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LAPORAN TUGAS STATISTIK

DISTRIBUSI SAMPLING















Dosen :
dr. Luknis Sabri, M.Kes

Disusun oleh :
Nida Khoiriah2009730101
Nia Az-zahra Marish200970035
Kartika Eka Wulandari2009730089



PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN DOKTER
FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN DAN KESEHATAN
UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH JAKARTA
JAKARTA
2011


KATA PENGANTAR

Dengan memanjatkan puji dan syukur atas kehadirat Allah SWT yang telah
memberikan bimbingan dan petunjuk-Nya, sehingga kami dapat menyelesaikan
Laporan Tugas Statsistika sesuai pada waktu yang telah ditentukan. Laporan yang
telah kami susun ini dikerjakan berdasarkan kerjasama kelompok, serta tambahan
masukan dan bantuan dari rekan-rekan di kampus UMJ sehingga kami mendapat
banyak inspirasi dan tambahan wawasan mengenai Muatal Lokal Statistik.
Tujuan disusunnya laporan ini adalah sebagai dasar kewajiban dari suatu
proses kegiatan yang kami lakukan yang kemudian diaplikasikan dalam bentuk
praktiknya sebagai proses pembelajaran secara kolaboratiI sehingga kami dapat
melihat, mengetahui, menerima dan menyerap materi dalam diskusi kelompok secara
baik dan sistematis.
Penyusunan laporan ini juga dimaksudkan untuk memberitahukan dan
mempertanggungjawabkan semua kegiatan-kegiatan dan pengalaman baru yang kami
dapatkan selama mengikuti perkuliahan Muatan Lokal Statistik. Melalui laporan ini
kami mengucapkan terima kasih kepada :
1. dr. Luknis Sabri, M.Kes sebagai dosen Muatan Lokal Statistik kami.
2. Rekan-rekan mahasiswa yang tidak dapat kami sebutkan satu persatu.

Tak lupa kiranya kami memohon untuk diberikan saran dan kritik, karena
kami menyadari laporan ini kurang dari kata sempurna.
Jakarta, November 2011

Penyusun



PENDAHULUAN
Distribusi sampling adalah distribusi dari mean-mean sampel yang secara berulang
kali dari suatu populasi.

QUESTIONS
1. ReIer to the population oI Exercise 6.8. .5)
a. What is the standard error oI the mean Ior n 16 ?
b. What is the standard error oI the mean Ior n 64 ?
c. What is true about the relationship between n and SE (x) ?
Answers
Diketahui :
50 tahun
o 12 tahun
n
a. 16
b. 64

Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
a. SE o
\n
SE 12 tahun 3
\16

b. SE 12 tahun 1,5
\64

c. Nilai SE akan menurun atau berkurang ketika 'n bertambah atau meningkat.



. Suppose heights oI 20-year-old men are approximately normally distributed with a
mean oI 71 in and a population standard deviation oI 5 in. A random sample oI
IiIteen 20-year-old men is selected and measured. Find the probability that the
sample mean x .6)
a. Is at least 77 in.
b. Lies between 65 and 75 in.
c. Is not more than 63 in.
Answers
Diketahui :
71 in
o 5
n 15
SE o
n
5 1,29
\15
Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
a. P in)
x
SE
77 in 71 in
1,29
4,65 in

-. P 65 in < < 5 in)
x
SE

1
65 in 71 in
1,29
- 4,65 4,65 in

2
75 in 71 in
1,29
3,10 in

.. P ^ 63 in)
x
SE
63 in 71 in
1,29
- 6,20 6,20 in

3. II the mean length oI newborn inIants is 52,5 cm and the standard deviations is 4,5
cm, what is the probability that the mean oI a sample oI (a) size 10 and (b) size 15
greater than 56 cm ? .)
Answers
Diketahui :
52,5 cm
o 4,5 cm
n
a. 10
b. 15
Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
P (x ~ 56 cm)
a. SE o
\n
4,5 cm 1,42
\10
P (x ~ 56 cm) dengan SE 1,42 adalah :
56 cm 52,5 cm 2,46 cm
1,42
Luas Area 0,4932 0,5 0,4932 0,0068

b. SE 4,5 cm
\15
1,16
P (x ~ 56 cm) dengan SE 1,16 adalah :
56 cm 52,5 cm
1,16
3,01
Luas Area 0,4987 0,5 0,4987 0,0013
4. Suppose that the mean weight iI inIants born in a community is 3360 g and o
490 g. .8)
a. Find P (2300 x 4300)
b. Find P (x ^ 2500)
c. Find P (x _ 5000)
What must you assume about the distribution oI birth weights to make the answers
to (a), (b), and (c) valid ?
Answers
Diketahui :
3360 g
o 490 g
Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
x -
o
a. P 300 g < < 4300 g)

1
2300 g 3360 g
490 g
- 2,16 2,16
Luas Area 0,4846

2
4300 g 3360 g
490 g
1,91
Luas Area 0,4719

1

2
0,4846 0,4719
0,9565

-. P ^500 g)
2500 g 3360 g
490 g
- 1,75 1,75 g
Luas Area 0,4599 0,5 0,4599 0,0401

.. P 5000 g)
5000 g 3360 g
490 g
3,34

5. Suppose you select a sample oI 49 inIants Irom the population described in
Exercise 7.8. .9)
a. What are the mean and standard deviation error oI this sampling distribution ?
b. Find P (3100 x 3600)
c. Find P (x 2500)
d. Find P (x ~ 3540)
What must you assume about the distribution oI birth weights to make the answers
to (b), (c), and (d) valid ?
Answer
a. 3360 g, SE 490 g
\49
70


-. P 3100 < < 3600)

1
3100 g 3360 g
70
-3,71 g 3,71

2
3600 g 3360 g
70
3,42

.. P < 500)
2500 g 3360 g
70
- 12, 28 g 12,28
/. P > 3540)
3540 g 3360 g
70
2,57
Luas Area 0,4949 0,5 0,4949 0,0051

6. II the mean number oI cigarettes smoked by pregnant women is 16 and the
standard deviation is 8, Iind the probability that in a random sample 100 pregnant
women the number oI cigarettes smoked will be greater than 24. .10)
Answers
Diketahui :
16 rokok
o 8 rokok
n 100 orang
SE 8 rokok
\100 orang
0,8
Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
P (x ~ 24)
24 rokok 16 rokok
0,8
10 rokok

7. a. Describe the three main points oI central limit theorem.
b. What conditions must we met Ior the central limit theorem to be applicable ?
c. Explain why the central limit theorem plays such an important role in inIerential
statistics. .11)

Answere
a. Tiga point utama CLT, yaitu :
1. Mean dari distribusi sampling harga mean (DSM) sama dengan
2. Standar deviasi DSM Standar Error (SE) o/\n
3. Kalau populasi berdisttribusi normal maka DSM juga akan normal,
kalau populasi tidak normal, kalau n cukup besar maka DSM juga akan
normal.
b. CLT dapat di aplikasikan apabila sampel yang ditarik sudah representatiI
maka hasilnya akan dapat diambil meng-estimasi harga populasi, jadi
terlihat bahwa suatu penelitian tidak perlu menarik sampel berulang kali.

c. Karena, statistik inIerens adalah semua cara atau metode yang
dipergunakan untuk menggeneralisasi hasil dari suatu sampel menjadi
hasil populasi.

8. a. Describes the diIIerence between the distribution oI observation Irom a
population and a distribution oI its sample means. .1) :
Distribusi dari observasi lebih bervariabel dari distribusi sample harga
mean.
Distribusi sample harga mean punya rata-rata yang sama dengan distribusi
parent, tetapi lebih sedikit variannya.

b. What are the diIIerence between the standard deviation and the standard error ?
Standar deviasi adalah satuan pengukuran dari variasi individual 'x
Standar eror adalah satuan pengukuran dari variasi sample 'x yang
diekspresikan dalam mean dengan konsekuensi jumlah yang kecil.


c. When would we want to use the standard deviation, and when the standard
error ?
Ketika membicarakan individual 'x, memungkinkan menggunakan
standar deviasi
Dalam membuat kesimpulan tentang rata-rata sample kelompok mean,
maka kita menggunakan standar error.

9. II the cholesterol level oI men in the community is normally distributed with a
mean oI 200 and a standard deviation oI 25, what is the probability that a randomly
selected sample oI 49 men will have a mean between 190 and 205 ? .14)
Answers
Diketahui :
200 mg/dL
o 25 mg/dL
n 49 laki-laki
SE 25 mg/dL
\49 laki-laki
3,57
Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
P 190 mg//L < < 05 mg//L)

1
190 mg/dL 200 mg/dL
3,57
- 2,80 mg/dL 2,80 mg/dL
Luas Area 0,4974

2
205 mg/dL 200 mg/dL
3,57
1,40

Luas Area 0,4192
P (190 mg/dL x 205 mg/dL) 0,4974 0,4192
0,9166


10. Compare the critical value ( 1,96) that corresponds to 5 oI the tail area
oI the normal distribution with critical values oI the t distribution Ior dI 9, 19, 29,
and . As the degree oI Ireedom increases (which means that the sample size
increases), what happens to the values oI t compared with the value oI ? Explain
why this is occurring ? .15)

Answer
The number oI /egrees of free/om is the number oI values in the Iinal calculation
oI a statistic that are Iree to vary.
Estimates oI statistical parameters can be based upon diIIerent amounts oI
inIormation or data. The number oI independent pieces oI inIormation that go into
the estimate oI a parameter is called the degrees oI Ireedom (dI). In general, the
degrees oI Ireedom oI an estimate oI a parameter is equal to the number oI
independent scores that go into the estimate minus the number oI parameters used
as intermediate steps in the estimation oI the parameter itselI (which, in sample
variance, is one, since the sample mean is the only intermediate step)A common
way to think oI degrees oI Ireedom is as the number oI independent pieces oI
inIormation available to estimate another piece oI inIormation. More concretely,
the number oI degrees oI Ireedom is the number oI independent observations in a
sample oI data that are available to estimate a parameter oI the population Irom
which that sample is drawn. For example, iI we have two observations, when
calculating the mean we have two independent observations; however, when
calculating the variance, we have only one independent observation, since the two
observations are equally distant Irom the mean.In Iitting statistical models to data,
the vectors oI residuals are constrained to lie in a space oI smaller dimension than
the number oI components in the vector. That smaller dimension is the number
oI /egrees of free/om for error.
Any oI the unrestricted, independent random variables that constitute a
statistic. EIIectively the count oI observations, within a set oI such, that could be
altered independently without changing one or more statistics relating to the set.
For a set oI n observations with a known mean, the degrees oI Ireedom n - 1,
since all but one could be changed with compensating change only to one other to
produce the same mean. II the set is an array with m columns and n rows, and
column totals are known, then the degrees oI Ireedom (m - 1) n; iI both column
and row totals are known, the degrees oI Ireedom (m - 1) (n 1)

11. II the Iorced vital capacity oI 11-year-old white males is normally distributed
with a mean oI 2400 cc and o 400, Iind the probability that a sample oI size n
64 will provide a mean .16)
a. Greater than 2500
b. Between 2300 and 2500
c. Less than 2350
Answers :
2400 cc
o 400
n 64
SE 400
\64
50
a. P > 500 ..)
2500 cc 2400 cc
50
2,00
Luas Area 0,4772 0,5 0,4772 0,0228
-. P 300 .. < < 500 ..)

1
2300 cc 2400 cc
50
- 2, 00 2,00
Luas Area 0,4772

2
2500 cc 2400 cc
50
2,00
Luas Area 0,4772
Jadi, P (2300 cc x 2500 cc) 0,4772 0,4772
0,9544
.. P < 350 ..)
2350 cc 2400 cc
50
- 1,00 1,00
Luas Area 0,3413 0,5 0,3413 0,1587

12. a. Find the standard error in Exercise 7.16 ?
b. II you want SE (x) to be one-halI its size Exercise 7.16, how large a sample
would you need to have ? .1)
Answer :
a. SE 400
\64
50
b. 75 400/ \n \n 400/75 5.33 n 28.44

13. Suppose systolic blood pressure oI 17-year-old Iemales is approximately
normally distributed with a mean oI 118 mmHg and a standard deviation oI 12
mmHg. .18)
a. What proportion oI girls would you expect to have blood pressure between 112
mmHg and 124 mmHg ?
b. II you were to select a sample oI 16 girls and obtain their mean systolic blood
pressure, what proportion oI such samples would you expect between 112
mmHg and 124 mmHg ?
.. Compare the results oI (a) and (b), and explain the reason Ior the diIIerence.
Answers
Diketahui :
118 mmHg
o 12 mmHg


Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
a. P 11 mmHg < < 14 mmHg)

1
112 mmHg 118 mmHg
112 mmHg
- 0,05 0,05
Luas Area 0,199

2
124 mmHg 118 mmHg
112 mmHg
0,05
Luas Area 0,199

1

2
0,199 0,199
0,3980

b. Diketahui n 16 orang wanita
Ditanyakan dan Jawaban :
P 11 mmHg < < 14 mmHg)
SE 12 mmHg
\16 orang
3

1
112 mmHg 118 mmHg
3
- 2,00 2,00
Luas Area 0,4772

2
124 mmHg 118 mmHg
3
2,00
Luas Area 0,4772

1

2
0,4772 0,4772
0,9544

c. In (a) we using individual blood pressure oI a girl
In (b) we using on 16/n 16 girl blood pressure


14. For data that normally distributed, how much area is included under the
normal curve .19)
a. Within 1o
b. With 1 SE (x) Ior a distribution oI sample means
Compare (a) and (b), and state why the results do or do not surprise you.

Wassalamu alaikum Wr.Wb