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Effective communication is all about conveying your

messages to other people clearly and unambiguously.

also about receiving information that others are
sending to
you, with as little distortion as possible.

Doing this involves effort from both the sender of
message and the receiver. And it's a process that can
fraught with error, with messages muddled by the
sender, or
misinterpreted by the recipient. When this isn't
it can cause tremendous confusion, wasted effort and

In fact, communication is only successful when both
sender and the receiver understand the same
information as
a result of the communication.

By successfully getting your message across, you
your thoughts and ideas effectively. When not
the thoughts and ideas that you actually send do not
necessarily reflect what you think, causing a
communications breakdown and creating roadblocks that
in the way of your goals - both personally and

In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with
than 50,000 employees, communication skills were
cited as
the single more important decisive factor in choosing
managers. The survey, conducted by the University of
!ittsburgh's Katz Business School, points out that
communication skills, including written and oral
presentations, as well as an ability to work with
are the main factor contributing to job success.

In spite of the increasing importance placed on
communication skills, many individuals continue to
struggle, unable to communicate their thoughts and
effectively - whether in verbal or written format.
inability makes it nearly impossible for them to
effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way
career progression.

Being able to communicate effectively is therefore
essential if you want to build a successful career.
To do
this, you must understand what your message is, what
audience you are sending it to, and how it will be
perceived. You must also weigh-in the circumstances
surrounding your communications, such as situational
cultural context.

Communications Skills - The Importance of Removing
!roblems with communication can pop-up at every stage
the communication process (which consists of the
encoding, the channel, decoding, the receiver,
feedback and
the context - see the diagram below). At each stage,
is the potential for misunderstanding and confusion.

To be an effective communicator and to get your point
across without misunderstanding and confusion, your
should be to lessen the frequency of problems at each
of this process, with clear, concise, accurate, well-
planned communications. We follow the process through

As the source of the message, you need to be clear
why you're communicating, and what you want to
You also need to be confident that the information
communicating is useful and accurate.

The message is the information that you want to

This is the process of transferring the information
want to communicate into a form that can be sent and
correctly decoded at the other end. Your success in
encoding depends partly on your ability to convey
information clearly and simply, but also on your
ability to
anticipate and eliminate sources of confusion (for
cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing

A key part of this is knowing your audience: Failure
understand who you are communicating with will result
delivering messages that are misunderstood.

Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal
channels including face-to-face meetings, telephone
videoconferencing; and written channels including
emails, memos and reports.

Different channels have different strengths and
For example, it's not particularly effective to give
a long
list of directions verbally, while you'll quickly
problems if you give someone negative feedback using

Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is
decoding (involving, for example, taking the time to
read a
message carefully, or listen actively to it.) Just as
confusion can arise from errors in encoding, it can
arise from decoding errors. This is particularly the
if the decoder doesn't have enough knowledge to
the message.

Your message is delivered to individual members of
audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or
reactions you hope your message will get from this
audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these
individuals enters into the communication process
ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence
understanding of your message, and their response. To
be a
successful communicator, you should consider these
delivering your message, and act appropriately.

Your audience will provide you with feedback, as
verbal and
nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. !ay
attention to this feedback, as it is the only thing
can give you confidence that your audience has
your message. If you find that there has been a
misunderstanding, at least you have the opportunity
to send
the message a second time.

The situation in which your message is delivered is
context. This may include the surrounding environment
broader culture (corporate culture, international
and so on).

Removing Barriers at All These Stages
To deliver your messages effectively, you must commit
breaking down the barriers that exist within each of
stages of the communication process.

Let's begin with the message itself. If your message
is too
lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can
the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted.
Use of
poor verbal and body language can also confuse the

Barriers in context tend to stem from senders
offering too
much information too fast. When in doubt here, less
oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the
demands on
other people's time, especially in today's ultra-busy

Jnce you understand this, you need to work to
your audience's culture, making sure you can converse
deliver your message to people of different
backgrounds and
cultures within your own organization, in your
country and
even abroad.
Registration of a Company in Pakistan
Company Registration in Pakistan Requirements and Procedure

Registration of a Private Limited Company, Single Nember Company, Pubic Limited Company in

This brief overview explains, in very general terms, the procedure and requirements for
registration of a company in Pakistan. These brief notes are for general guidance only and
should not be taken as a substitute for thorough and professional legal advice.

Types and Forms of Companies which may be Registered in Pakistan
The following types of companies may be registered in Pakistan:

* A private limited company, which may be a single member company
* A public limited company, which may be listed or unlisted
* A foreign company

How to Register a Company in Pakistan?

Companies remain the most favored form of business organisations in Pakistan especially for
medium and largescale business enterprises. Legal regime for establishment and regulation of
companies in Pakistan is given in the Companies Ordinance, 1384. Whereas the function of
administration of these companies is vested in the Securities and Exchange Commission of
Pakistan and the Registrar of Companies appointed by the Securities and Exchange Commission
of Pakistan for a Province of Pakistan where such company is to be registered.

Under the provisions of the Companies Ordinance, 1384 a company is a corporate body with
separate legal entity and a perpetual succession and a company may be formed by persons
associating for any lawful purpose by subscribing their names to the Nemorandum of
Association and complying with other requirements for registration of a company under the
provisions of the Ordinance.

The Companies Ordinance, 1384 provides three different types of companies:

* A company limited by shares
* A company limited by guarantee
* An unlimited liability company

Further, under the Companies Ordinance, 1384 two types of limited liability companies are
provided namely, a) a private limited company and b) a public limited company (which may be
listed or unlisted). Any one or more persons associated for any lawful purpose by subscribing
their name(s) to the Nemorandum of Association and complying with other registration specific
requirements of the Companies Ordinance, 1384 may incorporate a private limited company.
Provided that where a company has only one subscriber to the Nemorandum of Association
then such a company is called a Single Nember Company, however, a Single Nember Company
remains a private limited company for all intents and purposes of the Ordinance. Whereas any
three or more persons so associated may form a public limited company. A company limited by
shares whether a private company or a public company is the most common vehicle for carrying
out a business enterprise in Pakistan.

Prior approval of the relevant Ninistries/Departments is required to be obtained before
incorporation of the following companies:

* A banking company
* A nonbanking finance company
* A security service providing company
* A corporate brokerage house
* A money exchange company
* An Association not for profit u/s42 of the Companies Ordinance, 1384

Prior approval of the ministries (which regulate their respective functions) noted against each
category of the following specified nature of companies is required before incorporation of such

(1) Banking Company
Ninistry of Finance/State Bank of Pakistan.
(2) !nsurance Company
Ninistry of Commerce.
(3) !nvestment Finance Company (!nvestmentBank)
(i) Ninistry of Finance.
(ii) State Bank of Pakistan.
(4) Leasing Company
Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan.
(S) venture Capital Company
Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan.
(6) Asset Nanagement Company
Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan.

A company which invests in any of the following industries

(i) Arms and Ammunition
Ninistry of !ndustries/Board of !nvestment.
(ii) Security Printing, Currency and Nint.
Ninistry of !ndustries/Board of !nvestment.
(iii) High Explosives.
Ninistry of !ndustries/Board of !nvestment.
iv) Radio Active Substances
Ninistry of !ndustries/Board of !nvestment.

A trade organisation u/s 42 of the Companies Ordinance, 1384

Procedure for Registration of a Company in Pakistan

Following are the requirements for registration of a company in Pakistan:

Step No. 1 for Registration of a Company in Pakistan

Availability of Name
The first step with regard to incorporation of a company is to seek availability of the proposed
name for the company from the Registrar. For this purpose, an application is to be made and a
fee of Rs.200 is required to be paid for seeking availability certificate.

Step No. 2 for Registration of a Company in Pakistan

Filing of documents required for registration of a private limited company in Pakistan

The following documents are required to be filed with the registrar concerned for registration of
a private limited company in Pakistan:

* Copy of national identity card or passport, in case of foreigner, of each subscriber and witness
to the memorandum and article of association.
* Nemorandum and articles of association Four printed copes of Nemorandum and Articles of
Association duly signed by each subscriber in the presence of one witness.
* Form 1 Declaration of compliance with the prerequisites for formation of the company.
* Registration/filing fee A copy of the original paid Challan in the authorized branches of Habib
Bank Limited or a Bank Draft/ Pay Order drawn in favour of the Securities and Exchange
Commission of Pakistan of the prescribed amount.
* Authorisation by sponsors The authorisation of sponsors in favour of a person to make good
the deficiencies, if any, in memorandum and articles of association as may be pointed out by
the registrar concerned and to collect the certificate of incorporation

Documents required for registration of a Single Nember Company in Pakistan
Any person may form a single member company and would file with the registrar at the time of
incorporation a nomination in prescribed form indicating at least two individuals to act as
nominee director and alternate nominee director, of the company in the event of his death. All
requirements for incorporation of a private limited company shall mutatis mutandis apply to a
single member company.

Documents required for registration of an association not for profit in Pakistan
All the documents meant for incorporation of a limited company alongwith a licence issued by
the SEC. !n case of a trade body, a licence issued by the Ninistry of Commerce would also be
submitted to the registrar concerned. The application for obtaining the requisite licence from
the Commission should be accompanied by draft memorandum and Articles of Association, list
of promoters, biodata of each promoter, declaration, names of companies in which the
promoters of the proposed association hold any office, estimates of annual income and
expenditure and brief statement of work already done or to be done.
Letter of Credit

The import and export of things take place between different countries. A letter of credit is a
mean of making payment for import of goods.
Parties !nvolved in Letter of Credit
- Opener or Buyer
- Beneficiary or Seller
- Opening or !ssuing bank
- !ntermediary or Payment bank

Opener or Buyer
The person who purchases the goods from other country and at whose request the letter of
credit is opened is called the opener or the buyer. !n our project the importer of jewelry and the
restaurants are the parties that will request for opening of L.C

Beneficiary or Seller
!t is the person or the parties in whose favor the letter of credit is opened. !n this case this
letter will favor both the parties. !t ensures exporters about the payment and same time it
facilitates importers about their product and services and ensures about the terms and
condition decided by the exporter.

Opening or !ssuing Bank
!t is the bank which opens letter of credit.
!ntermediary or Paying Bank
The bank which makes the payment to the exporters after receiving letter of credit on behalf of
buyer is called paying bank, confirming, negotiating or intermediary bank.

Opening of Letter of Credit
!nternational trade is financed through letter of credit, which is quite simple. Following is the
procedure for issuing a letter of credit. The procedure for opening L.C consists of eight steps,
1. Sales contract
The importer contracts the exporter for the purchase of goods. He settles term and condition
and the mode of payment. Then the importer informs the banker to open letter of credit.
2. Performa !nvoice !mport License
The banker asks the applicant to provide import license, Performa invoice and indent of goods
to be imported. After checking the documents the banker asks the importer to file application
on a prescribed form.
3. Application Form
Application form is usually known as application and agreement for irrevocable letter of credit"
is filled up by the banker and signed by the importer. All terms and condition of sale agreement
are documented in it.
4. Completion and Security of the Form
The banker as per information provided by the applicant fills the letter of credit form. The
banker completes the form and scrutinizes the document.
S. Opening of L.C
After complete processing of the application if the banker finds that every document is correct,
it opens the letter of credit in favor of exporter on behalf of importer.

6. !nformation to the Advising Bank
The issuing bank informs the advising bank that the letter of credit has been issued. Therefore
three copies are made one is kept by the issuing bank and the other two copies are sent to the
advising bank. The advising bank gives one copy to exporter.
. !nformation to the Seller
Advising bank informs the seller or the exporter that the letter of credit has been issued. The
seller thus sends the goods to the buyers and providing shipping document to advising bank.
The bank checks the document and sends it the issuing bank.
8. Nargin of Letter of Credit
State Bank of Pakistan decides the percentage of amount to be paid to issuing bank by the
importer. This interest is known as margin. The amount is deducted from the total payment
made by the importer.

The Relationship Between Communication and Culture
The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. First,
cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means oI human
interaction through which cultural characteristics whether customs, roles, rules, rituals, laws,
or other patternsare created and shared. It is not so much that individuals set out to create a
culture when they interact in relationships, groups, organizations, or societies, but rather that
cultures are a natural by-product oI social interaction. In a sense, cultures are the 'residue oI
social communication. Without communication and communication media, it would be
impossible to preserve and pass along cultural characteristics Irom one place and time to another.
One can say, thereIore, that culture is created, shaped, transmitted, and learned through
communication. The reverse is also the case; that is, communication practices are largely created,
shaped, and transmitted by culture.
To understand the implications oI this communication-culture relationship, it is necessary to
think in terms oI ongoing communication processes rather than a single communication event.
For example, when a three-person group Iirst meets, the members bring with them individual
thought and behavioral patterns Irom previous communication experiences and Irom other
cultures oI which they are, or have been, a part. As individuals start to engage in communication
with the other members oI this new group, they begin to create a set oI shared experiences and
ways oI talking about them. II the group continues to interact, a set oI distinguishing history,
patterns, customs, and rituals will evolve. Some oI these cultural characteristics would be quite
obvious and tangible, such that a new person joining the group would encounter ongoing cultural
'rules to which they would learn to conIorm through communication. New members would in
turn inIluence the group culture in small, and sometimes large, ways as they become a part oI it.
In a reciprocal Iashion, this reshaped culture shapes the communication practices oI current and
Iuture group members. This is true with any culture; communication shapes culture, and culture
shapes communication.

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What is Corporate Culture?
Corporate culture is one of those focus areas that are not always fully

Corporate Culture Defined

Corporate culture is one of those focus areas that are not always fully understood and
are not optimally utilized either in an organization.

A basic definition of organizational culture is the collective way we do things around here. It
involves a learned set of behaviors that is common knowledge to all the participants. These
behaviors are based on a shared system of meanings which guide our perceptions,
understanding of events, and what we pay attention to. As Sun Tzu, a Chinese military
general from 3000 BC, indicated in his explanation of strategy, culture forms an integral
part of any organizational strategy. It consists of Tao - the created and shared beliefs,
values, and glue that holds an organization together, and it also involves the very nature of
the organization. Culture is about individuals in a group sharing patterns of behavior. There
is no cultural absolute. Because culture is relative, we have the power to create a culture
that is the best fit for an organizations future direction.

-serving Culture

Culture plays out in a variety of ways. We can identify the specifics of it from how
information is communicated, feedback is given, performance is managed, and projects are
co-coordinated within the organization. It is reflected in the way the corporation or
institution is structured; whether work is conducted cross-functionally or within silos, how
the hierarchical levels are set up, and the types of job titles used. Culture is often defined
by the systems that are used, the processes that are followed, and the rituals, symbols, and
stories that abound in the organization. It is even reflected in how meetings are held in an

Corporate Culture as an -stacle

When working towards company goals or when trying to effect change in the organization,
your organizational culture can be the very thing that trips you up. If insufficient effort
is put towards identifying aspects of the culture that may impact on what you are trying to
achieve, then insufficient actions will be taken to circumvent obstacles in a timely manner or
harness the way things are done in an opportune direction. This is best explained through
an example.

An organization espouses that "people are our most important asset as part of its new
philosophy. However, employees witness a senior executive being escorted off site with his
belongings by security guards after being laid off. They receive an e-mail explaining where
they will be sitting and who they will be reporting to in the future restructure - with no fore-
warning or personal contact. Training and development opportunities for employees are
stopped in order to cut costs. Actions that consistently reflect a certain core culture will
more effectively emphasize to employees what the leaderships true values are than any
widely publicized statement. If a direction is truly desired, then all actions that will reflect
the required culture need to be considered and instituted accordingly.

Aligning Culture for Success

Once a strategy is set for the organization, the way deliverables are produced in the
organization needs to be examined and challenged. This is to ensure that every process is
geared towards achieving the strategy.

Every component of the corporate culture needs to underpin what is required from all
stakeholders in order to realize the strategic goals. There must be a reinforcing stream of
communications. All the actions in the organization need to translate into the cultural
realities. A culture can be created or reinforced through the use of socialization. Avenues for
socialization abound in functions like selection, placement on the job, job mastery, the
measurement and rewarding of performance, and recognition and promotion. Reinforcing a
culture can emerge through the stories told and the folklore propagated and, most
importantly, through the adherence to chosen important values. The key to the success of
the above is to ensure that the culture you wish to socialize others into is an ideal one,
necessary for breakthrough performance in your work area or organization. If it is not, then
you need to involve everyone in the evaluation and creation of a more suitable culture.

Strong Leadership is Required

One of the surest ways to align the culture to the organizations strategy is to apply
leadership practices that are also aligned. The leaders, at all levels, need to know what the
required culture is and then determine ways of establishing practices and procedures in all
operations that will closely reflect the desired culture. They also need to role model the very
behaviors they wish exhibited by everyone in the organization and provide the necessary
support to others that will enable them to function accordingly as well. Particular attention
also needs to be given to all communications.

Leadership needs to be front and center to create a corporate culture that works.

To view how we would work in partnership with you, click here...

Barriers to Communication
O !hysical (time, environment, comIort, needs, physical medium)
O ultural (ethnic, religious, and social diIIerences)
O !erceptional (viewing what is said Irom your own mindset)
O otivational (mental inertia)
O xperiential (lack oI similar experience)
O motional (personal Ieelings at the moment)
O inguistic (diIIerent languages or vocabulary)
O Non-verbal (non-word messages)
O ompetition (noise, doing other things besides listening)
O Words (we assign a meaning to a word oIten because oI culture -- note the
diIIerence in the meaning oI "police" (contrast Berrien Springs versus Benton
Harbor or any inner city perspective) or "boy" (contrast white male with black
male perspectives)
O ontext (high / low)
O !urpose (example: note the diIIerence in communication between men versus
women; Ior men it's report-talk versus rapport-talk or inIormation versus
O ode (diIIerences in way a message is sent). Note the black versus white
Black White
High keyed
!erson Oriented
ow keyed
ontrolled / SelI-
Task Oriented
Blacks perceive
whites as detached,
devious, impersonal,
hypocritical, avoiding
eye contact, and too
Whites perceive
blacks as aggressive,
interruptive, too
O estures (misunderstood gestures are a major barrier see discussion on non-
verbal language)
O 'ariations in language accent, dialect
O Slang - jargon - colloquialism
O DiIIerent Iorms or reasons Ior verbal interaction
Dueling seeing who can get the upper hand (playing the dozens)
Repartee conversation taking short turns rather than monologue
Ritual conversation standard replies with little meaning to words
themselves (i.e. most US greetings)
SelI-disclosure. The level oI selI-disclosure is culturally
determined. Not all cultures wish to give personal inIormation; some
want to do business without knowing the other person while others insist
on Iull knowledge Iirst.
Any intentional false communication, either written or spoken, that harms a persons
reputation, decreases the respect, regard, or confidence in which a person is held, or induces
disparaging, hostile, or disagreeable opinions or feelings against a person.
DeIamation may be a criminal or civil charge. It encompasses both written statements, known as
IB, and spoken statements, called slander.
The probability that a plaintiII will recover damages in a deIamation suit depends largely on
whether the plaintiII is a public or private Iigure in the eyes oI the law. The public Iigure law oI
deIamation was Iirst delineated in NW YORK TIS '. SUI'AN, 376 U.S. 254, 84 S. t. 710, 11
. d. 2d 686 (1964). In $ullivan, the plaintiII, a police oIIicial, claimed that Ialse allegations
about him appeared in the New York Times, and sued the newspaper Ior libel. The Supreme
ourt balanced the plaintiII's interest in preserving his reputation against the public's interest in
Ireedom oI expression in the area oI political debate. It held that a public oIIicial alleging libel
must prove actual malice in order to recover damages. The ourt declared that the First
Amendment protects open and robust debate on public issues even when such debate includes
"vehement, caustic, unpleasantly sharp attacks on government and public oIIicials." A public
oIIicial or other plaintiII who has voluntarily assumed a position in the public eye must prove
that deIamatory statements were made with knowledge that they were Ialse or with reckless
disregard oI whether they were Ialse.
Where the plaintiII in a deIamation action is a private citizen who is not in the public eye, the
law extends a lesser degree oI constitutional protection to deIamatory statements. !ublic Iigures
voluntarily place themselves in a position that invites close scrutiny, whereas private citizens
who have not entered public liIe do not relinquish their interest in protecting their reputation. In
addition, public Iigures have greater access to the means to publicly counteract Ialse statements
about them. For these reasons, a private citizen's reputation and privacy interests tend to
outweigh Iree speech considerations and deserve greater protection Irom the courts. (See Gert: v.
Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323, 94 S. t. 2997, 41 . d. 2d 789 |1974|).
Distinguishing between public and private Iigures Ior the purposes oI deIamation law is
sometimes diIIicult. For an individual to be considered a public Iigure in all situations, the
person's name must be so Iamiliar as to be a household wordIor example, ichael Jordan.
Because most people do not Iit into that category oI notoriety, the ourt recognized the limited-
purpose public Iigure, who is voluntarily injected into a public controversy and becomes a public
Iigure Ior a limited range oI issues. imited-purpose public Iigures, like public Iigures, have at
least temporary access to the means to counteract Ialse statements about them. They also
voluntarily place themselves in the public eye and consequently relinquish some oI their privacy
rights. For these reasons, Ialse statements about limited-purpose public Iigures that relate to the
public controversies in which those Iigures are involved are not considered deIamatory unless
they meet the actual-malice test set Iorth in $ullivan.
Determining who is a limited-purpose public Iigure can also be problematic. In Time, Inc. v.
Firestone, 424 U.S. 448, 96 S. t. 958, 47 . d. 2d 154 (1976), the ourt held that the plaintiII,
a prominent socialite involved in a scandalous Divorce, was not a public Iigure because her
divorce was not a public controversy and because she had not voluntarily involved herselI in a
public controversy. The ourt recognized that the divorce was newsworthy, but drew a
distinction between matters oI public interest and matters oI public controversy. In Hutchinson v.
Proxmire, 443 U.S. 111, 99 S. t. 2675, 61 . d. 2d 411 (1979), the ourt determined that a
scientist whose Iederally supported research was ridiculed as wasteIul by Senator William
!roxmire was not a limited-purpose public Iigure because he had not sought public scrutiny in
order to inIluence others on a matter oI public controversy, and was not otherwise well-known
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Planning and communication are critical for any reorganisation. Getting top management involved in
planning and executing any major changes can improve your chances of success.
Planning for any restructuring will help you ensure that changes happen in the way you want them to and
that costs are identified in advance and kept under control:
O Plan well ahead. Set flexible priorities and change them with your circumstances.
O Assess any risks to the success of the change and to your business. See our guide on managing risk.
O raw an organisational chart to understand existing processes, workflows and lines of authority, and
draft another organisational chart for your new business structure.
O evelop a vision of how the change will put the company in a better competitive position to achieve its
business objectives - communicating this vision can be a great motivator for your staff.
O Set objectives that will help you measure the success of the change.
O Plan resources and schedule timing for the change.
O Incorporate your objectives into a restructuring planand distribute it among senior management.
O Plan how you are going to communicate the change to your employees - it demonstrates commitment if
the managing director or chief executive talks personally to employees.
Sustained communications are vital. You should meet managers and employees regularly to explain the
reasons for the change, how it will be carried out and how it will affect them. Combat unfounded rumours by
tackling them head on. Make sure that managers operate an 'open door' policy to any employees who may
have questions. See the page in this guide on managing people.
You may also need to take account of the Information and Consultation of Employees (ICE) Regulations,
which can apply to businesses with 50 or more employees. Under these regulations, and where you already
have an agreement in place, employees can request a change to the way you inform or consult them about
major issues affecting the organisation. If no agreement currently exists, employees can request that one is
drawn up, subject to certain conditions.
It is important to talk to suppliers, partners and customers to keep them informed of any changes that could
affect them. Try to give this information as far ahead as possible
Planning for Effective Communication
Whether you are drafting a campus memo, responding to an email message from a
customer, or developing a major outreach campaign that will last for several months,
the time you spend planning these communications can make the difference between
success and missed opportunity. A comprehensive communication plan will probably
include more than one audience with more than one goal, as well as more than one
communication channel.
Planning for effective communication starts with these questions. The steps below will
help you answer them.
Why are you communicating?
What are you communicating?
Who needs to receive the communication?
How can you best reach the audience?
How will you know whether you communicated effectively?
Back to top
Step 1: Clarify your communication goals
Why are you communicating and what do you want to accomplish with this
Are you announcing a new service to your customers?
Are you seeking feedback?
Are you hoping to influence attitudes?
Are you asking people to make a decision or take action?
Are you aiming to achieve consensus?
Are you building a shared understanding of strategy or challenging the culture?
Why does anyone need your communication -- why should they pay attention?
We've developed an example (see below) of possible goals for communicating a-out
a significant change.

Step 2: Know your audience
Think about who needs your information, whom you need to hear from, and their roles
in the organization. o your research to understand your audience(s), and then think
about what you've learned. Ask yourself questions such as:
How much do the audience members already know about my they need
background information?
What are the specific benefits for each particular audience? What aspect of this topic
matters to them?
If they are being asked to take action, how difficult will it be for them?
ifferent audiences may require variations of your message. For example, if you are
communicating about a new business process....
A Vice Chancellor might be interested in the strategic or financial benefits.
Business officers might want details about how the process will affect their work, or
when they can schedule training for staff members who will be carrying out the
Staff members in your own unit may care about the success of the new process and
what they will need in order to provide customer support.

Step 3: Craft your messages
Use concise language to tailor your messages to your audience members. Keep it
simple, avoid jargon, and include references where readers can get more details if they
wish. Test your message out on readers who don't already know the subject.
See Communication Tips for more on how to write and structure communications.

Step 4: Choose your channel
A communication channel is simply the method or mechanism you choose to convey
your communication. Your choice of channel depends on the audience you're trying to
reach, whether you want an interactive discussion or just to provide information, and
whether the message is long and complex or short and simple. See Communication
Channels for more details on Berkeley campus communication channels.

ote: Once you have drafted your plan, make sure you have agreement from staff or
team members who are assigned responsibilities in the plan as well as project
sponsors; otherwise, your communication plan may not be carried out.

Step 5: Evaluate the outcome
Check with members of your audience -- did they receive the communication? Was it
clear and useful for them? id it achieve your goal? What will you do differently the
next time?
Back to top
Communicating a-out Change: A special case
When your communication involves change, your goals might include some of the
To provide information
To clarify the reasons for a change
To describe the benefits of the change
To draw a picture of the new organization
To describe how the change will take place
To provide information on support and resources
To gather information
To get input from diverse groups affected by the change
To learn what issues and concerns are raised by the change
To get feedback on how the change is operating
To affect attitudes and -ehavior
To show that change is a beginning
To create an atmosphere that supports the new organization or culture
To build trust by demonstrating honesty and inclusiveness
To create a positive, collaborative work environment
To offer support
To acknowledge resistance, anger, or sense of loss
To discuss responses to the change
To show how loss will be balanced by the advantages of the change
To provide tools (such as training and information) for managing transitions
To reduce isolation and foster teamwork

10 Tips to Effective & Active Listening Skills
Written by Susie Michelle Cortright

Do you ever need someone to listen to you? Our mentors are available.
Listening makes our loved ones feel worthy, appreciated, interesting, and respected. Ordinary
conversations emerge on a deeper level, as do our relationships. When we listen, we foster the skill in
others by acting as a model for positive and effective communication.
In our love relationships, greater communication brings greater intimacy. Parents listening to their
kids helps build their self-esteem. In the business world, listening saves time and money by
preventing misunderstandings. And we always learn more when we listen than when we talk.
Listening skills fuel our social, emotional and professional success, and studies prove that listening is a
skill we can learn.
The Technique. Active listening is really an extension of the Golden Rule. To know how to listen to
someone else, think about how you would want to be listened to.
While the ideas are largely intuitive, it might take some practice to develop (or re-develop) the skills.
Heres what good listeners know - and you should, too:
1. Face the speaker. Sit up straight or lean forward slightly to show your attentiveness through body
2. Maintain eye contact, to the degree that you all remain comfortable.
3. Minimize external distractions. Turn off the TV. Put down your book or magazine, and ask the
speaker and other listeners to do the same.
4. Respond appropriately to show that you understand. Murmur ("uh-huh and "um-hmm) and
nod. Raise your eyebrows. Say words such as "Really, "Interesting, as well as more direct prompts:
"What did you do then? and "What did she say?
5. Focus solely on what the speaker is saying. Try not to think about what you are going to say
next. The conversation will follow a logical flow after the speaker makes her point.
. Minimize internal distractions. If your own thoughts keep horning in, simply let them go and
continuously re-focus your attention on the speaker, much as you would during meditation.
7. Keep an open mind. Wait until the speaker is finished before deciding that you disagree. Try not
to make assumptions about what the speaker is thinking.
Thursday, February 25, 2010
Writing for Immediate, Primary and Secondary
A guest post by PIck HoIton

|ost busIness wrIters strIve to understand theIr audIence and to determIne whether It Is frIendly or
hostIle to theIr message. t Is also Important for people In your organIzatIon to dIstInguIsh between
ImmedIate, prImary and secondary audIences.

Your ImmedIate audIence Is the person or persons to whom your communIcatIon Is addressed. Your
prImary audIence Is that person's colleagues or assocIates, or anyone else to whom the addressee
mIght potentIally show your communIcatIon. Your secondary audIence Is anyone who wIll potentIally be
affected by your communIcatIon.

Say the 0Irector of Procurement at a small prIvate college asked you to prepare an energy supply plan
In whIch you are to consIder the technIcal, economIc, and envIronmental ImplIcatIons of usIng a varIety
of fuels to heat the campus.

Your ImmedIate audIence Is the 0Irector of Procurement. Your prImary audIence comprIses the college
presIdent and anyone on the college staff who Is Involved In technIcal, economIc, and envIronmental
decIsIon makIng.

Your secondary audIence consIsts of students, faculty, alumnI, and local resIdents. Furthermore, should
the college make a controversIal choIce based on your recommendatIon, other members of the
secondary audIence mIght Include lawyers, the press, and the general publIc.

Although you have many dIfferent audIences to thInk about, you must wIthout faIl satIsfy the needs of
the person receIvIng your communIcatIon.

f you know, however, that the person receIvIng your memo may well show It to certaIn other
managers, you wIll probably want to keep that fact In the back of your mInd.

And If you know that your memo could be leaked to the press or could become a matter of publIc
record, you wIll certaInly want to choose your words carefully so as not to gIve the general reader an
Incorrect ImpressIon of eIther you or your company.

People In your organIzatIon can use thIs sImple tIp to make sure they're sendIng the rIght message to
the rIght audIence and that theIr communIcatIon has no unforeseen consequences.

PIck HoIton Is owner of The HoIton Croup, whIch specIaIIzes In busIness wrItIng and consuItIng.
1he 1hreeSLep
WrlLlng rocess
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 31eople have [usL gone ahead and
experlmenLed 1here are some
very lnLeresLlng models
8en Ldwards
Manager of lnvesLor
CommunlcaLlons l8M
Learnlng Cb[ecLlves
AfLer sLudylng Lhls chapLer you wlll be able Lo
1 uescrlbe Lhe LhreesLep wrlLlng process
2 LlsL four quesLlons LhaL can help you LesL Lhe purpose of your message
3 uescrlbe Lhe lmporLance of analyzlng your audlence and ldenLlfy Lhe slx facLors
you should conslder when developlng an audlence proflle
4 ulscuss gaLherlng lnformaLlon for slmple messages and ldenLlfy Lhree aLLrlbuLes of
quallLy lnformaLlon
3 LlsL facLors Lo conslder when chooslng Lhe mosL approprlaLe medlum for your
6 Lxplaln why good organlzaLlon ls lmporLanL Lo boLh you and your audlence
7 Summarlze Lhe process for organlzlng buslness messages effecLlvely
AfLer launchlng a breakLhrough podcasLlng serles called l8M and Lhe luLure of " as a
way of leLLlng l8M experLs share knowledge on a wlde range of Loplcs wlLh cusLomers and
lnvesLors Lhe company made podcasLlng Lools avallable Lo all lLs employees Lhen saL
back Lo see how Lhey mlghL Lake advanLage of Lhls exclLlng new medlum noL surprlslngly
for a company full of brlghL creaLlve people l8M sLaffers began dlsLrlbuLlng a wlde varleLy of messages
vla podcasL Cne galned an lnsLanL followlng by podcasLlng abouL Lhe
dally challenges and rewards of belng a moblle lnformaLlon worker AnoLher saved
hundreds of Lhousands of dollars a year ln Lelephone charges slmply by replaclng a masslve weekly
Leleconference wlLh podcasLs no maLLer whaL Lhe Lechnology lnnovaLors
such as l8M are consLanLly looklng for new ways Lo reach Lhelr audlences wlLh effecLlve
undersLandlng Lhe 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
Chooslng Lhe medlum ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL sLeps ln plannlng your buslness messages and as
l8M demonsLraLes Lhe opLlons seem Lo mulLlply all Lhe Llme WheLher you're
creaLlng slmple emalls and lnsLanL messages or complex reporLs and presenLaLlons LhaL
may requlre weeks of plannlng and wrlLlng your goal ls Lo creaLe messages LhaL have a
clear purpose meeL Lhe needs of your audlence and communlcaLe efflclenLly lor every
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 3233
message you send you can reduce Lhe Llme and energy lL Lakes Lo achleve Lhls goal by followlng a clear
and proven LhreesLep process (see llgure 31)
lannlng buslness messages 1o plan any message flrsL analyze Lhe slLuaLlon by deflnlng your purpose
and developlng a proflle of your audlence WlLh LhaL ln mlnd you
can gaLher lnformaLlon LhaL wlll meeL your audlence's needs nexL selecL Lhe rlghL
medlum (oral wrlLLen or elecLronlc) Lo dellver your message WlLh Lhose Lhree facLors
ln place you're ready Lo organlze Lhe lnformaLlon by deflnlng your maln ldea llmlLlng
your scope selecLlng an approach and ouLllnlng your conLenL lannlng messages ls
Lhe focus of Lhls chapLer
WrlLlng buslness messages Cnce you've planned your message adapL Lo your
audlence wlLh senslLlvlLy relaLlonshlp skllls and sLyle 1hen you're ready Lo compose
your message by chooslng sLrong words creaLlng effecLlve senLences and developlng
coherenL paragraphs WrlLlng buslness messages ls dlscussed ln ChapLer 4
CompleLlng buslness messages AfLer wrlLlng your flrsL drafL revlse your message Lo
make sure lL ls clear conclse and correcL nexL produce your message glvlng lL an
aLLracLlve professlonal appearance roofread Lhe flnal producL for Lypos spelllng
errors and oLher mechanlcal problems llnally dlsLrlbuLe your message uslng Lhe besL
comblnaLlon of personal and Lechnologlcal Lools CompleLlng buslness messages ls dlscussed ln ChapLer
1hroughouL Lhls book you'll see Lhe Lhree sLeps ln Lhls process applled Lo a wlde varleLy of buslness
messages baslc Lasks for shorL messages (ChapLers 6 Lhrough 9) addlLlonal
Lasks for longer messages (ChapLer 10 and 11) speclal Lasks for oral presenLaLlons
(ChapLer 12) and dlsLlncL Lasks for employmenL messages (ChapLer 14)
1he more you use Lhe LhreesLep wrlLlng process Lhe easler and fasLer lL wlll become
?ou'll also geL beLLer aL alloLLlng your Llme for each sLep As a general rule Lry uslng
roughly half your Llme for plannlng a quarLer of your Llme for wrlLlng and Lhe remalnlng
quarLer for compleLlng Lhe pro[ecL Lven for small wrlLlng pro[ecLs reslsL Lhe LempLaLlon
Lo sklp Lhe plannlng sLep lor lnsLance spendlng even [usL a mlnuLe or Lwo Lo Lhlnk
1he LhreesLep wrlLlng process conslsLs
of plannlng wrlLlng and compleLlng
your messages
lannlng WrlLlng CompleLlng
1 2 3
Analyze Lhe SlLuaLlon
ueflne your purpose and develop an
audlence proflle
CaLher lnformaLlon
ueLermlne audlence needs and obLaln
Lhe lnformaLlon necessary Lo saLlsfy
Lhose needs
SelecL Lhe 8lghL Medlum
Choose Lhe besL medlum for dellverlng
your message
Crganlze Lhe lnformaLlon
ueflne your maln ldea llmlL your scope
selecL a dlrecL or an lndlrecL approach
and ouLllne your conLenL
AdapL Lo ?our Audlence
8e senslLlve Lo audlence needs wlLh a
you" aLLlLude pollLeness poslLlve
emphasls and blasfree language 8ulld
a sLrong relaLlonshlp wlLh your audlence
by esLabllshlng your credlblllLy and
pro[ecLlng your company's lmage
ConLrol your sLyle wlLh a conversaLlonal
Lone plaln Lngllsh and approprlaLe
Compose Lhe Message
Choose sLrong words LhaL wlll help you
creaLe effecLlve senLences and coherenL
8evlse Lhe Message
LvaluaLe conLenL and revlew readablllLy
Lhen edlL and rewrlLe for conclseness
and clarlLy
roduce Lhe Message
use effecLlve deslgn elemenLs and
sulLable layouL for a clean professlonal
roofread Lhe Message
8evlew for errors ln layouL spelllng
and mechanlcs
ulsLrlbuLe Lhe Message
uellver your message uslng Lhe chosen
medlum make sure all documenLs and
all relevanL flles are dlsLrlbuLed
llCu8L 31 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
1hls LhreesLep process wlll help you creaLe more effecLlve messages ln any medlum As you geL more
pracLlce wlLh
Lhe process lL wlll become easler and more auLomaLlc
As a sLarLlng polnL Lry Lo use half your
Llme for plannlng one quarLer for
wrlLlng and one quarLer for compleLlng
your messages
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 3334 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
8uslness messages have boLh a
general and a speclflc purpose
AfLer deflnlng your purpose verlfy LhaL
Lhe message wlll be worLh Lhe Llme and
efforL requlred Lo creaLe send and
recelve lL
Lhrough Lhe purpose of an emall message can help you wrlLe much fasLer because you'll
know ln advance whaL you wanL Lo say And leave plenLy of Llme Lo compleLe your documenLs Loo you
don'L wanL Lo compromlse Lhe quallLy of a good message by shorLchanglng Lhe lmporLanL sLeps of
revlslng produclng proofreadlng and dlsLrlbuLlng
Analyzlng ?our SlLuaLlon
A successful message sLarLs wlLh a clear purpose LhaL connecLs Lhe sender's needs wlLh Lhe
audlence's needs ldenLlfylng your purpose and your audlence ls usually a sLralghLforward
Lask for slmple rouLlne messages however Lhls Lask can be more demandlng ln more
complex slLuaLlons lor lnsLance lf you need Lo communlcaLe abouL a shlpplng problem
beLween your 8el[lng and Los Angeles facLorles your purpose mlghL be slmply Lo alerL
upper managemenL Lo Lhe slLuaLlon or lL mlghL lnvolve asklng Lhe Lwo facLory managers
Lo explore and solve Lhe problem 1hese Lwo scenarlos have dlfferenL purposes and dlfferenL audlences
Lherefore Lhey yleld dramaLlcally dlfferenL messages lf you launch dlrecLly
lnLo wrlLlng wlLhouL clarlfylng boLh your purpose and your audlence you'll wasLe Llme
and energy and you'll probably generaLe a less effecLlve message
ueflnlng ?our urpose
All buslness messages have a general purpose Lo lnform Lo persuade or Lo collaboraLe
wlLh your audlence 1hls purpose helps deflne Lhe overall approach you'll need Lo Lake
from gaLherlng lnformaLlon Lo organlzlng your message WlLhln Lhe scope of LhaL general
purpose each message also has a speclflc purpose whlch ldenLlfles whaL you hope Lo
accompllsh wlLh your message SLaLe your speclflc purpose as preclsely as posslble even
ldenLlfylng whlch audlence members should respond how Lhey should respond and
Cnce you have deflned your speclflc purpose make sure lL merlLs Lhe Llme and efforL
requlred for you Lo prepare and send Lhe message Ask Lhese four quesLlons
Wlll anyLhlng change as a resulL of your message? Make sure you don'L conLrlbuLe Lo
lnformaLlon overload by sendlng messages LhaL won'L change anyLhlng Complalnlng
abouL Lhlngs LhaL you have no lnfluence over ls a good example of a message LhaL probably shouldn'L be
ls your purpose reallsLlc? lf your purpose lnvolves a radlcal shlfL ln acLlon or aLLlLude
proceed carefully Conslder proposlng a flrsL sLep so LhaL your message acLs as Lhe
beglnnlng of a learnlng process
ls Lhe Llme rlghL? eople who are busy or dlsLracLed when Lhey recelve your message
are less llkely Lo pay aLLenLlon Lo lL
ls your purpose accepLable Lo your organlzaLlon? ?our company's buslness ob[ecLlves
and pollcles and even laws LhaL apply Lo your parLlcular lndusLry may dlcLaLe wheLher
a glven purpose ls accepLable
Cnce you are saLlsfled LhaL you have a clear and meanlngful purpose and LhaL now ls
a smarL Llme Lo proceed your nexL sLep ls Lo undersLand Lhe members of your audlence
and Lhelr needs
ueveloplng an Audlence roflle
8efore an audlence Lakes Lhe Llme Lo read or hear your message Lhey need Lo be lnLeresLed
ln whaL you're saylng 1hey need Lo see whaL's ln lL for Lhemwhlch of Lhelr needs wlll be
meL or problems wlll be solved by llsLenlng Lo your advlce or dolng whaL you ask 1he more
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 343 lannlng 8uslness Messages 33
Ask yourself some key quesLlons abouL
your audlence
Who are Lhey?
Pow many people do you need
Lo reach?
Pow much do Lhey already know
abouL Lhe sub[ecL?
WhaL ls Lhelr probable reacLlon
Lo your message?
ro[ecL A reporL recommendlng LhaL we close down Lhe onslLe exerclse
faclllLy and subsldlze prlvaLe membershlps aL local healLh clubs
- rlmary audlence nlcole erazzo vlce presldenL of operaLlons and her
supervlsory Leam
- Slze and geographlc dlsLrlbuLlon nlne managers LoLal nlcole and flve of
her sLaff are here on slLe Lhree oLher supervlsors are based ln Pong kong
- ComposlLlon All have experlence ln operaLlons managemenL buL several
are new Lo Lhe company
- Level of undersLandlng All wlll no doubL undersLand Lhe flnanclal
conslderaLlons buL Lhe newer managers mlghL noL undersLand Lhe
lmporLance of Lhe onslLe exerclse faclllLy Lo many of our employees
- LxpecLaLlons and preferences 1hey're expecLlng a flrm recommendaLlon
backed up wlLh wellLhoughLouL flnanclal raLlonale and suggesLlons for
communlcaLlng Lhe bad news Lo employees lor a declslon of Lhls
magnlLude a formal reporL ls approprlaLe emall dlsLrlbuLlon ls expecLed
- robable reacLlon lrom oneonone dlscusslons l know LhaL several of Lhe
managers recelvlng Lhls reporL are acLlve users of Lhe onslLe faclllLy and
won'L welcome Lhe suggesLlon LhaL we should shuL lL down Powever some
nonexerclsers generally Lhlnk lL's a luxury Lhe company can'L afford
Audlence reacLlons wlll range from hlghly poslLlve Lo hlghly negaLlve Lhe
reporL should focus on overcomlng Lhe hlghly negaLlve reacLlons slnce
Lhey're Lhe ones l need Lo convlnce
Audlence Analysls noLes
llCu8L 32 uslng Audlence Analysls Lo lan a Message
lor slmple rouLlne messages you usually don'L need Lo analyze your audlence ln depLh Powever for
messages or messages for lndlfferenL or hosLlle audlences Lake Lhe Llme Lo sLudy Lhelr lnformaLlon
needs and
poLenLlal reacLlons Lo your message
you know abouL your audlence Lhelr needs and Lhelr expecLaLlons Lhe more effecLlvely
you'll be able Lo communlcaLe wlLh Lhem lor an example of Lhe klnd of lnformaLlon you
need Lo complle ln an audlence analysls see Lhe plannlng sheeL shown ln llgure 32 1o
conducL an audlence analysls
ldenLlfy your prlmary audlence lor some messages cerLaln audlence members mlghL
be more lmporLanL Lhan oLhers uon'L lgnore Lhe needs of less lnfluenLlal members buL
make sure you address Lhe concerns of Lhe key declslon makers
ueLermlne audlence slze and geographlc dlsLrlbuLlon A message almed aL 10000
people spread around Lhe globe mlghL requlre a dlfferenL approach Lhan one almed aL
a dozen people down Lhe hall
ueLermlne audlence composlLlon Look for boLh slmllarlLles and dlfferences ln culLure language age
educaLlon organlzaLlonal rank and sLaLus aLLlLudes experlence
moLlvaLlons and any oLher facLors LhaL mlghL affecL Lhe success of your message
Cauge audlence members' level of undersLandlng lf audlence members share your
general background Lhey'll probably undersLand your maLerlal wlLhouL dlfflculLy lf
noL your message wlll need an elemenL of educaLlon and decldlng how much lnformaLlon Lo lnclude
can be a challenge 1ry Lo lnclude only enough lnformaLlon Lo accompllsh
Lhe speclflc purpose of your message lf Lhe members of your audlence have varlous
levels of undersLandlng gear your coverage Lo your prlmary audlence (Lhe key
declslon makers)
undersLand audlence expecLaLlons and preferences Wlll members of your audlence
expecL compleLe deLalls or [usL a summary of Lhe maln polnLs? uo Lhey wanL an emall
lf audlence members have dlfferenL
levels of undersLandlng of Lhe Loplc
alm your message aL Lhe mosL
lnfluenLlal declslon makers
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 3336 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
A gradual approach and plenLy of
evldence are requlred Lo wln over
a skepLlcal audlence
lf you're glven a vague requesL ask
quesLlons Lo clarlfy lL before you plan a
lnclude any addlLlonal lnformaLlon LhaL
mlghL be helpful even Lhough Lhe
requesLer dldn'L speclflcally ask for lL
1esL Lhe compleLeness of your
documenL by maklng sure lL answers all
Lhe lmporLanL quesLlons who whaL
when where why and how
or wlll Lhey expecL a formal memo? ln general Lhe hlgher up Lhe organlzaLlon your
message goes Lhe fewer deLalls people wanL Lo see slmply because Lhey have less Llme
Lo read Lhem
lorecasL probable audlence reacLlon As you'll read laLer ln Lhe chapLer audlence reacLlon affecLs
message organlzaLlon lf you expecL a favorable response you can sLaLe
concluslons and recommendaLlons up fronL and offer mlnlmal supporLlng evldence lf
you expecL skepLlclsm you'll probably wanL Lo lnLroduce concluslons gradually wlLh
more proof along Lhe way
CaLherlng lnformaLlon
WlLh a clear plcLure of your audlence your nexL sLep ls Lo assemble Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL
you wlll lnclude ln your message lor slmple messages you may already have all Lhe lnformaLlon aL
hand buL more complex messages can requlre conslderable research and analysls before you're ready
Lo begln wrlLlng ChapLer 10 explores formal Lechnlques for flndlng
evaluaLlng and processlng lnformaLlon buL you can ofLen use a varleLy of lnformal Lechnlques Lo gaLher
lnslghLs and focus your research efforLs
Conslder oLher vlewpolnLs uLLlng yourself ln someone else's poslLlon helps you conslder whaL LhaL
person mlghL be Lhlnklng feellng or plannlng
8ead reporLs and oLher company documenLs ?our company's flles may be a rlch
source of Lhe lnformaLlon you need for a parLlcular memo or emall message Seek ouL
annual reporLs flnanclal sLaLemenLs news releases memos markeLlng reporLs and
cusLomer surveys for helpful lnformaLlon llnd ouL wheLher your company has a
knowledge managemenL sysLem a cenLrallzed daLabase LhaL collecLs Lhe experlences and
lnslghLs of employees LhroughouL Lhe organlzaLlon
1alk wlLh supervlsors colleagues or cusLomers lellow workers and cusLomers may
have lnformaLlon you need or Lhey may know whaL your audlence wlll be lnLeresLed ln
Ask your audlence for lnpuL lf you're unsure of whaL audlence members need from
your message ask Lhem AdmlLLlng you don'L know buL wanL Lo meeL Lhelr needs wlll
lmpress an audlence more Lhan guesslng and geLLlng lL wrong
uncoverlng Audlence needs
ln many slLuaLlons your audlence's lnformaLlon needs are readlly apparenL such as when
a consumer sends an emall asklng a speclflc quesLlon ln oLher cases your audlence
mlghL be unable Lo arLlculaLe exacLly whaL ls needed lf someone makes a vague or broad
requesL ask quesLlons Lo narrow Lhe focus lf your boss says llnd ouL everyLhlng you can
abouL lnLerscope 8ecords" ask whlch aspecL of Lhe company and lLs buslness ls mosL
lmporLanL Asklng a quesLlon or Lwo ofLen forces Lhe person Lo Lhlnk Lhrough Lhe requesL
and deflne more preclsely whaL ls requlred
Also Lry Lo Lhlnk of lnformaLlon needs LhaL your audlence may noL even be aware of
Suppose your company has [usL hlred a new employee from ouL of Lown and you've been
asslgned Lo coordlnaLe Lhls person's relocaLlon AL a mlnlmum you would wrlLe a welcomlng leLLer
descrlblng your company's procedures for relocaLlng employees WlLh a llLLle exLra LhoughL however
you mlghL lnclude some lnformaLlon abouL Lhe clLy perhaps a
gulde Lo resldenLlal areas a map or Lwo brochures abouL culLural acLlvlLles or lnformaLlon on schools
and LransporLaLlon ln some cases you may be able Lo Lell your audlence
someLhlng Lhey conslder lmporLanL buL wouldn'L have LhoughL Lo ask AlLhough addlng
lnformaLlon of Lhls sorL lengLhens your message lL can also creaLe goodwlll
rovldlng 8equlred lnformaLlon
Cnce you've deflned your audlence's lnformaLlon needs your nexL sLep ls Lo saLlsfy Lhose
needs compleLely use Lhe [ournallsLlc approach Lo make sure your lnformaLlon answers
who whaL when where why and how ln addlLlon Lo dellverlng Lhe rlghL quanLlLy of
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 363 lannlng 8uslness Messages 37
Cral communlcaLlon ls besL when you
need Lo encourage lnLeracLlon express
emoLlons or monlLor emoLlonal
Cral medla llmlL parLlclpaLlon Lo Lhose
who are presenL reduce your conLrol
over Lhe message and make lL dlfflculL
Lo revlse or edlL your message
requlred lnformaLlon you are responslble for verlfylng Lhe quallLy of LhaL lnformaLlon
Ask yourself Lhese Lhree quesLlons
ls Lhe lnformaLlon accuraLe? lnaccuracles can cause a hosL of problems from embarrassmenL and losL
producLlvlLy Lo serlous safeLy and legal lssues 8e sure Lo revlew any
maLhemaLlcal or flnanclal calculaLlons Check all daLes and schedules and examlne
your own assumpLlons and concluslons Lo be cerLaln Lhey are valld
ls Lhe lnformaLlon eLhlcal? 8y worklng hard Lo ensure Lhe accuracy of Lhe lnformaLlon
you gaLher you'll also avold many eLhlcal problems ln your messages Powever messages can also be
uneLhlcal lf lmporLanL lnformaLlon ls omlLLed or obscured
ls Lhe lnformaLlon perLlnenL? 8emember LhaL some polnLs wlll be more lmporLanL
Lo your audlence Lhan oLhers Moreover by focuslng on Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL concerns
your audlence Lhe mosL you lncrease your chances of sendlng an effecLlve message
SelecLlng Lhe 8lghL Medlum
SelecLlng Lhe besL medlum for your message can make Lhe dlfference beLween effecLlve
and lneffecLlve communlcaLlon
A medlum ls Lhe form Lhrough whlch you choose Lo
communlcaLe your message ?ou may choose Lo Lalk wlLh someone faceLoface wrlLe a
leLLer send an emall message or record a podcasLwlLh Loday's everexpandlng Lechnology you ofLen
have a varleLy of medla opLlons from whlch Lo choose
ln facL medla caLegorles have become lncreaslngly blurred ln recenL years wlLh so
many opLlons LhaL lnclude mulLlmedla formaLs lor Lhe sake of dlscusslon you can Lhlnk
of medla as LradlLlonally belng elLher oral or wrlLLen and elecLronlc medla exLend Lhe
reach of boLh Lach Lype of medlum has advanLages and dlsadvanLages
Cral Medla
rlmary oral medla lnclude faceLoface conversaLlons lnLervlews speeches lnperson
presenLaLlons and meeLlngs 8elng able Lo see hear and reacL Lo each oLher can beneflL
communlcaLors glvlng oral medla several advanLages
1hey provlde lmmedlaLe feedback
1hey allow a cerLaln ease of lnLeracLlon
1hey lnvolve rlch nonverbal cues (boLh physlcal gesLures and vocal lnflecLlons)
1hey help you express Lhe emoLlon behlnd your message
1radlLlonal oral medla are useful for geLLlng people Lo ask quesLlons make commenLs and work
LogeLher Lo reach a consensus or declslon Powever lf you don'L wanL or
need all LhaL lnLeracLlon Lhen oral medla can have several dlsadvanLages
1hey resLrlcL parLlclpaLlon Lo Lhose physlcally presenL
unless recorded Lhey provlde no permanenL verlflable record of Lhe communlcaLlon
1hey can reduce Lhe communlcaLor's conLrol over Lhe message lf people lnLerrupL or
ask unanLlclpaLed quesLlons
1hey ofLen rule ouL Lhe chance Lo revlse or edlL your spoken words
WrlLLen Medla
WrlLLen messages Lake many forms from LradlLlonal memos Lo glossy reporLs LhaL rlval
magazlnes ln producLlon quallLy Memos are used for Lhe rouLlne dayLoday exchange of
lnformaLlon wlLhln an organlzaLlon Lmall conLlnues Lo replace LradlLlonal paper memos
ln many clrcumsLances alLhough wrlLers who wanL more formallLy or permanence can
sLlll opL for paper memos LeLLers are wrlLLen messages senL Lo reclplenLs ouLslde Lhe organlzaLlon so ln
addlLlon Lo conveylng a parLlcular message Lhey perform an lmporLanL
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 3738 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
WrlLLen medla lncrease your conLrol
help you reach dlspersed audlences
and mlnlmlze dlsLorLlon
1he dlsadvanLages of wrlLLen medla
lnclude dlfflculLy of feedback lack of
nonverbal cues and Lhe Llme and sklll
someLlmes requlred Lo prepare wrlLLen
publlc relaLlons funcLlon ln fosLerlng good worklng relaLlonshlps 8eporLs may be dlsLrlbuLed Lo lnslders
or ouLslders dependlng on Lhelr purpose and sub[ecL 1hey come ln many
formaLs lncludlng preprlnLed forms leLLers memos and manuscrlpLs ln lengLhs from a
few pages Lo several hundred
WrlLLen medla have a number of advanLages over oral medla
1hey allow you Lo plan and conLrol your message
1hey offer a permanenL verlflable record
1hey help you reach an audlence LhaL ls geographlcally dlspersed
1hey mlnlmlze Lhe dlsLorLlon LhaL can accompany oral messages
1hey can be used Lo avold lmmedlaLe lnLeracLlons lncludlng emoLlonal confronLaLlons
when communlcaLlng conLroverslal messages
ulsadvanLages of wrlLLen medla lnclude Lhe followlng
Many are noL conduclve Lo speedy feedback
1hey lack Lhe rlch nonverbal cues provlded by oral medla
1hey ofLen Lake more Llme and more resources Lo creaLe and dlsLrlbuLe
LlaboraLe prlnLed documenLs can requlre speclal skllls ln preparaLlon and producLlon
LlecLronlc Medla
LlecLronlc medla span a dlverse and expandlng range of Lechnologles from emall and lM
Lo blogs and podcasLs 1he growLh of elecLronlc communlcaLlon opLlons ls boLh a blesslng
and a curse ?ou have more Lools Lhan ever Lo choose from buL you need Lo choose Lhe
rlghL Lools for each message AlLhough no hard rules dlcLaLe whlch Lool Lo use ln each case
here are a few polnLers LhaL wlll help you deLermlne when Lo selecL elecLronlc over more
LradlLlonal forms
1elephone calls are sLlll Lhe llfeblood of many organlzaLlons for boLh lnLernal and
exLernal communlcaLlon 8uL even Lhe humble Lelephone has [olned Lhe lnLerneL age
Lhanks Lo Lhe emerglng capablllLy Lo place phone calls over Lhe lnLerneL known by Lhe
Lechnlcal Lerm vol (whlch sLands for volce over l Lhe lnLerneL roLocol) lnLerneLbased phone servlce
promlses Lo offer cheaper longdlsLance servlce for buslnesses
worldwlde and companles such as Skype even offer free baslc phone servlce beLween
1hrough Lhe use of webcams vldeo phone servlce ls now an lnexpenslve
opLlon for oneLoone phone calls Leleconferences and onllne meeLlngs
volce mall can replace shorL memos and phone calls when an lmmedlaLe response lsn'L
cruclal Powever volce mall ls a poor cholce for lengLhy complex messages slnce Lhe
lnformaLlon ls more dlfflculL for recelvers Lo process
1eleconferenclng vldeoconferenclng and onllne meeLlngs are besL for lnformaLlonal
meeLlngs and are less effecLlve for hlghly lnLeracLlve meeLlngs such as negoLlaLlon
uvus (and Lo a decllnlng exLenL vldeoLapes) are effecLlve for sendlng audlovlsual
messages Lo a large number of people WlLh Lhe growlng avallablllLy of hlghspeed
lnLerneL servlce many vldeo messages once dellvered on Lape or dlsk are now dellvered
LlecLronlc documenLs lnclude boLh word processor flles and Adobe's wldely popular
orLable uocumenL lormaL (ul) CompuLer users can vlew uls on screen wlLh free
reader sofLware and uls are more secure and less vulnerable Lo vlruses Lhan word
processor flles
laxes have been replaced by emall and ul flles ln many cases buL Lhey sLlll play an
lmporLanL role ln many companles lnLerneLbased fax servlces such as elax
(wwwefaxcom) lower Lhe cosL by ellmlnaLlng Lhe need for a dedlcaLed fax llne and fax
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 383 lannlng 8uslness Messages 39
ln general use elecLronlc medla Lo
dellver messages qulckly Lo reach
wldely dlspersed audlences and Lo
Lake advanLage of rlch mulLlmedla
LlecLronlc medla can suffer from a lack
of prlvacy and can reduce producLlvlLy
when people send Loo many lowvalue
Lmall offers speed low cosL porLablllLy and convenlence lL's besL for brlef noncomplex lnformaLlon
LhaL ls Llme senslLlve WlLh such a qulck Lurnaround Llme emall
Lends Lo be more conversaLlonal Lhan LradlLlonal medla buL noL as conversaLlonal as
lnsLanL messaglng
lnsLanL messaglng (lM) allows realLlme oneonone and smallgroup LexL conversaLlons vla personal
compuLer AL Lechnology glanL l8M for lnsLance employees send
more Lhan 3 mllllon lnsLanL messages a monLh
lM ls more versaLlle Lhan a phone call
and qulcker Lhan emall and newer lM sysLems offer flle aLLachmenLs sLreamlng
audlo and vldeo and oLher enhancemenLs 1exL messaglng a phonebased medlum
LhaL has long been popular wlLh consumers ln Asla and Lurope ls flnally caLchlng on
ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes
AlLhough lL lacks many of Lhe capablllLles of lM LexL messaglng does glve buslnesses an easy way Lo
LransmlL slmple messages beLween moblle
WebslLes and blogs have become vlLal communlcaLlon plaLforms for many buslnesses
A welldeslgned webslLe can Lallor Lhe same lnformaLlon for numerous readers by
sLeerlng each audlence group Lo speclflc secLlons on a webslLe 8logs have become
common ln buslness ln recenL years as communlcaLors search for fasL lnformal ways Lo
reach cusLomers and oLher audlences vldeo blogs (vlogs) and moblle blogs (moblogs)
exLend Lhe blogglng concepL ln lnLrlgulng new ways
8log conLenL ls ofLen dlsLrlbuLed
Lhrough 8SS (8eally Slmple SyndlcaLlon) whlch auLomaLlcally sends new conLenL Lo
odcasLs are one of Lhe newesL and mosL exclLlng medla cholces for buslness communlcaLors 8oLh
audlo and vldeo podcasLs glve you a means Lo reach cusLomers and colleagues wlLh a human Louch LhaL
lsn'L always easy Lo repllcaLe ln LexLonly medla
?ou'll read more abouL emall lM blogs and podcasLlng ln ChapLer 6 As you can
see elecLronlc messages offer conslderable advanLages
1hey dellver messages wlLh greaL speed
1hey reach audlences physlcally separaLed from you
1hey reach a dlspersed audlence personally
1hey offer Lhe persuaslve power of mulLlmedla formaLs
1hey can lncrease accesslblllLy and openness ln an organlzaLlon
lor all Lhelr good polnLs elecLronlc medla are noL problemfree Conslder some of
Lhese dlsadvanLages
1hey can lnadverLenLly creaLe Lenslon and confllcL LlecLronlc messages can glve Lhe
llluslon of anonymlLy so people someLlmes say Lhlngs onllne LhaL Lhey would never say
ln person or ln a LradlLlonal documenL 8logs have been a parLlcularly conLroverslal
medlum ln Lhls respecL wlLh several companles flrlng employees for Lhelr blog posLlngs Many
companles are sLlll wresLllng wlLh Lhe phenomenon of employee blogs as
Lhey Lry Lo flnd Lhe approprlaLe balance beLween proLecLlng confldenLlal lnformaLlon
and corporaLe repuLaLlons and respecLlng Lhe freespeech rlghLs of Lhelr employees
1hey are easy Lo overuse 1he ablllLy Lo send or forward messages Lo mulLlple reclplenLs has become a
ma[or cause of lnformaLlon overload
1hey expose companles Lo daLa securlLy LhreaLs and mallclous sofLware ConnecLlng
compuLers Lo Lhe lnLerneL exposes companles Lo a hosL of poLenLlal securlLy problems
lncludlng compuLer vlruses lnformaLlon LhefL and spyware (mallclous sofLware LhaL
sneaks onLo personal compuLers Lo capLure credlL card numbers and oLher confldenLlal
1hey ofLen lack prlvacy More Lhan a few buslnesspeople have dlscovered Lo Lhelr
embarrassmenL LhaL lMs emalls and volce malls can wlnd up ln places Lhey never
envlsloned ln addlLlon employers can legally monlLor elecLronlc messages and Lhese
messages can be subpoenaed for courL cases
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 3960 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
1he more compllcaLed Lhe message
Lhe rlcher Lhe medlum requlred
use WrlLLen Medla When
- ?ou donL need or wanL lmmedlaLe
- ?ou donL wanL or need lmmedlaLe
lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhe audlence
- ?our message ls complex
- ?ou need a permanenL verlflable
- ?our audlence ls large and
geographlcally dlspersed
- ?ou need Lo ensure LhaL Lhe
message cannoL be alLered afLer you
send lL
- ?our message has llmlLed emoLlonal
- 1he slLuaLlon calls for more formallLy
use Cral Medla When
- ?ou wanL lmmedlaLe feedback from
Lhe audlence
- ?our message ls sLralghLforward
and easy Lo accepL
- ?ou donL need a permanenL record
- ?ou can gaLher your audlence
convenlenLly and economlcally
- ?ou wanL Lo encourage lnLeracLlon
Lo solve a problem or reach a group
- ?ou wanL Lo read Lhe audlence's
body language or hear Lhe Lone of
Lhelr response
- ?our message has an emoLlonal
use LlecLronlc Medla When
- ?ou need Lo dellver a message
- ?ou're physlcally separaLed from
your audlence
- ?ou wanL Lo glve Lhe audlence an
opporLunlLy Lo edlL Lhe message
(such as edlLlng a word processlng
- ?our message can beneflL from
mulLlple medla such as audlo and
- ?ou wanL Lo Lake advanLage of
elecLronlc medla
llCu8L 33 Chooslng Lhe MosL ApproprlaLe Medlum
WlLh so many medla cholces aL your dlsposal Loday make sure you choose Lhe mosL efflclenL and mosL
medlum for every message
1hey can serlously draln employee producLlvlLy Lmployees can be easlly dlsLracLed
by Lhe consLanL sLreams of emall lM volce mall conference calls and faxes or Lhe
LempLaLlon Lo surf nonbuslnessrelaLed webslLes durlng worklng hours
lacLors Lo Conslder When Chooslng Medla
When chooslng a medlum for your message selecL Lhe medlum LhaL balances your needs
and your audlence's needs (see llgure 33) !usL as crlLlcal however ls conslderlng how
your message ls affecLed by lmporLanL facLors such as Lhe followlng
Medla rlchness 8lchness ls a medlum's ablllLy Lo (1) convey a message Lhrough more
Lhan one lnformaLlonal cue (vlsual verbal vocal) (2) faclllLaLe feedback and (3) esLabllsh personal
focus 1he rlchesL medlum ls faceLoface communlcaLlon lL's personal lL
provldes lmmedlaLe feedback (verbal and nonverbal) and lL conveys Lhe emoLlon
behlnd a message
10 MulLlmedla presenLaLlons and mulLlmedla webpages are also qulLe
rlch AL Lhe oLher exLreme are Lhe leanesL medlaLhose LhaL communlcaLe ln Lhe slmplesL ways
provlde no opporLunlLy for audlence feedback and aren'L personallzed
such as memos posLers and podcasLs Cenerally speaklng use Lhe rlchesL medla Lo
send more complex messages and Lo help communlcaLe emoLlon use leaner medla Lo
send slmple rouLlne messages
Message formallLy ?our medla cholce governs Lhe sLyle and Lone of your message lor
lnsLance lM and emall can be consldered lnapproprlaLe for formal messages
Medla llmlLaLlons Lvery medlum has llmlLaLlons lor example alLhough faceLoface
communlcaLlon ls a rlch medlum lL's one of Lhe mosL resLrlcLlve because you and your
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 603 lannlng 8uslness Messages 61
?our lnLenLlons heavlly lnfluence your
cholce of medlum
When chooslng Lhe approprlaLe
medlum don'L forgeL Lo conslder your
audlence's expecLaLlons
1lme and cosL also affecL medlum
Cood message organlzaLlon helps you
by reduclng Lhe Llme and energy
needed Lo creaLe messages and by
maklng your messages more effecLlve
Cood organlzaLlon helps your
audlences by helplng Lhem undersLand
and accepL your message ln less Llme
audlence musL be ln Lhe same place aL Lhe same Llme
Slmllarly lnsLanL messaglng ls
perfecL for communlcaLlng shorL slmple messages buL lL ls lneffecLlve for sendlng
complex ones
Sender lnLenLlons ?our cholce of medlum also lnfluences audlence percepLlons of
your lnLenLlons lor lnsLance Lo emphaslze formallLy use a more formal medlum such
as a memo or a leLLer Cr Lo leL people know LhaL you welcome feedback meeL faceLoface make a
phone call or use lM
Audlence preferences Make sure Lo conslder whlch medla your audlence expecLs or
lor example Lhe unlLed SLaLes Canada and Cermany emphaslze wrlLLen messages whereas !apan
emphaslzes oral messagesperhaps because lLs hlghconLexL culLure
carrles so much of Lhe message ln nonverbal cues and beLween Lhe llnes" lnLerpreLaLlon
urgency and cosL varlous medla have dlfferenL cosLs and Llme requlremenLs so you
ofLen need Lo balance urgency and expense newer medla opLlons such as blogs and
podcasLlng make lL easler Lo dellver messages qulckly aL low cosL
Cnce you selecL Lhe besL medlum for your purpose slLuaLlon and audlence you are
ready Lo sLarL Lhlnklng abouL Lhe organlzaLlon of your message
Crganlzlng ?our Message
MlslnLerpreLed messages wasLe Llme lead Lo poor declslon maklng and shaLLer buslness
relaLlonshlps So you can see how valuable clear wrlLlng and good organlzaLlon can be
Successful communlcaLors rely on good organlzaLlon Lo make Lhelr messages meanlngful
WhaL exacLly makes a parLlcular organlzaLlon good"? AlLhough Lhe deflnlLlon of
good organlzaLlon varles from counLry Lo counLry ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes and Canada lL
generally means creaLlng a llnear message LhaL proceeds polnL by polnL (see llgure 34)
WhaL does good organlzaLlon do for you? llrsL and foremosL lL saves you Llme ?our
drafL goes more qulckly because you're noL puLLlng ldeas ln Lhe wrong places or composlng maLerlal you
don'L need ln addlLlon you can use your organlzaLlonal plan Lo geL some
advance lnpuL from your audlence maklng sure you're on Lhe rlghL Lrack before spendlng
hours worklng on your drafL And lf your pro[ecL ls large and complex you can even use
your organlzaLlon plan Lo dlvlde Lhe wrlLlng [ob among coworkers
ln addlLlon Lo helplng you good organlzaLlon helps your audlence
Cood organlzaLlon helps your audlence undersLand your message 8y maklng your
maln polnL clear aL Lhe ouLseL and by sLaLlng your needs preclsely your wellorganlzed
message wlll saLlsfy your audlence's need for lnformaLlon
Cood organlzaLlon helps your audlence accepL your message Lven when your message ls loglcal you
need Lo selecL and organlze your polnLs ln a dlplomaLlc way
SofLenlng refusals and leavlng a good lmpresslon enhances credlblllLy and adds
auLhorlLy Lo your messages
Cood organlzaLlon saves your audlence Llme Audlence members recelve only Lhe
lnformaLlon Lhey need and because LhaL lnformaLlon ls relevanL brlef and loglcally
placed your audlence can follow your LhoughL paLLern wlLhouL a sLruggle
?ou can achleve good organlzaLlon by clearly deflnlng your maln ldea llmlLlng Lhe
scope of your message grouplng supporLlng polnLs and esLabllshlng Lhelr sequence by
selecLlng elLher a dlrecL or an lndlrecL approach
ueflnlng ?our Maln ldea
1he broad sub[ecL or Loplc of every buslness message ls condensed Lo one ldea wheLher
lL's sollclLlng Lhe execuLlve commlLLee for a larger budgeL or apologlzlng Lo a cllenL for an
lncldenL of poor cusLomer servlce ?our enLlre message supporLs explalns or demonsLraLes
your maln ldeaa speclflc sLaLemenL abouL Lhe Loplc of your message
1o organlze a message
ueflne your maln ldea
LlmlL Lhe scope
Choose Lhe dlrecL or lndlrecL
Croup your polnLs
1he Loplc ls Lhe broad sub[ecL Lhe maln
ldea makes a sLaLemenL abouL Lhe
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 6162 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
WalLs unLll Lhe second
paragraph Lo even
lnLroduce Lhe maln ldea
lalls Lo provlde speclflc
lnformaLlon abouL Lhe
lalls Lo speclfy whaL she
wanLs Lhe reader Lo do
lalls Lo explaln Lhe purpose
of Lhe leLLer and
lmmedlaLely geLs bogged
down ln lrrelevanL deLalls
Cpens wlLh her
requesL and
follows LhaL wlLh
relevanL deLalls
rovldes deLalls ln
Lhe body so LhaL
Lhe reader can
undersLand why
Saunders Lhlnks a
problem exlsLs
8equesLs a
speclflc acLlon
from Lhe reader
rovldes a deLalled
hlsLory of Lhe
problem so LhaL Lhe
reader clearly
undersLands her
Lmphaslzes (ln a
calm respecLful
way) LhaL CnC
won'L be buylng
anyLhlng else
unLll Lhls problem
ls resolved
olnLers for Cood CrganlzaLlon
- CeL Lo Lhe polnL rlghL away and make Lhe sub[ecL and purpose clear
- lnclude only lnformaLlon LhaL ls relaLed Lo Lhe sub[ecL and purpose
- Croup relaLed ldeas and presenL Lhem ln a loglcal order
- lnclude all Lhe lnformaLlon your audlence needs
llCu8L 34 lmprovlng Lhe CrganlzaLlon of a Message
1he poorly wrlLLen drafL dlsplays weak organlzaLlon whlle Lhe organlzaLlon ls much lmproved ln Lhe
revlsed verslon
8efore you begln Lo wrlLe Lhlnk abouL whaL you're golng Lo say and how you're golng Lo say lL
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 623 lannlng 8uslness Messages 63
ueflnlng your maln ldea ls more dlfflculL
when you're Lrylng Lo persuade
someone or convey dlsappolnLlng
?our maln ldea may be obvlous when you're preparlng a brlef message wlLh slmple
facLs LhaL have llLLle emoLlonal lmpacL on your audlence lf you're respondlng Lo a requesL
for lnformaLlon your maln ldea may be slmply Pere ls whaL you wanLed" Powever
deflnlng your maln ldea ls more compllcaLed when you're Lrylng Lo persuade someone or
when you have dlsappolnLlng lnformaLlon Lo convey ln Lhese slLuaLlons Lry Lo deflne a
maln ldea LhaL wlll esLabllsh a good relaLlonshlp beLween you and your audlence ln
longer documenLs and presenLaLlons you ofLen need Lo unlfy a mass of maLerlal so you'll
need Lo deflne a maln ldea LhaL encompasses all Lhe lndlvldual polnLs you wanL Lo make
SomeLlmes you won'L even be sure whaL your maln ldea ls unLll you sorL Lhrough Lhe
lnformaLlon lor Lough asslgnmenLs llke Lhese conslder a varleLy of Lechnlques Lo generaLe creaLlve
8ralnsLormlng Worklng alone or wlLh oLhers generaLe as many ldeas and quesLlons
as you can wlLhouL sLopplng Lo crlLlclze or organlze AfLer you capLure all Lhese pleces
look for paLLerns and connecLlons Lo help ldenLlfy Lhe maln ldea and Lhe groups of supporLlng ldeas
!ournallsLlc approach 1he [ournallsLlc approach asks who whaL when where why
and how quesLlons Lo dlsLlll ma[or ldeas from plles of unorganlzed lnformaLlon
CuesLlonandanswer chaln SLarL wlLh a key quesLlon from Lhe audlence's perspecLlve
and work back Loward your message ln mosL cases you'll flnd LhaL each answer generaLes
new quesLlons unLll you ldenLlfy Lhe lnformaLlon LhaL needs Lo be ln your message
SLoryLeller's Lour Some wrlLers flnd lL easler Lo Lalk Lhrough a communlcaLlon challenge before Lhey
Lry Lo wrlLe uescrlbe whaL you lnLend Lo wrlLe and capLure lL on Lape
or dlsk 1hen llsLen Lo your Lalk ldenLlfy ways Lo LlghLen and clarlfy Lhe message and
repeaL Lhe process unLll you dlsLlll Lhe maln ldea down Lo a slngle conclse message
LlmlLlng ?our Scope
1he scope of your message ls Lhe range of lnformaLlon you presenL Lhe overall lengLh and
Lhe level of deLallall of whlch need Lo correspond Lo your maln ldea Many buslness
documenLs have a preseL lengLh llmlL elLher from a boss's lnsLrucLlons a Lechnologlcal
llmlL or a Llme frame such as lndlvldual speaker sloLs durlng a semlnar Lven lf you don'L
have a preseL llmlL lL's vlLal Lo llmlL yourself Lo Lhe scope needed Lo convey your
messageand no more
WhaLever Lhe lengLh of your message llmlL Lhe number of ma[or supporL polnLs Lo
half a dozen or soand lf you can geL your ldea across wlLh fewer polnLs all Lhe beLLer
LlsLlng 20 or 30 supporL polnLs mlghL feel as lf you're belng Lhorough buL your audlence
wlll vlew such deLall as rambllng and mlndnumblng lnsLead look for ways Lo group
supporLlng polnLs under ma[or headlngs such as flnance cusLomers compeLlLors
employees or whaLever ls approprlaLe for your sub[ecL ?ou may need Lo reflne your ma[or
supporL polnLs so LhaL you have a smaller number wlLh greaLer lmpacL
lf your message ls brlef (say a 4mlnuLe speech or a 1page leLLer) plan on only
1 mlnuLe or one paragraph each for Lhe lnLroducLlon concluslon and ma[or polnLs 8ecause
Lhe amounL of evldence you can presenL ls llmlLed your maln ldea wlll have Lo be boLh easy
Lo undersLand and easy Lo accepL Powever lf your message ls long (say 60 mlnuLes or 20
pages) you can develop Lhe ma[or polnLs ln conslderable deLall ?ou can spend abouL 10
mlnuLes or 10 paragraphs (more Lhan 3 pages of doublespaced LypewrlLLen LexL) on each of
your key polnLs and you'll sLlll have room for your lnLroducLlon and concluslon
Chooslng 8eLween ulrecL and lndlrecL Approaches
AfLer you've deflned your ldeas you're ready Lo declde on Lhe sequence you wlll use Lo
presenL your polnLs ?ou have Lwo baslc opLlons
ulrecL approach (deducLlve) When you know your audlence wlll be recepLlve Lo your
message sLarL wlLh Lhe maln ldea (such as a recommendaLlon a concluslon or a
requesL) and follow LhaL wlLh your supporLlng evldence
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 6364 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
use a dlrecL approach lf Lhe audlence's
reacLlon ls llkely Lo be poslLlve and Lhe
lndlrecL approach lf lL ls llkely Lo be
ulrecL approach
SLarL wlLh Lhe maln
ldea Lhe requesL or
Lhe good news
rovlde necessary
Close wlLh a cordlal
commenL a reference
Lo Lhe good news or a
sLaLemenL abouL Lhe
speclflc acLlon deslred
lndlrecL approach
SLarL wlLh a neuLral sLaLemenL
LhaL acLs as a LranslLlon Lo Lhe
reasons for Lhe bad news
Clve reasons Lo [usLlfy a
negaLlve answer SLaLe or
lmply Lhe bad news and
make a poslLlve suggesLlon
Close cordlally
SLarL wlLh a sLaLemenL or
quesLlon LhaL capLures
Arouse Lhe audlence's
lnLeresL ln Lhe sub[ecL
8ulld Lhe audlence's
deslre Lo comply
8equesL acLlon
llCu8L 33 Chooslng 8eLween Lhe ulrecL and lndlrecL Approaches
1hlnk abouL Lhe way your audlence ls llkely Lo respond before chooslng your approach
lndlrecL approach (lnducLlve) When your audlence wlll be skepLlcal abouL or even
reslsLanL Lo your message sLarL wlLh Lhe evldence flrsL and bulld your case before presenLlng Lhe maln
1o choose beLween Lhese Lwo alLernaLlves analyze your audlence's llkely reacLlon Lo
your purpose and message 8ear ln mlnd however LhaL each message ls unlque no slmple formula wlll
solve all your communlcaLlon problems lor example alLhough an lndlrecL approach may be besL when
you're sendlng bad news Lo ouLslders lf you're wrlLlng a
memo Lo an assoclaLe you may wanL Lo geL dlrecLly Lo Lhe polnL even lf your message ls
unpleasanL 1he dlrecL approach mlghL also be a good cholce for long messages regardless
of your audlence's aLLlLudebecause delaylng Lhe maln ldea could cause confuslon and
frusLraLlon llgure 33 summarlzes how your approach may dlffer dependlng on Lhe llkely
audlence reacLlon 1he Lype of message also lnfluences Lhe cholce of a dlrecL or lndlrecL
approach ln Lhe comlng chapLers you'll geL speclflc advlce on chooslng Lhe besL approach
for a varleLy of dlfferenL communlcaLlon challenges
CuLllnlng ?our ConLenL
Cnce you have chosen Lhe rlghL approach lL's Llme Lo flgure ouL Lhe mosL loglcal and
effecLlve way Lo provlde your supporLlng deLalls Lven lf you've reslsLed creaLlng ouLllnes
ln your school asslgnmenLs over Lhe years Lry Lo geL lnLo Lhe hablL when you're preparlng
buslness documenLs and presenLaLlons ?ou'll save Llme geL beLLer resulLs and do a beLLer
[ob of navlgaLlng Lhrough compllcaLed buslness slLuaLlons WheLher you use a speclallzed
ouLllnlng and ldeamapplng sofLware use Lhe ouLllnlng feaLures provlded wlLh wordprocesslng
sofLware or slmply [oL down Lhree or four polnLs on paper maklng a plan and
sLlcklng Lo lL wlll help you cover Lhe lmporLanL deLalls
?ou're no doubL famlllar wlLh Lhe baslc ouLllne formaLs LhaL ldenLlfy each polnL wlLh
a number or leLLer and LhaL lndenL cerLaln polnLs Lo show whlch ones are of equal sLaLus
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 643 lannlng 8uslness Messages 63
rovlde enough evldence Lo make your
message convlnclng buL don'L
overload Lhe audlence wlLh Loo many
mlnor supporL polnLs
l llrsL Ma[or olnL
A llrsL subpolnL
8 Second subpolnL
1 Lvldence
2 Lvldence
a ueLall
b ueLall
3 Lvldence
C 1hlrd subpolnL
ll Second Ma[or olnL
A llrsL subpolnL
1 Lvldence
2 Lvldence
8 Second subpolnL
l0 llrsL Ma[or olnL
11 llrsL subpolnL
12 Second subpolnL
121 Lvldence
122 Lvldence
1221 ueLall
1222 ueLall
123 Lvldence
13 1hlrd subpolnL
20 Second Ma[or olnL
21 llrsL subpolnL
211 Lvldence
212 Lvldence
22 Second subpolnL
llCu8L 36 1wo Common CuLllne lorms
?our company may have a LradlLlon of uslng a parLlcular ouLllne form for formal reporLs and oLher
lf noL elLher of Lhese Lwo approaches wlll work for mosL any wrlLlng pro[ecL
A good ouLllne dlvldes a Loplc lnLo aL leasL Lwo parLs resLrlcLs each subdlvlslon Lo one caLegory and
ensures LhaL each subdlvlslon ls separaLe and dlsLlncL (see llgure 36)
Whlchever ouLllnlng or organlzlng scheme you use sLarL your message wlLh Lhe maln
ldea follow LhaL wlLh ma[or supporLlng polnLs and Lhen lllusLraLe Lhese polnLs wlLh
SLarL wlLh Lhe maln ldea 1he maln ldea helps you esLabllsh Lhe goals and general
sLraLegy of Lhe message and lL summarlzes Lwo Lhlngs (1) whaL you wanL your audlence Lo do or Lhlnk
and (2) why Lhey should do so LveryLhlng ln your message elLher
supporLs Lhe maln ldea or explalns lLs lmpllcaLlons
SLaLe Lhe ma[or polnLs now lL's Llme Lo supporL your maln ldea wlLh Lhe ma[or polnLs
LhaL clarlfy and explaln your ldeas ln more concreLe Lerms lf your purpose ls Lo
lnform your ma[or polnLs mlghL be based on someLhlng physlcal or flnanclal for
lnsLance When you're descrlblng a process Lhe ma[or polnLs are almosL lnevlLably
sLeps ln Lhe process When you're descrlblng an ob[ecL Lhe ma[or polnLs correspond Lo
Lhe componenLs of Lhe ob[ecL When you're glvlng a hlsLorlcal accounL ma[or polnLs
represenL evenLs ln Lhe chronologlcal chaln lf your purpose ls Lo persuade or Lo collaboraLe selecL
ma[or polnLs LhaL develop a llne of reasonlng or a loglcal argumenL LhaL
proves your cenLral message and moLlvaLes your audlence Lo acL
lllusLraLe wlLh evldence AfLer you've deflned Lhe maln ldea and ldenLlfled supporLlng
polnLs you're ready Lo lllusLraLe each polnL wlLh speclflc evldence LhaL helps audlence
members undersLand and remember Lhe more absLracL concepLs you're presenLlng
up Lo a polnL Lhe more evldence you provlde Lhe more concluslve your case wlll be
lf your sub[ecL ls complex and unfamlllar or lf your audlence ls skepLlcal you'll need a loL
of facLs and flgures Lo demonsLraLe your polnLs Cn Lhe oLher hand lf your sub[ecL ls rouLlne and your
audlence ls poslLlvely lncllned you can be more sparlng wlLh Lhe evldence
?ou wanL Lo provlde enough supporL Lo be convlnclng buL noL so much LhaL your message
becomes borlng or dlfflculL Lo read
8evlewlng key olnLs
1hls chapLer lnLroduces Lhe LhreesLep wrlLlng process plannlng wrlLlng and compleLlng
buslness messages lL dlscusses how Lhe process works and how Lo schedule your Llme for
each sLep 1he ma[orlLy of Lhls chapLer covers Lhe flrsL sLep of Lhe LhreesLep wrlLlng
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 6366 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
lmprove 1hls LeLLer
1o pracLlce correcLlng drafLs of acLual documenLs vlslL your onllne course or Lhe
accesscodeproLecLed porLlon of Lhe Companlon WebslLe Cllck uocumenL
Makeovers" Lhen cllck ChapLer 3 ?ou wlll flnd a leLLer LhaL conLalns problems and errors
relaLlng Lo whaL you've learned ln Lhls chapLer abouL plannlng and organlzlng buslness messages use
Lhe llnal urafL declslon Lool Lo creaLe an lmproved verslon of Lhls leLLer Check
Lhe documenL for audlence focus Lhe rlghL cholce of medlum and Lhe proper cholce of
dlrecL or lndlrecL approach
process whlch lncludes four plannlng Lasks 1he flrsL of Lhese ls analyzlng your slLuaLlon
whlch lncludes deflnlng boLh a general and a speclflc purpose and developlng a proflle of
your audlence by ldenLlfylng Lhe prlmary audlence deLermlnlng audlence slze deLermlnlng audlence
composlLlon gauglng your audlence's level of undersLandlng pro[ecLlng
your audlence's expecLaLlons and preferences and esLlmaLlng your audlence's probable
reacLlon 1he second Lask ls gaLherlng necessary lnformaLlon by explorlng audlence needs
Lhen collecLlng lnformaLlon LhaL wlll meeL Lhose needs 1he Lhlrd Lask ls selecLlng Lhe rlghL
medlum Lhe chapLer offered an overvlew of oral wrlLLen and elecLronlc medla 1he
fourLh and flnal Lask ls how Lo organlze your message by deflnlng Lhe maln ldea llmlLlng
Lhe scope grouplng your polnLs chooslng Lhe dlrecL or lndlrecL approach Lhen crafLlng
an ouLllne
1he nexL chapLer focuses on Lhe second sLep of Lhe wrlLlng process wrlLlng
buslness messages 1here you'll explore Lwo ma[or Lasks adapLlng Lo your audlence
by belng senslLlve Lo Lhelr needs and bulldlng a sLrong relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhem and
Lhen composlng your messages ?ou wlll learn abouL conLrolllng your sLyle and
Lone selecLlng Lhe besL words creaLlng effecLlve senLences and developlng coherenL
1esL ?our knowledge
1 WhaL are Lhe Lhree sLeps ln Lhe wrlLlng process?
2 WhaL Lwo Lypes of purposes do all buslness messages have?
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 663 lannlng 8uslness Messages 67
3 WhaL do you need Lo know ln order Lo develop an audlence proflle?
4 When lncludlng lnformaLlon ln your message whaL Lhree condlLlons musL you saLlsfy?
3 WhaL are Lhe maln advanLages of oral medla? Cf wrlLLen medla?
Apply ?our knowledge
1 Some wrlLers argue LhaL plannlng messages wasLes Llme because Lhey lnevlLably change Lhelr
plans as Lhey go along Pow would you respond Lo Lhls argumenL? 8rlefly explaln
2 As a member of Lhe publlc relaLlons deparLmenL whlch medlum (or medla) would you recommend
uslng Lo lnform Lhe local communlLy LhaL your LoxlcwasLe cleanup program has been successful? !usLlfy
your cholce
3 Would you use a dlrecL or an lndlrecL approach Lo ask employees Lo work overLlme Lo meeL an
lmporLanL deadllne? lease explaln
4 Conslderlng how fasL easy lnexpenslve Lhey are should emall lnsLanL messages blogs and
podcasLs compleLely replace meeLlngs and oLher faceLoface communlcaLlon ln your company?
Why or why noL?
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 6768 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
3 LLhlcal Cholces 1he company presldenL has asked you Lo drafL a memo for her slgnaLure Lo Lhe
board of dlrecLors lnformlng Lhem LhaL sales ln Lhe new llne of gourmeL frulL [ams have far
exceeded anyone's expecLaLlons As a member of Lhe purchaslng deparLmenL you happen Lo
know LhaL sales of moderaLely prlced [ams have decllned qulLe a blL (many cusLomers have
swlLched Lo Lhe more expenslve [ams) ?ou were noL dlrecLed Lo add LhaL LldblL of lnformaLlon
Should you wrlLe Lhe memo and llmlL your lnformaLlon Lo Lhe expenslve gourmeL [ams?
Cr should you lnclude Lhe lnformaLlon abouL Lhe decllne ln moderaLely prlced [ams? lease
racLlce ?our knowledge
Lxerclses for erfecLlng ?our WrlLlng
Speclflc urpose lor each of Lhe followlng communlcaLlon Lasks sLaLe a speclflc purpose (lf you have
Lrouble Lry beglnnlng wlLh l wanL Lo ")
1 A reporL Lo your boss Lhe sLore manager abouL Lhe ouLdaLed lLems ln Lhe warehouse
2 A blog posLlng (on your exLernal webslLe) Lo cusLomers and Lhe news medla abouL
your company's plans Lo acqulre a compeLlLor
3 A leLLer Lo a cusLomer who hasn'L made a paymenL for Lhree monLhs
4 An emall message Lo employees abouL Lhe offlce's hlgh waLer bllls
3 A phone call Lo a suppller checklng on an overdue parLs shlpmenL
6 A podcasL Lo new users of Lhe company's onllne conLenL managemenL sysLem
Audlence roflle lor each communlcaLlon Lask below wrlLe brlef answers Lo Lhree
quesLlons (1) Who ls my audlence? (2) WhaL ls my audlence's general aLLlLude Loward my
sub[ecL? (3) WhaL does my audlence need Lo know?
7 A flnalnoLlce collecLlon leLLer from an appllance manufacLurer Lo an appllance
dealer senL Len days before lnlLlaLlng legal collecLlon procedures
8 A promoLlonal message on your company's ereLalllng webslLe announclng a Lemporary prlce
reducLlon on hlghdeflnlLlon Lelevlslon seLs
9 An adverLlsemenL for peanuL buLLer
10 A leLLer Lo Lhe properLy managemenL company responslble for malnLalnlng your
offlce bulldlng complalnlng abouL perslsLenL problems wlLh Lhe heaLlng and alr condlLlonlng
11 A cover leLLer senL along wlLh your resume Lo a poLenLlal employer
12 A requesL (Lo Lhe seller) for a prlce ad[usLmenL on a plano LhaL lncurred $130 ln damage durlng
dellvery Lo a banqueL room ln Lhe hoLel you manage
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 68Medla and urpose LlsL Lhree messages you
have read vlewed or llsLened Lo laLely
(such as dlrecLmall promoLlons leLLers emall or lnsLanL messages phone sollclLaLlons
podcasLs and lecLures) lor each message deLermlne Lhe general and Lhe speclflc purpose
Lhen answer Lhe quesLlons llsLed
Message #1
13 Ceneral purpose
14 Speclflc purpose
13 Was Lhe message well Llmed?
16 uld Lhe sender choose an approprlaLe medlum for Lhe message?
17 Was Lhe sender's purpose reallsLlc?
Message #2
18 Ceneral purpose
19 Speclflc purpose
20 Was Lhe message well Llmed?
21 uld Lhe sender choose an approprlaLe medlum for Lhe message?
22 Was Lhe sender's purpose reallsLlc?
Message #3
23 Ceneral purpose
24 Speclflc purpose
23 Was Lhe message well Llmed?
26 uld Lhe sender choose an approprlaLe medlum for Lhe message?
27 Was Lhe sender's purpose reallsLlc?
Message CrganlzaLlon Chooslng Lhe Approach lndlcaLe wheLher Lhe dlrecL or Lhe
lndlrecL approach would be besL ln each of Lhe followlng slLuaLlons WrlLe dlrecL or
lndlrecL ln Lhe space provlded
28 _____ An emall message Lo a car dealer asklng abouL Lhe avallablllLy of a speclflc
make and model of car
29 _____ A leLLer from a recenL college graduaLe requesLlng a leLLer of recommendaLlon
from a former lnsLrucLor
30 _____ A leLLer Lurnlng down a [ob appllcanL
31 _____ A blog posLlng explalnlng LhaL because of hlgh alrcondlLlonlng cosLs Lhe
planL LemperaLure wlll be held aL 78 degrees durlng Lhe summer
32 _____ A flnal requesL Lo seLLle a dellnquenL debL
3 lannlng 8uslness Messages 69
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 6970 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
Message CrganlzaLlon urafLlng ersuaslve Messages lf you were Lrylng Lo persuade
people Lo Lake Lhe followlng acLlons how would you organlze your argumenL? WrlLe dlrecL
or lndlrecL ln Lhe space provlded
33 _____ ?ou wanL your boss Lo approve your plan for hlrlng Lwo new people
34 _____ ?ou wanL Lo be hlred for a [ob
33 _____ ?ou wanL Lo be granLed a buslness loan
36 _____ ?ou wanL Lo collecL a small amounL from a regular cusLomer whose accounL ls
sllghLly pasL due
37 _____ ?ou wanL Lo collecL a large amounL from a cusLomer whose accounL ls serlously
pasL due
lor acLlve llnks Lo all webslLes dlscussed ln Lhls chapLer vlslL Lhls LexL's webslLe aL www
prenhallcom/bovee LocaLe your book and cllck on lLs Companlon WebslLe llnk
1hen selecL ChapLer 3 and cllck on leaLured WebslLes" LocaLe Lhe name of Lhe page
or Lhe u8L relaLed Lo Lhe maLerlal ln Lhe LexL lease noLe LhaL llnks Lo slLes LhaL
become lnacLlve afLer publlcaLlon of Lhe book wlll be removed from Lhe leaLured
WebslLes secLlon
1 Analyze 1hls uocumenL A wrlLer ls worklng on an lnsurance lnformaLlon
brochure and ls havlng Lrouble grouplng Lhe ldeas loglcally lnLo an ouLllne repare
Lhe ouLllne paylng aLLenLlon Lo approprlaLe subordlnaLlon of ldeas lf necessary
rewrlLe phrases Lo glve Lhem a more conslsLenL sound
AccldenL roLecLlon lnsurance lan
- Coverage ls only pennles a day
- 8eneflL ls $100000 for accldenLal deaLh on common carrler
- 8eneflL ls $100 a day for hosplLallzaLlon as resulL of moLor vehlcle or common carrler accldenL
- 8eneflL ls $20000 for accldenLal deaLh ln moLor vehlcle accldenL
- lndlvldual coverage ls only $1783 per quarLer famlly coverage ls [usL
$2683 per quarLer
- no physlcal exam or healLh quesLlons
- ConvenlenL paymenLbllled quarLerly
- CuaranLeed accepLance for all appllcanLs
- no lndlvldual raLe lncreases
- lree noobllgaLlon examlnaLlon perlod
- Cash pald ln addlLlon Lo any oLher lnsurance carrled
- Covers accldenLal deaLh when rldlng as farepaylng passenger on publlc
LransporLaLlon lncludlng buses Lralns [eLs shlps Lrolleys subways or any
oLher common carrler
- Covers accldenLal deaLh ln moLor vehlcle accldenLs occurrlng whlle drlvlng
or rldlng ln or on auLomoblle Lruck camper moLor home or nonmoLorlzed
2 Message lannlng Skllls SelfAssessmenL Pow good are you aL plannlng buslness
messages? use Lhe followlng charL Lo raLe yourself on each of Lhe followlng elemenLs
of plannlng an audlencecenLered buslness message 1hen examlne your raLlngs Lo
ldenLlfy where you are sLrongesL and where you can lmprove
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 703 lannlng 8uslness Messages 71
LlemenL of lannlng Always lrequenLly Cccaslonally never
1 l sLarL by deflnlng my purpose _____ _____ _____ _____
2 l analyze my audlence before
wrlLlng a message _____ _____ _____ _____
3 l lnvesLlgaLe whaL my audlence
wanLs Lo know _____ _____ _____ _____
4 l check LhaL my lnformaLlon ls
accuraLe eLhlcal and perLlnenL _____ _____ _____ _____
3 l conslder my audlence and
purpose when selecLlng medla _____ _____ _____ _____
6 l conslder Lhe audlence's llkely
reacLlon Lo my message before
decldlng on a dlrecL or lndlrecL
approach _____ _____ _____ _____
7 l plan carefully parLlcularly for
longer or complex messages Lo
make sure l use my Llme wlsely _____ _____ _____ _____
8 l llmlL Lhe scope of my messages
Lo Lhe exLenL of lnformaLlon
needed Lo accompllsh my
speclflc purpose _____ _____ _____ _____
Lxpand ?our knowledge
Lxplorlng Lhe 8esL of Lhe Web
Learn from Lhe 8esL ln Lhe 8uslness See how some of
Loday's brlghLesL enLrepreneurs and buslness managers are
uslng blogglng Lo reach Lhelr LargeL markeLs lorbes magazlne regularly hlghllghLs buslnessorlenLed
blogs LhaL lLs edlLors belleve make effecLlve use of Lhe unlque beneflLs of blogglng AL Lhe
wwwforbescom/bow page cllck on 8logs" ln
Lhe ueparLmenLs" headlng Lhen check ouL Lhe MarkeLlng
and Small 8uslness blogglng secLlons
1 WhaL are some of Lhe reasons lorbes selecLed Lhese parLlcular blogs as belng among Lhe besL on Lhe
2 WhaL weaknesses does Lhe magazlne see ln some of
Lhese blogs?
3 WhaL can you learn from Lhese blogs LhaL you could
apply Lo your own fuLure as an enLrepreneur or buslness
Lxplorlng Lhe Web on ?our Cwn
8evlew Lhese chapLerrelaLed webslLes on your own Lo learn
more abouL achlevlng communlcaLlon success ln Lhe workplace
1 CeL hundreds of free Llps on lmprovlng your buslness
wrlLlng aL 8ull's Lye 8uslness WrlLlng 1lps wwwbuslness
2 See how Lo puL phone LexL messaglng Lo work ln buslness appllcaLlons aL 1exLlL wwwLexLlL (cllck on
for 8uslness")
3 ulscover how emall works and how Lo lmprove your emall communlcaLlons by followlng Lhe sLeps aL
lnLerneL for 8eglnnersParness LMall wwwlearn
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 7172 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
lmprove ?our Crammar
Mechanlcs and usage
Level 1 SelfAssessmenLverbs
8evlew SecLlon 13 ln Lhe Pandbook of Crammar Mechanlcs and usage and Lhen compleLe Lhe
followlng 13 lLems
ln lLems 13 provlde Lhe verb form called for ln Lhe followlng exerclses
1 l ________ (presenL perfecL become) Lhe resldenL experL on repalrlng Lhe copy machlne
2 She ________ (pasL know) how Lo conducL an audlL when she came Lo work for us
3 Slnce !oan was promoLed she ________ (pasL perfecL move) all Lhe flles Lo her offlce
4 nexL week call !ohn Lo Lell hlm whaL you ________ (fuLure do) Lo help hlm seL up Lhe semlnar
3 8y Lhe Llme you flnlsh Lhe analysls he ________ (fuLure perfecL reLurn) from hls vacaLlon
lor lLems 610 rewrlLe Lhe senLences so LhaL Lhey use acLlve volce lnsLead of passlve
6 1he reporL wlll be wrlLLen by Leslle CarLwrlghL
7 1he fallure Lo record Lhe LransacLlon was mlne
8 Pave you been noLlfled by Lhe clalms deparLmenL of your rlghLs?
9 We are dependenL on Lhelr servlces for our operaLlon
10 1he damaged equlpmenL was reLurned by Lhe cusLomer before we even locaLed a repalr faclllLy
ln lLems 1113 clrcle Lhe correcL verb form provlded ln parenLheses
11 Lveryone upsLalrs (recelve/recelves) mall before we do
12 nelLher Lhe maln offlce nor Lhe branches (ls/are) blameless
13 C8 sales (ls/are) llsLed ln Lhe dlrecLory
14 When measurlng shelves 7 lnches (ls/are) slgnlflcanL
13 AbouL 90 percenL of Lhe employees (plan/plans) Lo come Lo Lhe company plcnlc
Learn lnLeracLlvely
lnLeracLlve SLudy Culde
vlslL wwwprenhallcom/bovee Lhen locaLe your book and
cllck on lLs Companlon WebslLe llnk SelecL ChapLer 3 Lo Lake
advanLage of Lhe lnLeracLlve ChapLer Culz" Lo LesL your
knowledge of chapLer concepLs 8ecelve lnsLanL feedback on
wheLher you need addlLlonal sLudylng Also vlslL Lhe SLudy
Pall" where you'll flnd an abundance of valuable resources
LhaL wlll help you succeed ln Lhls course
eak erformance Crammar and Mechanlcs
lf your lnsLrucLor has requlred Lhe use of eak erformance
Crammar and Mechanlcs" elLher ln your onllne course or
on Cu you can lmprove your sklll wlLh verbs by uslng Lhe
eak erformance Crammar and Mechanlcs" module
Cllck on Crammar 8aslcs" and Lhen cllck verbs" 1ake Lhe
reLesL Lo deLermlne wheLher you have any weak areas
1hen revlew Lhose areas ln Lhe 8efresher Course 1ake Lhe
lollowup 1esL Lo check your grasp of verbs lor an exLra
challenge or advanced pracLlce Lake Lhe Advanced 1esL
llnally for addlLlonal relnforcemenL ln verbs go Lo Lhe
lmprove ?our Crammar Mechanlcs and usage" secLlon
LhaL follows and compleLe Lhe Level l SelfAssessmenL"
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 723 lannlng 8uslness Messages 73
Level 2 Workplace AppllcaLlons
1he followlng lLems conLaln numerous errors ln grammar caplLallzaLlon puncLuaLlon abbrevlaLlon
number sLyle word dlvlslon and vocabulary 8ewrlLe each senLence ln Lhe space provlded correcLlng
all errors WrlLe C ln Lhe space afLer any senLence LhaL ls already correcL
1 CuL Lwo lnches off Lrunk and place ln a waLer sLand and flll wlLh waLer
2 1he newlyelecLed offlcers of Lhe 8oard are !ohn 8ogers presldenL 8obln uolg vlcepresldenL
and Mary SLurhann secreLary
3 Lmployees were sLunned when Lhey are noLlfled LhaL Lhe Lralnee goL promoLed Lo Manager only
afLer her 4Lh week wlLh Lhe company
4 Seeklng rellable daLa on uS publlshers LlLerary MarkeLplace ls by far Lhe besL source
3 Who dld you wlsh Lo speak Lo?
6 1he keynoLe address wlll be dellvered by SeLh Coodwln who ls Lhe auLhor of slx popular books
on markeLlng has wrlLLen Lwo novels and wrlLes a column for lorLune" magazlne
7 CfLen Lhe repuLaLlon of an enLlre company depend on one employee LhaL offlclally represenLs
LhaL company Lo Lhe publlc
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 7374 2 1he 1hreeSLep WrlLlng rocess
8 1he execuLlve dlrecLor along wlLh hls sLaff are worklng qulckly Lo deLermlne who should recelve
Lhe Award
9 Plm and hls coworkers Lhe Lop bowllng Leam ln Lhe LournamenL wlll represenL our Company
ln Lhe league flnals on saLurday
10 LlsLenlng on Lhe exLenslon deLalls of Lhe embezzlemenL ploL were overheard by Lhe SecurlLy
11 1he accepLance of vlsa cards are ln response Lo our cusLomer's demand for a more efflclenL and
convenlenL way of paylng for parklng here aL San ulego lnLernaLlonal alrporL
12 1he human resources depL lnLervlewed dozens of people Lhey are seeklng Lhe beLLer candldaLe
for Lhe openlng
13 Llbrarles' can be a challenglng yeL lucraLlve markeL lf you learn how Lo work Lhe sysLem" Lo galn
maxlmum vlslblllLy for you're producLs and servlces
14 LlLher a supermarkeL or a dlscounL arL gallery are scheduled Lo open ln Lhe Mall
13 l have Lold my supervlsor LhaL whomever shares my offlce wlLh me cannoL wear perfume use
spray deodoranL or oLher scenLed producLs
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 743 lannlng 8uslness Messages 73
Level 3 uocumenL CrlLlque
1he followlng documenL may conLaln errors ln grammar caplLallzaLlon puncLuaLlon
abbrevlaLlon number sLyle vocabulary and spelllng ?ou wlll also flnd errors relaLlng Lo
Loplcs ln Lhls chapLer ConcenLraLe on uslng Lhe you" aLLlLude emphaslzlng Lhe poslLlve
belng pollLe and uslng blasfree language as you lmprove Lhls memo CorrecL all errors
uslng sLandard proofreadlng marks (see Appendlx C)
1C 8lockbusLer mngrs
l8CM 1om uooley depuLy chalrmen vlacom lnc
ln care of 8lockbusLer LnLerLalnmenL Croup
CorporaLe headquarLers 8enalssance 1ower
1201 Llm sLreeL uallas 1x 73270
uA1L May 8 2007
Su8 8ecenL Cash llow and consumer responseSurvey
now LhaL our sLores have been reorganlzed wlLh your hard work and cooperaLlon we hope revenues
wlll rlse Lo new helghLs lf we reemphaslze vldeo renLals as 8lockbusLers core buslness and reduce
Lhe vlslblllLy of our sldellne reLall producLs !usL ln case Lhough we wanL Lo be cerLaln LhaL Lhese
changes are havlng Lhe posLlve affecL on our cash flow LhaL we all excepL and look forward Lo
1o help us make LhaL deLermlnaLlon respond Lo Lhe followlng survey quesLlons and fax Lhem back
Answer conclsely buL use exLra paper lf necessaryfor deLalls and explanaLlons
When you flnlsh Lhe survey lL wlll help headquarLers lmprove servlce Lo you buL also help us all
lmprove servlce Lo our cusLomers 8eLurn your survey before before May 13 Lo my aLLenLlon 1hen
blockbusLer hopefully can Lhrlve ln a markeLplace LhaL crlLlcs say we cannoL conquer 8lockbusLer
musL choose wlsely and serve lL's cusLomers well ln a dlfflculL vldeorenLal buslness envlronmenL
1lmes are very Lough buL lf we work hard aL lL lLs posslble we mlghL make 8lockbusLer 'Lhe man
on Lhe sLreeLs' favorlLe 'place Lo go Lo renL vldeos!'
8CvLMC03_0131993367Cxu 11/27/06 1139 M age 73