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PEMILIHAN MATERIAL TEKNIK UNTUK APLIKASI DI INDUSTRI

Studi Teknik Material Institut Teknologi Bandung slameto@material.itb.ac.id 022-250-2457; 022-250-8144; 0815-

Dr.Ir. Slameto Wiryolukito Program

7055525

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

JENIS MATERIAL TEKNIK

LOGAM
Berbasis Besi: Steel, Cast Iron, Stainless Steel, Iron Base Super Alloy (70% kebutuhan) Berbasis Tembaga: Cu (cp) Brass, Bronze Berbasis Aluminium: Seri 2xxx s/d 7xxx Berbasis Titanium: Ti-Al-V; Ti (cp) Berbasis Nikel: Ni (cp), Ni-Base Super Alloy

POLIMER: PE; PP; PTFA; KERAMIK:

Berbasis Oksida, Karbida, Nitrida Polimer berpenguat Keramik: GFRP; CFRP Polimer berpenguat Logam: ban mobil Logam berpenguat Keramik: CerMet
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 2

KOMPOSIT:

Contoh Aplikasi
a.

b. c.

d. e. f.

Oil & Gas Industries: Pipeline, Piping, HE, Vessel, Column, Tanks Power Generation: PLTU; PLTG; PLTP; PLTA Automotive & Transport Vehicles: Cars, Motorcycles, Trains, Airplane Ships Buses, Bridges, s, , Tankers, Harbor Purposes Medical Housing & Building House wares
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 3

Contoh Aplikasi

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

PERTIMBANGAN UMUM

Sasaran dari Pemilihan Material:

Menyediakan material persyaratan kerja dengan memerhatikan

yang memenuhi suatu komponen

Fabrikasi menjadi komponen tidak sulit (welding, forming, casting, dst) Harga memadai Waktu pengadaan tidak lama (ketersediaan, lokasi asal, embargo)

Keperluan:
Produksi komponen baru (saat FEED: Front End Engineering Design) Modifikasi peralatan Perawatan dan Perbaikan

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

Beban saat Kondisi Kerja Komponen

Beban Mekanik:

Gaya, Momen Bending, Momen Torsi bersifat Statik, Dinamik (putaran), Kejut Tmaks, Tmin bersifat Isotermal, Siklus, Kejut

Beban Termal:

Beban Listrik Beban Lingkungan Kerja:

Temperatur sekitar, Korosivitas (Oksidasi, Karburasi, Posfidasi, Nitridasi, Asam, Basa, CO2, H2S, Cl-, dst)

Beban Saat Fabrikasi, Transportasi & Penyimpanan


Akibat metal forming: rolling, forging, coiling, packaging Akibat pemanasan: welding, heat treatment Lingkungan saat transport & penyimpanan

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

Dasar Acuan Pemilihan Material Bagi Pengguna:


SANGAT BANYAK PILIHAN: Jenis dan Tipe Material Di Pasaran SANGAT LUAS PENAWARAN: Sifat Mekanik, Sifat Teknologi, dan Ketahanan Lingkungan

Be Smart I Know What I Want Ku Tahu Yang Ku Mau


PILIHAN: PROVEN TRACK RECORDS: Jenis Material, Keandalan Produsen STANDARD & Spesifikasi Material

International: SNI, ASTM, JIS, DIN, BS, AFNOR, AS Perusahaan: EXXON, SANDVICK, NORSOK, DNV Profesi: Militer, NACE; API, ASME

MATERIAL BARU

Seringkali Belum Distandarkan Tingkat Resiko Tinggi Perlu dilakukan Trial

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

STANDAR NORSOK (M-001) OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING


Equipment Material Wellhead equipment/X-mast trees 13Cr4Ni, Low Alloy Steel with alloy 625 weld overlay Piping and vessels Thick wall vessel Alloy Piping and Vessels in low corrosivity system Inlet side of compressor 22Cr Duplex, 25Cr Duplex, 6Mo, 316 Carbon steel with 316, Alloy 625, 825 or 904 clad or weld overlay Carbon steel

Carbon steel, Carbon steel with CRA weld overlay or solid CRA if require, based upon corrosivity evaluation

Piping, vessels for produced water 316, 22Cr duplex, 25Cr duplex, 6Mo, Titanium or GRP.
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 9

APA YANG TERCANTUM DALAM STANDAR MATERIAL? Tipikal Aplikasi: untuk Pressure Vessel, Boiler, Piping di Temp Rendah, dst Korelasi dengan Standard Material Lainnya Persyaratan Kualitas dikaitkan dengan Proses Produksinya Komposisi Kimia Proses Perlakuan Panas (Heat Treatment) Maksimum Pengotor yang dibolehkan Sifat Mekanik (Tensile Strength, Yield Strength, Elongtion, Hardness, Impact Value)

PERLU PENGETAHUAN DASAR MATERIAL TEKNIK

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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STUDIKASUS

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Material Selections For Oil and GasProduction Facilities Internal Corrosion) (Case:
Dr.Ir. Slameto Wiryolukito Material Engineering Department Bandung Institute of Technology

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INTRODUCTION

The recent Oil and Gas explorations turn to fields having more aggressive fluids Typical corrosive agents in Oil & Gas production facilities: CO2, H2S, Cl-, O2. Typical Fluid Conditions:

CO2 up to 5% mole H2S up to 500 ppm Cl- up to 25,000 ppm

Other contributing factors to corrosion: Water Cut, High T, High P, Low pH, Flow Rate, Erosion

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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CO2 Corrosion

(Sweet Corrosion)
It applies to any production fluid containing CO2 Gas together w/ Water Potential to corrode facilities upstream of the dehydration units

CO2 + H2O > H2CO3 Fe + H2CO3 > FeCO3 + H2

It address to Top Of Line (TOL) or Dew Point Corrosion & Bottom Of Line (BOL) or Bulk Water Corrosion CO2 in Gas and Oil Productions

Any water in contact w/ gas will dissolve CO2 Oil production containing water will readily dissolve CO2 Corrosivity is proportional to partial pressure of, pCO2

pCO2 = mol% CO2 x Total GasPressure

pCO2 < 7 psia ; no corrosive 7 psia < pCO2 <30 psia ; mild corrosion

pCO2 > 30 psia

; severe corrosion 14

Contributing to Corrosion

Factors CO2

Temperature & Scales (FeCO3 and F3O4 ):

CO2 corrosion susceptible at T below saturated steam temp (T<85oC); Maximum CR occurs at T 60oC FeCO3 and F3O4 scales formation suppress the CR

expressed as Scale Factor; common practice Scale Factor= 0.85 At pH > 6; Higher Temp increases possibility of Scale Formation

Pressure: higher P will be more aggressive Flow Regime: controlled by flow rates of Gas, HCLiquid, Produced & Formation Water, Eroding Particles, Acetic Acid

Dissolved O2: Aerated or De-aerated conditions Passive Inhibitions: presence of Bicarbonate, Crude/Condensate, Scales of FeCO3, F3O4, FeS Inhibitors: Type, Efficiency, Availability, Effectivity
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 15

Formulations
CO2 Partial Pressure

% mole CO2 PCO 2 = Total Pr essure x 100
Pr oducedWater

Water Cut

x 100% Water cut (%) = Pr oducedWater + Condensate

f Scale Factor,
scale

2400 0.6. log(f ) = p scale log( T

CO 2

6.7

p CO 2 bara ;

T (K )

H2S Partial Pressure

H2S

= Total Pr essure x

100 % mole H 2 S

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Inhibitor Effect
Inhibitor shall suppress the CR Huge variation; track records is important Inhibitor Effectivity = Efficiency x Availability = 0.9 x 0.9 0 = 0.9 x 0 0.9 =5 0.9 x 0 0.9 =0 0.9 x 5 0.9 Inhibitor Efficiency 5 5

Inhibitor Efficiency = UCR ICR x 100 %

UCR

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Inhibitor

Effect

(contd)

INHIBITOR AVAILABILITY
80% availability = 73 days annual downtime 90% availability = 36 days annual downtime 95% availability = 18 days annual downtime

High availability implies:


dedicated attention to corrosion inhibition Immediate repair/refit of injection equipment use of correct injection equipment correct dosage rate related to flow rate
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 18

CO2 Corrosion Assessments

CR prediction by: NORSOK; Cassandra (bp- property right); ECE (Liane Smith) Reynolds number: indication Laminar or Turbulent Flows Shear Stress Critical Gas Velocity Fugacity Inhibitor Effectivity

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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CO2 CR Prediction [5]


CO2 Corrosion in C/S causes a General Corrosion Mode; CR prediction:

De Waard/Milliams & SHELL, firstly published in 1975


CORROSION-91: predictive model for CO2 CORROSION-93: predictive of CO2 Cor. of C/S CORROSION-95: considers Fluid Flow Velocity

Flowline7 NORSOK (IFE Norway) BP-Cassandra Hydrocorr99 ECE= Electronic Corrosion Engineer (SHELL-Cees de Waard of CorCon, Liane Smith-Intetech Ltd)
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 20

General on Predictions [5]


NORSOK
IFE-Shear Stress Mode l Norwegian Co.
Consider s:

Overview CR Software
ECE
SHELL Model & Field Experiences
Emphasize on Water Chem; pH & Acetate with respect to Scaling Considers: CO2;

BP-Cassandra
CO2; pH; Flow Regime; Fugacity; Glycol effect; Inhibitor

Oil

Flow Regime; Inhibitor; TOLC; H2S

SHELL Model w/ Correction Factors


Considers:

CO2; Flow Regime; TOLC; HCO3&Fe+ saturation; H2S; pH; Liq hold-up; HC-liquid

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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H2SCorrosion (Sour-Corrosion)

Susceptible to production fluid containing H2S


FeS is protective film, but breakdown of FeS pitting causes or even cracking in most iron base alloys Hydrogen atoms diffuses to steel to cause SSCC cracking

Fe + H2S > FeS + H2 (overall reaction) 2H+ + 2e- > 2H (atom) > H2 (molecule)

HIC HIC-SOHIC

NACE MR-0175 for environment w/ pH2S > 0.05 psia considers Sour Service

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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NACE MR 01-75 Nomogram

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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SSCC & at Matl ITB

HIC Tests Eng. Dept.of

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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HIC Testing ssembly

i Materal Eng. Dept. of ITB

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CO2-H2S Corrosion
Existence of CO2 together with H2S will enhance corrosion aggressivity of the fluids Dominant Corrosion mechanism depends on PCO2 /PH2S [*]:

PCO2 /PH2S < 20 : H2S corrosion is dominant 20 < PCO2 /PH2S < 500 : mixed corrosion PCO2 /PH2S > 500 : CO2 corrosion is dominant

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Cl- Effect

Existence of Cl- in production fluid will Promote general type corrosion in C/S ClSCC in high grade material (S/S) Threshold ClSCC susceptibility for S/S [* API
581; Norsok, NACE MR 01-75]:

Material 316

Cl- (ppm) < 10,000, pH > 3.5 < 50,000, pH > 3.5

pH2S (psia) < 0.74 < 1.74 < 14.7 < 29.4 < 0.294 < 1.47 < 1.47 < 5.88

T(C) < 60 < 60 < 150 < 150 < 150 < 150 < 150 < 150

S31254

< 50,000, pH > 3.5 < 50,000, pH > 5

22 Cr

< 30,000, pH > 3.5 < 10,000, pH > 3.5

Cl- > 10,000 ppm; T> 60oC; pH < 4.5 Cl- together w/ H2S [Norsok]

25 Cr

< 50,000, pH > 3.5 < 50,000, pH > 4.5

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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MIC (Microbially Induced) Corrosion Risk

Prediction of CR or knowing when pitting starts due to MIC is unreliable, instead current practice considers only the susceptibility of equipment/piping Information required to Evaluate MIC Risk

Water wetting, water cut pH = 5 to 9.5 TDS > 60 g/l, SRB grows T= 10 to 45oC; T>45oC SRB grows Total Carbon from fatty acid > 20 mg/l N > 5 mg/l C/N ratio < 10

Flow Velocity: 1 to 3 m/s Existence debris on pipe bottom Pigging Frequency Prolonged O2 Ingress > 50 ppb Biocide Equipment Age

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Corrosion Mitigation

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Corrosion Mitigation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Materials Selection (Presented in this Paper) Isolation from the Environment Modification of the Environment Electrical Modification Design

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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MATERIAL SELECTIONS

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Material Properties:

Mechanical, Chemical (corr. Resistance), Physical, Technological Base metals Alloying Elements: type, amount Manufacturing Treatments Microstructures

Dependable on:

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Base Metals

Manufacturin g & Treatment s Alloying Elements - Type, Amount

Microstructu re

Materia l Propertie s

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Considerations in Material Selections


CAPEX versus OPEX Reduction of hidden costs Life cycle costs Overcoming operational restraints Fit and forget Environmental aspects Safety

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 34

Life Cycle Costs

CAPEX
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 35

Corrosio n Considerations Upon Material

Selections (w/o Residual Stress)


Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 36

Rationalization in Material Selections


Us C/S Uninhibited, UCR e C/S + Inhibition Us ICR e Use C/Sprogram, + CP Program (SA; ICCP) Use CRA (Huge variations of CRA)
Solid CRA Clad CRA (Metallurgical Bonding or Mechanical Lining)

Use CRA + CP Program (SA; ICCP) for External Corrosion Case Use Titanium Base

Clad
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 37

Non Metallic Material (Base or Coating)

Uninhibited C/S

Operating conditions (T, P, Flow Rate, pH) & Fluid composition (CO2, H2S, Cl-, Acetic Acid, Water Cut, DO, TDS) Candidate Material of C/S

Grade, Strength, Hardness,Thickness Prediction UCR

Prediction Un-inhibited Corrosion max = 8 mm Allowance, Economics Considerations:

UCA ,

Seamless, Long-seam, Spiral-seam, UOE

ERW, SAW Availability, Delivery Time


Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 38

C/S + Inhibition Program


Operating Conditions & Fluid Compositions Candidate Material C/S

Grade, Strength, Hardness, Thickness Inhibitor Efficiency x Inhibitor Availability

Inhibitor Effectivity

Prediction Inhibited CR, ICR Prediction Inhibited, CA Max ICA = 8 mm Economics Considerations:

Seamless, Long-seam, Spiral-seam, UOE ERW, SAW Availability, Delivery Time

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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CRA (Solid

or

Clad)

Operating Conditions & Fluid Compositions Candidate Material of CRA


Chem Composition, Grade, Strength, Hardness Solid CRA or, Clad System (Metallurgical Bonding or Mechanical Lining)

Potential Corrosion Atack


General Corrosion: Prediction CR and CA Pitting Cracking: SSCC; HIC, ClSCC; SCC; Hydrogen Crack; Sodium Crack

Economics Considerations;

HUGE VARIATIONS, Length & OD, Availability, Delivery Time

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Clad

CRA [6]

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Cracking Mechanisms
Active-Passive transformations Pitting Stress Corrosion Cracking Hydrogen Embrittlement Corrosion Fatigue

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Passivation
E
Transpassive zone

Passive zone
Active-passive phenomena

Active Corrosion Zone Log i


Corrosion Awareness Course 55

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Pitting Resistance Number


PREN = Cr% + 3.3Mo% + 14N
Material 13 Chrome steel 316 Stainless steel 317 Stainless steel 2205 Duplex stainless steel A219 Super Duplex stainless steel Alloy 825 Alloy 625 PREN 13 25 31 34 42 32 51
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 44

Stress Corrosion Cracking

STRESS ENVIRONMENT

SUSCEPTIBLE MATERIAL

Stress Corrosion Cracking


45

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

Stress Corrosion Cracking


Stainless steels + stress + chloride + temperature Carbon steels + stress + sulphide Copper alloys + stress + ammonium compounds Carbon steels + stress + strong alkali

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Sulphide Stress Cracking


Rate of crack growth

Initiation period

Propagation phase

Mechanical failure

Time
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 47

Risk of as Systems

Pressure

Risk of Cracking
No risk of cracking
Hydrogen sulphide concentration
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 48

Avoiding Sulphide Stress Cracking Limitation on strength of material <120,000 psi Hardness restriction RC < 22 or VHN10<248 Suitable welding procedure Avoidance of cold work No arc strikes Adequate difference between yield and ultimate strength
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 49

MATERIAL SELECTIONS (Case Study)

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Considerations

CO2Effect H2S Effect Susceptibili to ; ty SSC Cl- Effect; Susceptibility to ClSC

Combination Effects of CO2; H2S; Cl

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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CO2 Effect
CR prediction by: NORSOK; Cassandra (bpproperty right); ECE (Liane Smith) Laminar or Reynolds number: Flows indication Turbulent Shear Stress Critical Gas Velocity Fugacity = Efficiency x Availability Inhibito Effectivity = 0.90 x 0.90 r = 0.95 x 0.90 = 0.90 x 0.95

Materia

=l En0g..9De5pt.xof 0IT.B95

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CO2 Effect

(contd)
x 100 %

INHIBITOR EFFICIENCY Inhibitor Efficiency = UCR ICR UCR

INHIBITOR AVAILABILITY

80% availability = 73 days annual downtime 90% availability = 36 days annual downtime 95% availability = 18 days annual downtime

High availability implies:


dedicated attention to corrosion inhibition Immediate repair/refit of injection equipment use of correct injection equipment correct dosage rate related to flow rate
Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 53

Susceptibility to SSC

NACE

MR 01-75

NKKNomogram SUMITOMONomogram Membrane Stress Analysis


Material Eng. Dept. of ITB 54

NACE

MR 01-75

Consider Multiphase Systems Consider H2S only (ignores pCO2, T, Cl-) Comment

NACE MR 01-75 considers the environment is still within non-SSC region but close to border of SSC Region Matl Hardness shall be confirmed to have HRC< 22

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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NACE MR 01-75 Nomogram

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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NKKNomogram [2]
Consider p CO2 incorporate d with p H 2S Consider Clincorporat ed with

Temp
7

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

NKKNomogram

(contd)

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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NKKNomogram

(contd)

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Sumitomo Nomogram [3]


Consider pp H2S incorporate d with pp CO2 Consider

Matl strength, T

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

Membrane Stress Analysis

Flowline; Pipeline; Piping

ANSI B 31.3

Pressurized Equipment
ASME Sect. VIII, Div.1 API 579

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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SUMMARY

Technically, one selects material shall understand the needs Motto:

Ku Tahu yang Ku Mau I Know What I Want

Should always aware: Material Properties be on compositions, Manufacturing,

depend Chemical and Treatment Ignorance to manufacturing, treatment, and

workmanship certainly will ruin an excellent-design

Commercial approach shall not sacrificed the technical considerations for high safety and reliability guarantee of the production facilities

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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THANK YOU

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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Literature
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

NACE MR0175 NKKOCTG Journal SUMITOMO Journal Roger A. King, Awarenes Corrosion s AKER KVAERNER presentation JSW Clad Journal Pipe Production

Material Eng. Dept. of ITB

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