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Importance of Environmental Science in Textile


Environmental Science: Environmental Science is an approach, integrated quantitatively, and interdisciplinary to study the environmental systems. The abundance and complexity of environmental problems are rapidly creating a need for scientists with assiduous, interdisciplinary training in environmental science. Along with the Knowledge of Environmental Science there should be a solid foundation in biological and physical natural sciences and the specialized training is necessary for integrated analysis of environmental systems. [1]
Textile Engineering:

It is the study of Different principles from engineering and scientific methodologies. These principles are then implemented for the processing and production of textile fabric and yarns from textile fibers. Basically fibers is converted into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. Textile engineering is a very innovative field as it is a scientific realm. It involves the creative research, study, and exploration of new techniques for production and improvisation. Textile manufacturers not only have ambition to develop and find new techniques for the production of new fabrics of better quality, but they also constantly work on improving existing textile fibers.[2],[3] Importance of Environmental Science in Textile: Environmental science is very important in textile. Not only environment affects textile industry but also textile industry affects environment a lot. So it is necessary to have the knowledge of the relation between Environmental science and textile. Environmental pollution has recently become a burning issue all over the world. Important constituents of our environment include air, water, soil, plants and animals. Any kind of imbalance in the constituents of our environment gives rise to environmental pollution. There are different sources of environmental pollution such as chemicals, radiation, and noise. [6] Impact of Environment on Textile Industry: There is very important role of humidity and temperature in textile manufacturing processes. In spinning from carding till roving, loosely bound fibers are vulnerable to static electricity in dry and brittle condition due to static and dynamic friction. This also creates dust and fiber fly (fluff). So it becomes necessary to control the humidity of shed. HVAC systems are mostly used to control the temperature and humidity of the shed which make the product cost high but the quality of the product is increased. In the same weaving and knitting industries are also effected

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by temperature and humidity. So the temperature and humidity of weaving and knitting shed are also controlled. [4] Water hardness should be checked before using for the preparation size material and printing and dye making. Water hardness effects sizing, printing and dyeing efficiency. Environmental changes also affect the quality of cotton fibers before starting the manufacturing process. Impact of Textile Industry on Environment: There are environmental problems associated with the production of manmade fibers, such as intensive energy use and generation of hazardous air emissions. There are also potential environmental problems associated with growing natural fibers, including the use of pesticides and degradation of the land. There are many positive and negative aspects of environment on the production of manmade fiber. [5] Noise pollution has received special attention in the present industrialized world. Noise pollution is produced from different sources and industrial noise is one of them. In the industries the workers are mostly exposed to the noise for eight hours but in some industries like weaving industries the workers are exposed to noise for 12 hours. Compared to the other pollutants, noise pollution not only affects the human health but also the surrounding environment. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the noise levels produced by variety of machines in these industries. [6] Water is a crucial issue in manufacturing because large amounts are needed and used, but once the water is used, the wastewater is of poor quality and it threatens the water sources that the wastewater is disposed into. The wastewater can be treated, this is a costly undertaking, but the treated water is seldom at the quality it was before it was used in manufacturing. Water treatment is also not done by all manufacturing industries. [7] The major sources of water pollution in textile industry are chemicals and detergents. Industries usually dispose of Wastewater directly into the environment without treatment or the removal of pollutants. Therefore, this water is polluting the sources of freshwater. [7] Textile mills usually generate nitrogen and sulphur oxides from boilers. Other significant sources of air emissions in textile operations include resin finishing and drying operations, printing, dyeing, fabric preparation, and wastewater treatment plants. Hydrocarbons are emitted from drying ovens and from mineral oils in high-temperature drying/curing. These processes can emit formaldehyde, acids, softeners, and other volatile compounds. [8]

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The primary residual wastes generated from the textile industry are non-hazardous. These include scraps of fabric and yarn, off-specification yarn and fabric and packaging waste. There are also wastes associated with the storage and production of yarns and textiles, such as chemical storage drums, cardboard reels for storing fabric and cones used to hold yarns for dyeing and knitting. Cutting room waste generates a high volume of fabric scraps, which can often be reduced by increasing fabric utilization efficiency in cutting and sewing. [8] Cleaner production is an attractive approach to tackle environmental problems associated with industrial production and poor material efficiency. Since the cleaner production approach has been successfully implemented in some areas in the textile sector, it shows that significant financial saving and environmental improvements can be made by relatively low-cost and straightforward interventions. This improves the quality of products and minimizes the cost of production, enabling the branch to compete in the global market. Moreover, Cleaner Production also improves the companys public image by highlighting the steps it has taken to protect the environment. [8]

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References:
1. 2. 3. 4. Internet: http://www.ensci.iastate.edu/ (17-11-2011) Internet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_manufacturing (17-11-2011) Internet: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-textile-engineering.htm (17-11-2011) Internet: http://www.ishrae.in/journals_20042005/2005jan/article02.html (17 -11-2011) 5. Internet:http://www.instyle.com.au/impact_of_textiles/Environmental%20Impact%20of%20Fib res%20-%20Print%20Version.pdf (16-11-2011)
6. F.H. Khan, A.R. Tahir and J.K. Sial ,Study of mechanical noise of a selected agro-based Industry and its impact on worker's health, Pak. J. Agri. Sci., Vo/. 39(4), 2002 7. Textile Engineer, the Impact of Water Scarcity and Pollution on the Textile Industry: A Case Study from
Turkey, Nathan Bender L911.508 November 2004 Turkey.

8. Internet: http://www.indiantextilejournal.com/articles/FAdetails.asp?id=2420 (17-11-2011)