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SEMINAR PAPER ON THE PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN OHIMINI LOCAL GOVERNMENT PRESENTED BY ODEGA

RACHEAL DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE ZOOLOGY RE/13020/08 SUPERVISED BY: MR MANYI M.M. SUMMARY Entamoeba histolytica is a causative organism of amoebiasis which is pathogenic to man and has cosmopolitan distribution infection of entamoeba is commonly result in amoebic dysentery though other mammal such as dogs and cats can become infectable but usually do not shed cysts with their feaces thus, do not contribute significantly to transmission. Entamoeba histolytica has a worldwide distribution, but clinical diseases occurs most frequently in tropical and sub tropical countries in certain areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin American. The prevalence of asymtomatic infection range from ranges from 5% to more than 80% (Adetokumbo and Herbert, 2003) while exact prevalence of its dysentery form in the tropical and sub tropical where it is reportedly endermic is largely unknow(Njok nam, et al, 2005). The mode of transmission of this parasite is basically by direct contact through contaminated hands,foods and dust. INTRODUCTION Entamoeba histolytica is a parasite of the phylum protozoan and subphylum scarcodina class rhizopoda order amobida family entamoebidae. It causes amoebiasis which is still a big problem of human civillazation at the beginning of 21st century so, approximately 50 million people worldwide sufer from this disease per year and 40000 died due to dysentery, intestinal disease and liver abscess. The parasite reproduce asexually through binary fission during trophozoite stage . each unencysted tetra nucleated parasite that occur produces eight uni-nucleated amoebae by splitting, thus causing infection in the host intestine then finds it way into colon. Symptom include fulminating diarrhoae, weight lose, fatigue, and abdominal pains. It can bore into intestinal wall causing lesion and reaching organs of the body such as liver, lung, brain and spleen. (Ryan K.J and Ray C.G, 2004). Amoebic dysentery may be asymptomatic over a long period of time, but

infected individuals still cysts. This parasite can be diagnosed by stool examination. (Dr Charlie E.2011). treatment usually by using two different sort of drugs to read infection in two different location. Metronidozole or a related drugs such as tinidazoce, secridazole or orindazole is used to destroy amoebae that have invaded tissue.they are absorbed in the blood stream and transport rapidly to the infection site. Paramogcin (itumatin), Dilozanide furoate (furamide). Iodogurno (yodoxm) are use for treating intestinal infection. OBJECTIVES OF THE REVIEW. This work was designed with following aims To study the overall prevalence E histolytica among primary school children in Ohimini LGA Benue State Nigeria. To study the relationship between sex, age and occupation of children parents in the Local Government Area. To recommend control measure for the disease in light of the research findings. JUSTIFICATION From the previous time to this year many authors have done a lot works concerning entamoeba histolytica infection. Still, than the number of primary school children complaining of abdominal pains, diarrhoae and fever which are some of the clinical signs of amoebiasis is still increasing, so I have to discovered from this research that there is limitation of work in many areas of endermic region therefore, I carried out this research in Ohimini LGA to determine the exact prevalence of E histolytica and as well to recommend measures for this parasitic disease of amoebiasis.

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