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Cbapter : Psycbosocial Development in Adolescence

l Lrlkson's Crlsls of ldenLlLy versus Confuslon

a SLruggle Lo become an adulL wlLh unlque sense of self and role ln socleLy
l Adolescence provldes psychosoclal moraLorlum or 'Llme ouL' perlod Lo explore
ll Powever seldom fully resolved ln adolescence
ll 8esolvlng Lrlkson's ldenLlLy Crlsls
a Successful resoluLlon leads Lo 'fldellLy'
l leellng of belonglngness Lo frlends or famlly
ll ldenLlflcaLlon wlLh a seL of values
b 1he danger ls ldenLlLy confuslon
l AlLhough some degree of confuslon ls normal
lll ComponenLs of ldenLlLy
a AdolescenLs aLLempL Lo resolve Lhree lssues
b Cholce of occupaLlon
c AdopLlon of values
d uevelopmenL of sexual ldenLlLy
lv Marcla ldenLlLy SLaLus
a ldenLlLy AchlevemenL
l Crlsls leadlng Lo commlLmenL
b loreclosure
l CommlLmenL wlLhouL crlsls
c MoraLorlum
l Crlsls wlLh no commlLmenL yeL
d ldenLlLy Confuslon
l no commlLmenL no crlsls
v ldenLlLy lormaLlon Cender ulfferences
a 8ole of relaLlonshlps
l uo females develop a sense of self Lhrough formlng relaLlonshlps? C8
ll ls ldenLlLy a sLruggle for lndependence and connecLedness regardless of
b SelfesLeem
l uo glrls have lower selfesLeem Lhan boys?
vl lour SLages of LLhnlc ldenLlLy
a lor many young people ln mlnorlLy groups race or eLhnlclLy ls cenLral Lo ldenLlLy
l ulffuse
ll loreclosed
lll MoraLorlum
lv Achleved
vll 8aclal/LLhnlc ldenLlLy
a ConnecLedness Lo one's eLhnlc group
b Awareness of raclsm
c Lmbedded achlevemenL
d CulLural soclallzaLlonparenLal pracLlces LhaL Leach chlldren abouL raclal or eLhnlc
herlLage promoLe culLural cusLoms LradlLlons and culLural prlde
vlll WhaL ls Sexual CrlenLaLlon?
a locus of conslsLenL sexual romanLlc and affecLlonaLe lnLeresL
l Pomosexual persons of same sex
ll PeLerosexual persons of opposlLe sex
lll 8lsexual persons of boLh sexes
lv lsolaLed experlences do noL deLermlne orlenLaLlon
lx 8lologlcal vlews of Sexual CrlenLaLlon
a Conclude orlenLaLlon ls aL leasL ln parL geneLlc moderaLely herlLable
l Slze of hypoLhalamus
ll heromone sLudles
lll CenderaLyplcal behavlor ln chlldhood
lv ulfferences ln sexual arousal
x Pomosexual or 8lsexual ldenLlLy
a Cay lesblan or blsexual adolescenLs ofLen feel lsolaLed ln a hosLlle envlronmenL
l 1here ls no assoclaLlon beLween homosexual orlenLaLlon and emoLlonal or
soclal problems
ll aparL from Lhose caused by socleLal LreaLmenL of homosexuals
b Sexual ldenLlLy becomes more complex and follows a lessdeflned LlmeLable
xl Sexual 8ehavlor
a Average age aL flrsL lnLercourse
l lemales 17 years
ll Males 16 years
b 1op reasons for nC1 havlng sex
l 8ellglon or morals
ll noL wanLlng Lo geL (or geL a glrl) pregnanL
xll lacLors AssoclaLed wlLh Larly Sex
a Larly puberLy
b overLy
c oor school performance
d PlsLory of sexual abuse
e neglecL
f CulLural or famlly paLLerns
g ercepLlon of peer norms
xlll use of ConLracepLlves
a Who uses conLracepLlon durlng flrsL lnLercourse?
l 83 of glrls and 91 of boys
ll 1he older a glrl ls aL her flrsL lnLercourse Lhe greaLer Lhe llkellhood she wlll use
b 8esL safeguard ls condoms
l roLecLlon agalnsL S1us and pregnancy
xlv Where do 1eens geL lnformaLlon abouL Sex?
a lrlends
b arenLs
c Sex educaLlon aL school
d AbsLlnence only debaLes
e Medla
xv WhaL 1ype of Sex LducaLlon Works?
a Works
l rograms LhaL encourage absLlnence Anu dlscuss S1u prevenLlon and safesex
ll uelay lnlLlaLlon lncreases conLracepLlon use
b uoes noL Work
l AbsLlnence Cnly/vlrglnlLy ledges
1 uo noL delay lnlLlaLlon
xvl S1us and regnancy 8lsks of AdolescenL Sex
a 1eens aL hlghesL rlsk
l ?ounger
ll MulLlple parLners
lll noL regularly uslng conLracepLlon
lv Mlslnformed abouL conLracepLlon
xvll Sexually 1ransmlLLed ulsease (S1u) revalence
a AbouL 1 ln 4 new cases ln Lhe uS occurs among 1319 year olds
b revalence ln Leens due Lo
l Larly sexual acLlvlLy
ll lallure Lo use condoms or use Lhem correcLly
lll 1endency for glrls Lo have older parLners
xvlll MosL revalenL S1us
a Pv
b 1rlchomonlasls
c CenlLal Perpes Slmplex
d Chlamydla and gonorrhea (boLh curable)
xlx 1eens and Plv
a Cf 41 mllllon new lnfecLlons abouL half are ln young people 1324 years old
b ln Lhe uS 1 ln 4 people llvlng wlLh Plv were lnfecLed ln Lhelr Leenage years
c Larly deLecLlon lmporLanL
xx 1eenage regnancy 1rends
xxl 1ralLs of 1een MoLhers
a Many are sexually lnexperlenced
b Many grew up wlLhouL a faLher
c Llkely as chlldren Lo have been abused and/or exposed Lo parenLal dlvorce
d Llkely exposed Lo subsLance abuse
e Llkely exposed Lo famlly member wlLh menLal lllness or crlmlnal behavlor
xxll 1eenage arenLs
a 1een moLhers aL rlsk for
l uropplng ouL of school or belng poorly educaLed
ll llnanclal hardshlp
lll AddlLlonal pregnancles
b 1eenage faLhers
l LlmlLed flnanclal resources poor academlc performance and hlgh dropouL raLes
xxlll Chlldren of 1eenage MoLhers
a AL lncreased rlsk for
b remaLurlLy and low blrLhwelghL
c leLal neonaLal or lnfanL deaLh
d PealLh and academlc problems
e Abuse and neglecL
f uevelopmenLal dlsablllLles
xxlv revenLlng 1eenage regnancy
a WhaL are uS raLes so hlgh?
l 8educed sLlgma on unwed moLherhood
ll Medla glorlflcaLlon of sex
lll Lack of clear message abouL sex and parenLhood
lv Chlldhood sexual abuse
v lallure of parenLs Lo communlcaLe wlLh chlldren
vl Less conLracepLlve use
b 8equlres mulLlfaceLed soluLlon
xxv ls AdolescenL 8ebelllon a MyLh?
a SLereoLype of adolescenL rebelllon
l A Llme of emoLlonal Lurmoll
ll ConfllcL wlLhln Lhe famlly
lll AllenaLlon from adulL socleLy
lv 8eckless behavlor
v 8e[ecLlon of adulL values
b Cnly 1 ln 3 Leens flLs Lhls paLLern
xxvl AdolescenL use of 1lme
a uS Leens have a greaL deal of dlscreLlonary Llme
b 1lme wlLh famlly members decllnes dramaLlcally
c More Llme ls spenL alone and wlLh opposlLe sex
d Weekend parLylng ls common for older Leens
e AfrlcanAmerlcan Leens spend more Llme wlLh famlly Lhan whlLe Leens
xxvll AdolescenLs and lamlly ConfllcL
a lndlvlduaLlonadolescenL's sLruggle for auLonomy and personal ldenLlLy
b MosL argumenLs over dayLoday maLLers
l Chores
ll School work
lll uress
lv Money
v Curfew
vl uaLlng frlends
xxvlll lacLors 1haL AffecL AdolescenL lamlly ConfllcL
a arenLlng sLyle
b lamlly sLrucLure
c MoLhers' employmenL
d Lconomlc sLress
xxlx AdolescenLs and Slbllngs
a 1eens are less close Lo slbllngs Lhan Lo parenLs or peers
l Less lnfluenced by Lhelr slbllngs Lhan when younger
ll 8ecome more dlsLanL from slbllngs LhroughouL adolescence
b Slbllng relaLlons Lend Lo reflecL parenLs' marlLal relaLlonshlp and parenLchlld relaLlons
xxx AdolescenLs Crowds
a Crowds serve several purposes
l Pelp esLabllsh Leen ldenLlLy
ll 8elnforce alllances
lll Makes lL easler Lo make frlendshlps wlLhln Lhe same group
xxxl AdolescenL Cllques
a Cllque A sLrucLured group of frlends
b 8ecome more common ln adolescence
c Membershlp Lypes
l Member Lles are Lo one group
ll Llalson Lles Lo more Lhan one group
lll lsolaLe noL connecLed Lo any group
d Cllques can be harsh Lo ouLslders
xxxll AdolescenL lrlendshlps
a More lmporLanL Lhan ln any oLher llfe perlod
b More reclprocal and sLable Lhan ln chlldhood
c lncreased lnLlmacy
d AdolescenLs choose frlends slmllar ln
l Cender
ll 8ace/eLhnlclLy
lll Academlc aLLlLude
lv 8lsky or problem behavlor
xxxlll AdolescenL 8omanLlc 8elaLlonshlps
a ConLrlbuLe Lo developmenL of lnLlmacy and ldenLlLy
b lnclude rlsk of S1us and pregnancy
c AffecLs quallLy of relaLlonshlp wlLh parenLs and peers
xxxlv 1wo hases of 1een 8omanLlc 8elaLlonshlps
a Mlxed groups or group daLes
b Cneonone relaLlonshlps lnvolvlng lnLlmacy
xxxv AnLlsoclal behavlor
a 1ends Lo run ln famllles
b May have geneLlc base
c May lnclude neuroblologlcal deflclLs
d Larly CnseLbeglnnlng by age 11
e LaLe onseLafLer puberLy
xxxvl 8ecomlng a uellnquenL
a An lnLeracLlon beLween lnfluences
b arenLal
l AuLhorlLaLlve parenLlng may proLecL agalnsL dellnquency
ll Shaplng of prosoclal or anLlsoclal behavlor
c eers
l Slmllar ln achlevemenL and soclal Lendencles
d CommunlLy
l CollecLlve efflcacy how do nelghbors supporL each oLher?
xxxvll revenLlng uellnquency lnLervenLlon rograms
a Cffer famlly asslsLance and supporL
b Pelp wlLh lnLeracLlons beLween home school
c CreaLe supporLlve parenL neLworks
d Cffer followup servlces afLerschool acLlvlLles
e revenL gang recrulLmenL
f Cffer adulLgulded supporL groups