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SPEED CONTROL OF AC MOTOR USING IGBT. A Seminar Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


By

SAMPATH KUMAR.K

(06401A0238)

Under the guidance of

G.RAJASHEKAR
Asst. Professor

ON KNOWLEDGE MISSION

Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering DVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad) AN ISO 9001:2008 INSTITUTION KASHIPUR (VILL), SANGAREDDY (M), MEDAK (D). 2009-2010

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS 3. SPEED CONTROL OF MOTORS 4. DRIVES 5. TYPES OF DRIVES 6. FEEDBACK SYSTEMS USED IN DRIVES 7. AC DRIVES 8. COMPARISON OF AC & DC DRIVES 9. VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE 10. SWITCHING BUS WITH IGBTs 11. SHRINKING COST & SIZE 12. IGBTs BETTER THAN SCRs 13. CONCLUSION 14. REFERENCES

Abstract:
In older drives transistorized control drives were employed for this frequency modulation. With the advantage of IGBTs, where they can be operated at much higher frequency compared to transistors, they are replacing transistors in AC drives. Hence IGBT is the main switching device in AC drives. These can be termed as Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs). In industries when driving mechanical load with given torque slip characteristics, the speed can be controlled by controlling either its synchronous speed or the rotors Slip. 3-phase induction motors are commonly employed in adjustable speed drives. They admirably suited to fulfill the demand of loads requiring substantially a constant speed. The most effective adjustable frequency drives use state-art technology Pulse Width Modulation combined with variable frequency drive (VFD) and superior flexibility. The combination of IGBT and surface mounted device technology has allowed more compact unless complex design with reduced cost compare to constant speed drives.

INTRODUCTION:
AC motors have advantages compare to DC motors such as maintenance free as there are no brushes and commutators. For the given power rating AC motors have compact in size compared to their DC counterparts. DC motors power losses are more compare to AC motor. Due to these primary advantages AC motor are slowly progressed into variable speed application viz. machine tool application, elevators, cranes, pumps and so on. Speed of Ac motor (rotor of the motor) can be controlled by varying the frequency of power applied to the motor. In older drives transistorized control drives were employed for this frequency modulation. With the advantage of IGBTs, where they can be operated at much higher frequency compared to transistors, they are replacing transistors in AC drives. Hence IGBT is the main switching device in AC drives.These can be termed as Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs).

In any VFD there are 2 sections: 1) Control section 2) Power section


VFDs can be either analog drives or digital drives and VFD operates as closed loop velocity control system, where rotor speed is controlled with set speed. The basic difference between analog and digital drives is the control section i.e., controlled with analog circuits or a microprocessor or microcontroller. The control section mainly consists of set-point processing (the speed set-point), speed amplifier, current amplifier, triggering circuits and pulse transformer. Apart from these circuits over-voltage, protection circuit, under-voltage protection circuit, overcurrent limitation, temperature limitation circuits will also be there. The power circuit mainly contains high-frequency switching device (IGBT). In general in the power section of AC drive, 3-phase AC supply is first converted into DC by a 3-phase converter and then it is smoothed with a choke,

5 and the smoothed DC smoothed supply is again converted into AC supply by a IGBT power bridge. The drive is interfaced to AC servomotor which is controlling axis feed (linear motion of a machine tool). Actually the drive is a part of CNC control system, which is a closed loop position control system which has outer position feedback loop. The CNC controls the position of axis feeds, driven by AC servomotor by giving the control signal speed (speed set-point) to the AC drives. This AC drive system forms the inner speed feedback loop. For speed feedback signal tachogenerators are used. With these details a more simpler, efficient and flexible design can be simulated.

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS:
1)IMPORTANCE OF SPEED CONTROL:
Speed control systems allow to set easily and adjust the s peed of a motor. The control system consists of a speed feed back system, a motor, a drive and a speed setting device. The motor for the motor for the speed control system is either a Brushless dc motor or a standard AC motor. The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing that demanded speed, and to drive a motor at speed. The controller may or may not actually measure the speed of the motor, if it does it is called a feed back speed controller or closed loop speed controller if it is not, it is called a open loop speed controller. Feed back speed control is better, but more complicated and may not be required for a simple robust design.

2)SPEED CONTROL OF AC MOTORS:


A 3-phase AC motor is practically a constant-speed machine, more or less like a DC shunt motor. The speed regulation of an AC motor is usually less than 5% at fullLoad. However, there is one difference of practical importance between the two. Where as DC shunt motor can be made to run at any speed within wide limits, with good efficiency and speed regulation, merely by manipulating a simple field rheostat, the same is not possible with AC motor. In their case, speed reduction is accompanied by a corresponding loss of efficiency and good speed regulation.

SPEED CONTROL METHODS:


Mainly there are three types of speed control methods. They are 1) Speed control by changing the applied voltage. 2) Speed control by changing the applied frequency. 3) Speed control by changing the number of stator poles.

1) SPEED CONTROL BY CHANGING THE APPLIED VOLTAGE:


This method, through the cheapest and the easiest, is rarely used because I. A largely change in voltage is required for a relatively small change in speed. II. This large change in voltage will result in a large change in the flux density There by seriously disturbing the magnetic conditions of the motor.

2) SPEED CONTROL BY APPLIED FREQUENCY:


This method is also used very rarely. We have seen that the synchronous speed of an AC induction motor is given by Ns=120 f/p. Clearly, the synchronous speed of an AC induction motor can be changing the supply frequency f. These are directly proportional to each other.

3) SPEED CONTROL BY CHANGING THE NUMBER OF STATOR POLES:


This method is easily applicable to squirrel-cage motor because the squirrel-cage rotor adopts itself to any reasonable number of stator poles. From the above equation it is clear that the synchronous speed of an AC induction motor could also be changed by changing the number of stator poles. This change of number of poles is achieved by having two or more entirely independent stator windings in the slots. This method has been used for elevator motors, traction motors and also for small motors driving machine tools.

DRIVES:
Drives are devices by which the speed of a motor can be controlled. These are essential for the CNC machines for precise axis movement and spindle rotation. The CNC system controls the drive by supplying them with the required input and receiving feedback signals from position feedback transducers. Drives are

8 used in motor speed control for smoother, versatile control and to achieve specific torque speed characteristics.

TYPES OF DRIVES SYSTEMS:


a) Hydraulic control system b) Pneumatic control system c) Electronically control system

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM:


In the system, power is transmitted through the action of fluid flow under pressure. Hydraulically operated components are frequently used in hydraulic feedback systems and in combined electromechanical-hydraulic systems. Common hydraulic applications are power steering and brakes in automobiles, steering mechanism in ships and more significantly in the control of large machine tools.

PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM:


These systems employ air medium or other gases in special situations as a means of effecting control. The control principle of these systems is quite similar to the hydraulic systems and has a quite number of advantages over the hydraulic systems these are i. Non-Inflammability: Air if used as a medium has advantage of being noninflammability, thus reducing a lot of fire hazards ii. Low viscosity: Gases have very low viscosity as compare to fluids, used in hydraulic systems. Viscosity considerably with temperature causing marked effects on the performance of the control systems (hydraulic).

ELECTRONICALLY CONTROL SYSTEM:


In this, the drive regulates the speed of the motor through control of armature voltage by varying the DC voltage applied to the motor. This control is accomplished by selecting a point on the AC input sine wave at which SCR begins to conduct. For effective speed control, feedbacks are provided. These feedbacks are negative i.e. opposite in sign to the input signal. To control the motor speed, velocity command and tacho generator signals are summed, amplified and applied to the input of the inner current loop. The inner current loop sums up both the current feedback and velocity error signals. The difference error is amplified and used to control the gating of the power bridge circuit.

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SPEED REGUALTOR:
This serves the function of regulating the drive motor speed by comparing the feedback signal from tacho-generator and reference signal. The error signal between the reference and feedback can be compensated to provide optimum drive response using a preset. This error signal is amplified and the amplified output is fed to the next block, i.e. current regulator.

CURRNT REGULATOR:
It regulates the armature current by supplying a voltage signal to the both forward and reverses firing circuits. This is accomplished by comparing the current reference

signal of the speed regulator and with a feedback signal from the armature current of motor. The error that results from the comparison of these signals is then amplified and suitably compensated and fed to the firing circuit of the drive.

FIRING CIRCUIT:

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The amplified output of the current regulator is used as an input to the firing circuit. The SCR gate pulse is phase shifted relative to the AC line so that the SCRs produce a variable output voltage from the Power Bridge. The output of the drive is then fed to the armature of the motor. Effective speed control is obtained since the feedback signals provide a closed loop operation where the difference between output and input i.e. the error is the actuating signal.

POWER BRIDGE:
This is the converter i.e. controlled rectifier that converts AC mains supply to the variable DC voltage that is fed to the armature of the motor. The variable output can be obtained by changing the firing angle (conduction period) of the SCRs. The SCRs can be connected either as half controlled bridge configuration or as full controlled bridge configuration.

FEEDBACK SYSTEMS USED IN DRIVES:


PURPOSE OF FEEDBACK DEVICES:
It is evident that feedback devices play a major role in effective machine tool control. These devices precisely and effectively supply information of the exact position of the machine tool slide and its federate to the control systems. Feedbacks are provided in closed loop systems where the output of the system is again fed to the input of the systems through a connection and the control action is

12 provided by the difference between the command input and corresponding output feedbacks can be 1) Positive feedback 2) Negative feedback

1)POSITIVE FEEDBACK:
In this type of feedback, the input and the feedback signals are of the same sign Hence as the output increases subsequently the input keeps on rising resulting in an unbounded condition where the output goes to infinity theoretically. Hence the positive Feedback is not used in drives, as obviously the speed of the motor will rise in an unbounded fashion.

2) NEGATIVE FEEDBACK:
This type of feedback is used when the output is fed to the input as a feedback signal is the error or the difference between the two signals. When the controlled variable approaches the equivalent command value, the signal, which is actuating the system, tends to zero.

TYPES OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACKS:

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There are basically two types of feedbacks provided in the drive. They are 1. Position feedback 2. Velocity feedback

AC DRIVES:
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION:
Adjustable frequency AC motor drive controllers frequently termed inverters are typically more complex than DC controllers since they must perform two power section functions that of conversion of the AC line power source to DC and finally an inverter change from the DC to a coordinated adjustable frequency and voltage output to the AC motor. The appeal of the adjustable frequency drive is based upon the simplicity and reliability of the AC drive motor, which has no brushes, commutator or other parts that require routine maintenance, which more than compensates for the complexity of the AC controller. The robust construction and low cost of the AC motor makes it very desirable for a wide range of uses. Also, the ability to make an existing standard constant speed AC motor an adjustable speed device simply by the addition of an adjustable frequency controller creates a very strong incentive for this type of drive

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COMPARISON OF AC AND DC DRIVES:


AC and DC drives both continue to offer unique benefits and features that may make one type or other better suited for certain applications

AC DRIVES MAY BE BETTER BECAUSE:


They use conventional, low cost, 3-phase AC induction motors for most applications.AC motors require virtually no maintenance and are preferred for applications where the motor is mounted in an area not easily reached for servicing or replacement. AC motors are smaller, lighter, more commonly available, and less ex pensive than DC motors. AC motors are better suited for high speed operation (over 2500 rpm) since there are no brushes, and commutation is not a problem.Whenever the operating environment is wet, corrosive or explosive and special motor enclosures are required. Special AC motor enclosure types are more readily available at lower prices.Multiple motors in a system must operate simultaneously at a common

15 frequency/speed .It is desirable to use an existing constant speed AC motor already mounted and wired on a machine.When the application load varies greatly and light loads may be encountered for prolongedperiods. DC motor commutators and brushes may wear rapidly under this condition.Low cost electronic motor reversing is required.It is important to have a back up (constant speed) if the controller should fail.

DC DRIVES MAY BE BETTER BECAUSE:


DC drives are less complex with a s ingle power conversion from AC to DC.DC drives are normally less expensive for most horsepower ratings.DC motors have a long tradition of use as adjustable speed machines and a wide range of options have evolved for this purpose Cooling blowers and inlet air flanges provide cooling air for a wide speed range at constant torque. Accessory mounting flanges and kits for mounting feedback tachometers and encoders. DC regenerative drives are available for applications requiring continuous regeneration foroverhauling loads. AC drives with this capability would be more complex and expensive.Properly applied brush and commutator maintenance is minimal. DC motors are capable of providing starting and accelerating torques in excess of 400% of rated.

VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE:


A VFD controls the speed, torque and direction of an AC Induction motor. It takes fixed voltage and frequency AC input and converts it to a variable voltage and frequency AC output . In very small VFDs, a single power pack unit may contain the converter and

16 inverter. We can divide the world of electronic motor drives into two categories: AC and DC. A motor drive controls the speed, torque, direction and resulting horsepower of a motor. A DC drive typically controls a shunt wound DC motor, which has separate armature and field circuits.

DRIVE CHANGE MOTOR SPEED:


A drive provides the frequency and voltage output necessary to change the speed of a motor. Shows a basicPWM drive.Basic PWM Drive Components All PWM drives contain these main parts, with subtle differences in hardware and software components.Although some drives accept single-phase input power, we'll focus on the 3-phase drive. But to simplify illustrations, the waveforms in the following drive figures show only one phase of input and output. The input section of the drive is the converter. It contains six diodes, arranged in an electrical bridge. These diodes

convert AC power to DC power. The next section-the DC bus section-sees a fixed DC voltage.The DC Bus section filters and smoothes out the waveform. The diodes actually reconstruct the negative halves of the waveform onto the positive half. In a 460V unit, we measure an average DC bus voltage of about 650V to 680V. We

17 can calculate this as line voltage times 1.414. The inductor (L) and the capacitor (C)work together to filter out any AC component of the DC waveform. The smoother the DC waveform, thecleaner the output waveform from the drive.The DC bus feeds the final section of the drive: the inverter. As the name implies, this section inverts the DC voltage back to AC. But, it does so in a variable voltage and frequency output. That depends on what kind of power devices our drive uses. If we have many SCR-based drives in our facility, see the Sidebar. Bipolar Transistor technology began superceding SCRs in drives in the mid-1970s. In the early 1990s, those gave way to using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) technology, which will form the basis for our discussion.

SWITCHING BUS WITH IGBTs:

Today's inverters use Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs)to switch the DC bus on and off at specific intervals. In doing so, the inverter actually creates a variable AC voltage and frequency output. As shown in Fig, the output of the drive doesn't provide an exact replica of the AC input sine waveform. Instead, it

18 provides voltage pulses that are at a constant magnitude. Drive output waveform is shown below.

19 The drive's control board signals the power device's c ontrol circuits to turn "on" the waveform positive half or negative half of the power device. This alternating of positive and negative switches recreates the 3-phase output. The longer the power device remains on, the higher the output voltage. The less time the power device is on, the lower the output voltage (shown in Fig).

20 Conversely, the longer the power device is off, the lower the output frequency.Drive Output Waveform Components The speed at which power devices switch on and off is the carrier frequency, also known as the switch frequency. The higher the switch frequency, the more resolution each PWM pulse contains. Typical switch frequencies are 3,000 to 4,000 times per second (3 KHz to 4 KHz). (With an older, SCR-based drive, switch frequencies are 250 to 500 times per second). As you can imagine, the higher the switch frequency, the smoother the output waveform and the higher the resolution. However, higher switch frequencies decrease the efficiency of the drive because of increased heat in the power devices.

2.3.3 SHRINKING COST AND SIZE:


Drives vary in the complexity of their des igns, but the designs continue to improve. Drives come insmaller packages with each generation. The trend is similar to that of the personal computer. More features,better performance, and lower cost with successive generations. Unlike computers, however, drives have dramatically improved in their reliability and ease of use. And also unlike computers, the typical drive of today doesn't spew gratuitous harmonics into our distribution system-nor does it affect our power factor. Drives are increasingly becoming "plug and play." As electronic power components improve in reliability and decrease insize, the cost and size of VFDs will continue to decrease. While all that is going on, their performance and ease of use will only get better.

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2.3.4 IGBTs BETTER THAN SCRs:


With the large installed base of SCRs, An SCR (originally referred to as a thyristor) contains a control element called a gate. The gate ac ts as the "turn-on" switch that allows the device to fully conduct voltage.The device conducts voltage until the polarity of the device reverses-and then it automatically "turns off."Special circuitry, usually requiring another circuit board and associated wiring, controls this switching. The SCR's output depends on how soon in the control cycle that gate turns on. The IGBT output also depends the length of time the gate is on. However, it can turn off anytime in the control cycle, providing a more precise output waveform. IGBTs also require a control circuit connected to the gate, but this circuitry is less complex and doesn't require a reversal of polarity.

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CONCLUSION:
In industries when driving mechanical load with given torque slip characteristics, the speed can be controlled by controlling either its synchronous speed or the rotors Slip. 3-phase induction motors are commonly employed in adjustable speed drives. They admirably suited to fulfill the demand of loads requiring substantially a constant speed. The most effective adjustable frequency drives use state-of-the-art technology pulse width modulation combined with variable frequency drive (VFD) and superior flexibility. The combination of IGBT and surface mounted device technology has allowed more compact unless complex design with reduced cost compare to constant speed drives.

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REFERENCES:
1)Wikipedia.org 2)scribd.com 3)seminarson.com