74-78, ISSN 0256-0100).
3.2.2:Studies in India
Amma (1986) disclosed with increasing emphasis on
consumerism and economic values and changed priorities life,
the teaching profession is increasingly becoming more stressful.
(V Survey Report, 1997).
Bankat and Parveen (1999) compared organizational role
stress among bank managers and university teachers. (VI Survey
Report, 2006).
Bhatt (1997) made a correlational study of job stress, job
involvement and job satisfaction of teachers (VI Survey Report,
2006).
Broota, A. and Dhir R.(1990) and Broota, A. and Parekh, C.
(1994) found that the Broota relaxation technique, consisting of
yoga and auto-suggestion, was better than Jacobason’s relaxation
technique. (V Survey Report, 1997).
Das (1999) studied the relationship of secondary school
female teachers’ stress in personal and occupational life (VI
Survey Report, 2006).
Das, M.J. (1989) noted that different aspects of burn out i.e.,
emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal
accomplishment were related to demographic background
factors. The teachers viewed their work as joy, and rewarding.

102
They experienced burn out due to physical and emotional strain.
(V Survey Report, 1997).
Gupta, A.(1992) found that test anxiety influences
performance negatively on moderately difficult tasks among the
high test-anxious – high-intelligence group but not in the low-test
anxious – high-intelligence group. Systematic rational
restructuring improved performance the former group (high
school subject).
Gyanani (1998) studied the impact of organizational climate
on stress and strain among the teachers working in higher
education institutions (VI Survey Report, 2006).
Indira (1997) investigated stress and work orientation in
relation to teacher effectiveness (VI Survey Report, 2006).
Kamudu, C.W (1992) has examined burn-out and mental
health among the teachers. Male Teachers were found to be
emotionally overextended, exhausted, internally controlled,
anxiety-ridden, callous toward students, more personally
accomplished and less capable of establishing constructive
relationship. They were more capable of coping with ordinary
demands and stresses of life as compared to females. Urban
high school teachers were less emotionally overextended, less
satisfied, more internally controlled, anxious, and had poorer
mental health than rural teachers. Government School teacher,
trained, married and those with internal control were more
concerned with their well-being, less anxious, less emotionally
overextended, more competent, more internally controlled than
their counterparts.

103
Kiran Rao, Subbakrishna and Prabhu (1990) conducted
study on ‘Locus of control in relation to stress and coping’. This
study revealed that locus of control orientation was found to
determine, use of specific coping behaviours, but did not play a
significant role in determining the experience and preparation of
stressful life events. Taken together, the studies reveal that
students and teachers are experiencing stress and strain in the
present educational system.
Misra (1986) in her study of ‘Meaning of life, stress and
burnout in teachers of secondary schools’ found that (1) Age
difference was significant with regard to stress of teachers. (2)
Stress was positively related to burnout with regard to emotional
exhaustion and depersonalization. (3) There was a negative
relationship between meaning in life and stress variables
measured by tests as well as self-reporting items.
Misra (1991) studied relationship between organizational
climate in school, teachers’ stress and burn-out in relation to
teacher’s personality (VI Survey Report, 2006).
Mistry (1985) explored Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement and
n-achievement as outcome variables of locus of control,
motivational climate participation in climate and various types of
role stress.
Naik (1982) analyzed Job Satisfaction and Adjustment of
married and unmarried women teachers. Panda (1991) while
presenting a trend report of research in psychology of education
views that ‘Life Stress and burned out consequent coping
behaviours influence teacher behaviour, teacher’s teaching styles
and related activities in school. Teacher’s stress and anxiety

104
have become a major concern while planning for teacher
effectiveness’. Stress studies in India are not significantly found
prior to 1980’s. It is only after 1980 some research studies are
attempted in this area.
Panda, R. (1990) has observed that the working life does not
influence the perception of the family. Sub-cultural differences
emerged in certain aspects of family environment. The Bengali
family was found to be more advanced in the perception of their
family environment. Work and sub-cultural groups interacted to
influence the degree of independence and control. Working
housewives felt emotionally more exhausted than non-working
housewives. The non-working housewives experienced greater
degree of depersonalization but had less stress than working
housewives.
Paratkar (1994) made a psycho-social study of role stress
among primary, secondary and university teachers. (VI Survey
Report, 2006).
Puravi (1998) tried to find out the relationship between the
organizational climate and teacher burn-out at primary school
level.
Rama (1997) made a study of the impact of ‘burn-out’ on
teacher efficiency and school effectiveness (VI Survey Report,
2006).
Sindhe (1997) worked to identify demographic and familial
correlates of anxiety and general perceived stress among
teachers (VI Survey Report, 2006).
Sood, P.(1993) has used cognitive therapy to reduce test
anxiety. Looking at the cognitive factors. Sud, A. and Katoch,

105
S(1994) observed that the middle point of assessment is more
anxiety-providing on task-debilitating cognition. In contrast, task-
facilitating positive evaluation was greater in the high scholastic
students.
Sudhira (1994) studied job satisfaction and job stress of
secondary school physical education teachers (VI Survey Report,
2006).
Ushashree (1993) identified major sources of stress among
primary and secondary schools of Andhra Pradesh, examined the
extent of stress and burn-out, intensity of their reactions to
stress, surveyed their coping styles and relationship with job
satisfaction. (VI Survey Report, 2006).
TEACHER CHANGE PRONENESS
3.3.1: Studies in Abroad:
Benedicta Egbo (2008) studied “Critical Pedagogy as
Transformative Micro-level Praxis”. The study disclosed the issue
of how best to deliver just and inclusive educational programs for
all students will remain a widely debated issue in contemporary
diversified societies. Unfortunately, not enough of these debates
center around micro-level educational practices where the
intersection of power/knowledge and social positioning is most
evident. While acknowledging that teachers arguably now work in
more challenging institutional contexts as a result of contentious
state policies and demographic trends that have increased
students' diversity, they remain the most influential actors in the
school experience of all children; what they do has a profound
and lasting impact on the lives of their students. Educators can,
therefore, ill afford strict adherence to orthodox educational

106
practices (Corson, 1998). While paradigm shifts are clearly
difficult to make, teachers who make the commitment to adopt
critical pedagogy will succeed in integrating the voices and lived
experiences of students from all segments of society into their
classroom and instructional activities. But in taking the socio-
cultural backgrounds of their students into consideration when
planning instructional activities, critical teachers must avoid
resorting to type-casting and essentialist notions of group identity
since even apparently similar subgroups have considerable intra-
group diversity (Bell, 1997). A central view held in this article is
that rather than de-politicizing their personal and professional
philosophies, teachers and other educators need to re-politicize
themselves to the realities of the changing environment within
which they work; only in this way can they institute an
educational praxis that is premised on the idea of sustainable
social transformation (Benedicta Egbo, PhD, Associate Professor,
Faculty of Education, University of Windsor, Ontario, Australia).
David J. Oscarson (1977) studied "The Identification of
Adoption-Proneness Among Secondary Home Economics
Teachers". This study was conducted in two phases. The first
phase examined 19 independent variables relating to the
personal characteristics of 202 vocational teachers from the state
of Virginia for the purpose of explaining a criterion variable,
proneness toward the adoption of educational innovations. It was
established that a teacher's age, number of professional
publications read monthly, number of years teaching in the
present school district, satisfaction with teaching, and perception
of influence an academic teacher should have on a vocational

107
teacher's classroom procedures all related to adoption-proneness
(dependent variable).
Phase two of the study isolated 39 home economics
teachers from the composite sample in order to determine
whether certain groups existed within this sub-sample that had
similar characteristics based upon their measured degree of
adoption-proneness and personal characteristics found significant
in phase one of the study.
Cluster analysis indicated that the home economics
teachers could be clustered into three distinct groups.
Furthermore, there were indications that certain clusters existed
that were not fully explained in the first phase of the study.
The study should prove particularly useful to those
responsible for the diffusion of educational innovations, especially
across broad geographical areas. (David J. Oscarson, Department
of Technology, Pittsburg University, Pittsburg, USA, KS 55762 -
Published in Citing Articles via Google Scholar,Family and
Consumer Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 141-147
(1977) DOI: 10.1177/ 1077727X 7700600206).
Gosta Carlsson and Katarina Karlsson (1970) studied “Age,
Cohorts and the Generation of Generations”. This study
envisaged that Social change often takes the form of many small
units, like persons or families, changing from "old-style" to "new-
style" behavior, creating a behavioral trend. The rate of change is
very important for the further effects. If middle-aged and old
people are less likely to change, we get differences between birth
cohorts at any given time and, for the population as a whole,
delayed response to new conditions. Studies of rigidity and age

108
generally support a fixation model of cohort behavior, and so do
data on mobility and age. A tentative model of cohort effects is
developed on this basis and the corresponding lag function
shown; it implies a pattern of smooth oscillations in the
behavioral time series with an average "period" of 25 years or
more. The result has nothing to do with the distance between
generations as customarily understood, i.e., from birth to
marriage and child-bearing (Journal of American Sociological
Association, USA – ERIC,Oneline Journal).
Moshe Ayalon, M.A., Deceased and Hanna Merom Oranim
(2008) “The Teacher Interview”. In this study the teachers and
caretakers (on kibbutzim) of the index and control children were
questioned about a variety of behaviors, including emotional
adjustment, school performance and achievement, interests and
activities, and relations with others. Index children were rated as
more impaired or disturbed than control subjects in the following
areas: schoolwork, mood, suspiciousness, daydreaming,
antisocial behavior, hypochondriasis, and accident proneness. No
differences were seen in anxiety, aggression, phobias, obsessive-
compulsive behavior, eating and sleep disturbances, shame, and
frustration tolerance. There were few differences between
assessments of index and control children on kibbutzim and
towns. Male index subjects tended to be seen as especially poorly
adjusted (Moshe Ayalon, M.A., Deceased and Hanna Merom
Oranim “The Teacher Interview”, Teacher's College Tivon, Israel,
Oxford Journals , 2008,Online ISSN 1745-1701 - Print ISSN 0586-
7614).

109
Orest P.Ochitwa (2007) studied ”A study of Organizational
Climate of High and Low Adopter Elementary Schools in the
Province of Saskatchewan“. The investigator After visiting a
number of schools one can note relatively soon how the
administrative influence permeates the attitudes and reactions of
all members of the school. Andrew Halpin describes three types
of schools, which one may encounter. In one school the teachers
and the principal are zestful and exude confidence in what they
are doing. They find pleasure in working with each other; this
pleasure is transmitted to the students who thus are given at
least a fighting chance to discover that school can be a happy
experience. In a second school the brooding discontent of the
teachers is palpable, the principal tries to hide his incompetence
and his lack of sense of direction behind a cloak of authority, and
yet he wears this cloak poorly because the attitude he displays to
others vacillates randomly between the obsequious and the
officious. And the psychological sickness of such a faculty spills
over on the students who, in their own frustration, feed back to
the teachers a mood of despair. A third school is marked by
neither joy nor despair, but by hollow ritual. Here one gets the
feeling of watching an elaborate charade in which teachers,
principal and students alike are acting out parts. The acting is
smooth and glib, but it appears to have little meaning for the
participants; in a strange way the show just doesn't seem to be
'for real’.
The implication of the foregoing statements is that the
climate of the school may be a determining factor in the type of
educational program carried out in an individual school. These

110
statements raise an important question. Are there certain factors
or characteristics that facilitate or inhibit the adoption of
educational innovations in individual schools?
This question suggests a number of related issues: (1) Does
the openness or closeness of the organizational climate in an
individual elementary school affect the degree of adoption of
educational innovations? (2) Does the proneness to and
perception of educational change by teachers and principals of
elementary schools affect adoption of educational innovations?
(3) Do the characteristics of the principal and the teachers of
elementary schools affect the amount of adoption of educational
innovations? and (4) Do the size and geographic location of the
school have an effect on the amount of adoption of educational
innovations? The primary objective of the research was to
investigate the relationships between some characteristics of
elementary schools in the province of Saskatchewan and the
degree of adoption of educational innovations by these schools.
The conclusions disclosed the Teachers who are prone to
change tend to be curious, are willing to try new things even
though it requires more individual effort and may fail, are more
aware of the greater implications associated with change, and are
more "profess- ional" in their approach towards education and the
individual needs of their students.
Principals shown to be more prone to change are more
adaptive, are looked upon as leaders by their peers and teachers,
tend to support change efforts by teachers irrespective of initial
"risk" implications, and promote change through systematic
planning in collaboration with the staff.

111
Educational change, and in particular adoption of
educational innovations, will occur more readily if the staff and
principal in an individual school are personally desirous of change
or of adopt1ng innovations which may encourage change. The
authoritative method of authority innovation-decisions and
organizational change can be successful only if the adoption unit
is prone to the change. This adoption unit generally consists of
the teachers and the principal of the individual school.
The amount of adoption of educational innovations is
related to teaching position satisfaction and placement
satisfaction of the staff members. Adoption is also related to the
professional qualifications of teachers and principals and their
cosmopoliteness. (Orest P. Ochitwa, 2007, SSTA Report Center,
400 - 2222 - 13thAvenue Regina, Saskatchewan ,S4P 3M7).
Orvik, James M, (1970) studied ‘Teacher Survival in an
Extreme Environment’. In the study the Adjustment problems of
teachers in rural Alaskan schools stem from excesses in the
physical elements and from the emotional and intellectual drain
of encountering virtual isolation and cultural unfamiliarity. As a
result, teacher turnover is a major obstacle to providing quality
educational opportunity in rural schools. This research study
attempted to determine (1) if some personal characteristics are
predictive of attrition of teaching couples, (2) if quality
differences exist in relation to a teacher's length of service in
rural Alaskan schools, and (3) if participation in the Alaska Rural
School Project (ARSP) summer institute is associated with
curtailed rates of teacher attrition. Instruments used in the study
were the Miller Analogies Test, the Minnesota Teacher Attitude

112
Inventory, and an ARSP-developed Biographical Information
Inventory. Among the findings, it was noted that (1) teachers with
few college credits are more prone to attrition than those with
many college credits, (2) attrition-proneness is greatest in
teachers hired with little or no formal training in education, (3)
teachers staying for 2 years are estimated to be of the highest
quality, (4) no consistent quality differences are found between
teachers leaving after 1 year and those staying 3 years or longer,
and (5) pre-service training such as is encountered in the ARSP
can likely reduce premature attrition by as much as 13%. (JH)
(Department of Education Publication, USA, ERIC – ED-079277).
Oscarson, David J. and Finch, Curtis R.(1979) studied
'Adoption Proneness Among Trade and Industrial Teachers as
measured by Cluster Analysis'. The aim of the investigation on A
study to identify methods most influential in determining the
acceptance and use of educational innovations examined
variables associated with adoption-proneness of trade and
industrial teachers. Phase 1 determined predictor variables for
adoption-proneness through application of multiple linear
regression to personal characteristics (including Rokeach
Dogmatism Scale scores) of 202 secondary vocational teachers
from four school districts in Virginia. In phase 2, trade and
industrial teacher scores were partitioned from the study and
subjected to cluster analysis to determine which members had
similar characteristics. Mean scores for adoption-proneness were
calculated for each cluster, based on the identified five predictor
variables from phase 1, and then examined vis-a-vis cluster
profiles. Four sub-clusters were identified, based on the amount

113
of influence members felt should be exerted by academic
teachers on vocational teachers' classroom procedures. In phase
3, a survey was administered to a sample of teachers from two
states for comparison purposes. Cluster analysis (1) indicated
that there exist unique groups within each sample, several with
similar profiles, and (2) gave additional insight into characteristics
of adoption-prone teachers. Results suggest that large scale
adoption of innovative practices could be enhanced by involving
adoption-prone groups which, once identified, could be
encouraged to lead in-service activities and use innovations
(Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American
Vocational Association, 73rd, Anaheim, California, December,
1979, U.S. Department of Education Publication - Online, ERIC
ED179737).
Rafky, David M. and Beckerman, Marvin (1971) studied
"Teachers' Acceptance of Innovations: Self-Interest, Altruism, and
Professionalization". This study disclosed that What are the
relative effects of self-interest and altruistic motives on teacher
acceptance of educational innovation after the effects of the
following classes of variables have been taken into account:
personal attributes, characteristics of the school system,
characteristics of the school, career patterns, and psychological
predispositions? Using a method of partial and multiple
correlation, it was found that the willingness of 240 elementary
school teachers to devote time and effort to the implementation
of 15 new programs is more strongly related to self-interest than
to altruism. The findings do not fit the model of
professionalisation proposed by Flexner. In addition, it was found

114
that Miller's inventory of change-proneness is unreliable and
multidimensional and appears to lack content validity.(US
Department of Education Publication, Online ERIC - ED079267).
3.3.2: Studies in India:
Aggarwal (1974) made his first effort I his direction by
preparing text on ‘innovation proneness’ in the life of Miller. She
found the clues on the text on innovative proneness as related
significantly to various dimensions of teacher’s morale. ( First
Survey Report, 1975).
Bakhshi, S.J.(1980) studied Crisis in School a Study of
factors Hindering School Improvement Programmes. The main
objective of the study was to identify factors which hindered
school improvement programmes and to examine the possible
relationships of some selected variables to the degree of
adaptability of the school. The factors studied in the enquiry
were leadership behaviour of the school principal, organizaqtional
climate prevailing in the school, teachers’ morale, change-
proneness of the school teachers, perceptions of the community
about the school, perceptions of the community about the school,
perceptions of the school principals about the community,
perceptions of the school principals about the supervisory agency.
The results of the study that Leadership behaviour, the school
climate, teachers’ morale and change-proneness of teachers and
principals did not significantly influence the school adaptability
(Abstract: 1252, Ph.D., Edu., M.S.Univesity, 1980, III Survey
Report).

115
Bhola (1965), Havelock (1973), Rogers and Shoemaker
(1971) would reveal the absence of any research on change
proneness.
Dushyanth Vangapandu (2007) investigated into ‘A Study of
Relationship between Change Proneness and Motivation among
Secondary School Teachers in Vizianagaram District of Andhra
Pradesh’. The study reported that there is significant relationship
between Change Proneness and Motivation (0.45). Urban area
Teachers, B.Ed., Assistant Teachers, Post-graduate with B.Ed.,
qualified Teachers, Above 20 years experience teachers, Aided
School Teachers, Residential School Teachers (Unpublished
M.Phil., Dissertation).
Mukhopadhyaya and Saxena (1980) in their research study
‘the factors contributing to teacher’s change proneness
concluded that change proneness has been found to be related
significantly and positively to urban background, teacher relation
with principal, satisfaction in teaching, rapport among teachers,
perceived leadership behaviour of the principal, attitude toward
teaching profession, perceived status of teachers and job
satisfaction. (III Survey Report, 1986).
Mukhapadhayaya (1981) with the help of multivariate
analysis concluded that the change proneness of a teacher can
be predicted to the tune of more than 59% variance by set of
above mentioned variables. He constructed and standardized
tool Mukhopadhyaya’s Change Proneness Inventory (MCPI). The
tool was administered on 60 secondary school teachers. He
computed split-half reliability with the help of spearman-brown
prophecy formula. It was noticed to be 0.82, which is significant

116
0.01 level. Chi-square test was carried out on a 2
(innovative/non-innovative schools), 3 (good/moderate/poor
scores of change proneness). Contingency table was found
significant 0.05 level. This research finding clearly indicates that
change proneness of teachers successfully differentiate
innovative schools from the non-innovative schools.
Rajkamal (1982) substantially listed out the factors affecting
diffusion of innovations in secondary schools (II Survey Report,
1977)
Rao, D.S. (1967) made an attempt by conducting a study
‘An inquiry into the factors that contributes to the promotion or
inhibition of educational innovations’ listed out a few factors,
which influence and govern educational innovations.
Singh, T. (1977) in his doctoral study thoroughly discussed
about adoption and discontinuation of innovations in the
preparation of secondary school teachers. In India and listed out
a few strategies to be adopted for bringing innovations, which
enable effective preparation of secondary school teachers who
were to be flexible and adaptable and impact effective
instruction.
Uday Koundinya (1999) disclosed that Change Proneness,
though quite recent in origin, with astonishing rapidity has
become almost a catchword. It is the tendency to accept any
thing, which is new novel, to be imbibed in their style of work. It
is the state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a
cause, which may promote and result at expected rewards or fail
to produce unexpected revolts. Male teachers are highly
‘change-prone’ than female teachers; Urban teachers are more

117
change prone than rural teacher; Residential School teachers are
more change prone than non-residential school teachers.
Strangely post-graduate trained teachers lag behind trained
graduate teachers. Teachers working in Municipal schools are
ahead in possession of change proneness than missionary school
teachers and teachers working mandal parishad schools. The
four aspects of CPDQ differ in the extent of influencing change
proneness. An inclination to change proneness will enhance
teacher competency and creativity if commitment and creativity
are associated with a favourable attitude in accepting new
strategies put forth by others and which are innovated and
initiated by themselves, then the exemplary teacher can easily
dart into the minds of individual making reaching hart to reach
pupils not a myth but a reality and possibility. (Unpublished
Dissertation, 1999).
Vinaitheerthan, V.(1981) investigated into ‘A Study of
Innovation Dissonance and Its Correlates in the Secondary
Schools’. The results of the study disclosed that controlled
climate significantly contributed to teaching-learning process,
school community relationship, attitude to innovation, change-
proneness and intimacy etc. (Abstract:1446, Ph.D., Edu., M.S.
University, 1981, III Survey Report).
3.4.0: Conclusions:
The review of previous studies helped the investigator to
arrive at certain conclusions and become more confident about
the present research work taken up by him.
Only the pre-requisite qualities, which make a teacher more
and more effective may not be sufficient for him/her to become

118
more successful in his/her profession. The effective teachers
have a superior capacity for imagination and original thinking and
have narrow gap between their level of aspiration and inner
resources (Bhagoliwal, 1982). Where is no difference between
the level of aspiration and inner sources of an individual, he will
be exemplary in Job Satisfaction. Even though, an individual may
possess all the prerequisite qualities to become an effective
teacher and have satisfaction in his/her profession, there are
certain other stressful situations or stress creators, which can
significantly discouraging his proneness in the profession.
Several studies appear on Teacher Job Satisfaction and Stress.
But there is no single study so far in India, which has attempted
to relate these two aspects with that of the Change Proneness of
teachers either at Primary, Secondary or Higher Educational
level.
The Radical change, innovativeness, tendency to inquire,
being shrewd and proneness in thought in quietness, all these
traits facilitate change proneness, which paves way towards Job
Satisfaction. Even after possession of requisite qualities, which
make a teacher an ideal, competent, exemplary teacher, the
feeling of being anxiety laden and tension oriented create
stressfulness in the mind of such teacher and mould him to be a
burnout person in his profession without meaning and positive
concern towards teaching profession.
Of course the teacher job satisfaction, with a stressful mind
will be of no use and he will not attract his attention, enthusiasm,
proneness in day to day changes in the professional tasks as well
as frequent changes academic scenarios.

119
Finding a total vacuum at this juncture of the assemblage of
three components viz., Job Satisfaction, Stress and Change
Proneness, the investigator felt the need of opting the topic as his
doctoral thesis. Hence, the investigator ventured to study all the
three aspects, which have a definite bearing on educational
practice and arrived at the problem – ‘A Study of relationship
between Job Satisfaction, Stress and Change-Proneness among
the Secondary School Teachers in Vizianagaram District of Andhra
Pradesh’. The prospects and procedure of the present research
study is presented in the following pages.

120
121
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
After careful review of previous researches, it is found that
there are adequate number of studies in quality and quality on
Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change
Proneness, but very few studies are found on relationship
between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Stress and Change
Proneness.
Ali Murat Sunbul (2003) studied “An analysis of relations
among locus of control, burnout and job satisfaction in Turkish
high school teachers”. The aim of this study was to see how
teachers' burnout is related to different aspects of locus of
control, job satisfaction and demographic characteristics such as
age and gender. The Job Satisfaction Scale was used to measure
the subjects' job satisfaction level.
Nancy Tsui Yee Yeung & Alexander Seeshing Yeung (2002)
studied ‘Teacher Motivation, Stress and Satisfaction : Do Teachers
in a Secondary and Tertiary Institution Differ?
Ausekar (1996) compared the job satisfaction among
teachers working in government and private secondary schools.
Goyal, J.C. (1980) studied ‘A Study of the Relationship
among Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, Adjustment and Professional
Interests of Teacher-educators in India’.
Akihito Shimazu, Yusuke Okada, Mitsumi Sakamoto and
Masae Miura (2003) studied “Effects of Stress Management
Program for Teachers in Japan: A Pilot Study”.

122
Chan, David W. (2002) studied ‘Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social
Support, and Psychological Distress among Prospective Chinese
Teachers in Hong Kong’.
Kyriacou, C. & Sutcliffe, J. (1979) studied “Teacher Stress
and Satisfaction”. The present study investigated the association
between self-reported teacher stress and three response
correlates of teacher stress: job satisfaction, absenteeism and
intention to leave teaching.
Kiran Rao, Subbakrishna and Prabhu (1990) conducted
study on ‘Locus of control in relation to stress and coping’.
Misra (1991) studied relationship between
organizational climate in school, teachers’ stress and burn-out in
relation to teacher’s personality.
David J. Oscarson (1977) studied "The Identification of
Adoption-Proneness Among Secondary Home Economics
Teachers". This study was conducted in two phases. The first
phase examined 19 independent variables relating to the
personal characteristics of 202 vocational teachers from the state
of Virginia for the purpose of explaining a criterion variable,
proneness toward the adoption of educational innovations.
Oscarson, David J.and Finch, Curtis R.(1979) studied
'Adoption Proneness Among Trade and Industrial Teachers as
measured by Cluster Analysis'. The aim of the investigation on A
study to identify methods most influential in determining the
acceptance and use of educational innovations examined
variables associated with adoption-proneness of trade and
industrial teachers.

123
Dushyanth Vangapandu (2007) investigated into ‘A Study of
Relationship between Change Proneness and Motivation among
Secondary School Teachers in Vizianagaram District of Andhra
Pradesh’.
Mukhopadhyaya and Saxena (1980) in their research study
‘the factors contributing to teacher’s change proneness
concluded that change proneness has been found to be related
significantly and positively to urban background, teacher relation
with principal, satisfaction in teaching, rapport among teachers,
perceived leadership behaviour of the principal, attitude toward
teaching profession, perceived status of teachers and job
satisfaction.
In Indian scenario Teacher Change-Proneness is one of the
recent developing aspect in educational research concept.
Hence, the researcher of the present study has attempted to
pursue his investigation on Teacher Change-Proneness in relation
to Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Stress.
4.1.0: Definitions of the Terms Used:
In the present study the investigator is confined to ascertain
the relationship between three teachers centered variables viz.,
Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness. The definitions of these variables are dealt with
hereunder.
4.1.1: Teacher Job Satisfaction:
This aspect was designed with five dimensions and each
dimension is focused to measure the Job Satisfaction of the
teacher on different aspect.
4.1.2:Professional aspect:

124
The professional aspect is designed with conceptual ideas,
interpretation of a fact, implementation with new ideas, facing
the challenged tasks, level of thought and an interpretation,
interest to response and broad thinking.

4.1.3:Teaching and Learning aspect:


The Teaching and Learning aspect includes the utility value,
changing approach, problem salvation, self-experiences, avoiding
nature, broad thinking nature, attaining the tasks, developing in
depth ideas, novel thoughts, independent acts and developing
the salvation of self-problems.
4.1.4:Innovation:
This aspect is designed with self-development, inventing
new ideas, quick implementation of innovative practices.
4.1.5:Inter-Personal Relations:
This aspect disclosed the individual thoughts and action,
implementation of new thoughts independently and inventing
new idea interests of an individual.
4.2.0: Teacher Stress:
This aspect was designed with four dimensions and each
dimension is focused to measure the Stress of the teacher on
different aspects.
4.2.1:Intensity of Work:
This aspect disclosed the nature of Work Load, Leisure
timings, practical work, additional burdens, often changes in
duties, additional trainings.
4.2.2:Student Behaviour:

125
The Student Behaviour aspect disclosed the behaviour of
student in the classroom, respecting nature towards teacher, lack
of discipline among the students, lack of time for preparation of
lessons, maintaining classroom discipline and constant
monitoring of student behaviour.
4.2.3:Professional Growth:
The aspect Professional Growth is designed with the causes
for unable to prosecute further studies, insufficient time provision
for professional training programmes, lack of recognition of the
profession, interested in searching for additional income,
inadequate salaries, lack of professional development and lack of
recognition of teaching as Profession problems.
4.2.4:Extrinsic Annoyers:
This aspect includes the individual recognition, Lack of
interest towards teaching, facing hardship to motivate below
average students, feeling locked up into a routine in job, lack of
teaching material and books in library, non-recognition from the
administrator while introducing innovative methods, lack of
invitation to participate in academic decisions, organized the staff
meetings without specific objects, non-cooperation of the head-
teacher, maintaining the attitude of divide and rule policy of the
head-teacher, maintaining relations with the colleagues,
recognition of sub-standard colleagues and maintaining to uphold
the teaching value problems.
4.3.0:TEACHER CHANGE PRONENESS:
4.3.1: Innovativeness:
This aspect includes the methods of teaching, hesitation for
increasing in work load, incorporate for innovative practices,

126
interesting to expressing the new ideas, development of new
ideas, exhibit persistence and diplomacy in entertaining a new
practice, enlighten the strategy in classroom teaching,
implementation of innovative practices of others and given
importance equally to the existing as well new practices.

4.3.2:Hesitating Nature:
This aspect includes the importance to the original new
ideas, hesitating the additional workload, appreciating the new
ideas of colleagues and head-teacher, independent thoughts to
implement new strategies in classroom teaching, implementation
of new strategies without compromise, Ignoring the comments of
the colleagues when implementation of new ideas, appreciating
the suggestions of the students and implementation, discussing
with the colleagues about his new thoughts and recollection of
about the failure in classroom teaching problems.
4.3.3:Consideration:
This aspect disclosed the systematic and planning of
profession, recognition of new ideas even at cost of criticism from
colleagues, recognition of new ideas and concepts, encouraging
the colleges to take up new experiences, thinking about the need
of old practices to be revived, maintaining relations with
colleagues besides implementing the innovative practices and
sharing the experience with the colleagues to expertise in their
profession.
4.3.4:Acceptance of Help:

127
The Acceptance of help includes the aspects of
systemization in profession, preparation of additional teaching
material other than curriculum, hesitating the contradicting
ideals, implementation of new ideas of others.
4.5.0: Problem:
The problem taken in this study are to establish reliability
and validity of Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, Teacher Stress
Scale and Teacher Change-Proneness scale to test the
relationship between these three aspects.
The answer to the above phenomenon’s, the execution,
processing to evaluate each aspect is designed as follows.
(1) Development of suitable tool to measure Teacher Job
Satisfaction.
(2) Development of suitable tool to measure the Teacher
Stress.
(3) Development of suitable tool to measure the Teacher
Change-Proneness.
(4) Finding out relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction
and Teacher Stress.
(5) Finding out relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction
and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(6) Finding out relationship between Teacher Stress and
Teacher Change-Proneness.
4.5.1:Objectives:
(1) To develop and standardize the Teacher Job Satisfaction
Scale of Dr.Udayagiri (1985) to be used by teacher
himself.

128
(2) To develop and standardize the Teacher Stress Scale of
Uday’s SCIT Scale (1990) is used.
(3) To develop and standardize Teacher Change-Proneness
Scale of Nistala constructed by the present investigator is
used.
(4) To find the relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction
and Teacher Stress.
(5) To find the relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction
and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(6) To find the relationship between Teacher Stress and
Teacher Change-Proneness.
(7) To find out the significant difference between different
categories of demographic variables in respect of Teacher
Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(8) To find out the significant difference between high and
low Teacher Job Satisfaction in respect of Teacher Stress
and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(9) To find out significant difference between high and low
Teacher Stress in respect of Teacher Job Satisfaction and
Teacher Change-Proneness.
(10) To find out significant difference between high and low
Teacher Change-Proneness in respect of Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Teacher Stress.
4.3.2:Hypotheses:
In the present study the investigator has proposed the
following hypotheses for testing the results.

129
(1) There is no significant relationship between Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Teacher Stress.
(2) There is no significant relationship between Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(3) There is no significant relationship between Teacher
Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(4) There is no significant relationship between dimensions
of Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher
Change-Proneness.
(5) There is no significant relationship between dimensions
of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Stress.
(6) There is no significant relationship between dimensions
of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(7) There is no significant difference between dimensions of
Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(8) There is no significant relationship between various
dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction and with other
dimensions of Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(9) There is no significant relationship between various
dimensions of Teacher Stress with other dimensions of
Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(10) There is no significant relationship between various
dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness with other
dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction.
4.3.3.Subsidary Hypotheses:

130
(1) Male and Female Teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress
and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(2) Rural and Urban locality Teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction,
Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(3) Graduates, Post-Graduates and Post-Graduates with
M.Phil/Ph.D., qualified Teachers do not differ significantly
in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress
and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(4) Teachers and Head-teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress
and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(5) Science, Humanities and Language Teachers do not
differ significantly in respect of their Teacher Job
Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(6) Teachers with experience below 10 years, 10 to 15 years,
15 to 20 years, 20 to 25 years, 25 to 30 years do not
differ significantly in respect of their Teacher Job
Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(7) Married and Unmarried Teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction,
Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(8) Residential and Non-Residential School Teachers do not
differ significantly in respect of their Teacher Job

131
Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(9) Residential, Aided, Government, Zillah Parishad, Minority,
Municipal and Private Unaided School Teachers do not
differ significantly in respect of their Teacher Job
Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness.
(10) There is no significant difference between high and low
Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Stress.
(11) There is no significant difference between high and low
Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.
(12) There is no significant difference between high and low
Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness.

4.3.4:Limitations:
(1) This study is confined and limited to the Teachers
working in Secondary Schools in Vizianagaram District of
Andhra Pradesh.
(2) To measure the Teacher Job Satisfaction, the dimensions
like Professional, Teaching Learning, Innovation and Inter-
personal relations are covered in the study.
(3) To measure the Teacher Stress, the dimensions like
Intensity of work, Student Behaviour, Professional Growth
and Intrinsic annoyers are covered in the study.
(4) To measure the Teacher Change-Proneness, the
dimensions like Innovativeness, Hesitating nature,

132
Consideration and Acceptance of help are taken into
account.
4.4.0:Procedure adopted:
In order to test the hypotheses, the research is planned and
executed in three phases using and adoption of various
standardized tools.
(1) Development and standardization of the Scale of
Dr.Udayagiri (1985) Job Satisfaction.
(2) Development and standardization of Uday’s SCIT (1990)
Scale Teacher Stress.
(3) Measurement of Nistala’s Teacher Change-Proneness tool
developed with the help of ‘Devagiri’s Change-Proneness
Inventory’ (MCPI) contexture design keeping the various
physical and other global environmental conditions of the
Teacher in Andhra Pradesh State scenario into
consideration.

4.4.1:Selection of Items:
The investigator according to the aims and objectives of the
study prepared a large number of items. The items are prepared
to measure each of the tool inter and inter-dimensions. The
information in relation to the tools are prepared by collecting
information from various sources i.e., books, other standard tests,
discussion with experts, professional journals etc. A thorough
comparison is made between the prepared items and

133
corresponding items collected from various sources. Thus the
final form of items is prepared.
(a) Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale consists of 33
statements as per the earlier design of the previous
researchers.
(b) Teacher Stress Scale consists of 48 statements as
per the earlier design of the previous researchers –
and
(c) Teacher Change-Proneness Scale consists of 38
statements initially designed by the present
investigator.
These three tools are supplemented by a careful study of
related literature and informal meetings with experienced
teachers, head-teachers and teacher educators. Thus the items
in the above tools are finalized, listed and arranged in related to
the present study. These tools are examined by the experts for
item-relevance and usefulness and finally concluded to retain the
items as mentioned above. The distribution of the selected tools
for the pilot study is as follows.

4.4.2:Standardization of Dr.Udayagiri’s (1980)


“Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale”:
Table 4.1 : Table showing the items and percentage of
items in Provisional Teacher Job Satisfaction

134
Teachin Inter-
Specificati Profession g Innovatio Person Total
on al Learnin n al
g relation
s
No.of 10 07 08 8 33
Items
Percentag 30.30% 21.22% 24.24% 24.24% 100%
e

4.4.3: Administration:
This is administered to a tryout sample of 69 Secondary
School Teachers in and around of Vizianagaram. Instructions to
the teachers are given on the title page of the each scale. Care is
taken to reduce bias in rating. This is done by clearly stating the
purpose of study. Confidence is creating among the teachers by
assuring them their responses will be kept confidential.
4.4.4: Scoring:
The responses are scored according to the key. For all
positive items score from 5 to 1 for the five responses i.e., SA –
Strongly Agree; A – Agree; N – Neutral; DA – Disagree and SDA –
Strongly Disagree respectively are awarded. For all the negative
statements scores 1 to 5 are given respectively for SA, A, N, DA
and SDA. The positive and negative items are shown separately
in this chapter. The maximum possible score is 165 and the
minimum possible score is 33. High score indicates high Teacher
Job Satisfaction, low score indicates low Teacher Job Satisfaction.
4.4.5: Item Analysis:
For the purpose of determining the degree to which each
item is effective in discriminating high and low Teacher Job
Satisfaction, an item analysis of the data obtained from the above

135
sample is undertaken by taking two extreme groups (high and
low). All the 70 responses are scored and scores are arranged in
an order from highest score to the lowest score. Then the upper
20% of the total responses and lower 20% of the responses are
taken into consideration for measuring significance of difference
of means to know the item validity. Arithmetic means and
Standard Deviations for all the 70 items of the upper half and
lower half are calculated. Critical Ratio is then calculated for all
the items between upper and lower half. If the value of critical
ratio of the item is greater than 1.96 (significant at 0.05 level of
significance) then the item is found valid and accepted. If the
value of critical ratio of the item is less than 1.96 then the item is
considered as invalid and rejected. The scale with all the
accepted items is used for final study.
The items retained after item analysis for the final study of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is confirmed with 25 items. The following
table 4.2 shows the values of critical ratios of items.
4.2: Table showing the value of Critical Ratio’s
of items in Teacher Job Satisfaction

136
Item No. C.R. Remarks Item C.R. Remarks
No.
1 5.54 Retained 18 6.85 Retained
2 3.61 Retained 19 1.26* Rejected
3 2.49 Retained 20 6.36 Retained
4 1.93* Rejected 21 4.21 Retained
5 1.99 Retained 22 1.62* Rejected
6 3.84 Retained 23 2.41 Retained
7 1.56* Rejected 24 2.58 Retained
8 2.44 Retained 25 6.84 Retained
9 6.91 Retained 26 3.86 Retained
10 2.05 Retained 27 2.79 Retained
11 4.34 Retained 28 1.94* Rejected
12 1.95* Rejected 29 2.48 Retained
13 2.93 Retained 30 4.89 Retained
14 4.29 Retained 31 1.95* Rejected
15 1.64* Rejected 32 2.76 Retained
16 3.44 Retained 33 2.23 Retained
17 6.28 Retained

The Job Satisfaction Inventory (JSI) originally constructed


earlier and standardized by Dr.Udayagiri (1985) with 33 items
because this is most appropriate tool to measure the Teacher Job
Satisfaction with four dimensions viz., Professional, Teaching
Learning, Innovation and Inter-Personal Relations. Dr.Udayagiri
(1985) developed and standardized the Teacher Job Satisfaction
on the tryout sample of Junior College Teachers, but the present
intends to measure the Teacher Job Satisfaction of Secondary
School Teachers. Hence, the investigator retested this inventory
on a tryout sample of 100 teachers in and around Vizianagaram.
There are 33 items with the five dimensions of Teacher Job
Satisfaction of Dr.Udayagiri (1985). The distributions of 50 items
dimension wise are as follows.

137
Statement of Job Satisfaction Inventory of Dr.Udayagiri (1985)
Distribution of items dimension wise
S.No Name of the Area Coverage of Total No.of
Serial Numbers
. Items
1 Professional 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9, 10 10
2 Teaching Learning 11, 12, 13, 14,
15, 16, 17 07
3 Innovation 18, 19 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 08
4 Inter-Personal 26, 27, 28, 29,
30, 32, 33
Relations 08
5 Total of Dimensions -- 33

4.3:Table showing the No.of items and percentage of items

138
retained under Four Dimensions of Teacher Job
Satisfaction

S.No. Name of Dimension No.of Items retained Percentag


e
1 Professional 1,2,3,5,6,8,9,10 = 32%
08
2 Teaching Learning 11,13, 14,16 & 17 = 20%
05
3 Innovation 18,20,21,23,24&25 = 24%
06
4 Inter-Personal 26,27,29,30,32&33 = 24%
Relations
06
5 Total No.of items 25 Items 100%
retained

4.4.6:Reliability:
The reliability of the scale is calculated by Split-half method.
Odd-Even slit is used in dividing the test into two halves. The
reliability of co-efficient is found to be 0.783. This reliability co-
efficient is sufficiently large for us to assume that the present
Teacher Job Satisfaction is highly reliable instrument is used in
the present research.
4.4.7: Validation:
The validity of the present Teacher Satisfaction Scale is
estimated by using the ‘known group technique’. The validity of
the scale is estimated from the Teacher Job Satisfaction of two
groups of teachers – one of which is low competent teachers and
other high competent teachers. In the present study two groups
of teachers of 35 each was selected for administering the Teacher
Job Satisfaction Scale. One of the groups is low competent in
their Job Satisfaction and this fact is know to the investigator in

139
advance. Similarly, the second group of 35 was known in
advance to be high competent in their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
The tool administered to these two groups of teachers and
‘t’ value is calculated. The value of ‘t’ is found to be highly
significant and hence, the tool is believed to be a valid. The
value of ‘t’ is presented in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4 : Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Teachers
with High and Low Teacher Job Satisfaction

Category Mean S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Low Teacher Job 87.49 24.3 3
Satisfaction 2 5 Highly
6 Significant
.25
118.7
High Teacher Job 4 16.7 3
Satisfaction 9 5

4.5.0:Development and Standardization


of Teacher Stress Scale (TSS):
In order to measure the Teacher Stress Scale is developed,
the investigator make use of Likert’s method of summated
technique is adopted. The technique is used because it is the
most reliable and straightforward technique. This tool (SCIT) was
constructed and standardized earlier by Uday (1990).
4.5.1:Selection Items:
The investigator according to the aims and objectives of the
study prepares a large number of items. The items are prepared
to measure the Intensity of Work, Students Behaviour,
Professional Growth, Extrinsic Annoyers facing by the Teachers.
These items are prepared by collecting information from various
sources i.e., books, other standardized tests, discussion with

140
experts, professional journals etc. A through comparison is made
between the prepared items, and corresponding items collected
from various sources. Thus the final form of the items is
prepared. There are 48 items. These 48 items are supplemented
by a careful study of related literature and informal meetings with
experienced teachers, head-teachers and teacher educators.
Thus, the items are finalized, listed and rearranged. Experts for
item-relevance and usefulness examine this list. Then language
experts for grammatical soundness examine the items. Finally 40
items retained.
Instructions are typed on the cover page of the rating scale.
Similarly, instructions are given clearly to explain the purpose of
the study and what the subjects have to do. However, much care
is taken to check the ‘halo effect’. The distribution of 53 items
selected for the pilot study in Table 4.5 is as follows –
4.5: Table Showing the items in provisional Uday’s SCIT
(Stress Creators in Teaching) Scale (1990) Dimension wise
Items Total Percentag
covered No.of e of each
S.No Category of In the Items in dimension
. Dimension Dimensio the
n dimensio
n
1,2,10,1
1 Intensity of Work 2,14,16, 09 18.75%
18,19 &
38
3,4,9,13,
2 Students Behaviour 15,21, & 07 14.58%
47
5,24,25,
26,27,28
3 Professional Growth ,30,31,3 13 27.08%
3,36,39,
40 & 43

141
6,7,8,11,
17,20,22
4 Extrinsic Annoyers ,23,29,3 19 39.59%
2,34,35,
37,41,42
,44,45,4
6 & 48
5 Total of Dimensions 48 100%

4.5.2: Scoring:
The same procedure, which is used to score the Teacher
Stress Scale is adapted to Teacher Scale. Total Number of items
included in this tool is 48. The maximum possible score is 192.
The high score indicates high Teacher Stress and Low score
indicates Low Teacher Stress.
4.5.3:Item Analysis:
For the purpose of determining the degree to which each
item is effective in discriminating high and low teacher Stress, an
item analysis of the data obtained from the above sample is
undertaken by taking two extreme groups (high and low. All the
48 responses of the 150 subjects are scored and total scores are
arranged in an orderly manner from highest score to lowest
score. Then the upper 20% of the total responses and lower 20%
of the total responses are taken into consideration for measuring
significance of difference of means to know the item validity.
Arithmetic Means, Standard Deviations for all the 48 items of the
upper half and lower half are calculated. Critical Ratio value is
then calculated for all the items between upper and lower half. If
the value of critical ration of the items is greater than 1.96

142
(significant at 0.05 level) then the item is found valid and
accepted. Items are used for final study.
The items retained after item analysis for the final study in
Teacher Stress Scale are 40. Table 4.5 shows the values of
Critical Ratio of items.

Table 4.6: Table showing the Values of Critical


Ratio of items of Teacher Stress
Item No. C.R. Remarks Item No. C.R Remarks
1 3.69 Retained 25 3.06 Retained
2 2.48 Retained 26 2.96 Retained
3 3.61 Retained 27 5.34 Retained
4 5.25 Retained 28 1.36 Rejected
5 4.54 Retained 29 6.08 Retained
6 1.42 Rejected 30 4.68 Retained
7 3.96 Retained 31 1.83 Rejected
8 4.54 Retained 32 4.34 Retained
9 5.61 Retained 33 3.68 Retained
10 6.11 Retained 34 3.42 Retained
11 3.28 Retained 35 2.46 Retained
12 1.93 Rejected 36 1.94 Rejected
13 2.74 Retained 37 3.48 Retained
14 3.54 Retained 38 4.09 Retained
15 4.49 Retained 39 2.59 Retained
16 5.21 Retained 40 3.06 Retained
17 1.64 Rejected 41 2.14 Retained
18 6.28 Retained 42 3.11 Retained
19 3.42 Retained 43 2.68 Retained
20 1.78 Rejected 44 4.19 Retained
21 2.57 Retained 45 5.34 Retained

143
22 3.41 Retained 46 3.61 Retained
23 5.64 Retained 47 5.39 Retained
24 1.58 Rejected 48 2.67 Retained

Further, number of items and percentage of items of four


dimensions of Teacher Stress retained as shown in Table 4.7.

Table 4.7:Table showing Number of Items and Percentages of


Items retained under four dimensions of Teacher
Stress Scale

S.No Dimension Category No.of Items Percentage


. covered Dimension
wise
1 Intensity of Work 08 20.0%
2 Student Behaviour 07 17.5%
3 Professional Growth 09 22.5%
4 Extrinsic Annoyers 16 40.0%
5 Total of Dimensions 40 100%

4.5.4: Reliability:
The reliability of the scale is calculated by split half method.
Odd-Even split is used in diving the test into two halves. The
reliability co-efficient is found to be 0.794 is sufficiently large for
us to assume that the present Teacher Stress is highly reliable
instrument for measuring the Teacher Stress.
4.5.5:Validation:
The validity of the present Teacher Stress Scale is estimated
by using the ‘known group technique’. The validity of the scale is
estimated from the Teacher Stress of two groups of teachers.

144
One of which is low teacher motivation. In the present study two
groups of teachers of 34 each was selected for administering the
Teacher Stress Scale. The first group of 34 is low Stress teachers
and second group of 34 is high stress teachers and the
investigator known this fact in advance.
The tool is administered to these two groups of teachers
and ‘t’ value is calculated. The value of ‘t’ is found to be highly
significant and hence the tool is believed to be a valid tool. The
value of ‘t’ is presented in table 4.8.

Table 4.8 : Showing the value of ‘t’ between Teachers


with High and Low Teacher Stress

Category Mean S.D N ‘r’ Level of


Significan
ce

Low Teacher 84.49 21.45 34 Highly


Stress 3.31 Significan
t

99.87 16.56 34
High Teacher
Stress

4.6.0:Retesting the Teacher Change-Proneness Inventory


(TCPI):
In the present study the investigator made use of the
principle of Dr.Devagiri’s (1999) ‘Change-Proneness Inventory’
developed and standardized because this is most appropriate tool
to measure the Teacher Change-Proneness – (1) Innovativeness,
(2) Hesitating Nature, (3) Consideration and (4) Acceptance of
help. Devarigi (1999) developed and standardized the Teacher
Change-Proneness Inventory on the tryout sample of Degree

145
College Lecturers, but the present researcher intends to measure
the attitudes of teachers towards teaching. Thus, the
investigator retested this inventory on a try-out sample of 150
teachers in and around Vizianagaram.
These are 38 items under four different areas of Teacher
Change-Proneness Inventory of Devagiri (1999). The distribution
of 38 items are disclosed in Table 4.9.

Table 4.9 : Table showing No.of items and percentages of


Items Teacher Change-Proneness Inventory
Area Category of
No. Dimension Total No.of items covered Percentag
e
I Innovativeness 4,6,8,12,16,20,22,24,29,30,3
1,38 = 12 31.58%
II Hesitating 1,5,10,11,14,15,17,21,27,
Nature 32,35 = 11 28.95%

III Consideration 2,3,9,23,25,26,28,34,37 = 23.68%


09
IV Acceptance of
help 7,13,18,19,33,36 = 06 15.79%
V Total of
Dimensions Five Dimensions = 38 items 100.0%

4.6.1: Scoring:
The same procedure, which is used to score Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Teacher Stress inventories, is followed. The total
number of items in the Teacher Change-Proneness is 38. The
maximum possible score is 152 and the minimum possible score

146
is 38. A high score indicates high Proneness and low score
indicates low Proneness of the sampled teachers.
4.6.2: Item Analysis:
For the purpose of determining the degree to which each
item is effective in discriminating between high and low attitude,
an item analysis of the data obtained from the above sample is
under taken, using extreme groups (high and low). All the 38
responses of the subjects are scored and the scores are arranged
in an order from highest score to the lowest score. Then the
upper 36% of the total scores and lower 35% of the total scores
are taken into consideration for measuring significance of
difference of means to know the item validity. Arithmetic Means
and Standard Deviations for all the 38 items of the upper and
lower halves are calculated. Critical Ratio is, then, calculated.
Critical Ratio is, then, calculated for all the items between upper
and lower half. If the value of critical ratio of the item is greater
than 1.96 (Significant at 0.01 level) then the item is found to be
valid and accepted. If the value of critical ratio of the item is less
than 1.96 then the item is considered as invalid and rejected.
The accepted items of the scale are used in the final study.
The items retained after item analysis for the final study in
Teacher Change-Proneness Scale are 30. Table 4.10 disclosed the
values of Critical Ratio for all the provisional items.
Table 4.10: Table showing the value of Critical Ratio of
Teacher Change-Proneness

Item C.R Remark Item C.R Remark Item C.R Remark


No. s No. s No. s
1 2.41 Retaine 14 2.68 Retaine 27 3.12 Retaine
d d d
2 3.92 Retaine 15 3.83 Retaine 28 2.41 Retaine

147
d d d
3 5.68 Retaine 16 3.49 Retaine 29 3.58 Retaine
d d d
4 4.63 Retaine 17 2.26 Retaine 30 2.78 Retaine
d d d
5 2.82 Retaine 18 4.45 Retaine 31 1.64 Rejecte
d d d
6 4.42 Retaine 19 3.41 Retaine 32 1.78 Rejecte
d d d
7 2.42 Retaine 20 2.58 Retaine 33 1.79 Rejecte
d d d
8 3.54 Retaine 21 3.19 Retaine 34 1.72 Rejecte
d d d
9 2.24 Retaine 22 2.28 Retaine 35 1.59 Rejecte
d d d
10 5.94 Retaine 23 4.24 Retaine 36 1.47 Rejecte
d d d
11 3.69 Retaine 24 2.26 Retaine 37 1.84 Rejecte
d d d
12 2.47 Retaine 25 3.34 Retaine 38 1.53 Rejecte
d d d
13 3.42 Retaine 26 5.69 Retaine
d d

After obtained the Critical Ratio value for all the 38 items as
mentioned above, 30 items are retained as specified in Table
4.11.

Table 4.11 : Table showing Number of Items and Percentage


of Final Test items of Teacher Change-
Proneness

Area Category of Total No.of Items covered Percentag


Dimension e
4,6,8,12,12,16,20,22,24,2
I Innovativeness 9,30 = 10 33.33%
1,5,10,11,14,15,17,21,27
II Hesitating Nature = 09 30.0%

148
III Consideration 2,3,9,23,25,26,28 = 07 23.4%

IV Acceptance of 7,13,18,19 = 04 13.33%


help

V Total of Five Dimensions = 30 100.0%


Dimensions items

4.6.3: Reliability:
The reliability of the scale is calculated by split half method.
Odd-Even split is used in dividing the test into two halves. The
reliability of co-efficient is found to be 0.839. The reliability co-
efficient of 0.839 is sufficiently large for the investigator to
assume that the present Teacher Change-Proneness Scale is
highly reliable instrument to administer among the selected
sample of teachers.
4.6.4: Validation:
The validity of the present tool constructed and
standardized known as ‘Nistala Teacher Change-Proneness
Inventory’ (NTCPI) estimated by using the ‘known group
technique’. The validity of the scale is estimated from the
attitude of two groups of teachers. One of which consists of
teachers with low Teacher Change-Proneness. In the present
study two groups of teachers of 36 each is selected for
administering the Teacher Change-Proneness Inventory. The first
group of 36 is low in Teacher Change-Proneness and second
group is high in Teacher Change-Proneness, this fact is known to
the researcher in advance.
The tool is administered to these two groups of teachers
and ‘t’ value is calculated. The value of ‘t’ is found to be highly

149
significant and hence, the tool is believed to be a valid tool. The
value of ‘t’ is presented in the Table 4.12.
Table 4.12 : Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Teachers
With high and low Teacher Change-Proneness
Category Mean S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significan
ce

Low Teacher Change- 61.08 14.5 3


6 6
Proneness Highly
3
Significan
.17 t
70.93
11.6 3
High Teacher Change-
9
6
Proneness

The above table clearly shows that the obtained mean value
of High Teacher Change-Proneness (70.93) is higher than the
mean value (61.08) obtained by the Low Teacher Change-
Proneness. The obtained C.R. Value 3.17 is significant at both the
levels viz., 0.05 and 0.01 levels. Hence, the null hypothesis
formulated to that affect the extent of relationship between the
above two categories is rejected.
4.6.5: Collection of Data:
After developing and standardizing the three tools of the
study, fresh and final scales are prepared for the final study with
a personal data page. These three standardized tools of the
present study are administered to 908 Secondary School
Teachers in Vizianagaram of Andhra Pradesh. For collecting the
data the Investigator visited each institution and administered
these three scales among the Teachers personally. They are

150
advised to put their name, Sex, Locality, Qualification,
Designation, Teaching Subjects, Experience, Marital Status Status,
Type of Institution and Type of Management etc., in the space
provided in the personal data sheet of each scale.
Instructions are given in the first page of all the three tools.
The investigator requested the teachers to follow those
instructions while responding to the tools. Teachers are further
advised not to leave any item of the tool. Most of the teachers
filled the tools on the spot and returned to the investigator. All
the three tools thus collected, are scored according to the scoring
procedure explained in the development and standardization of
tools.
4.6.6 : Sample:
The sample selected for the investigation consisted of 908
samples of Secondary School Teachers in Vizianagaram District of
Andhra Pradesh. Random sampling technique is followed to draw
the sample for the present study. The sample is categorized as
Sex (Male and Female), Locality (Rural and Urban), Qualification
(Graduates, Post-Graduates and Post-Graduates with
M.Phil/Ph.D.), Designation (Head-teachers and Teachers),
Teaching Subjects (Teaching Science, Teaching Humanities and
Teaching Languages), Experience (Below 10 years, 10 – 15 years,
15 – 20 years, 20 – 25 years, 25 – 30 years), Marital Status Status
(Married and Unmarried), Type of Institution (Residential and Non-
Residential) and Type of Management (Residential, Aided,
Government, Zillah Parishad, Minority, Municipal and Private
Unaided) shown in three category scales of the research study.
The details of which are presented in Table 4.13.

151
Table 4.13 : Table showing the Distribution of Sample Category
wise
S.No. Variable Nomenclature of No.of Percenta
Category sample Teachers ge
Male 592 65.2%
(1) Sex
Female 316 34.8%
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Rural area 493 54.3%
(2) Locality
Urban area 415 45.7%
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Graduates 339 37.34%
Post-Graduates 448 49.34%
(3) Qualification
Post-Graduates 121 13.32%
with M.Phil/Ph.D.
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Head-Teachers 70 7.70%
(4) Designation
Teachers 838 92.30%
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Teaching Sciences 379 41.74
(5) Teaching
Teaching 385 42.40
Subjects
Humanities 144 15.86
Teaching Languages 908 100.0%
Total Sample

152
S.No Variable Category Nomenclature No.of Percenta
. of sample Teacher ge
s
Below 10 years 198 21.80%
10 – 15 years 154 16.96%
(6) Teaching
Experience 15 – 20 years 118 13.0%
20 – 25 years 244 26.88%
25 – 30 years 194 21.36%
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Married 576 63.44%
(7) Marital Status
Unmarried 332 36.56%
Status
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Residential 128 14.10%

Type of Institution Non-Residential 780 85.90%


(8)
Total Sample 908 100.0%
Residential 128 14.10%
Aided 69 7.59%
Government 152 16.74%
Zillah Parishad 165 18.17%
(9) Type of
Management Minority 128 14.10%
Municipal 133 14.65%
Private Unaided 133 14.65%
Total Sample 908 100.0%

153
4.6.7 : Analysis of Data:
The following statistical techniques are followed to analyze
the data for all the three scales.
Means and Standard Deviations for all the distributions are
calculated.
Pearson’s Product Moment Correlations are calculated for
Odd-Even items of ratings scales and their reliability indices are
computed by using Spearman Brown Prophecy Formula.
To find the relationship between (i) Teacher Job Satisfaction;
(ii) Teacher Stress – and (iii) Teacher Change-Proneness ‘r’ values
are computed extensively. Co-efficient of correlation for all the
dimensions are also calculated and presented in Table form.
Critical Ratios are calculated for item analysis and to test
the subsidiary hypotheses.

154
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter is devoted for analysis and interpretation of
results of the present research. The results are presented and all
the hypotheses of the study are tested and verified. The
implications of the results are analyzed and interpreted in relation
to the problem of the study, immediately after each hypothesis is
tested. The analysis of results of any study should be based on
suitable statistical treatment. Further, the measurements of
variables undertaken for the study should be presented clearly
and precisely. Accordingly, the results are analyzed and
presented in three phases.
The first phase deals with the testing of major hypotheses,
the second phase deals with testing of subsidiary hypotheses
pertaining to significance of difference between different
demographic variables in respect of three variables of the study
and the third phase deals with the testing of hypotheses
pertaining to significance of difference between high and low
groups.
5.0: Verification of Major Hypotheses and Interpretation:
The major hypotheses of the present study disclose the
significance of coefficient of correlation between the objects
Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-
Proneness. The calculations of ‘r’ values are done by product
movement method (Henry E. Garrette, 1981). The significance of
obtained ‘r’ is tested against null hypotheses as given by
Aggarwal, Y.P. (1980).

155
5.1:Verification of the First Hypothesis of the Study:
The first hypothesis of the study disclosed that ‘there is no
significant relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and
Teacher Stress’. This hypothesis is tested and shown in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between
Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Stress
S.No. Variable Category N df ‘r’ Level of
significan
ce
1 Teacher Job Satisfaction
90 906 0 > 0.01
2 Teacher Stress 8 .53

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
The present findings are in conformity with the findings of
the above researches. So it can be said that teachers with high
Teacher Job Satisfaction are supposed to be faced with Teacher
Stress. The present finding affirms the theoretical assumption
that Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Stress are
interdependent and interactive.
5.2:Verification of the Second Hypothesis of the Study:
The second hypothesis of the present study states that thee
is no significant relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and

156
Teacher Change-Proneness. This hypothesis is verified and
presented in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2
Table showing the significance f ‘r’ between Teacher
Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness

S.No. Variable Category N df ‘r’ Level of


significan
ce
1 Teacher Job Satisfaction
90 906 0 > 0.01
2 Teacher Change-Proneness 8 .68

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
The present finding is in agreement with the above findings.
So it can be said that higher Teacher Job Satisfaction of teachers
greater will be in their Teacher Change-Proneness. This
substantiates the theoretical assumption that Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness are independent and
interdependent.
5.3:Verification of the Third Hypothesis of the Study:
The third hypothesis of the present study states that there
is no significant relationship between Teacher Stress and Teacher
Change-Proneness. This hypothesis is verified and presented in
Table 5.3

157
Table 5.3
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ Teacher
Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness
S.No. Variable Category N df ‘r’ Level of
significan
ce
1 Teacher Stress
90 906 0 > 0.01
2 Teacher Change-Proneness 8 .64

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
This finding is also substantiating the theoretical model, reported
in the present study that the relationship between Teacher Stress
and Teacher Change-Proneness is reciprocal.
From the above results, it is interesting to note that there is
a significant positive relationship between Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Teacher Stress; Teacher Job Satisfaction and
Teacher Change-Proneness; and Teacher Stress and Teacher
Change-Proneness. Hence, it may be inferred that Teacher Job
Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change Proneness are
inter-related and inter-dependent. Further, the Teacher Job
Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness may
be considered as the influencing factors of many problems in
their profession. The theoretical framework that has been
developed in the Conceptual Foundations chapter o this thesis is
substantially affirmed.
5.4:Verification of Fourth Hypothesis of the Study:
The Fourth hypothesis of the study states that there is no
significant relationship between various dimensions of Teacher

158
Job Satisfaction. This hypothesis is divided into six parts for
convenience of verification as follows –
(1) There is no significant relationship between Professional
and Teaching Learning of Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(2) There is no significant relationship between Professional
and Innovation of Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(3) There is no significant relationship between Professional
and Inter-Personal Relations of Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(4) There is no significant relationship between Teaching
Learning and Innovation of Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(5) There is no significant relationship between Teaching
Learning and Inter-Personal Relations of Teacher Job
Satisfaction.
(6) There is no significant relationship between Innovation
and Inter-Personal Relations of Teacher Job Satisfaction.
Table 5.4
Table showing Inter-Correlation Matrix of
Various Dimensions of Job Satisfaction
Variable Teaching Inter-
Category Professiona Learning Innovation Personal
l Relations

Professiona 1.00 0.69 0.47 0.58


l
Teaching
Learning 1.00 0.66 0.43

Innovation
1.00 0.54

Inter-
Personal 1.00
Relations

159
The date on verification of the hypothesis, there is no
significant relationship between Professional and Teaching
Learning of Teacher Job Satisfaction presented in Table 5.5.
Table 5.5
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the dimensions
Professional and Teaching Learning of Job Satisfaction
Dimension Category Level of
N df ‘r’ Significan
ce
Professional

90 906 0 > 0.01


Teaching Learning 8 .69

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.

The hypothesis that ‘there is no significant relationship


between Professional and Innovation of Teacher Job Satisfaction is
tested and presented in Table 5.6
Table 5.6
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the dimensions
Professional and Innovation of Job Satisfaction

Dimension Category Level of


N df ‘r’ Significan
ce
Professional

90 906 0 > 0.01


Innovation 8 .69

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.

160
The hypothesis that ‘there is no significant relationship
between Professional and Inter-Personal Relations of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is tested and presented in Table 5.7
Table 5.7
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the dimensions
Professional and Teaching Learning of Job Satisfaction

Dimension Category Level of


N df ‘r’ Significan
ce
Professional

90 906 0 > 0.01


Inter-Personal Relations 8 .58

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.

The hypothesis that ‘there is no significant relationship


between Teaching Learning and Innovation of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is tested and presented in Table 5.8

Table 5.8
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the dimensions
Teaching Learning and Innovation of Job Satisfaction

Dimension Category Level of


N Df ‘r’ Significan
ce
Teaching Learning

90 906 0 > 0.01


Innovation 8 .66

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.

161
The hypothesis that ‘there is no significant relationship
between Teaching Learning and Inter-Personal Relations of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is tested and presented in Table 5.9.
Table 5.9
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the dimensions
Teaching Learning and Inter-Personal Relations of Job Satisfaction

Dimension Category Level of


N Df ‘r’ Significan
ce
Teaching Learning

90 906 0 > 0.01


Inter-Personal Relations 8 .43

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.

The hypothesis that ‘there is no significant relationship


between Innovation and Inter-Personal Relations of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is tested and presented in Table 5.10

Table 5.10
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the dimensions
Innovation and Inter-Personal Relations of Job Satisfaction

Dimension Category Level of


N Df ‘r’ Significan
ce
Innovation

90 906 0 > 0.01


8 .54
Inter-Personal Relations

162
The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is
rejected.
5.5:Verification of Fifth Hypothesis of the Study:
The fifth hypothesis of the study disclosed that ‘there is no
significant relationship between various dimensions of Teacher
Stress’. This hypothesis is further divided into six parts for the
purpose of convenience and verification as follows –
(1) There is no significant difference between Intensity of
Work and Student Behaviour of Teacher Stress.
(2) There is no significant difference between Intensity of
Work and Professional Growth of Teacher Stress.
(3) There is no significant difference between Intensity of
Work and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress.
(4) There is no significant difference between Student
Behaviour and Professional Growth of Teacher Stress.
(5) There is no significant difference between Student
Behaviour and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress.
(6) There is no significant difference between Professional
Growth and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress.
For testing these hypotheses, coefficients of correlation
between the various dimensions of teacher Stress, scores of
Intensity of Work, Student Behaviour, Professional Growth and
Extrinsic Annoyers aspects are computed. The ‘r’ values are
presented in Table 5.11.
Table 5.11
Table showing Inter-Correlation Matrix of
various Dimensions of Teacher Stress

Dimension Intensity of Student Professiona Extrinsic

163
Category Work Behaviour l Growth Annoyers
Intensity of
Work 1.00 0.39 0.56 0.48

Student
Behaviour 1.00 0.63 0.43

Professiona
l Growth 1.00 0.57

Extrinsic
Annoyers 1.00

The data on verification of the hypothesis that ‘there is n


significant relationship between Intensity of Work, Student
Behaviour, Professional and Extrinsic Annoyers aspects in Teacher
Stress’.
The verification of hypothesis, ‘there is no significant
difference between the dimensions of Intensity of Work and
Student Behaviour’ of Teacher Stress as presented in Table 5.12.

Table 5.12

Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the Dimensions of


Intensity of Work and Student Behaviour of Teacher Stress

Dimension Level of
Category N df ‘r’ Significanc
e
Intensity of

164
Work
908 906 0.39 > 0.01
Student
Behaviour

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.

The verification of hypothesis, ‘there is no significant


difference between the dimensions of Intensity of Work and
Professional Growth’ of Teacher Stress as presented in Table 5.13.
Table 5.13
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the Dimensions of
Intensity of Work and Professional Growth of Teacher Stress

Dimension Level of
Category N df ‘r’ Significanc
e
Intensity of
Work
908 906 0.56 > 0.01
Professiona
l Growth

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
The verification of hypothesis, ‘there is no significant
difference between the dimensions of Intensity of Work and
Extrinsic Annoyers’ of Teacher Stress as presented in Table 5.14.

Table 5.14
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the Dimensions of
Intensity of Work and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress
Dimension Level of
Category N df ‘r’ Significanc
e

165
Intensity of
Work
908 906 0.48 > 0.01
Extrinsic
Annoyers

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
The verification of hypothesis, ‘there is no significant
difference between the dimensions of Student Behaviour and
Professional Growth’ of Teacher Stress as presented in Table 5.15.
Table 5.15
Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the Dimensions of
Student Behaviour and Professional Growth of Teacher Stress

Dimension Level of
Category N df ‘r’ Significanc
e
Student
Behaviour
908 906 0.63 > 0.01
Professiona
l Growth

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
The verification of hypothesis, ‘there is no significant
difference between the dimensions of Student Behaviour and
Extrinsic Annoyers’ of Teacher Stress as presented in Table 5.16.

Table 5.16

Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the Dimensions of

166
Student Behaviour and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress

Dimension Level of
Category N df ‘r’ Significanc
e
Student
Behaviour
908 906 0.43 > 0.01
Extrinsic
Annoyers

The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is


rejected.
The verification of hypothesis, ‘there is no significant
difference between the dimensions of Professional Growth and
Extrinsic Annoyers’ of Teacher Stress as presented in Table 5.17.
Table 5.17

Table showing the significance of ‘r’ between the Dimensions of


Professional Growth and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress

Dimension Level of
Category N df ‘r’ Significanc
e
Profession
al Growth
908 906 0.57 > 0.01
Extrinsic
Annoyers

167
The value of ‘r’ is significant and hence, the hypothesis is
rejected.
After verification of all sub-divided hypotheses, the value of
‘r’ is found to be significant for all these hypotheses. Hence, the
hypothesis, there is no significant relationship between various
dimensions of Teacher Stress is rejected.
A significant positive relationship between all the
dimensions of Teacher Stress indicates that all the four
dimensions of Teacher Stress are independent and inter-related.
From the above results it may be inferred that teachers with
high stress would better in respect of Intensity of Work, Student’s
Behaviour, Professional Growth and Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher
Stress.
5.6:Verification of Six Hypothesis of the Study:
The Sixth hypothesis of the study disclosed that there is no
significant relationship between the dimensions of Teacher
Change-Proneness. The hypothesis is divided into six parts for
the purpose of convenient verification as follows –
1.There is no significant relationship between Innovativeness and
Hesitating Nature of Teacher Change-Proneness.
2.There is no significant relationship between Innovativeness and
Consideration of Teacher Change-Proneness.
3.There is no significant relationship between Innovativeness and
Acceptance of help of Teacher Change-Proneness.
4.There is no significant relationship between Hesitating Nature
and Consideration of Teacher Change-Proneness.
5.There is no significant relationship between Hesitating Nature
and Acceptance of help of Teacher Change-Proneness.

168
6.There is no significant relationship between Consideration and
Acceptance of help.
For testing the above hypotheses, coefficient of correlation
between the various dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness
are computed and ‘t’ values are presented in Table 5.18.
Table 5.18
Table showing Comprehensive Inter-correlation
Matrix for Teacher Change-Proneness

Innovativene Hesitatin Considerati Acceptan


ss g Nature on ce of help
Innovativene 1.00 0.51 0.42 0.59
ss
Hesitating 1.00 0.64 0.68
Nature
Consideratio 1.00 0.53
n
Acceptance 1.00
of help

The hypothesis disclosed that ‘there is no significant


relationship between Innovativeness and Hesitating Nature
aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness is tested and presented in
Table 5.19.
Table 5.19
Table showing significance of ‘r’ between Innovativeness
and Hesitating Nature of Teacher Change-Proneness
Level of
Dimension Category N df ‘r’ significanc
e
Innovativeness
908 906 0 >0.01
Hesitating Nature .51

The value of ‘r’ is significant, hence, the hypothesis is rejected.

169
The data on verification of the hypothesis that ‘there is no
significant relationship between Innovativeness and
Consideration aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness presented is
tested and presented in Table 5.20.
Table 5.20
Table 5.20
Table showing significance of ‘r’ between Innovativeness
and Consideration of Teacher Change-Proneness
Level of
Dimension Category N df ‘r’ significanc
e
Innovativeness
908 906 0.42 >0.01
Consideration

The value of ‘r’ is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.


The data on verification of the hypothesis that ‘there is no
significant relationship between Innovativeness and Acceptance
of Help aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness’ is tested and
presented in Table 5.21.
Table 5.21
Table showing significance of ‘r’ between Innovativeness
and Acceptance of help of Teacher Change-Proneness
Level of
Dimension Category N df ‘r’ significanc
e
Innovativeness

170
908 906 0 >0.01
Acceptance of help .59

The value of ‘r’ is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.


The data on verification of the hypothesis that ‘there is no
significant relationship between Hesitating Nature and
Consideration aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness’ is tested
and presented in Table 5.22.
Table 5.22
Table showing significance of ‘r’ between Hesitating
Nature and Consideration of Teacher Change-Proneness
Level of
Dimension Category N df ‘r’ significanc
e
Hesitating Nature
908 906 0 >0.01
Consideration .64

The value of ‘r’ is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.


The data on verification of the hypothesis that ‘there is no
significant relationship between Hesitating Nature and
Acceptance of help aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness is
tested and presented in Table 5.23.
Table 5.23
Table showing significance of ‘r’ between and Hesitating
Nature and Acceptance of help Teacher Change-Proneness
Level of
Dimension Category N df ‘r’ significanc
e
Hesitating Nature
908 906 0 >0.01
Acceptance of help .68

171
The value of ‘r’ is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The data on verification of the hypothesis that ‘there is no
significant relationship between Consideration and Acceptance of
help aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness in Table 5.24.

Table 5.24
Table showing significance of ‘r’ between Innovativeness
and Acceptance of help of Teacher Change-Proneness

Level of
Dimension Category N df ‘r’ significanc
e
Innovativeness
908 906 0 >0.01
Acceptance of help .53

The value of ‘r’ is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.


5.7:Inter and Intra Relationship between all the
Dimensions of the Variables of the Study:
Further to elevate more and transparence of this study, the
investigator has opted to study the inter and intra relationship
between all the dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher
Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness are computed. The
coefficient of correlation between all the dimensions of Teacher
Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness is
calculated and the values of ‘r’ presented in Table 5.25. Inter and
intra relationship between all the dimensions of these three
variables of the present study are discussed and interpreted in

172
the following pages. The interpretations of ‘r’ is in accordance to
the guidelines frames by Henry, E.Garrette (1981).

Table 5.25
Table showing Comprehensive Inter-Correlation Matrix for
all dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher Stress
and Teacher Change-Proneness

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.21
.00 .69 .47 .58 .71 .24 .38 .21 .30 .32 .22 .23 .29 .29
2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.34
.00 .66 .43 .68 .28 .33 .23 .52 .21 .32 .35 .31 .26
3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.47
.00 .54 .48 .27 .54 .37 .49 .32 .19 .27 .42 .51
4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.52
.00 .39 .42 .38 .56 .38 .29 .41 .39 .27 .38
5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.29
.00 .36 .54 .37 .45 .24 .39 .42 .34 .28
6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.53
.00 .39 .56 .48 .69 .37 .46 .28 .33
7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.49
.00 .63 .43 .26 .48 .31 .35 .41
8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.34
.00 .57 .63 .45 .38 .43 .48
9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.31
.00 .58 .26 .32 .38 .39
1 1 0 0 0 0 0.36
0 .00 .21 .30 .41 .22
11 1 0 0 0 0.72
.00 .51 .42 .59
1 1 0 0 0.48
2 .00 .64 .68
1 1 0 0.61
3 .00 .53
1 1 0.54
4 .00

173
1 1.00
5

Teacher Job Satisfaction Teacher Change-


Proneness
1.Professional 11.Innovativeness
2.Teaching Learning 12.Hesitating nature
3.Innovation 13.Consideration
4.Inter-Personal Relations 14.Acceptance of help
5.Total 15.Total
Teacher Stress
6.Intensity of Work
7.Student Behaviour
8.Professional Growth
9.Extrinsic Annoyers
10.Total

Teacher Job Satisfaction – Inter and


Intra-relationship with other Dimensions:

All the dimensions in Teacher Job Satisfaction possessed


positive relationship with other dimensions of Teacher Stress and
Teacher Change-Proneness.
First Dimension – Professional:
A high positive relationship is found in respect of
dimensions – Teaching Learning (0.69) and Total (0.71) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction.
Substantial positive relationship is found with the
dimensions - Innovation (0.47), Inter-Personal Relations (0.58) of
Teacher Job Satisfaction.

174
Slight positive relationship is found with the dimensions –
Intensity of Work (0.24), Student Behaviour (0.38), Professional
Growth (0.21), Extrinsic Annoyers (0.30), Total (0.32) of Teacher
Stress; Innovativeness (0.22), hesitating nature (0.23),
Consideration (.29) Acceptance of help (0.29) and Total (0.21) of
Teacher Change-Proneness.
Second Dimension – Teaching Learning:
A high positive relationship is found in respect of
dimensions – Innovation (0.66) and Total (0.68) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction.
Substantial positive relationship is found with the
dimensions – Inter-Personal Relations (0.43) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction and Extrinsic Annoyers (0.52) of Teacher Stress.
Third Dimension – Innovation:
Substantial relationship is found in respect of dimensions –
Inter-Personal Relations (0.54), Total (0.48) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction; Student Behaviour (0.54), Extrinsic Annoyers (0.49)
of Teacher Stress and Consideration (0.42), Acceptance of help
(0.51) and Total (0.47) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Slight relationship is found in respect of dimensions –
Intensity of work (0.27), Professional Growth (0.37), Total (0.32) of
Teacher Stress, Innovativeness (0.19), Hesitating nature (0.27) of
Teacher Change-Proneness.
Fourth Dimension – Inter-Personal Relations:
Substantial relationship is found in respect of dimensions -
Intensity of work (0.42), Professional Growth (0.56) of Teacher
Stress and Total (0.52) of Teacher Change Proneness.

175
Slight relationship is found in respect of dimensions – Total
(0.39) of Teacher Job Satisfaction; Student Behaviour (0.38),
Extrinsic Annoyers (0.38), Total (0.29) of Teacher Stress;
Hesitating nature (0.39), consideration (0.27), Acceptance of help
(0.38) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Fifth Dimension – Total of Teacher Job Satisfaction:
Substantial relationship is found in respect of dimensions -
Student Behaviour (0.54), Extrinsic Annoyers (0.45) of Teacher
Stress and Hesitating nature (0.42) of Teacher Change Proneness.
Slight relationship is found in respect of dimensions –
Intensity of Work (0.36), Professional Growth (0.37), Total (0.24)
of Teacher Stress; Innovativeness (0.39), Consideration (0.34),
Acceptance of help (0.28), Total (0.29) of Teacher Change-
Proneness.

Teacher Stress – Inter and Intra-relationship


with the dimensions of Teacher Stress and
Teacher Change-Proneness:
Sixth Dimension – Intensity of Work:
A positive high relationship is found with the dimension total
(0.69) of Teacher Stress.
Substantial relationship is found with the dimensions -
Professional Growth (0.56), Extrinsic Annoyers (0.48) of Teacher
Stress and Hesitating nature (0.46) and total (0.53) of Teacher
Change-Proneness.

176
Slight relationship is found in respect of dimensions -
Student Behaviour (0.39) of Teacher Stress; Innovativeness
(0.37), Consideration (0.28), Acceptance of help (0.33) of Teacher
Change-Proneness.
Seventh Dimension – Student Behaviour:
A positive high relationship is found with the dimension –
Total (0.63) of Teacher Stress.
Substantial relationship is found with the dimensions –
Extrinsic Annoyers (0.43) of Teacher Stress; Innovativeness
(0.48), Acceptance of help (0.41) and Total (0.49) of Teacher
Change-Proneness.
Slight relationship is found with the dimensions – Total
(0.26) of Teacher Stress; Hesitating nature (0.31), Consideration
(0.35) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Eighth Dimension – Professional Growth:
A positive and high relationship is found with the dimension
Total (0.63) of Teacher Stress.
Substantial relationship is found with the dimensions –
Extrinsic Annoyers (0.57) of Teacher Stress; Innovativeness
(0.45), Consideration (0.43) and Acceptance of help (0.48) of
Teacher Change-Proneness.
Slight relationship is found with the dimensions – Hesitating
nature (0.38), Total (0.34) of Teacher Change Proneness.
Ninth Dimension – Extrinsic Annoyers:
Substantial relationship is found in respect of dimension
Total (0.58) of Teacher Stress.
Slight relationship is found in respect of dimensions –
Innovativeness (0.26), Hesitating nature (0.32), Consideration

177
(0.38), Acceptance of help (0.39) and Total (0.31) of Teacher
Change-Proneness.
Tenth Dimension – Total of Teacher Stress:
Substantial positive relationship is found in respect of
dimension Consideration (0.41) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Slight positive relationship is found in respect of
dimensions – Innovativeness (0.21), Hesitating nature (0.30),
Acceptance of help (0.22) and Total (0.36) of Teacher Change-
Proneness.
Teacher Change-Proneness Inter and
Intra-relationship with other Dimensions:
Eleventh Dimension – Innovativeness:
A positive and high relationship is found with the dimension
total (0.72) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Substantial positive relationship is found with the
dimensions – Hesitating nature (0.51), Consideration (0.42) and
Acceptance of help (0.59).
Twelfth Dimension – Hesitating nature:
A positive and high relationship is found with the
dimensions – Consideration (0.64) and Acceptance of help (0.68)
of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Substantive positive relationship is found with the
dimension Total (0.48) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Thirteenth Dimension – Consideration:
A Positive and high relationship is found with the dimension
Total (0.61) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
Substantive positive relationship is found with the
dimension Acceptance of help (0.53) of Teacher Change-
Proneness.

178
Fourteenth Dimension – Acceptance of help:
Substantive positive relationship is found in respect of Total
(0.54) of Teacher Change-Proneness.
5.8.Verification of subsidiary hypothesis and
Interpretation:
The first subsidiary hypothesis disclosed that the categories
are divided into three parts viz., Teacher Job Satisfaction, Teacher
Stress and Teacher Change-Proneness for convenience of
verification of each dimension presented as follows.
5.8.1:Verificationof First subsidiary hypothesis and
Teacher Job Satisfaction interpretation:
The first subsidiary hypothesis disclosed that the teachers
considered under different categories do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction, which were discussed
variable wise categorized for convenience of verification as
follows –
(a) Sex category teachers do not differ significantly in respect of
their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(b) Locality category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(c) Qualification category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(d) Designation category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(e) Teaching Subject category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(f) Teaching Experience category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.

179
(g) Marital Status category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(h) Type of Institution category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
(i) Type of Management category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Job Satisfaction.
Besides testing the subsidiary hypotheses of the study, the
investigator is intended to observe the significance of difference
between various demographic variables in respect of dimensions
Professional, Teaching Learning, Innovation, Inter-Personal
Relations aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction. Hence, this part
discloses the results immediately after each subsidiary
hypothesis is tested.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Male and Female Teachers do
not differ significantly in their Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is verified
and presented in Table 5.26.
Table 5.26
Table showing significance of difference of means between
Male and Female Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Male Teachers 74.12 18.0 592
5 2 Significant at
0.05 level
Female Teachers 76.68 316 .18
16.2
7

The value of ‘t’ (2.18) is more than 1.96, which is significant


at 0.05 level. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The mean value

180
(76.68) obtained by Female Teachers is greater than the mean
value (74.12) obtained by Male Teachers.
The values of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers in
respect of dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction are tested and
presented in Table 5.27.
Verification of hypothesis ‘there is no significant difference
between Male and Female Teachers in respect of the dimensions
of ‘Professional’, ‘Teaching Learning’, ‘Innovation’ and ‘Inter-
Personal Relations’ of Teacher Job Satisfaction’.
Table 5.27
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers
in respect of various Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction
Teaching Inter-
Category Profession Learning Innovatio Persona
al n l
Relatio
ns
Male Teachers
2.24* 1.98* 2.32* 1.99*
Female Teachers

*Significant at 0.05 level


The value of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers in
respect of dimensions – Professional (2.24), Teaching Learning
(1.98), Innovation (2.32) and Inter-Personal Relations (1.99) of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant at 0.05 level.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Rural and Urban area Teachers in their
Teacher Job Satisfaction’, is presented in Table 5.28.

Table 5.28

181
Table showing significance of difference of means between
Rural and Urban Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Rural Teachers 75.3 17.9 493
7 1 3.2 Significant at
Urban Teachers 415 0.01 level
78.8 15.6
9 3
The value of ‘t’ is significant.
There is significant difference between Rural and Urban area
Teachers. The mean value obtained by the Rural area teachers is
75.37 is less than the mean value (78.89) obtained by Urban area
teachers. The obtained ‘t’ value is more than 1.96 and 2.58,
which is significant at 0.01 level, hence the hypothesis is
rejected.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between the values of ‘t’ between Rural and Urban
area teachers in respect of dimensions ‘Professional, Teaching
Learning, Innovation and Inter-Personal Relations’ of Teacher Job
Satisfaction’ as presented in Table 2.29.
Table 5.29
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Rural and Urban area
Teachers
in respect of various Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction
Teaching Inter-
Category Profession Learning Innovatio Persona
al n l
Relatio
ns
Rural Teachers
2.03* 1.45@ 1.28@ 1.72@
Urban Teachers

@ Not significant.

182
The value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension – Profession (2.03) is
significant at 0.05 level. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The values of ‘t’ in respect of dimension – Teaching Learning
(1.45), Innovation (1.28) and Inter-Personal Relations (1.72) are
not statistically corroborated. Hence, the hypotheses are
rejected.
Verification of hypotheses that there is no significant
difference between Graduate and Post-graduate; Graduate and
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D; and Post-graduate and Post-
graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers in their Teacher Job
Satisfaction’ is presented in Table 5.30.
Table 5.30
Table showing significance of difference of means between
Graduate, Post-Graduate and Post-Graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D.,
Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’
Graduate Teachers 73.8 16.1 339
5.14*
Post-graduate Teachers 4 9 448
*
67.5 18.4
1 5
Graduate Teachers 73.8 16.1 339
4 9 4.21*
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D. 121 *
65.8 18.5
Teachers
3 4
Post-graduate Teachers 67.5 18.4 448
1 5 0.88
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D. 121 @
Teachers 65.8 18.5
3 4
**Significant at 0.01 level
@Not Significant

183
The above table shows that there is significant difference
between Graduate Teachers (73.84) and Post-graduate Teachers
(67.51). The obtained value of ‘t’ (5.14) is more than 1.96 and
2.58, which is significant at 0.05 and 0.01 levels respectively.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
Similarly, ‘there is significant difference between Graduate
Teachers and Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers. The
value of mean obtained by the Graduate Teachers (73.84) is
greater than the value of mean (65.83) obtained by the Post-
graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’
(4.21) is more than 1.96 and 2.58, which is significant at 0.05 and
0.01 levels respectively. Hence, hypothesis is rejected.
Whereas, ‘there is no significant difference between Post-
graduate Teachers and Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers.
The value of ‘t’ (0.88) is not significant at any level. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The hypotheses that ‘there is no significant difference
between Graduate and Post-graduate Teachers; Graduate and
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers; and Post-graduate and
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers in their Teacher Job
Satisfaction’ is verified and tested in Table 5.31.
Table 5.31
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Graduate, Post-Graduate
and Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers in respect of
various Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction
Teaching Inter-
Category Profession Learning Innovatio Personal
al n Relations
Graduate Teachers
2.68** 2.93** 1.98* 2.16*
Post-graduate

184
Teachers
Graduate Teachers
1.68@ 1.94@ 1.89@ 1.72@
Post-graduate with
M.Phil/Ph.D.,
Teachers
Post-graduate
Teachers 1.44@ 1.24@ 1.41@ 1.53@

Post-graduate with
M.Phil/Ph.D.,
Teachers
**Significant at 0.01 level
* Significant at 0.05 level
@ Not Significant
There is significant difference between Graduate and post-
graduate Teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional (2.68),
Teaching Learning (2.93), Innovation (1.98) and Inter-Personal
Relations (2.16) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected.
There is no significant difference between Graduate and
Post-graduate Teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.68), Teaching Learning (1.94), Innovation (1.89) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.72). Further, the obtained values of ‘t’ are
not statistically corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
Similarly, there is significant difference between Post-
graduate and Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers in respect
of dimensions – Professional (1.44), Teaching Learning (1.24),
Innovation (1.41) and Inter-Personal Relations (1.53) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Head-Teachers and Teachers in their Teacher
Job Satisfaction’ is tested in Table 5.32.

185
Table 5.32
Table showing significance of difference of means between
Head-teachers and Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Head-teachers 76.9 16.5 70
5 7 2 Significant at
Teachers 838 .55 0.05 level
71.6 19.5
2 3

The obtained value of ‘t’ is significant. Hence, hypothesis is


rejected. The value of mean (76.95) obtained by Head-teachers
is greater than the value of mean (71.62) obtained by the
Teachers.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Head-teachers and Teachers in respect of
various dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is presented in
Table 5.32.
Table 5.32
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Head-teachers and
Teachers
in respect of various Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction

Teaching Inter-
Category Profession Learning Innovatio Persona
al n l
Relatio
ns
Head-teachers
2.23* 1.99* 1.23@ 1.48@
Teachers

*Significant at 0.05 level


@ Not Significant at any level

186
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimensions –
Professional (2.23) and Teaching Learning (1.99) is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimensions –
Innovation (1.23) and Inter-Personal Relations (1.48) is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Teaching Sciences, Teaching Humanities and
Teaching Language Teachers in their Job Satisfaction’ is tested in
Table 5.33.

Table 5.33
Table showing significance of difference of means between
Teaching Sciences, Humanities and Language Teachers in
their Teacher Job Satisfaction

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Teaching Sciences 69.7 16.4 379 Significant at
7 4 3 0.01 level
Teaching Humanities 385 .14
65.8 18.5
1 3
Teaching Sciences 69.7 16.4 379 Not
7 4 0 significant at
Teaching Languages 144 .84 any level
71.0 15.8
9 6

187
Teaching Humanities 65.8 18.5 385 Significant at
1 3 3 0.01 level
Teaching Languages 144 .25
71.0 15.8
9 6

The value of ‘t’ (3.14) is significant. Hence, the hypothesis


is rejected. This clearly indicates that the value of mean (69.77)
obtained by the Teaching Sciences is greater than the value of
mean (65.81) obtained by Teaching Humanities.
Whereas, the value of ‘t’ (0.84) is statistically insignificant,
hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
In the case of value of ‘t’ (3.25) is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (71.09) obtained by
Teaching Languages is higher than the value of mean (65.81)
obtained by Teaching Humanities.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Teaching Sciences, Teaching Humanities and
Teaching Language Teachers towards the aspects of –
‘Professional’, ‘Teaching Learning’, ‘Innovation’ and ‘Inter-
Personal Relations’ of Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested in Table
5.34.
Table 5.34
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Teaching Sciences,
Teaching Humanities and Teaching Language Teachers in
respect of Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction
Teaching Inter-
Category Profession Learning Innovatio Persona
al n l
Relatio
ns
Teaching Sciences
2.22* 2.28* 1.98* 1.94@
Teaching Humanities

188
Teaching Sciences
1.93@ 1.28@ 1.54@ 1.37@
Teaching Languages
Teaching Humanities
1.47@ 1.82@ 1.53@ 1.78@
Teaching Languages

*Significant at 0.05 level


@ Not Significant at any level
The obtained value of ‘t’ between Teaching Sciences and
Teaching Humanities in respect of dimensions – Professional
(2.22) and Teaching Learning (2.28) and Innovation (1.98) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. Whereas the value
of ‘t’ in respect of dimension Inter-Personal Relations (1.94) is not
statistically significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ between Teaching Sciences and
Teaching Languages in respect of dimensions – Professional (1.93)
and Teaching Learning (1.28), Innovation (1.54) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.37) is not corroborated. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ between Teaching Humanities and
Teaching Languages1 in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.47) and Teaching Learning (1.82), Innovation (1.53) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.78) is not statistically significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Below 10 years, 10 to 15 years, 15 to 20
years, 20 to 25 years and 25 to 30 years experience Teachers in
their Job Satisfaction’ is tested in Table 5.35.
Table 5.35

189
Table showing significance of difference of means between below
10 years, 10 to 15 years, 15 to 20 years, 20 to 25 years and 25 to
30 years experience Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Below 10 years 65.1 18.4 198 Significant at
experience 6 2 2 0.05 level
154 .02
10 to 15 years 69.1 18.3
experience 3 1
Below 10 years 65.1 18.4 198 Significant at
experience 6 2 3 0.01 level
118 .61
15 to 20 years 72.3 16.3
experience 5 6
Below 10 years 65.1 18.4 198 Significant at
experience 6 2 3 0.01 level
244 .19
20 to 25 years 70.4 16.3
experience 9 2
Below 10 years 65.1 18.4 198 Significant at
experience 6 2 5 0.01 level
194 .32
25 to 30 years 74.3 15.8
experience 7 9
10 to 15 years 69.1 18.3 154 Not
experience 3 1 1 significant at
118 .53 any level
15 to 20 years 72.3 16.3
experience 5 6
10 to 15 years 69.1 18.3 154 Not
experience 3 1 0 significant at
244 .75 any level
20 to 25 years 70.4 16.3
experience 9 2
10 to 15 years 69.1 18.3 154 Significant at
experience 3 1 2 0.01 level
194 .81
25 to 30 years 74.3 18.8
experience 7 9
15 to 20 years 72.3 16.3 118 Not

190
experience 5 6 1 Significant at
244 .01 any level
20 to 25 years 70.4 16.3
experience 9 2
15 to 20 years 72.3 16.3 118 Not
experience 5 6 1 Significant at
194 .07 any level
25 to 30 years 74.3 15.8
experience 7 9
20 to 25 years 70.4 16.3 244 Significant at
experience 9 2 2 0.05 level
194 .51
25 to 30 years 74.3 15.8
experience 7 9

The value of ‘t’ (2.02) is significant. Hence, the hypothesis


is rejected. The mean value (69.13) obtained by 10 to 15 years
experience teachers is higher than the mean value (65.16) of
below 10 years experience teachers.
The value of ‘t’ (3.61) in respect of below 10 years and 15 to
20 years experience is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The mean value (72.35) obtained by 15 to 20 years
experience is higher than the mean value (65.16) obtained by
below 10 years experience teachers.
The value of ‘t’ (3.19) in respect of below 10 years and 20 to
25 years experience teachers is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The mean value (70.49) obtained by 20 to
25 years experience teachers is greater than the mean value
(65.16) obtained by below 10 years experience teachers.
The value of ‘t’ (5.32) in respect of below 10 years and 25 to
30 years experience teacher is significant. Hence, the hypothesis
is rejected. The man value (74.37) obtained by 25 to 30 years

191
experience teachers is higher than the mean value (65.16)
obtained by below 10 years experience teachers.
The value of ‘t’ (1.53) in respect of 10 to 15 years and 15 to
20 years experience teachers is not statistically significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ (0.75) in respect of 10 to 15 years and 20 to
25 years experience teachers is statistically insignificant. Hence,
the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ (2.81) in respect of 10 to 15 years and 25 to
30 years experience is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The mean value (74.37) obtained by 25 to 30 years
experience teachers is higher than the mean value (69.13)
obtained by 10 to 15 years experience teachers.
The value of ‘t’ (1.01) in respect of 15 to 20 years and 20 to
25 years experience teachers is not corroborated. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ (1.07) in respect of 15 to 20 years and 25 to
30 years experience teachers is not significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ (2.51) in respect of 20 to 25 years and 25 to
30 years experience is significant. The mean value (74.37)
obtained by 25 to 30 years experience is higher than the mean
value (70.49) obtained by 20 to 25 years experience teachers.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between the Teachers of different teaching experience
(i.e., below 10 years, 10 to 15 years; 15 to 20 years; 20 to 25
years and 25 to 30 years experience) in respect of various
dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested in Table 5.36.

192
Table 5.36
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between the Teachers of different
Teaching experience in respect of Dimensions of Teacher Job
Satisfaction

Teachin Inter-
Category Profession g Innovatio Persona
al Learnin n l
g Relatio
ns
Below 10 years
experience
1.93@ 1.03@ 1.17@ 1.49@
10 to 15 years
experience
Below 10 years
experience
2.49* 1.94@ 1.68@ 2.24*
15 to 20 years
experience
Below 10 years
experience
1.11@ 0.98@ 1.12@ 1.43@
20 to 25 years
experience
Below 10 years
experience
1.43@ 1.95@ 1.27@ 1.49@
25 to 30 years
experience
10 to 15 years
experience
2.23* 1.95@ 2.24* 1.64@
15 to 20 years
experience
10 to 15 years
experience

193
0.89@ 1.11@ 1.43@ 1.67@
20 to 25 years
experience
10 to 15 years
experience
0.89@ 0.63@ 0.78@ 0.79@
25 to 30 years
experience
15 to 20 years
experience
1.39@ 1.56@ 1.25@ 1.85@
20 to 25 years
experience
15 to 20 years
experience
1.87@ 1.25@ 1.56@ 1.49@
25 to 30 years
experience
20 to 25 years
experience
0.99@ 1.16@ 1.21@ 0.87@
25 to 30 years
experience
*Significant at 0.05 level
@ Not Significant at any level
The value of ‘t’ between below 10 years and 10 to 15 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.93), Teaching Learning (1.03), Innovation (1.17) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.49) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between below 10 years and 15 to 20 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(2.49) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The value of ‘t’ Teaching Learning (1.94),
Innovation (1.68) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not corroborated.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted. The verification in respect of

194
dimension Inter-Personal Relations (2.24) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The value of ‘t’ between below 10 years and 20 to 25 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.11), Teaching Learning (0.98), Innovation (1.12) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.43) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between below 10 years and 25 to 30 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.43), Teaching Learning (1.95), Innovation (1.27) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.49) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between 10 to 15 years and 15 to 20 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(2.23) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The dimension Teaching Learning (1.95)
of Teacher Job Satisfaction is statistically insignificant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted. While the verification in respect of
dimension Innovation (2.24) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The verification in
respect of dimension Inter-Personal Relations (1.64) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between 10 to 15 years and 20 to 25 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(0.89), Teaching Learning (1.11), Innovation (1.43) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.67) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.

195
The value of ‘t’ between 10 to 15 years and 25 to 30 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(0.89), Teaching Learning (0.63), Innovation (0.78) and Inter-
Personal Relations (0.79) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between 15 to 20 years and 20 to 25 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.39), Teaching Learning (1.56), Innovation (1.25) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.85) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between 15 to 20 years and 25 to 30 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(1.87), Teaching Learning (1.25), Innovation (1.56) and Inter-
Personal Relations (1.49) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ between 20 to 25 years and 25 to 30 years
experience teachers in respect of dimensions – Professional
(0.99), Teaching Learning (1.16), Innovation (1.21) and Inter-
Personal Relations (0.87) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Married and Unmarried Teachers in their Job
Satisfaction’ is tested in Table 5.37.
Table 5.37
Table showing significance of difference of means Married
and Unmarried Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Married Teachers 69.9 17.3 576 Significant at
4 8 3 0.01 level

196
Unmarried Teachers 332 .74
74.8 16.2
5 3

The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.74) is significant. Hence, the


hypothesis is rejected. This clearly indicates that there is
significant difference between the above category teachers. The
value of mean (74.85) obtained by Unmarried Teachers is higher
than the value of mean (69.94) obtained by the Married Teachers.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Married and Unmarried Teachers in respect of
dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested in Table 5.38.
Table 5.38
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Residential and Non-
Residential Teachers in respect of Dimensions of Teacher Job
Satisfaction
Teachin Inter-
Category Profession g Innovatio Persona
al Learnin n l
g Relatio
ns
Married Teachers
2.34* 1.97* 1.04@ 1.86@
Unmarried Teachers
*Significant at 0.05 level
@Not Significant
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension
‘Professional’ (2.34) is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.97) is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.

197
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension
‘Innovation’ (1.04) is statistically insignificant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension ‘Inter-
Personal Relations’ (1.86) is not corroborated. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Residential and Non-residential Teachers in
their Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested presented in Table 5.39.
Table 5.39.
Table showing significance of difference of means Residential
and Non-Residential Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Residential Teachers 71.4 17.9 128 Not
7 1 1 Significant at
Non-Residential 780 .52 any level
Teachers 75.8 16.5
3 2

The above table discloses the difference between


Residential and Non-Residential Teachers. The obtained value of
‘t’ (1.52) is not statistically significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Residential and Non-Residential Teachers in
respect of dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested and
presented in Table 5.40.
Table 5.40
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between the Residential and Non-
Residential Teachers in respect of Dimensions of Teacher Job
Satisfaction
Teachin Inter-

198
Category Profession g Innovatio Persona
al Learnin n l
g Relatio
ns
Residential Teachers
2.18* 1.99* 1.59@ 1.95@
Non-Residential
Teachers
*Significant at 0.05 level
@Not Significant
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension
‘Professional’ (2.18) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.99) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension
‘Innovation’ (1.59) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension ‘Inter-
Personal Relations’ (1.95) is not corroborated. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between the Teachers of different Management in their
Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested in Table 5.41.
Table 5.41
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between the Teachers of
different Management in their Teacher Job Satisfaction

Category Mean S.D. N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Residential Teachers 71.47 17.9 128 Significant at
1 2 0.05 level
Aided Teachers 76.84 69 .16

199
15.9
4
Residential Teachers 71.47 17.9 128 Significant at
1 2 0.01 level
Government Teachers 65.86 152 .58
18.3
9
Residential Teachers 71.47 17.9 128 Not
1 1 Significant at
Zillah Parishad 74.53 165 .52 any level
Teachers 16.0
8
Residential Teachers 71.47 17.9 128 Not
1 1 Significant at
Minority Teachers 68.25 128 .42 any level
18.3
2
Residential Teachers 71.47 17.9 128 Significant at
1 2 0.05 level
Municipal Teachers 66.95 133 .01
18.3
7
Residential Teachers 71.47 17.9 128 Not
1 0 Significant
Private Unaided 72.93 133 .67 any level
Teachers 16.9
7
Aided Teachers 76.84 15.9 69 Significant at
4 4 0.01 level
Government Teachers 65.86 152 .52
18.3
9
Aided Teachers 76.84 15.9 69 Not
4 1 Significant at
Zillah Parishad 74.53 165 .01 any level
Teachers 16.0
8
Aided Teachers 76.84 15.9 69 Significant at
4 3 0.01 level
Minority Teachers 68.25 128 .43
18.3
2

200
Aided Teachers 76.84 15.9 69 Significant at
4 3 0.01 level
Municipal Teachers 66.95 133 .97
18.3
7
Aided Teachers 76.84 15.9 69 Not
4 1 Significant at
Private Unaided 72.93 133 .62 any level
Teachers 16.9
7
Government Teachers 65.86 18.3 152 Significant at
9 4 0.01 level
Zillah Parishad 74.53 165 .46
Teachers 16.0
8
Government Teachers 65.86 18.3 152 Not
9 1 Significant at
Minority Teachers 68.25 128 .08 any level
18.3
2
Government Teachers 65.86 18.3 152 Not
9 0.5 Significant at
Municipal Teachers 66.95 133 any level
18.3
7
Government Teachers 65.86 18.3 152 Significant at
9 3 0.01 level
Private Unaided 72.93 133 .08
Teachers 16.9
7
Zillah Parishad 74.53 16.0 165 Significant at
Teachers 8 3 0.01 level
68.25 128 .07
Minority Teachers 18.3
2
Zillah Parishad 74.53 16.0 165 Significant at
Teachers 8 3 0.01 level
66.95 133 .75
Municipal Teachers 18.3
7
Zillah Parishad 74.53 16.0 165 Not
Teachers 8 0 Significant at

201
72.93 133 .83 any level
Private Unaided 16.9
Teachers 7
Minority Teachers 68.25 18.3 128 Not
2 0 Significant at
Municipal Teachers 66.95 133 .57 any level
18.3
7

Minority Teachers 68.25 18.3 128 Significant at


2 2 0.05 level
Private Unaided 72.93 133 .14
Teachers 16.9
7
Municipal Teachers 66.95 18.3 133 Significant at
7 2 0.01 level
Private Unaided 72.93 133 .76
Teachers 16.9
7

The above table discloses the difference between the


Teachers of different management Institutions in their Teacher Job
Satisfaction.
There is significant difference between Residential and
Aided Teachers. The obtained ‘t’ value (2.16) is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (76.84) of
Aided Teachers is higher than the value of mean (71.47) obtained
by Residential Teachers.
There is significant different between Residential and
Government Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (2.58) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean
(71.47) obtained by the Residential Teachers is higher than the
value of mean (65.86). Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.

202
There is no significant difference between Residential and
Zillah Parishad Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.52) is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted..
There is no significant difference between Residential and
Minority Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.42) is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is significant difference between Residential and
Municipal Teachers. The obtained valued of ‘t’ (2.01) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean
(71.47) obtained by the Residential Teachers is higher than the
value of mean (66.95) obtained by the Municipal Teachers.
There is no significant difference between Residential and
Private Unaided Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.67) is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is significant difference between Aided and
Government Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (4.52) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The mean value
(76.84) obtained by the Aided Teachers is higher than the mean
value (74.53) obtained by the Government Teachers.
There is no significant difference between Aided and Zillah
Parishad Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.01) is statistically
insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is significant difference between Aided and Minority
Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.43) is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (76.84) obtained
by the Aided Teachers is higher than the value of mean (66.95)
obtained by Minority Teachers.

203
There is significant difference between Aided and Municipal
Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.97) is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (76.84) obtained
by Aided Teachers is higher than the value of mean (66.95)
obtained by Municipal Teachers.
There is no significant difference between Aided and Private
Unaided Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.62) is not
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is significant difference between Government and
Zillah Parishad Teachers. The value of ‘t’ (4.46) is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (74.53)
obtained by Zillah Parishad Teachers is higher than the value of
mean (65.86) obtained by the Zillah Parishad Teachers.
There is no significant difference between Government and
Minority Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.08) is not
statistically significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is no significant difference between Government and
Municipal Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.5) is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is significant difference between Government and
Private Unaided Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.08) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean
(72.93) obtained by Private Unaided Teachers is higher than the
value of mean (65.86) obtained by Government Teachers.
There is significant difference between Zillah Parisahd and
Minority Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.07) is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (74.53)

204
obtained by Zillah Parishad Teachers is higher than the value of
mean (68.25) obtained by Minority Teachers.
There is significant difference between Zillah Parishad and
Municipal Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.75) is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The obtained value of mean
(74.53) obtained by Zillah Parishad is higher than the value of
mean (66.95) obtained by Municipal Teachers.
There is no significant difference between Zillah Parishad
and Private Unaided Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.83) is
not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is no significant difference between Minority and
Municipal Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.57) is statistically
insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
There is significant difference between Minority and Private
Unaided Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (2.14) is significant.
Hence the hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (72.93)
obtained by Private Unaided Teachers is higher than the value of
mean (58.25) obtained by Minority Teachers.
There is significant difference between Municipal and
Private Unaided Teachers. The obtained value of ‘t’ (2.76) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The obtained
value of mean (72.93) obtained by the Private Unaided Teachers
is higher than the value of mean (66.95) obtained by Municipal
Teachers.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Residential and Non-Residential Teachers in
respect of dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction’ is tested and
presented hereunder.

205
Table 5.42
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers
in respect of various Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction
Teachin Inter-
Category Professiona g Innovation Personal
l Learnin Relations
g
Residential
1.28@ 1.43@ 1.52@ 1.74@
Aided
Residential
2.26* 1.98* 1.97* 2.43*
Government
Residential
2.28* 1.84@ 1.45@ 1.19@
Zillah Parishad

Residential
1.98* 1.43@ 1.99* 1.58@
Minority
Residential
2.48* 1.99* 1.97* 2.23*
Municipal
Residential
2.23* 1.99* 1.23@ 1.99*
Private
Unaided
Aided
2.26* 1.21@ 1.84@ 1.64@
Government
Aided
1.56@ 1.38@ 1.37@ 1.97*
Zillah Parishad
Aided
1.99* 1.53@ 1.37@ 1.29@
Minority
Aided
1.27@ 1.56@ 1.54@ 1.98*
Municipal
Aided
2.17* 1.99* 1.48@ 1.23@

206
Private
Unaided
Government
2.18* 1.24@ 1.35@ 1.94@
Zillah Parishad
Government
0.89@ 0.26@ 0.58@ 1.24@
Minority
Government
1.63@ 1.24@ 1.56@ 1.33@
Municipal
Government
1.46@ 1.97@ 1.73@ 1.84@
Private
Unaided
Zillah Parishad
1.73@ 1.35@ 1.45@ 1.18@
Minority

Zillah Parishad
1.24@ 0.99@ 1.13@ 0.68@
Municipal
Zillah Parishad
1.14@ 1.38@ 1.27@ 1.45@
Private Unaided
Minority
1.53@ 1.74@ 1.38@ 1.63@
Municipal
Minority
1.28@ 1.68@ 1.36@ 1.89@
Private Unaided
Municipal
1.68@ 2.16* 1.63@ 1.58@
Private Unaided

@ Not Significant
* Significant at 0.05 level
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Residential and Aided Teachers
in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.93), ‘Teaching Learning’
(1.19), ‘Innovation’ (1.89) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.36) of

207
Teacher Job Satisfaction is not significant. Hence, the hypothesis
is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Residential and Government
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.26), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.98), ‘Innovation’ (1.97) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(2.43) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Residential and Zillah Parishad
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.28) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
While the ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.84), ‘Innovation’ (1.45) and
‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.19) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is
statistically insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Residential and Minority
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.98) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.43) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted. The dimension ‘Innovation’ (1.99) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The
dimension ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.58) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is not significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Residential and Municipal
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.48), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.99), ‘Innovation’ (1.97) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(2.23) aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is accepted.

208
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Residential and Private Unaided
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.23), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.99) aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The dimension ‘Innovation’
(1.23) is not statistically significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted. The dimension ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.99) of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Aided and Government Teachers
in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.26) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The
dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.21), ‘Innovation’ (1.64) and
‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.64) aspects of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Aided and Zillah Parishad
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.56) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.38), ‘Innovation’ (1.37) of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is statistically insignificant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted. The dimension ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(1.97) aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Aided and Minority Teachers in
respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.99) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The
dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.53), ‘Innovation’ (1.37) and
‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.29) aspects of Teacher Job

209
Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Aided and Municipal Teachers in
respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.27), ‘Teaching Learning
(1.56) and ‘Innovation’ (1.54) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is
statistically insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted. The
dimension ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.98) of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Aided and Private Unaided
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.27) and
‘Teaching Learning (1.99) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The dimension (1.48) and
‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.23) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Government and Zillah Parishad
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (2.18) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.24), ‘Innovation’ (1.35) and
‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.94) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not
corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Government and Minority
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (0.89), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (0.26), ‘Innovation’ (0.58), and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(1.24) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Government and Municipal
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.63), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.24), ‘Innovation’ (1.56) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’

210
(1.33) aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not corroborated.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Government and Private
Unaided Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.46) of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is not significant. Hence, the hypothesis
is accepted. The dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.97) is
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The dimension
‘Innovation’ (1.73) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.84) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Zillah Parishad and Minority
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.73), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.36), ‘Innovation’ (1.45) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(1.18) aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not significant.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Zillah Parishad and Municipal
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.24), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (0.99), ‘Innovation’ (1.13) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(0.68) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is statistically insignificant.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Zillah Parishad and Private
Unaided Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.14) of
Teacher Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (1.38), ‘Innovation’
(1.27) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.45) aspects of Teacher Job
Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.

211
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Minority and Municipal Teachers
in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.53), ‘Teaching Learning’
(1.74), ‘Innovation’ (1.38) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’ (1.63)
aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Minority and Private Unaided
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.28), ‘Teaching
Learning’ (1.68), ‘Innovation’ (1.36) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(1.89) aspects of Teacher Job Satisfaction is statistically
insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ of Municipal and Private Unaided
Teachers in respect of dimension ‘Professional’ (1.68) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is not significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted. The dimension ‘Teaching Learning’ (2.16) of Teacher
Job Satisfaction is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The dimension ‘Innovation’ (1.63) and ‘Inter-Personal Relations’
(1.58) of Teacher Job Satisfaction is not corroborated. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
5.8.2:Verificationof second subsidiary hypothesis and
Teacher Stress interpretation:
The second subsidiary hypothesis disclosed that the
teachers considered under different categories do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Stress, which were
discussed variable wise categorized for convenience of
verification as follows –
(a) Sex category teachers do not differ significantly in respect of
their Teacher Stress.
(j) Locality category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Stress.

212
(k) Qualification category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Stress.
(l) Designation category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Stress.
(m) Teaching Subject category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Stress.
(n) Teaching Experience category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Stress.
(o) Marital Status category teachers do not differ significantly in
respect of their Teacher Stress.
(p) Type of Institution category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Stress.
(q) Type of Management category teachers do not differ
significantly in respect of their Teacher Stress.
Besides testing the subsidiary hypotheses of the study, the
investigator is intended to observe the significance of difference
between various demographic variables in respect of dimensions
Intensity of work, Student Behaviour, Professional Growth and
Extrinsic Annoyers aspects of Teacher Stress. Hence, this part
discloses the results immediately after each subsidiary
hypothesis is tested.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Male and Female Teachers do
not differ significantly in their Teacher Stress’ is verified and
presented in Table 5.43.

Table 5.43

213
Table showing significance of difference of means between
Male and Female Teachers in their Teacher Stress

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Male Teachers 99.56 22.4 592
8 2 Significant at
0.05 level
Female Teachers 102.7 316 .12
1 20.7
5

The value of ‘t’ (2.12) is more than 1.96, which is significant


at 0.05 level. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. The mean value
(102.71) obtained by Male Teachers is greater than the mean
value (99.56) obtained by Female Teachers.
The values of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers in
respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress are tested and presented
in Table 5.43.
Verification of hypothesis ‘there is no significant difference
between Male and Female Teachers in respect of the dimensions
of Intensity of Work, Student Behaviour, Professional Growth,
Extrinsic Annoyers of Teacher Stress’ is tested in Table 5.44.
Table 5.44
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers
in respect of various Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction
Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi
Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
Male Teachers
2.24* 1.97* 2.38* 2.08*
Female Teachers

*Significant at 0.05 level

214
The value of ‘t’ between Male and Female Teachers in
respect of dimensions – Intensity of work (2.24), Student
Behaviour (1.97), Professional Growth (2.38) and Extrinsic
Annoyers (2.08) of Teacher Stress is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘there is no significant
difference between Rural and Urban area Teachers in their
Teacher Stress’, is tested in Table 5.45.
Table 5.45
Table showing the difference of mean between Rural
and Urban area Teachers in their Teacher Stress

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Rural area Teachers 99.56 22.4 592
8 Significant at
2
0.05 level
Urban area Teachers 102.7 316 .12
1 20.7
5

The obtained value of ‘t’ is significant. Hence, the


hypothesis is rejected. The value of mean (102.71) obtained by
Urban area Teachers is greater than the value of mean (99.56).
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Rural and Urban area
Teachers do not differ significantly in respect of dimensions of
Teacher Stress’ is tested and presented in Table 5.46.

215
Table 5.46
Table showing the value of ‘t’ between Rural and Urban
area Teachers in respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress

Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi


Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
Rural area Teachers
2.03* 1.45@ 1.28@ 1.72@
Urban area
Teachers

*Significant at 0.05 level


@ Not Significant
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension ‘Intensity
of Work’ (2.03) is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension ‘Student
Behaviour’ (1.45), ‘Professional Growth (1.28) and ‘Extrinsic
Annoyers’ (1.72) is statistically insignificant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘ there is no significant
difference between the Teachers of different qualification
categories in their Teacher Stress’ is tested presented in Table
5.47.
Table 5.47
Table showing the difference of mean between the Teachers
of different qualifications in their Teacher Stress

216
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Graduate Teachers 96.47 22.5 339 Significant at
5 5 0.01 level
Post-graduate Teachers 105.2 448
.75
8 19.6
7

Graduate Teachers 96.47 22.5 339


Not
5 0
Post-graduate with Significant at
95.21 121
M.Phil/ Ph.D., Teachers .52 any level
23.0
6
Post-graduate Teachers 105.2 19.6 448
Significant at
8 7 4
Post-graduate with 0.01 level
121
M.Phil/ Ph.D., Teachers .39
95.21 23.0
6

The obtained value of ‘t’ (5.75) between Graduates and


Post-graduate Teachers is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The value of mean (105.28) obtained by the Post
Graduate Teachers is higher than the value of mean (96.47) of
the Graduate Teachers.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.52) between Graduates and
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers is not corroborated.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (4.39) between Post-graduate and
Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected. The mean value (105.28) obtained by

217
Post-graduate Teachers is higher than the mean value (95.21)
obtained by the Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Qualification category
Teachers do not differ significantly in respect of the dimensions of
Teacher Stress’ tested in Table 5.48.

Table 5.48
Table showing the value of ‘t’ of different qualification category
Teachers in respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress

Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi


Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
Graduate Teachers
1.69@ 1.73@ 1.49@ 1.58@
Post-graduate
Teachers
Graduate Teachers
1.93@ 1.34@ 1.42@ 1.67@
Post-graduate with
M.Phl/Ph.D.,Teacher
s
Post-graduate
Teachers
1.62@ 1.41@ 1.63@ 1.95@
Post-graduate with
M.Phil/Ph.D.
Teachers

@ Not Significant

218
The value of ‘t’ in respect of all dimensions of Teacher Stress
between Graduate and Post-graduate Teachers is statistically
insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ in respect of all dimensions of Teacher Stress
between Graduate and Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D., Teachers
is not significant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The value of ‘t’ in respect of all dimensions of Teacher Stress
between Post-graduate and Post-graduate with M.Phil/Ph.D.,
Teachers is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Different Designation of
Teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher Stress’ is
tested in Table 5.49.

Table 5.49
Table showing the difference of mean between different
Designation of Teachers in their Teacher Stress

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Head-teachers 106.5 18.5 70
4 8 Significant
3
at 0.01 level
Teachers 83 .25
98.86 23.1 8
8

The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.25) between Head-teachers and


Teachers are differed significantly. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The value of mean (106.54) obtained by Head-teacher
is higher than the value of mean (98.86) obtained by the
Teachers.

219
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Designation of Teachers do
not differ in respect of the dimensions of Teacher Stress’ in Table
5.50.
Table 5.50
Table showing the value of ‘t’ of different designation category
Teachers in respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress

Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi


Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
Head-teachers
2.48* 1.95@ 1.94@ 2.21*
Teachers

*Significant at 0.05 level


@Not Significant
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension Intensity of
Work (2.48) of Teacher Stress is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimensions Student
Behaviour (1.95) and Professional Growth (1.94) of Teacher Stress
is not corroborated. Hence, hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ in respect of dimension Extrinsic
Annoyers (2.21) of Teacher Stress is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Teaching different subject
Teachers do not differ significantly in the Teacher Stress’ is tested
in Table 5.51.
Table 5.51
Table showing the difference of mean between different
Teaching subject Teachers in their Teacher Stress

220
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Science Teachers 103.3 19.6 37
9 8 9 Significant
5
at 0.01 level
Humanities Teachers .11
95.56 22.7 38
6 5
Science Teachers 103.3 19.6 37
9 8 9 Not
1
Significant
Language Teachers .17 at any level
105.5 18.4 14
4 2 4
Humanities Teachers 95.56 22.7 38
6 5 Significant
5
at 0.01 level
Language Teachers 105.5 .19
4 18.4 14
2 4

The obtained value of ‘t’ (5.11) between Science and


Humanities Teachers is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The value of mean (103.39) obtained Science Teachers
is greater than the value of mean (95.56) obtained by Humanities
Teachers.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.17) between Science and
Language Teachers is not corroborated. Hence, the hypothesis is
accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (5.19) between Humanities and
Language Teachers is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is
rejected. The mean value (105.54) obtained Language teachers
is higher than the mean value (95.56) obtained by Humanities
Teachers.

221
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Teaching different subject
Teachers do not differ significantly in respect of dimensions of
Teacher Stress’ is tested in Table 5.52
Table 5.52
Table showing the value of ‘t’ of Teaching different subject
Teachers in respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress

Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi


Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
Science Teachers
2.56* 2.28* 1.94@ 1.89@
Humanities
Teachers
Science Teachers
2.16* 1.95@ 1.25@ 1.36@
Language Teachers
Humanities
Teachers 1.84@ 1.64@ 1.27@ 1.77@

Language Teachers

*Significant at 0.05 level


@Not Significant
The obtained value of ‘t’ between Science and Humanities
Teachers in respect of dimensions Intensity of Work (2.56) and
Student Behaviour (2.28) of Teacher Stress is significant. Hence,
the hypothesis is rejected. As no significant difference is found
between Science and Humanities Teachers in respect of
dimensions Professional Growth and Extrinsic Annoyers. Hence,
the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ between Science and Language
Teachers in respect of dimension Intensity of work (2.16) is

222
significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected. Whereas the value
of in respect of dimensions Student Behaviour, Professional
Growth and Extrinsic Annoyers is not corroborated. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ between Humanities and Language
Teachers in respect of dimensions Intensity of work, Student
Behaviour, Professional Growth and Extrinsic Annoyers is
statistically insignificant. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
Verification of hypothesis that ‘different experience
category teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher
Stress’ is tested in Table 5.53.
Table 5.53
Table showing the difference of mean between different
experience Teachers in their Teacher Stress

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Below 10 years 93.27 24.5 19
Experience Teachers 9 8 Not
0
significant
10 to 15 years 95.51 .87 at any level
Experience Teachers 23.1 15
6 4
Below 10 years 93.27 24.5 19
Experience Teachers 9 8 significant
2
at 0.01 level
15 to 20 years 100.5 .93
Experience Teachers 4 19.2 11
3 8

223
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
Below 10 years 93.27 24.5 19
Experience Teachers 9 8 Significant
4
at 0.01 level
20 to 25 years 103.5 .61
Experience Teachers 6 21.7 24
8 4
Below 10 years 93.27 24.5 19
Experience Teachers 9 8 Significant
3
at 0.01 level
25 to 30 years 101.6 .67
Experience Teachers 5 20.4 19
8 4
10 to 15 years 95.51 23.1 15
Experience Teachers 6 4 Not
1
significant
15 to 20 years 100.5 .95 at any level
Experience Teachers 4 19.2 11
3 8
10 to 15 years 95.51 23.1 15
Experience Teachers 6 4 Significant
3
at 0.01 level
20 to 25 years 103.5 .46
Experience Teachers 6 21.7 24
8 4
10 to 15 years 95.51 23.1 15
Experience Teachers 6 4 Significant
2
at 0.01 level
25 to 30 years 101.6 .59
Experience Teachers 5 20.4 19
8 4
15 to 20 years 100.5 19.2 11
Experience Teachers 4 3 8 Not
1
significant
20 to 25 years .34 at any level
Experience Teachers 103.5 21.7 24
6 8 4

224
Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of
Significance
15 to 20 years 100.5 19.2 11
Experience Teachers 4 3 8 Not
0
significant
25 to 30 years .48 at any level
Experience Teachers 101.6 20.4 19
5 8 4
20 to 25 years 103.5 21.7 24
Experience Teachers 6 8 4 Not
0
significant
25 to 30 years .94 at any level
Experience Teachers 101.6 20.4 19
5 8 4

The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.87) between below 10 years and


10 to 15 years experience teachers is not Significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (2.93) between below 10 years and
15 to 20 years experience teachers is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The mean value (100.54) obtained by the
Teachers of 15 to 20 years experience is higher than the mean
value (93.27) obtained by the Teachers of below 10 years
experience.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (4.61) between below 10 years and
20 to 25 years experience teachers is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The mean value (103.56) obtained by 20
to 25 years experience Teachers is higher than the mean value
(93.27) of below 10 years experience teachers.

225
The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.67) between below 10 years and
25 to 30 years experience teachers is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The mean value (101.65) obtained by 25
to 30 years experience teachers is higher than the mean value
(93.27) of below 10 years experience teachers.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.95) between 10 to 15 years and
15 to 20 years experience teachers is not significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (3.46) between 10 to 15 years and
20 to 25 years experience teachers is significant. The mean
value (103.56) obtained by 20 to 25 years experience teachers is
higher than the mean value (95.51) obtained by 10 to 15 years
experience teachers.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (2.59) between 10 to 15 years and
25 to 30 years experience teachers is significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is rejected. The mean value (101.65) obtained by 25
to 30 years experience teachers is higher than the mean value
(95.51) obtained by 10 to 15 years experience teachers.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (1.34) between 15 to 20 years and
20 to 25 years experience teachers is statistically insignificant.
Hence, the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.48) between 15 to 20 years and
25 to 30 years experience teachers is not corroborated. Hence,
the hypothesis is accepted.
The obtained value of ‘t’ (0.94) between 20 to 25 years and
25 to 30 years experience teachers is not significant. Hence, the
hypothesis is accepted.

226
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Experience of Teachers do
not differ significantly in respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress’
tested in Table 5.54.

Table 5.54
Table showing the value of ‘t’ of Difference Teaching Experience
Teachers in respect of dimensions of Teacher Stress

Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi


Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
Below 10 years
experience
teachers 1.49@ 2.64* 1.38@ 1.08@

10 to 15 years
experience
Teachers
Below 10 years
experience
teachers 2.68*@ 1.99* 1.79@ 2.44*

15 to 20 years
experience
Teachers
Below 10 years
experience
teachers 1.58@ 1.24@ 1.99* 1.14@

20 to 25 years
experience
Teachers
Below 10 years
experience
teachers 1.64@ 1.58@ 1.83@ 1.37@

25 to 30 years

227
experience
Teachers
10 to 15 years
experience
Teachers 1.65@ 1.26@ 1.84@ 1.75@

15 to 20 years
experience
Teachers
10 to 15 years
experience
Teachers 1.13@ 1.48@ 1.25@ 1.56@

20 to 25 years
experience
Teachers

Intensity Student Profession Extrinsi


Category of Work Behaviou al c
r Growth Annoye
rs
10 to 15 years
experience
Teachers 1.11@ 1.36@ 1.73@ 1.24@

25 to 30 years
experience
teachers
15 to 20 years
experience
teachers 1.24@ 1.78@ 1.37@ 1.89@

20 to 25 years
experience
teachers
15 to 20 years
experience

228
Teachers 1.94@ 1.95@ 1.89@ 1.76@

25 to 30 years
experience
Teachers
20 to 25 years
experience
Teachers 1.99* 2.06* 1.64@ 2.41*

25 to 30 years
experience
Teachers

Verification of hypothesis that ‘Marital Status of Teachers do


not differ significantly in their Teacher Stress’ is tested in Table
5.55.
Table 5.55
Table showing the difference of mean between Married
and Unmarried Teachers in their Teacher Stress

Category A.M S.D N ‘t’ Level of


Significance
Married Teachers 99.74 22.4 57
9 6 Significant
2
at 0.05 level
Unmarried Teachers 95.96 .43
22.5 33
7 2

The obtained value of ‘t’ between Married and Unmarried


Teachers is significant. Hence, the hypothesis is rejected.
Married Teachers possessed higher mean (99.74) than Unmarried
Teachers (95.96).
Verification of hypothesis that ‘Marital Status of Teachers do
not differ significantly in respect of dimension of Teacher Stress’
is tested in Table 5.56.

229
Table 5.56

Appendix –I
Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS)
(Pre-Test)
Dear Teacher Friend,
I expect your valuable and hearty cooperation in my present
Educational Research. I assure that your ideas expressed are
used only to my research and are also kept confidential. Hence, I
request you to kindly given your candid opinion for all the
statements. Please encircle your choice category against each
statement and cooperate in this regard.
Yours sincerely,

N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Personnel Data
Please fill in the blanks here under with proper details
relating to you before you answer the questionnaire.
(1) Name :
(2) Sex :
(3) Locality :
(4) Qualification :
(5) Designation :
(6) Teaching Subjects :
(7) Teaching Experience :
(8) Marital Status Status :
(9) Type of Institution :
(10)Type of Management :

230
JOB SATISFACTION
Instruction: In this booklet some situations relating to your Job are
given in the sentence forms. The following five kinds of opinions
are given against to each sentence. Study each sentence
carefully and indicate your opinion, which you agreed to by
encircle against each statement.
SA : Strongly Agree
A : Agree
N : Neutral
DA : Disagree
SDA : Strongly Disagree
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. I like to give a new meaning to a concept (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

2. I wish to change the interpretation of a fact (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

3. I prefer to use a thing in a new fashion (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

4. I like to suggest new ideas to a concept (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

5. In doing a task I like change of strategy (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

6. I change the direction of my thinking in


giving new interpretation (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

231
7. I like to introduce to easy methods (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

8. I prefer to give various responses (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

9. I prefer to think abstractly (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

10. I can do anything in a number of ways (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

11. While doing a thing, if necessary I change


my approach (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

12. I have my own ideas in teaching many ways (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

13.I alter possible solutions to a problem (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

14.I shall be open to experience both inner-self (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

15.I introduce lessons in an orderly manner (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

16.I want to be an from crippling restraints (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

17.I use things pecuniary (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

18.Very few of my efforts are far fetching (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

19.I am creative in teaching lessons (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

232
20.I produce remote ideas (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

21.I am novel in my thinking (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

22.I am thinking narrative (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

23.I am independent in my thought and action (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

24.I will have my own resources in dealing with


my own problems (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

25.I will be attracted to unkown and


undetermined (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

26.I am best at making new things (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

27.I generate ideas quickly (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

28.I can generate new curriculum ideas (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

29.I can give number of synonymous (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

30.I use phrases contextually (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

31.I have my own sense in preparation


of new curriculum development (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

233
32.I can use number of short sentences in a
single idea (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

33.I search for similarities in things (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

Appendix –II
Teacher Stress Scale (TSS)
(Pre-Test)
Dear Teacher Friend,

234
I expect your valuable and hearty cooperation in my present
Educational Research. I assure that your ideas expressed are
used only to my research and are also kept confidential. Hence, I
request you to kindly given your candid opinion for all the
statements. Please encircle your choice category against each
statement and cooperate in this regard.
Yours sincerely,

N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Personnel Data
Please fill in the blanks here under with proper details
relating to you before you answer the questionnaire.
(1) Name :
(2) Sex :
(3) Locality :
(4) Qualification :
(5) Designation :
(6) Teaching Subjects :
(7) Teaching Experience :
(8) Marital Status Status :
(9) Type of Institution :
(10)Type of Management :

TEACHER STRESS

235
Instruction: In this booklet some situations relating to your Job are
given in the sentence forms. The following five kinds of opinions
are given against to each sentence. Study each sentence
carefully and indicate your opinion, which you agreed to by
encircle against each statement.

(1) Little or no Stress


(2) Mild Stress
(3) Moderate Stress
(4) Great Stress

1. To any period actually teaching (1) (2)


(3) (4)

2. No time to relax between Lesson (1) (2)


(3) (4)

3. Individual students who constantly misbehave (1) (2)


(3) (4)

4. Pupil’s non-acceptance of teacher’s authority (1) (2)


(3) (4)

5. Lack of recognition for good teaching


and extra work (1) (2)
(3) (4)

6.Needs to prepare time-table according to


prevailing situation (1) (2) (3)
(4)

7.Having to teach subjects in which one


is not interested (1) (2)
(3) (4)

8.Having to teach below average students (1) (2)


(3) (4)

9.Noisy classroom and indiscipline in the class (1) (2)


(3) (4)

236
10.Too much of correction work (1) (2) (3)
(4)

11.Feeling locked up into a routine in job (1) (2)


(3) (4)

12.Heavy workload is creating discouragement (1) (2)


(3) (4)

13.Lack of interest in studies among students (1) (2)


(3) (4)

14.Lack of time to prepare lessons (1) (2)


(3) (4)

15.Maintaining classroom discipline (1) (2)


(3) (4)

16.Excessive work hours devoted to college and


college related duties (1) (2)
(3) (4)

17.Very difficulty to maintain the classroom with


unlimited number of students (1) (2) (3)
(4)

18.Frequent change of duties of work


responsibilities in time table (1) (2)
(3) (4)

19.Insufficient time for completing the


prescribed syllabus (1) (2)
(3) (4)

20.Too difficulty to maintain Classroom discipline


with more number of students (1) (2)
(3) (4)

21.Disruptive class – constant monitoring


of student behaviour (1) (2)
(3) (4)

237
22.Shortage of equipment, material and
Library facilities (1) (2) (3)
(4)

23.Lack of appreciation of new and


Innovative methods (1) (2)
(3) (4)

24.No encouragement to attend the academic events (1) (2)


(3) (4)

25.Lack of time for further study (1) (2) (3)


(4)

26.Not being able to use one’s training or skills fully (1) (2)
(3) (4)

27.Lack of time for personal hobbies, interests or


social activities (1) (2)
(3) (4)

28.No provision is made for professional improvement (1) (2)


(3) (4)

29.Lack of participation in decision making (1) (2)


(3) (4)

30.Low status of the teaching profession (1) (2)


(3) (4)

31.Lack of interest in expressing the innovative views (1) (2)


(3) (4)

32.Too frequent and poorly organized staff meetings (1) (2)


(3) (4)

33.Having to do private tuition to supplement income (1) (2)


(3) (4)

238
34.Lack of cooperation from other teachers (1) (2)
(3) (4)

35. Disagreement or conflict with the head (1) (2)


(3) (4)

36.Other than academic activities disturbed (1) (2)


(3) (4)
the professional interest

37.Frequent transfers from one place to other (1) (2)


(3) (4)

38.Too many ‘talks’ and refresher courses (1) (2)


(3) (4)

39.Inadequate salary and financial difficulties (1) (2)


(3) (4)

40.Lack of opportunity for promotion or advancement (1) (2)


(3) (4)

41.Principal unfair/partial in dealing with staff (1) (2)


(3) (4)

42.Disagreement with a colleague (1) (2)


(3) (4)

43.Professional disillusionment (teaching is not


what I thought to be) (1) (2) (3)
(4)

44. Maintaining self-control when angry (1) (2)


(3) (4)

45. Giving more significance to a substandard colleague (1)


(2) (3) (4)

46. Taking responsibility for pupil’s success in

239
examination (1) (2) (3)
(4)

47. Being target of verbal abuses, comment or


throat by students (1) (2)
(3) (4)

48. Trying to maintain and uphold values (1) (2)


(3) (4)

240
Appendix –III
Nistala’s Change-Proneness Descriptive Questionnaire
(NCPDQ)
(Pre-Test)
Dear Teacher Friend,
I expect your valuable and hearty cooperation in my present
Educational Research. I assure that your ideas expressed are
used only to my research and are also kept confidential. Hence, I
request you to kindly given your candid opinion for all the
statements. Please encircle your choice category against each
statement and cooperate in this regard.
Yours sincerely,

N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Personnel Data
Please fill in the blanks here under with proper details
relating to you before you answer the questionnaire.
(1) Name :
(2) Sex :
(3) Locality :
(4) Qualification :
(5) Designation :
(6) Teaching Subjects :
(7) Teaching Experience :
(8) Marital Status Status :
(9) Type of Institution :
(10)Type of Management :

241
NISTALA’S CHANGE PRONENESS DESCRIPTIVE
QUESTIONNAIRE (NCPDQ)

Instruction: In this booklet some situations relating to your Job are


given in the sentence forms. The following five kinds of opinions
are given against to each sentence. Study each sentence
carefully and indicate your opinion, which you agreed to by
encircle against each statement.
(A) – Always; (O) – Occassionally; (S) – Seldom – and
(N) – Never
S.No Description of the CPDQ A O S N
.
1 Do you like to originate new ideas even at
cost of criticism from your colleagues
2 Do you analytically and critically think before
accepting area strategy of teaching
3 Do you lance systematically before
successfully implementing a new technique
4 Do you like to adopt different methods of
teaching a particular concept in a subject
5 Do you like to adopt innovative practices in
classroom teaching
6 Do you hesitate to make to attempt on
something which may fail
7 Do you like try to something new even if it
increasing your work load
8 Do you make use of related any material
other than prescribed text books while
teaching your subject
9 Do you accept that concept of trying out any
new innovation
10 Do you accept the innovative suggestions of
your colleagues in practice teaching
11 Do you willfully accept new ideas and
concepts
12 Do you shirk to bring new ideas to the
attention of your colleagues and headmasters

242
13 Do you try out the new strategies even if you
have no freedom
14 Do you discourage to make to new ideas,
which may not effective
15 Do you willingly participate with your
colleagues by ventilating new ideas, which
emerge in our mind afresh
16 Do you accept new innovations suggested by
other agencies like NCERT, SCERT and
Colleges of Education viable and practicable
17 Will you a make a style of practice even if it
was opposed your headmaster
18 Do your colleagues criticized and comment on
you for trying out new techniques
19 Are you interested to maintain a style of
practice even if your colleagues discouraged
20 Do you keep yourself abreast with all new
innovation in your field
21 Will you try something which is suggested by
students in your class
22 Do you hesitate in contradicting colloquial of
other schools we innovative new strategies
23 Do you try something new as suggested by
expert in any professional journal
24 Do you associate with the problems of your
colleagues
25 Do you exhibit persistence and diplomacy in
entertaining a new practice
26 Do you like to discuss abut your new practices
and new ideas
27 Do you like your strategy to be carefully
enlisted by your colleagues even when thee
are conflicting points in it
28 Do you encourage and suggest other teachers
to take up new experiences
29 Do you appreciate the ideas of your
colleagues
30 Do you like to immediately adopt a successful
new strategy innovated by others
31 Do you feel regretted at any time at the
failure of your strategy
32 Do you stop trying out an innovation in order

243
to maintain relationship with other teachers
33 Do you accept the changes in day to day
academic activities
34 Do you fee regretted at any time at the failure
of your strategy
35 Do you extend your expertise to any faculty
member who is trying something new
36 Do you feel that old practice and innovations
are effective means impart education
effectively
37 Do you trying for new things as suggested by
experts in any Conferences
38 Do you really feel that accepting new
strategies will enhance teaching competency

244
Appendix –IV
Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS)
(Final-Test)
Dear Teacher Friend,
I expect your valuable and hearty cooperation in my present
Educational Research. I assure that your ideas expressed are
used only to my research and are also kept confidential. Hence, I
request you to kindly given your candid opinion for all the
statements. Please encircle your choice category against each
statement and cooperate in this regard.
Yours sincerely,

N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Personnel Data
Please fill in the blanks here under with proper details
relating to you before you answer the questionnaire.
(1) Name :
(2) Sex :
(3) Locality :
(4) Qualification :
(5) Designation :
(6) Teaching Subjects :
(7) Teaching Experience :
(8) Marital Status Status :
(9) Type of Institution :
(10)Type of Management :

245
JOB SATISFACTION
Instruction: In this booklet some situations relating to your Job are
given in the sentence forms. The following five kinds of opinions
are given against to each sentence. Study each sentence
carefully and indicate your opinion, which you agreed to by
encircle against each statement.
SA : Strongly Agree
A : Agree
N : Neutral
DA : Disagree
SDA : Strongly Disagree
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. I like to give a new meaning to a concept (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

2. I wish to change the interpretation of a fact (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

3. I prefer to use a thing in a new fashion (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

4. In doing a task I like change of strategy (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

5. I change the direction of my thinking in


giving new interpretation (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

6. I prefer to give various responses (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

246
7. I prefer to think abstractly (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

8. I can do anything in a number of ways (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

9. While doing a thing, if necessary I change


my approach (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

10.I alter possible solutions to a problem (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

11.I shall be open to experience both inner-self (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

12.I want to be an from crippling restraints (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

13.I use things pecuniary (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

14.Very few of my efforts are far fetching (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

15.I produce remote ideas (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

16.I am novel in my thinking (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

17.I am independent in my thought and action (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

18.I will have my own resources in dealing with


my own problems (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

247
19.I will be attracted to unkown and
undetermined (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

20.I am best at making new things (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

21.I generate ideas quickly (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

22.I can give number of synonymous (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

23.I use phrases contextually (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

24.I can use number of short sentences in a


single idea (SA) (A) (N) (DA)
(SDA)

25.I search for similarities in things (SA) (A) (N) (DA)


(SDA)

Appendix –V
Teacher Stress Scale (TSS)
(Final-Test)
Dear Teacher Friend,
I expect your valuable and hearty cooperation in my present
Educational Research. I assure that your ideas expressed are
used only to my research and are also kept confidential. Hence, I
request you to kindly given your candid opinion for all the

248
statements. Please encircle your choice category against each
statement and cooperate in this regard.
Yours sincerely,

N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Personnel Data
Please fill in the blanks here under with proper details
relating to you before you answer the questionnaire.
(1) Name :
(2) Sex :
(3) Locality :
(4) Qualification :
(5) Designation :
(6) Teaching Subjects :
(7) Teaching Experience :
(8) Marital Status Status :
(9) Type of Institution :
(10)Type of Management :

TEACHER STRESS

Instruction: In this booklet some situations relating to your Job are


given in the sentence forms. The following five kinds of opinions
are given against to each sentence. Study each sentence
carefully and indicate your opinion, which you agreed to by
encircle against each statement.

(1) Little or no Stress

249
(2) Mild Stress
(3) Moderate Stress
(4) Great Stress

1. To any period actually teaching (1) (2)


(3) (4)

2. No time to relax between Lesson (1) (2)


(3) (4)

3. Individual students who constantly misbehave (1) (2)


(3) (4)

4. Pupil’s non-acceptance of teacher’s authority (1) (2)


(3) (4)

5. Lack of recognition for good teaching


and extra work (1) (2)
(3) (4)

6.Having to teach subjects in which one


is not interested (1) (2)
(3) (4)

7.Having to teach below average students (1) (2)


(3) (4)

8.Noisy classroom and indiscipline in the class (1) (2)


(3) (4)

9.Too much of correction work (1) (2)


(3) (4)

10.Feeling locked up into a routine in job (1) (2)


(3) (4)

11.Lack of interest in studies among students (1) (2)


(3) (4)

12.Lack of time to prepare lessons (1) (2)


(3) (4)

250
13.Maintaining classroom discipline (1) (2)
(3) (4)

14.Excessive work hours devoted to college and


college related duties (1) (2)
(3) (4)

15.Frequent change of duties of work


responsibilities in time table (1) (2)
(3) (4)

16.Insufficient time for completing the


prescribed syllabus (1) (2)
(3) (4)

17.Disruptive class – constant monitoring


of student behaviour (1) (2)
(3) (4)

18.Shortage of equipment, material and


Library facilities (1) (2) (3)
(4)

19.Lack of appreciation of new and


Innovative methods (1) (2)
(3) (4)

20.Lack of time for further study (1) (2) (3)


(4)

21.Not being able to use one’s training or skills fully (1) (2)
(3) (4)

22.Lack of time for personal hobbies, interests or


social activities (1) (2)
(3) (4)

23.Lack of participation in decision making (1) (2)


(3) (4)

24.Low status of the teaching profession (1) (2)


(3) (4)

251
25.Too frequent and poorly organized staff meetings (1) (2)
(3) (4)

26.Having to do private tuition to supplement income (1) (2)


(3) (4)

27.Lack of cooperation from other teachers (1) (2)


(3) (4)

28. Disagreement or conflict with the head (1) (2)


(3) (4)

29.Frequent transfers from one place to other (1) (2)


(3) (4)

30.Too many ‘talks’ and refresher courses (1) (2)


(3) (4)

31.Inadequate salary and financial difficulties (1) (2)


(3) (4)

32.Lack of opportunity for promotion or advancement (1) (2)


(3) (4)

33.Principal unfair/partial in dealing with staff (1) (2)


(3) (4)

34.Disagreement with a colleague (1) (2)


(3) (4)

35.Professional disillusionment (teaching is not


what I thought to be) (1) (2) (3)
(4)

36. Maintaining self-control when angry (1) (2)


(3) (4)

37. Giving more significance to a substandard colleague (1)


(2) (3) (4)

252
38. Taking responsibility for pupil’s success in
examination (1) (2) (3)
(4)

39. Being target of verbal abuses, comment or


throat by students (1) (2)
(3) (4)

40. Trying to maintain and uphold values (1) (2)


(3) (4)

Appendix –VI
Nistala’s Change-Proneness Descriptive Questionnaire
(NCPDQ)
(Final-Test)
Dear Teacher Friend,
I expect your valuable and hearty cooperation in my present
Educational Research. I assure that your ideas expressed are
used only to my research and are also kept confidential. Hence, I
request you to kindly given your candid opinion for all the

253
statements. Please encircle your choice category against each
statement and cooperate in this regard.
Yours sincerely,

N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Personnel Data
Please fill in the blanks here under with proper details
relating to you before you answer the questionnaire.
(1) Name :
(2) Sex :
(3) Locality :
(4) Qualification :
(5) Designation :
(6) Teaching Subjects :
(7) Teaching Experience :
(8) Marital Status Status :
(9) Type of Institution :
(10)Type of Management :

NISTALA’S CHANGE PRONENESS DESCRIPTIVE


QUESTIONNAIRE (NCPDQ)
Instruction: In this booklet some situations relating to your Job are
given in the sentence forms. The following five kinds of opinions
are given against to each sentence. Study each sentence
carefully and indicate your opinion, which you agreed to by
encircle against each statement.
(B) – Always; (O) – Occasionally; (S) – Seldom – and

254
(N) – Never
S.No Description of the CPDQ A O S N
.
1 Do you like to originate new ideas even at
cost of criticism from your colleagues
2 Do you analytically and critically think before
accepting area strategy of teaching
3 Do you lance systematically before
successfully implementing a new technique
4 Do you like to adopt different methods of
teaching a particular concept in a subject
5 Do you hesitate to make to attempt on
something which may fail
6 Do you like try to something new even if it
increasing your work load
7 Do you make use of related any material
other than prescribed text books while
teaching your subject
8 Do you accept that concept of trying out any
new innovation
9 Do you willfully accept new ideas and
concepts
10 Do you shirk to bring new ideas to the
attention of your colleagues and headmasters
11 Do you try out the new strategies even if you
have no freedom
13 Do you willingly participate with your
colleagues by ventilating new ideas, which
emerge in our mind afresh
14 Do you accept new innovations suggested by
other agencies like NCERT, SCERT and
Colleges of Education viable and practicable
15 Will you a make a style of practice even if it
was opposed your headmaster
16 Do your colleagues criticized and comment on
you for trying out new techniques
17 Do you keep yourself abreast with all new
innovation in your field
18 Will you try something which is suggested by
students in your class
19 Do you hesitate in contradicting colloquial of
other schools we innovative new strategies

255
20 Do you try something new as suggested by
expert in any professional journal
21 Do you exhibit persistence and diplomacy in
entertaining a new practice
22 Do you like to discuss abut your new practices
and new ideas
23 Do you like your strategy to be carefully
enlisted by your colleagues even when thee
are conflicting points in it
24 Do you encourage and suggest other teachers
to take up new experiences
25 Do you like to immediately adopt a successful
new strategy innovated by others
26 Do you feel regretted at any time at the
failure of your strategy
27 Do you stop trying out an innovation in order
to maintain relationship with other teachers
28 Do you fee regretted at any time at the failure
of your strategy
29 Do you extend your expertise to any faculty
member who is trying something new
30 Do you really feel that accepting new
strategies will enhance teaching competency

Appendix – VII
Statement showing the list of Secondary Schools selected in
Vizianagaram District for the Research Study
Sample
Place of the of
S.No Name of the Institution
Institution Teachers
. Selected
1 A.P.Residential School Bobbili 14
2 A.P.Residential School Nellimarla 13
3 A.P.Residential School (Girls) Tatipudi 16
4 A.P.Social Welfare Residential Kumarada 12

256
School
5 A.P.Social Welfare Residential Garugubilli 10
School (Girls)
6 A.P.Social Welfare Residential Belagam 11
School
7 A.P.Social Welfare Residential PNBongavalas 13
School a
8 A.P.Social Welfare Residential Badangi 12
School
9 A.P.Social Welfare Residential Kopperla 14
School
10 A.P.Social Welfare Residential Cheepurupalli 13
School
11 M.R.High School Vizianagaram 08
12 M.R.Model High School Vizianagaram 08
13 M.R.Girls High School Vizianagaram 10
14 Samsthanam High School Bobbili 12
15 Mansas English Medium School Vizianagaram 10
16 S.R.High School Shreeramnaga 11
r
17 A.P.S.P.B. High School Chinthalavalas 10
a
18 Government Girls High School Vizianagaram 15
19 Government High School, Parvathipuram 16
Belagam
20 Government M.R.Sanskrit High Vizianagaram 14
School
21 Government Girls High School Parvathipuram 13

Sample
Place of the of
S.No Name of the Institution
Institution Teachers
. Selected
22 Government Girls High Bobbili 12
School

257
23 Government High School Salur 13
24 Government Girls High Salur 11
School
25 Government High School Gajapathinagar 14
am
26 Government Girls High Gajapathinagar 15
School
am
27 Government Girls High Nellimarla 13
School
28 Government High School S.Kota 16
29 Zillah Parishad High School Kotipam 15
29 Zillah Parishad High School Vikrampuram 16
30 Zillah Parishad High School Kurupam 17
31 Zillah Parishad High School Chinamerangi 14
32 Zillah Parishad High School Tallaburidi 16
33 Zillah Parishad High School Narsipuram 12
34 Zillah Parishad High School Logisa 10
35 Zillah Parishad High School Marupalle 15
36 Zillah Parishad High School Nellivada 14
37 Zillah Parishad High School Bondapalle 12
38 Zillah Parishad High School Kella 11
39 Zillah Parishad High School Gurla 13

Sample
Place of the of
S.No Name of the Institution
Institution Teachers
. Selected
40 R.C.M.St.John’s High School Parvathipura 10
m
41 R.C.M.St.Joseph Girls High School Belagam 11
42 C.B.M.High School Bobbili 14

258
43 Saint Ann’s Girls High School Vizianagara 13
m
44 R.C.M.St.Ann’s High School Vizianagara 11
m
45 R.C.M St.Theressa’s Girls High S.Kota 15
School
46 R.C.M.High School, Kondadhaba Kothavalasa 16
47 R.C.M.St.Thomas High School Bobbili 14
48 St.Joseph’s Eng. Med. High School Vizianagara 13
m
49 Mercy Mission Eng. Med. High Pedathadiva 11
School da
50 Municipal High School, Kaspa Vizianagara 13
m
51 Municipal High School, Vizianagara 14
Cantonment m
52 B.P.M. Municipal High School Vizianagara 16
m
53 Municipal High School Saluru 12
54 PSR Municipal High School Bobbili 13
55 SVGP Municipal High School Bobbili 14
56 TRM Municipal High School Parvathipura 11
m
57 K.P. Municipal High School Parvathipura 13
m
58 D.V.M. Municipal High School Parvathipura 12
m
59 KAN Municipal High School Saluru 15

259
Sample
Place of the of
S.No Name of the Institution
Institution Teachers
. Selected
60 Gurajada Public School Vizianagara 11
m
61 Bhashyam High School Vizianagara 16
m
62 Sun High School Vizianagara 16
m
63 Gowtham High School Therlam 14
64 Shabdam High School for DEA Garividi 12
65 Siddhartha High School Cheepurupall 11
e
66 Vijeta High School Balijipeta 13
67 Sri Surya Public School Gantyada 11
68 Oxford English Medium High S.Kota 10
School
69 T.V.K.High School Jami 09
70 Victory High School Vepada 10

260