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Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation For Three Level Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Manish G Prajapati 1 ,Jiger S Patel 2 and Dr Hina Chandwani 3

1 & 2 Student,Dept. of Electrical Engineering, The M.S.U Baroda, Gujarat, India 3 Assis. Professor, Dept of Electrical Engineering, The M.S.U Baroda, Gujarat, India

E-Mail Id :- manish.er570@gmail.com, hinachandwani@gmail.com

Abstract Space vector Pulse Width Modulation variable speed drives are increasingly applied in Many new industrial applications that require superior performance. In the proposed scheme, three-level space vector PWM inverter is easily simulated as conventional two-level space vector PWM inverter. Therefore, the proposed method can also be applied to multilevel inverters. In this Scheme V/Hz (Scalar control) ratio maintain constant in order to get constant Torque over the entire operating range. There is an increasing trend of using space vector PWM (SVPWM) because of their easier digital realization and better dc bus utilization. The model of a three-phase voltage source inverter is discussed based on space vector theory. Simulation results are obtained using PSIM Software with a 45- KW (60 Hp) motor drive. Test result are given for effectiveness of the study. Index TermsThree Level Inverter, space vector modulation (SVM), Scalar control (Constant V/Hz)

I.

INTRODUCTION

T HE THREE-Level inverter topology has attracted attention in

high power High performances voltage drive applications. [1]. With increase of semi conductor technology voltage source inverter have been extending its application area widely. Standard two level inverter is composed of only one switching cell per phase but the three level inverter has two switching cell per phase. Three level diode clamped (Neutral point ) inverter is most favourable among the various multi level configuration[2]. The diode clamped inverter employs clamping diode and series DC capacitor to produce AC voltage waveform with three level. Three-level voltage-fed PWM inverters are recently showing popularity for multi- megawatt industrial drive applications [3]. The main reason for this popularity is that the output voltage waveforms in multilevel inverters can be generated at low switching frequencies with high efficiency and low distortion and large voltage between the series devices is easily shared. SVPWM technique results in higher magnitude of fundamental output voltage available as compared to sinusoidal PWM. However, SVPWM algorithm used in three-level inverters is more complex because of large number of inverter switching states.

The switching states for n-level multilevel inverters are given by n n . For three level switching states are 3 3 = 27. In this paper simulation of a multilevel inverter using NPC inverters with DC sources have been performed with 60 Hp

Induction motor on load using PSim Software. In multilevel inverters, it is easy to reach high voltage levels in high power applications with lower harmonic distortion and switching frequency, which is very difficult to get this performance with conventional two level inverters.

II. SPACE VECTOR PWM METHOD FOR THREE LEVEL DIODE CLAMPED INVERTER

Fig.1 shows a schematic drawing of a multilevel inverter using Diode clamped inverters. The diode-clamped

multilevel inverter employs clamping diodes and cascaded dc capacitors to produce ac voltage waveforms with multiple levels. The inverter leg A is composed of four active switches

S1

to S4 with four anti parallel diodes D1 to D4. On the dc side

of

the inverter, the dc bus capacitor is split into two, providing

a neutral point n. The diodes connected to the neutral point,

Dn1 and Dn2, are the clamping diodes. When switches S2 and

S3 are turned on, the inverter output terminal A is connected to

the neutral point through one of the clamping diodes. The voltage across each of the dc capacitors is V dc /2, which is normally equal to half of the total dc voltage Vdc.

is normally equal to half of the total dc voltage V dc . Fig. 1. Three-phase

Fig. 1. Three-phase voltage source PWM Inverter

A three-level inverter is characterized by 3 3 = 27switching

states as indicated in Fig.2 where the space vector diagram for

the three-level inverter which is divided into the six sectors (I, II, III, IV, V, and VI) is also shown. There are 24 active states, and three zero states that lie at the center of the hexagon. Each sector has four regions (1,2,3,4) [4]. The switching states of the inverter are summarized in Table I.

Switching state „P‟ denotes that the upper two switches in leg

A are on and the inverter terminal voltage Van which is the

voltage at terminal A with respect to the neutral point n, is +Vdc/2, whereas „N‟ indicates that the lower two switches conduct, leading to Van = Vdc/2. Switching state „O‟

signifies that the inner two switches S2 and S3 are on and Van

is clamped to zero through the clamping diodes. Depending on

the direction of load current[10]. It can be observed from Table 1 that switches S1 and S3 operate in a complementary manner. With one switched on, the other must be off. Similarly, S2 and S4 are a complementary pair as well.

Table 1

Switchi

Device Switching State ( Phase a)

Pole

ng

Voltage

State

S

1

S

2

S

3

S

4

Va

P

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

+ Vdc/2

0

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

0

N

OFF

OFF

ON

ON

- Vdc/2

ON OFF 0 N OFF OFF ON ON - Vdc/2 Fig 2 Division of sectors and

Fig 2 Division of sectors and regions.

The principle of SVPWM method is that the command voltage vector is approximately calculated by using three adjacent vectors. The duration of each voltage vectors is obtained by vector calculations;

T 1 V 1 +T 2 V 2 +T 3 =T S V *

T 1 + T 2 + T 3 = T S

(2.1)

(2.2)

where V1, V2, and V3 are vectors that define the triangle region

in which V * is located. T1, T2 and T3 are the corresponding

vector durations and Ts is the sampling time. In a three-level inverter similar to a two-level inverter, each space vector diagram is divided into 6 sectors. For simplicity here only the switching patterns for Sector A will be defined so that calculation technique for the other sectors will be similar. Sector A is divided into 4 regions as shown in Fig.3 where all the possible switching states for each region are given as well.

SVPWM for three-level inverters can be implemented by using the steps of sector determination, determination of the region in the sector, calculating the switching times, Ta, Tb, Tc and finding the switching states.

times, T a , T b , T c and finding the switching states. Fig 3

Fig 3 Voltage vectors and their dwell times.

III. DESIGN STEPS FOR SVPWM GENERATION

A. Determining the sector

Speedref

FOR SVPWM GENERATION A. Determining the sector Speedref Pole Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3
FOR SVPWM GENERATION A. Determining the sector Speedref Pole Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3
FOR SVPWM GENERATION A. Determining the sector Speedref Pole Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3
FOR SVPWM GENERATION A. Determining the sector Speedref Pole Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3
FOR SVPWM GENERATION A. Determining the sector Speedref Pole Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3

Pole

Freq

Vref

Ma

120

A. Determining the sector Speedref Pole Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3 Vref Fbase Vdc

Vbase

Freq 3 Vref Fbase Vdc

Theta

2 π
2
π
Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3 Vref Fbase Vdc Theta 2 π Frequency time (2.3)
Freq Vref Ma 120 Vbase Freq 3 Vref Fbase Vdc Theta 2 π Frequency time (2.3)

Frequency time

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

(2.6)

θn is calculated from above equation and then the sector, in which the command vector V* is located, is determined as;

If θn is between 0° <= θn < 60°, then V* will be in Sector 1, If θn is between 60° <= θn < 120°, then V* will be in Sector 2, If θn is between 120° <= θn < 180°, then V* will be in Sector 3, If θn is between 180° <= θn < 240°, then V* will be in Sector 4, If θn is between 240° <= θn < 300°, then V* will be in Sector 5, If θn is between 300° <= θn < 360°, then V* will be in Sector 6,

B Determining the Region & Simplified Calculation of Duty Cycles

The theoretical maximum length of the normalized reference vector is the two-unity value. However, in steady-state

vector is the two-unity value. However, in steady-state conditions, its length is limited to due to
vector is the two-unity value. However, in steady-state conditions, its length is limited to due to

conditions, its length is limited to due to the fact that longer lengths of this vector will be outside of the vector- diagram hexagon, and thus cannot be generated by modulation. Over modulation is produced if the normalized

by modulation. Over modulation is produced if the normalized reference vector assumes lengths longer than for
by modulation. Over modulation is produced if the normalized reference vector assumes lengths longer than for

reference vector assumes lengths longer than for some positions of this vector, but it can never be outside of the hexagon. In fig, the reference vector is decomposed into the axes located at zero and sixty degrees, obtaining projections m 1 and m 2 , respectively.

----------------------- (2.6) --------------------------------(2.7) PNN SECTOR 1 4 PPO PON OON 2 mi 3 1 OOO

----------------------- (2.6)

--------------------------------(2.7) PNN SECTOR 1 4 PPO PON OON 2 mi 3 1 OOO POO PNN
--------------------------------(2.7)
PNN
SECTOR 1
4
PPO
PON
OON
2
mi
3
1
OOO
POO
PNN
PPP
ONN

NNN

1 1
1 1

Fig. 4 Projections of the normalized reference vector in the region-1

In general, these values are the direct duty cycles of the vectors, as in the Table-2 summarizes to ascertain the region where the reference vector lies and the duty cycles of the nearest three vectors in the first sector. Same duty cycles can be used for others sectors of stationary vectors.

Table 2 SUMMARY OF DUTY CYCLES FOR SVPWM SCHEME

vectors. Table 2 SUMMARY OF DUTY CYCLES FOR SVPWM SCHEME C Finding the switching states By

C Finding the switching states

By considering the switching transition of only one device at any time, the switching orders given below are obtained for

each region located in Sector 1 if all switching states in each region are used.

Therefore, switching signals for Sector 1are, Region 1: - ---, 0--, 00-, 000, +00, ++0, +++ Region 2: - 0--, 00-, +0-, +00, ++0 Region 3: - 0--, +--, +0-, +00 Region 4: - 00-, +0-, ++-, ++0

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Three level inverter is also simulated on a 45 kW (60 Hp)

4-Pole, 415 volts three-phase induction motor at no load with open loop V/f control. Fig shows the simulation circuit diagram of three level inverter. The scheme is simulated using DLL (Dynamic Link Library) block of PSIM simulation

software package. Also In this inverter scheme Output frequency can be varied according to the reference speed input

in DLL (Dynamic Link Library) block. The SVPWM scheme is used for the PWM signal generation, based on the sampled

amplitudes of reference phase voltages. The line voltage, line current and speed waveforms at different frequency are presented for three level inverter in Fig. 10.

frequency are presented for three level inverter in Fig. 10. Fig.5. Simulation circuit for Three level

Fig.5. Simulation circuit for Three level inverter using SVPWM

in Fig. 10. Fig.5. Simulation circuit for Three level inverter using SVPWM (X- axis: 1 div

(X- axis: 1 div = 50 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V)

in Fig. 10. Fig.5. Simulation circuit for Three level inverter using SVPWM (X- axis: 1 div

(X- axis: 1 div = 50 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A)

(X- axis: 1 div = 50 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A) (X- axis: 1

(X- axis: 1 div = 1s, Y- axis: 1 div= 100 RPM) Fig 6; Line Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 10Hz, Ma=0.34

Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 10Hz, Ma=0.34 (X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms,

(X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V)

Ma=0.34 (X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V) (X- axis:

(X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A)

1 div= 250 V) (X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20

(X- axis: 1 div = 1 s, Y- axis: 1 div= 200 RPM) Fig 7; Line Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 20Hz,Ma=0.69

Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 20Hz,Ma=0.69 (X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y-

(X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V)

20Hz,Ma=0.69 (X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V) (X- axis:

(X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A)

1 div= 250 V) (X- axis: 1 div = 20 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20

(X- axis: 1 div = 1 s, Y- axis: 1 div= 200 RPM) Fig 8; Line Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 30Hz , Ma=1.02

Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 30Hz , Ma=1.02 (X- axis: 1 div = 12.5

(X- axis: 1 div = 12.5 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V)

, Ma=1.02 (X- axis: 1 div = 12.5 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V) (X-

(X- axis: 1 div = 10 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A)

1 div= 250 V) (X- axis: 1 div = 10 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20

(X- axis: 1 div = 1 s, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 RPM )

Fig 9;Line Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at

40Hz,Ma=1.3

RPM ) Fig 9;Line Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 40Hz,Ma=1.3 (X- axis: 1 div

(X- axis: 1 div = 10 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 250 V)

(X- axis: 1 div = 10 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A) (X- axis:

(X- axis: 1 div = 10 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A)

(X- axis: 1 div = 10 ms, Y- axis: 1 div= 20 A) (X- axis: 1

(X- axis: 1 div = 1 s, Y- axis: 1 div= 1500 RPM) Fig 10; Line Voltage, Line Current and Speed Waveform at 50Hz, Ma=1.73

V.

CONCLUSION

In this paper a space vector pulse width modulator is proposed to generate switching patterns for a Three-level inverter from an input command voltage vector. The switching pattern available from the direct switching between positive and negative half buses is violated all times and minimum switching is assured. The feasibility of the proposed method Further more, a low-cost implementation of the control technique has been shown to provide satisfactory performance. Therefore, the economical feasibility of the general purpose Three-level inverter in medium voltage drive applications has been strengthened and its application range. The proposed method is based on standard two level inverter and then uses a mapping process to achieve the SVM for multilevel. Simulation results have been provided to prove the viability of the scheme.

APPENDIX

Ratings of the three-phase 45 kW (60 H.P.), 4-pole, 415 V, 50 Hz squirrel cage induction motor are:

Power Output: 45kW (60 H.P.) Stator resistance (Rs): 0.07 Ω Rotor resistance (Rr): 0.025 Ω

Stator leakage inductance (Lls)

Rotor leakage inductance (Llr): 0.0008 H Magnetizing inductance (Lm): 0.0228 H

Rotor inertia (J)

: 0.0008 H

: 0.42kgm 2

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[2]

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