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# MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

3d
DESIGN CONTROLS AND CRITERIA

HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Highway Positioning
Highway positioning and length is defined as the

## horizontal plane) from some specified point.

actual distance along the highway (usually measured along the centerline of the highway, on a

## of stations, with each station constituting 100 ft of highway alignment distance.

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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

TYPES OF CURVES
PI PC PT PC PCC PSC

PI PCS

R2
PS

PC

R1 R

R2

PT

R1

R3

Circular Curve

Compound Curve

## Spiral Curve (Transition or 3-Centered Curves)

R2
PT

R2
PT PT PC

PRC

R1
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PC

PC

## Reverse Curve Without tangent

R1
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Curve Description
Curve can be describer by: 1. Radius or 2. degree of curvature Degree of curvature is the central angle D subtended by an arc of 100 unit length (D/360=100/2R) The radian measure of the angle is the ratio of the length of the subtended arc to the radius of the circle

(a) Degree

(b) Radian

100 100

100 100

100 100

DDD D D

DDD D D

100 100

## Arc definition Degree of curve as it is used in highway

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Chord definition
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## Simple Circular Curve

PI /2 PT

T = R tan ( / 2)
C = 2 R sin ( / 2) = 2 T cos ( / 2)

Lc PC

M Long Chord C

Lc = 100 / D = R /180 Degree of Curve, D = 5729.6 / R M = R ( 1 - cos ( / 2)) E = R [(1/cos(/2) -1] = R tan(/2) tan (/4) Deflection angle = (Arc Length / 100) (D/2)
O R R

/2 /2

## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

EXAMPLE
A 4 degree circular curve is to connect two tangent lines with a 52.5 degree external angle. The PI station is 28+42.83. Determine R, LC, T, E, PC station, and PT station.
R = 5729.6 / D = 5729.6 / 4 = 1,432.4 ft LC = 100 / D = 100 * 52.5 / 4 = 1,312.5 ft T = R tan / 2 = 1432.4 tan (52.5 / 2) = 1432.4 * 0.4931 = 706.3 ft E = R tan /2 tan /4= 1432.4 (tan 52.5 / 2)(tan 52.5 / 4) = 1432.4 * 0.4932 * 0.2332 = 164.7 ft PC station = (PI station) - T = (28+42.83) - 706.3 = (21+36.53) PT station = (PC station) + LC = (21+36.53) + 1312.5 = (34+49.03)
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28+42.83 52o 30

## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

l1 C1 Lc = R /180 l1 = 1 R /180

C2

C3 C

C4 C 5

C6

C = 2 R sin ( / 2) C1 = 2 R sin (1 / 2) C2 = 2 R sin ((D+ 1))/ 2) C3 = 2 R sin ((2D+ 1))/ 2) C4 = 2 R sin ((3D+ 1))/ 2) C5 = 2 R sin ((4D+ 1))/ 2) C6 = 2 R sin ((5D+ 1))/ 2)
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2 1 D D D D D

l1 / 1 = Lc/ = l2/ 2 1 / = l1 / Lc
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

EXAMPLE
A circular curve is to be constructed with a 225 ft radius and an interior angle of 51 degrees. If stakes are to be placed every 50 ft along the curve, determine the chord length and deflection angle for every stake.
Deflection angle = half of interior angle D = 5729.6 / R = 5729.6 / 225 = 25.5 degree LC = 100 /D = 100 * 51 /25.5 = 200 ft # of stakes = LC / 50' = 200 / 50 = 4 interior angle for every 50' along the curve, a = 51 degree / 4 = 12.75 degree chord length = 2 R sin (deflection angle) stake 1 2 3 4 interior angle a=12.75 2a = 25.5 3a = 38.25 4a=51 deflection angle 12.75/2 = 6.375 25.5/2 = 12.75 38.25/2 = 19.125 51/2 = 25.5
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## chord length 49.97' 99.31' 147.43' 193.73'

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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Compound Curve
2 PC

PI PCC 1 PT

R1 R2 1

R1

= 1+ 2

TS = (R2 - R1Cos + (R1-R2) Cos 2) / Sin TL = (R1 - R2Cos - (R1-R2) Cos 1) / Sin

2 R2-R1 O

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L1 =
1 R1 57.296

L2 =

2 R2 57.296

PI

## T1 = R1 tan (1/2) = 1+2 2

T2 = R2 tan (2/2)
T2
PC

PCC1 T1

L1
1

T1

PCC2

Te = [R2 Sin(/2) - (R2 - R1) sin (1/2) ] Sec (/2) = (T1+T2 ) Cos (1/2) Sec (/2) + T2 Lc = 2 Te Cos(/2) = 2 [R2 Sin(/2) - (R2 - R1) sin (1/2)] Offset P = (R2 - R1) (1-Cos (2)] If L1 = L2 then
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P L2 R2

R1

L2 R2

T2
PT

Lc

1 =

R2 2R1+R2

2 =

R1 2R1+R2
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

EXAMPLE
A symmetrical 3-centered compound curve is to be designed for the following conditions:
1 = 91 2 = 22 R2= 1200 ft

R1= 300 ft PI station = 185+00 1. Compute all remaining curve design components. 2. Determine stations for PC, PCC1, PCC2 and PT 3. Calculate the offset distance P
= 1+2 2 = 91 + 2 (22 ) = 135

L1 = L2 =

1 R1 = 57.296 2 R2 = 57.296

## 300 * 91 = 476.47 ft 57.296 1200 * 22 = 460.77 ft 57.296

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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

T1 = R1 tan (1/2) = 300 tan (91/2) = 305.28 ft T2 = R2 tan (2/2) = 1200 tan (22/2) = 233.36 ft Te = [R2 Sin(/2) - (R2 - R1) sin (1/2) ] Sec (/2) = [1200 Sin(135/2) - (1200 - 300) sin (91/2) ] Sec (135/2) = (1108.66 641.93 )(2.61) =1219.6 ft Lc = 2 Te Cos(/2) = 2 (1219.6) Cos (135/2) = 932.98 ft PC station = (PI station) - Te = (185+00) 1219.6 = (172+80.40) PCC1 station = (PC station) + L2 = (172+80.40) + 460.77= (177+41.17) PCC2 station = (PCC1 station) + L1 = (177+41.17) + 476.47 = (182+17.64) PT station = (PCC2 station) + L2 = (182+17.64) + 460.77 = (186+78.41) Offset P = (R2 - R1) (1-Cos (2)] = (1200-300)(1-Cos 22) = 65.53 ft
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Reverse Curve
Reverse curves are circular curves back to back.

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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Reverse Curve
Reverse curves are circular curves back to back. EXAMPLE
A rural highway is designed with the following reverse curves. Both curves have the same degree of curvature and radius, i.e., D1=D2 & R1=R2. Calculate: Station of PC, PRC and PT Deflection at midpoint for the first curve
= 60.5

PRC

## I1= 60.5 Lc1 PC Station 20+00 PRC Lc2 PT I2= 42

T1+T2 = 2150 ft T1 = R1 tan 60.5/2 T2 = R2 tan 42/2 R1 (0.583) + R2 (0.384) = 2150 R = 2150/0.967 = 2223.26 ft T1 = 1296.57 T2= 853.43 R=5279.58/D D = D1= D2= 5729.58/2223.26 = 2.6 Station of PI = (20+00)+ (25+00) = (45+00) Station of PC = Sta PI T1 = (45+00) (12+96.57) = (32+03.43) Lc1 = 100 I / D = 100 * 60.5/2.6 =2326.92 ft Station of PRC = Sta PC + Lc1 = (32+03.43) + (23+26.92) = (55+30.35) Lc2 = 100 I / D = 100 * 42/2.6 =1615.38 ft Station of PT = Sta PRC + Lc2 = (55+30.35)+ (16+15.38) = (71+45.73) Deflection of midpoint for first curve = 0.5 x 60.5/2 = 15.125
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## SIGHT DISTANCE ON HORIZONTAL CURVES

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## Centerline Inside Lane (Stopping Sight Distance)

M
Highway CL Line of Sight Sight Obstruction

Rv

Where

S = Stopping sight distance, ft Rv = Radius of curve for the inside lane, ft M= Middle Ordinate or Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO), ft D = Degree of curve
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Alternatives where there is insufficient SSD due to railing or a longitudinal barrier constitutes a sight obstruction: Increase the offset to the obstruction, however no shoulder more than 12 ft Increase the radius Reduce the design speed The method presented in the graph is exact when both the vehicle and the sight obstruction are located within the limits of a simple horizontal curve. If this method is not applicable, the design should be checked either by utilizing graphical procedure or other computational method.
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

A two-lane roadway provides a 10' travel lane and a 4' shoulder in each direction. Determine the speed limit on the circular curve that the sight distance is restricted by an obstruction 6' from the shoulder. Assume f = 0.40 S Level grade Reaction time = 2.5 seconds 6 M=15
CL

EXAMPLE

Rv = R - (lane width) / 2 = 132 - 10 / 2 = 127' R=132 M= (lane width) / 2 + (shoulder width) + (clearance) = 5+4 + 6=15' M = Rv ( 1 - cos (28.65 S) / Rv ) cos (28.65 S) / Rv = 1 - M / Rv = 1 - 15 /127 = 0.882 (28.65 S) / Rv = cos -1 0.882 = 28.12 28.65 S = 28.12 Rv = 28.12 * 127 = 3571.24 S - 3571.24 / 28.65 = 124.7 = 125' S = stopping sight distance - 1.47 V * 2.5 + V2 / (30 f) Set the speed limit to 20 mph 125 = 3.675 V + 0.0833 V2 V = 22.4 mph
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Rv

## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

EXAMPLE
A two-lane undivided roadway provides a 14' travel lane has a horizontal curve with a Degree of curvature of 7.1 has a speed limit of 35 mph. If the highway is flat at this section, determine the minimum distance a building can be placed from the center line of the inside lane of the curve, without reducing the required SSD. Assume perception-reaction time of 2.5 sec, and a = 11.2 ft/sec2. The city is planning to increase the speed to 45 mph. Assume no shoulders . What improvements are needed for the horizontal curve? Determine the required SSD before improvement. S = 1.47 V *T + V2/ 30 (f+G) f = = a/32.2 = 11.2/32.2 = 0.35 S = (1.47 * 35 * 2.5) + (35) 2 / 30 (0.35+0) = 245.29 ft Determine M M = Rv[1-cos (28.65 S/Rv)] M = 800 [1 Cos (28.65* 245.29/800) ] = 800(1-0.988) = 9.4 ft Determine the required SSD after improvement. S = (1.47 * 45 * 2.5) + (45) 2 / 30 (0.35+0) = 358.23 ft 9.4 = Rv [1 Cos (28.65* 358.23/Rv) ] = Rv = 1710 ft Minimum Curve Radius = 1710 +7.5 = 1717.5 = 1720 ft 22
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## MODULE 3 HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN

A two-lane undivided roadway provides a 14' travel lane has a horizontal curve with a Degree of curvature of 7.1 has a speed limit of 35 mph. Determine the minimum distance a building can be placed from the center line of the inside lane of the curve. Assume SSD= 245.Rv= 800 Assume no shoulders The city is planning to increase the speed to 45 mph. What improvements are needed for the horizontal curve?

## 7.1 3.35 9.4

Increase Rv to be 1710
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