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Kingg’s Colllege 20008-2009

SSU Mathematics
Form one Mathhematics
Chapter 1-6 Notes

Tutor: Tutee:
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P. 1.1
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Getting started
Getting started
We always make use of numbers to express the change, either an increase or decrease in amount or quantity.
To classify the “direction” of changes, directed numbers are used.

Warm-up Month Account Balance


The chart on the right shows the balance record of the bank account January Gained $9,900
of Mr. Chan. February $5,800 loss
(a) How many months did money lose from the account?
March Withdrawn $800
(b) If there are no money deposited before January, find the balance
April Deposit $4,700
(結餘) of the account in April.
ANS: (a) 2 months; (b) $8,000
Basic concepts Reminder
(A) Positive and negative numbers
Since 0 does not have
Numbers larger than zero are called positive numbers, while those smaller than zero “size”, it is neither
are called negative numbers. Both of them have size and direction, so they are called positive nor negative.
“directed numbers”. Both positive and negative whole numbers and zero are all integers.

Example 1.1a Vocabs. to learn


Phrases expressing an
Express the following statements by using directed numbers. increase in amt./ qty. :
(i) Find the change in the amount of sweets if I get 36 more sweets. Add, plus, higher, raise,
(ii) Mr. Kwok got a $1,500 raise in his salary. Find his salary change. refilled, above, gain, up
put in, surplus, etc.
In these two questions, we can quote “get sth. more” and “raise” , which
show an increase in quantity. Therefore the solutions are +36 and +$1500.

Example 1.1b Vocabs. to learn


Phrases expressing an
(i) HSBC got a loss of $5.6 billion after gaining $4.7 billion, find the final profit. decrease in amt./ qty. :
(ii) If the temperature of Toronto in the morning was 7 degrees, which was 17 loss, reduce, down
degrees higher than that in the evening, find the temp. in the evening. fall, deficit, step back,
smaller, descend, etc.
In these cases, we can see phrases like “loss” and “higher”, but the answers
are both negative. The solution for (i) is -$1.1 billion, while (ii) is (7-17) 0C Reminder
= -10 0C instead of 24 0C(the temperature in the morning was higher than Remember to write
down the unit(s) for
that in the evening.). Be careful when reading similar questions.
the answer if necessary

Balance record 結存紀錄 withdrawn 提取 billion 十億 deficit 赤字 descend 下降


P. 1.2
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

The examples before are too straight-forward to be seen in tests or exams. More studies and
calculations are required in the following examples.

Example 1.1c

(1) The initial price of a fund is $50. The table below shows its performance over the past 5 days.
Finish the table.
Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Status Gained $2 Lost $4 Up $7 Fell $9 Unchanged
Change in price
Price of fund
Solution: Words like gain and up represents increases; while lost and fell represents decreases.
Unchanged represents “0”. By using simple calculation, you can get the price of fund.
Change in price +$2 -$4 +$7 -$9 $0
Price of fund $52 $48 $55 $46 $46

(2) The following table shows the sales record of Tasty Food shop.
Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Income $47,000 $32,000 $39,000 $29,500 $15,000
Cost $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $40,000
Balance
(i) Fill in the balance (except for Saturday).
(ii) Find the sum of balance from Monday to Tuesday.
(iii) How much income is required (at least) on Saturday to prevent a loss throughout the week?
Answer:
balance +$12,000 -$3,000 +$4,000 -$5,500 -$20,000
(ii) The balance is: 12000-3000+4000-5500-20000 = -$12,500
(iii) In order to prevent a loss, it means that the minimum balance should be $0 (not $1 because $0
also represents no loss). So the income should cover the $12,500 loss (as calculated in ii) and the
cost on Saturday. Solution: the income on Saturday= 12,500+40,000 = $52,500 Reminder
Do practice more on
Summary of Ch.1.1 simple calculation
to speed up

(1) To identify integers and directed numbers.


(2) To learn vocabularies and phrases related to the change in quantity or amount.
(3) To make use of directed numbers to solve problems and structured questions.
(4) Do not miss any units (if necessary) and “plus signs” / “negative signs”.
E.g: (Adding $5 should be written as +$5 but not $5)

Straight-forward 直接 represents 代表 required 需要 minimum 最少的


P. 1.3
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………
…………………..

(B) Number line usage


The number line is a line labeled with numbers in ascending order from left to right, that extends in
both directions. (Both vertically and horizontally are acceptable)

Example 1.2a
(1) Represent the following points on a number line.
A = 6, B = -4, C = 0, D = -1.5, E = 3
(2) Indicate the height of different places by using vertical number line.
a. Mt. Kosciusko (2230
2230 m above sea level
level) ; b. Bangalore (1000
1000 m above sea level);
level
c. Death Valley (85 m below sea level
level) ; d. Qattara Depression (392
392 m below sea level)
level
Solution:

B D C E A

Reminder Reminder
Use crosses instead of Remember to write
dots to represent the letters or names
Directed numbers above each point.

Note Note
Below ground floor, Prevent using vertical
below sea level, etc number lines but use
represents zero. ruler to sketch lines.

Ascending
scending order and descending order
Furthermore, we can make use of number lines tto o arrange numbers according to their value.
We can arrange numbers in “ascending order” and ““descending order”.
Ascending order: -9 < -8.99 < -8.9
8.9 < -8 < 0 < 8 < 88
Descending order: 88 > 8 > 0 > -88 > -8.9 > -8.99 > -9
Compare numbers
On the number line, the number on the right is always greater than the number on the left.
That means we can compare numbers by checking their position on the number line.

A B C D
A must be greater than B. C must be smaller than D.

Ascending 由小到大的 indicate 指出 descending 由大到小的


P. 1.4
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

We can also compare numbers by looking at its signs and “numbers”.


When comparing positive numbers, bigger number should have larger value. (+18 > +17)
When comparing negative numbers, smaller number should have larger value. (-17 > -18)
When comparing both positive and negative numbers, positive ones should be larger. (+1 > -1)
We use “a>b” to represent a larger than b, “b>a” represents b larger than a.

Example 1.2b

Fill in the blanks with suitable symbols.



(a) (+7) ____ (-7) (b) -10 ______ -9 (c) +9.2 ______ +9

Solution: Comparing the signs, we can get +7>-7; and comparing numbers, we can get “<” in (b)(c)

Example 1.2c
Arrange the following numbers is descending order.
      
(a) 7.5, -4.208, 4.208, +0.1, (b) ,  , , ,  , 
      

Solution: (a) -4.208 and  are smaller than 0 while 0.1, 4.208 and 7.5 are larger than 0.


Therefore 7.5 > 4.208 > +0.1 >  > -4.208

     
In (b),  , and  are smaller than 0, while , and are larger than 0.
     
By finding the LCD (least Common Denominator 共同的最少分母), we can obtain
   
   .
   

More to learn
Think about the following cases: there are 4 biscuits on a plate, when 9 people and 90 people are
sharing them, in which case each person can share larger amount of biscuit? Of course the 1st case!
When comparing negative numbers,
If the numerators (分子) are the same, then larger denominator (分母) indicates a larger number.
If the denominators are the same, then larger numerator indicates a smaller number.
   
(And vice versa for positive cases.) [ and  ]
   
     
Now try rearranging the followings: , , , ,
     
P. 1.6
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Summary of Ch.1.2
(1) To learn about the use of number lines [labeling, marking crosses]
(2) To arrange different numbers and integers in both ascending and descending order
(3) To learn faster ways to arrange numbers.

(C) Addition and Subtraction of Directed Numbers


We have mainly two ways to deal with the problems related to directed numbers.
(a) By using number lines ; OR (b) By direct calculation

(I) By using number lines


Consider the addition of (+2) + (+3).
The plus sign, +, tells us to face the positive direction. So, to evaluate 2 + 3, start at 2, face the
positive direction and move 3 units forwards. Note
Use rulers to draw the
arrow in order to
sharply pointing (5) but
not 4.5 or 4.8 .

∴(+2) + (+3) = (+5)


When considering (-2) + (-3), start at (-2) and face the negative direction and move 3 units backwards.

∴(-2) + (-3) = (-5)


On the number line, left numbers are always smaller than those on the right. Similarly, an arrow
pointing to the left indicates a negative direction and positive direction for arrows to the right.

When you are required to sketch a number line to work out the answer, follow the procedures:
(1) Sketch the number with the range enough to show the whole process of calculation.
For example, when asked (+5) – (+9), sketch a number line including (+5) and (-4)[the answer].

(2) Point up the original value (+5) and sketch an arrow towards the “answer” (-4). Sketch the arrow
to the left if subtraction is needed, or draw it to the right in addition. Note
The intervals (gaps)
between numbers
are not neccesarily
∴(+5) – (+9) = (-4) to be one.

▲ Finally write down the statement above to show the final answer.
P. 1.7
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Example 1.3a
Use number lines to find the values of the following expressions.
(a) (-5)+ (+12) (b) (+14)+ (-17) (c) (-1) - (+3) (d) (-4)- (-9)

Solution: First draw the number lines. Then sketch out the arrow(s). Finally write down the
statement which was often forgotten.
(a) (b) You gained a loss of 17 = -17

∴(-5) + (+12) = (+7) ∴(+14) + (-17) = (-3)


(c) (d)
I take away 3 = -3 You reduced $9 loan= 9 gained = +9

∴(-1) - (+3) = (-4) ∴ (-4)- (-9) = (+5)

(II) By direct calculation


From the cases above, we can deduct the followings:
(1) a + (+b) = a+b ; (2) a + (-b) = a-b; (3) a – (+b) = a-b; (4) a – (-b)= a+b

Example 1.3b
(a) The temperature of London dropped from 12 0C to -3 0C. Find the temperature change.
(b) Mandy got $1,500 in her bank but -$750 after one month. Find the difference in two months.
SOLUTION: Just find out the keywords like “change” and “difference” and carry out subtraction.
(a) The temp. change = 12 – (-3) = 150C (b) The difference = 1,500- (-750) = $2,250

Addition and subtraction with brackets


We have mainly three types of brackets: parentheses (), square brackets [] and braces {}.
When we meet brackets in mathematical expression, we should calculate the ones in the
parentheses first, followed by square brackets and finally braces.

Example 1.3c
Find the values of (a) –{-[9+(-5)]} ; (b) (-1) – [5-(-1)] and (c) (-4) + [ (-2)-(4-9)]

Solution: Follow the order of brackets. Beware of positive and negative signs.
(solution on the next page)
P. 1.8
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

(a) –{-[9+(-5)]} (b) (-1) – [5-(-1)] (c) (-4) + [ (-2)-(4-9)]


= –[-(9-5)] = (-1) – [5+1] = (-4) + [ (-2)-(-5)]
= –(-4) = (-1) – 6 = (-4) + [ (-2)+5]
= +4 = -7 = (-4) + (+3)
= -1

Summary for Ch. 1.3

(1) Addition and subtraction of integers and directed numbers


(2) Operation with brackets

(D) Multiplication and division of Directed Numbers


A. Multiplication
We can prove some so-called laws in the book by the following examples.
(a) (+)(+) = (+): (+4)x (+3) = (+4)+(+4)+(+4) = +12
(b) (+)(-) = (-): (+4)x (-3) = (-3)+(-3)+(-3)+(-3) = -12 // (-)(+)=(-): (-4)x (+3) = (-4)+(-4)+(-4) = (-12)
(c) (-)(-) = (+): (-4)x (-3) = opposite of 4 x (-3) = opposite of (-12) = (+12)

B. Division
If you still do not understand the rules of division, try to have a look at the followings.
Consider cases (+5)  (-1) and (-4)  (-2),
you need to (1) locate the original value (+5) and (-4) on the number line, (2) reflect it along “0”.
(-5) A B (-4) (+4) B A (+5)
(+5)  (-1)
(-4)  (-2),
Then just continue to work out the answers.
(+5)  (-1) = (-5) 1 = (-5) (-4)  (-2) = (+4) 2 = (+2)
By the way shown above, we can obtain the four rules.
   

  
 3 
  
 3 [reflect then do division]

no reflection

   


   3    3 [reflect then do division]
   

no reflection
P. 1.9
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Example 1.4
 
(a) (-12) ÷[ 2x (3-4)] (b) (c)
 
SOLUTION
 
(a) (-12) ÷[ 2x (3-4)] (b) (c)
 
=(-12) ÷[ 2x (-1)]
  
=(-12) ÷(-2) = =
% 
=6

= = = 
&  

Summary for Ch. 1.4

(1) To learn the rules of multiplication and division


(2) To further understand the rules of multiplication and division

Rev. Exercise

(1) Use number lines to find the values of the following expressions.
(a) (-4) + (-5) (b) (+7) – (+9)

(c) (+2) - (-5) (b) (-4.5) + (+3.5)

(2) Evaluate the followings.


(a) 144  5  7 (b) 12  19 $ 7  7

Note
In examinations, you
Should copy the given
Expression before any
further calculation.
P. 1.10
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

 $ –()


(c) (d)
 )$*

(3) Arrange the following sets of numbers in ascending order.


    
(a) +0.5, +4.7, -1.5, +0.01, -4.75 (b) , , , ,
  )  

(4) Write down the elevation information of the following places on a horizontal number line. Use
the minus sign (–) to represent elevation below sea level.
a. Toronto (Canada) –14ºC b. Melbourne (Australia) 30ºC
c. London (UK) –6ºC d. New Delhi (India) 20ºC

(5a) Suppose +$1000: represents to deposit $1000 into a bank account, what does "-$500" mean?

(5b) Suppose "-$200" represents the price of a computer was decreased by $200, use a directed number to
represent the change in price of a computer if the price of 16 computers were decreased by $8000.

(6) A company had a loss of$22500 in the first month, a profit of $34,050 in the second month, a profit of
$38,500 in the third month and a loss of $8,500 in the fourth month. Use directed number to represent the
net profit over the past four months.
P. 1.11
Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

(7) Mrs.Li reduced her weight by 2 kg in the first week, gained 1/2kg in the second week, continued to gain 1
kg in the third week, but lost 3 kg in the fourth week.
(a) Find the change of her weight. (b) Find her latest weight if her weight on 2nd week was 66 kg.

(8) A submarine moved u 50 m from 100m below the sea-level,then it descended by 80m.
(a) Use a directed number to represent the location of the submarine.
(b) Use a number line to represent the change in height of submarine.

(9) 3 people played “poker” for 4 rounds. The following table shows the point distribution of each game.

Round Player Kevin Sunny Steven


1 +57 -28 -29
2 +14 -5 -9
3 -46 +50 -4
4 -27 -9 +36

(a) Find the number of games each player won.


(b) How many points did each player get after 4 rounds?
(c) If Steven gave up the game after the 4th round, at least how many points should Kevin win in the 5th
round so that his total score can pass Sunny and win?
P. 2.1
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Getting started
Getting started
Besides numbers, letters and “latin letters” are used in mathematical expressions and operations. That is,
when we are meeting some unknowns in the question, necessary to be used.
Algebraic expressions are expressions involving the four arithmetic operations of numbers and letters.

Warm-up
Uncle James likes proposing new mathematical questions. Help him to solve the puzzle below.

S E N D Answer at the bottom of page


+ M O R E
M O N E Y

Basic concepts
(A) Arithmetic operations
Arithmetic operations include addition(+), subtraction(-), multiplication (x) and division. It is important to
remember the way to read them out.
Addition (+) a Plus b, add a to b, the sum of a and b, etc.
subtraction(-) The difference between a and b, subtract a from b, a minus b, etc.
multiplication (x) a times b, a multiplies b, multiply a by b, the product of a and b.
division a is divided by b, a over b, dividing a by b, the quotient of a over b.

When reading word statements, we should pay special attention to the order. For example, we should add
+, +
brackets when necessary, or classify or  ..
- -

Reminder
Example 2.1a
Subtract a from b can
Be written as b-a but
(1) Express the followings by using algebraic expressions.
not b-a.
(a) Add y to the difference of z and x.
(b) Subtract / from the product of 0 123 4.
(c) Subtract a from of b and divide the result by 7 (d) Subtract a from the quotient of b over 7
(e) a minus x and multiply their difference by 5

Solution: Beware of the difference between (c) and (d). Reminder


(a) y+ (z-x) (b) 04  / In question (e), we
,+ , should obtain (a-x)
(c) (d) 1 then 5(a-x) but not 5a-x
 
(e) 5(a-x)
9 5 6 7
+ 1 0 8 5
Answer for warm-up ex.: 1 0 6 5 2
P. 2.2
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

(B) Index notation


Index notation is used to show the repeated multiplication of a same letter.

.5 should be read as “b to the power y”, which stands for b times itself for y times.

16 =axaxaxaxaxaxaxaxaxa and 1 . =axaxbxbxbxb

Remember, algebraic expressions are expressions involving the four arithmetic operations of numbers and
letters. Therefore a+b and 9a-4x are algebraic expression.

Example 2.1b
7555788
(1) Express the following expressions with index notation : (a) xxyxyayxxz ; (b)
8857

7 9 5:
(2) Expand the following expressions: (a) x7y2z5 ; (b)
8;
Solution: Be careful while expanding / counting letters.
(1a) xxyxyayxxz = xxxxxyyyza = ax5y3z
7555788 7755588
(1b) = = xyy
8857 75888
Extra!
(2a) x7y2z5 = xxxxxxxyyzzzzz
<  <
7 9 5: 77755555
(2b) = <=   when a>0
8; 8888

(C) Working with algebra


To deal with questions with algebra, we should (a) learn to simplify our expressions, and (b) to write
down an expression according to the questions given.

Example 2.1c
(1) Tommy has $3x while Bobby has 2 times the money of Tommy. Find the sum of their money.
(2) Joe has (4y-4) sweets while Sally got (3y+5) less than Joe. Find the total amount of sweets they
got.

Solution: Do not be confused by both letters and integers. Just identify which operations to use.
(1) The sum of money = 3x + 2(3x) = 3x + 6x = $9x [remember the unit!]
(2) The total amount of sweets = Joe’s sweets + Sally’s sweets = (4y-4)+[(4y-4)-(3y+5)] = 5y-13
P. 2.3
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Example 2.1d
(1) Jason’s father is 4 times older than Jason who is x years old. Find their age sum.
(2) x+2 is the middle among three consecutive odd numbers. Find the sum of the three numbers.

Solution: The two questions above are not as straight-forward as those in 2.1c. Analysis is needed
(1) Jason is x years old, so his father should be 4(x) = 4x years old. Ans.: x+4x = 5x
(2) x+2 is the middle among three consecutive odd numbers, so the smallest and largest numbers
are (x+2)-2 = x and (x+2)+2 = (x+4) respectively.
Ans: Sum of 3 numbers= (x+2)-2 + (x+2) + (x+2)+2 = 3x +6

Summary for Ch. 2.1


(1) Ways to write down / convert / read aloud arithmetic operations
(2) Definition of “algebraic expressions” and the use
(3) Index notation and simplification

Ch. 2.2
(A) Formulae and Substitution
When you are given an algebraic expression and the respective values of letters, you can work out
the value of the expression easily. But beware of some details.

Names
Example
to 2.1d
learn
(1) If you are given an algebraic expressions with equal sign and at least one variable with
changeable values, it is called a formula. For example x+6=2y and X= 9y are formulae, but not
2x+1=3 since x can only have one value.

(2) Letters in formulae (plural of formula) which can be changed or affected by other letters are
called variables. [x and y are variables in “x=2y+3” ]

(3) Furthermore, if some variables’ values are given, we can know the values of remaining variables.
They are called unknowns which are targets need to be solved and are commonly final answers.
[R is unknown in “R=2x+y2” but not “R+2=7
(4) Replacing letters (variables) in formulae by numbers in order to work out the value of unknowns
are called substitution. For example, if a=1 and b=2, then by using substitution we can get a+b = 3.
P. 2.4
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Example 2.2a
4
(1) Given that the formula for getting the volume of sphere is V 
3
πr3 , find the volume of a

football if its radius (r) is 9. [Let π ]

(2) Given that the calculation of point(P) of a game is determined by a formula P  0.6x  0.8y.
Find the points Tom get if his x are y values are 5 and 20 respectively.
Solution: Beware of substituting numbers and copying the formula first. DO NOT add units if they
are not given; but you are reminded to write down a statement to finish the whole operation.
4 (2) P  0.6x  0.8y
(1) V  3 πr3
P  0.65  0.820
4 22 3 P  19
V  9 ∴ Tom gets 19 points.
3 7
) Reminder
V= If you forget to copy the

formula, PP-1 may be
)
∴ The volume is . resulted.


Example 2.2b
If a = 8 and b = 4, find the values of the following expressions. Reminder
Copy the whole question
IJ I*
(a) ab+a÷b (b) (c) once. It should be
IJ J9
always practiced.
Solution:
(a) ab+a÷b IJ I*
(b) (c)
= (8)x(4) + 8÷4 IJ J9
= 34 ) )*
= =3 = =1
) 9

Ch. 2.3
In this sub-chapter, we should know how to solve linear equations in one unknown.
There are most probably one or two answers in equations, and the answer(s) are called solution.

Skills:
In order to solve equations, we should try removing the numbers and leaving the unknown on one
side. To do so, we can try to “balance” the whole equation.
P. 2.5
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Example 2.3a
K K
(a) 3y – 6 = 18 (b) 8x (c)  6 = 14
 

Solution: The difficulty increases from (a) to (c).


(a) 3y – 6 = 18 K
(c) + 6 = 14
3y – 6 +6 = 18 +6 [try to remove -6] 
3y = 24 K
+ 6 - 6 = 14 -6 [removing +6]
y= 8 [removing (3 times)] 
K 
=8 x = 72 [removing ]

K ** In case (a), why shouldn’t we remove 3 from
(b) +8=6
 3y first? Just expand the operation and you can
K get the answer.
+ 8 – 8 = 14 – 8 [remove (+8) first]
 3y – 6 = 18 → y + y + y – 6 = 18 (that means
K only -6 can be removed)
=6
 In these cases, we should remove the numbers
  (or expressions) from the farthest[-6 in 3y-6],
x =6  [remove ( ) times]
  then closer and finally the closest (3 in 3y).

Example 2.3b
J
(a) 3y – 7 = 5y – 9 (b) 0.5(c-6) = 17 (c) –2=b+3

Solution: Try to group like terms (terms with same unknowns, or integers) together first.
(a) 3y – 7 = 5y – 9 (b) 0.5(c-6) = 17 J
(c) –2=b+3
3y -3y – 7 = 5y – 3y (c-6) = 17 ÷ 0.5 
- 7 = 2y - 9 c-6 = 34 J
-2+2 = b + 3 +2
(-7)+ 9 = 2y c = 40 
2 = 2y J
Reminder =b+5
y=1 

Reminder  J
 0.5 is equal to ÷ –b = b + 5 –b
 
The unknown should be
placed on the left hand JJ
side in the answer.
=5
Prove 

-b = 4 6–b =5x2
(-1) x b = 4 6 – b -6= 10 – 6
(-1) x b ÷(-1) = 4÷(-1) -b = 4
b = -4 b = -4
P. 2.6
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Ch. 2.4
After learning algebraic expressions, we should learn how to solve problems by using equations.
(1) Let statement--- introduce an unknown;
(2) Set up an equation according to the question; and
(3) Solve the equation and write word statements to finish the whole operation.

Example 2.4
(1) Tommy is four times older than May. Find May’s age if their age sum is 65.
(2) A number is divided by 24, and the result is further subtracted from 30 and the final result is 10.
Find the number.
Solution: Try to understand the questions and set up an equation.
(1) Let x be May’s age. (2) Let n be the number.
(Then Tommy’s age should be 4x) 30 - n ÷ 24 = 10
x + 4x = 65 30 - n ÷ 24 + n ÷ 24 = 10 + n ÷ 24
5x = 65 Reminder 30 = 10 + n ÷ 24
x = 13 We can “carry” the 30 – 10 = n ÷ 24
∴May should be 13 years old. Unknown to another 20 = n ÷ 24
side to make it positive.
n = 480
∴the number is 480.

Summary of 2.4
(1) The definition of solution, unknown, variable and equation.
(2) To solve simple algebraic equations.
(3) To remember the ways to solve equations by using algebra.
[Tips: DO NOT forget to write down a word statement because your unknown does not appear in
the question. If you only give the value of unknown, it does not represent you have found the
answer for the question.]

Rev. Ex.

Heat: (1) Change the following word statements into algebraic expressions.
(a) Multiply x by 3 and sum the result up with 9
(b) Divide the quotient of 171 over x by 5.
(c) Multiply the sum of x and y by the difference between z and 7.
P. 2.7
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Heat: (2) True of false.


(a) In the equation X = 3y + 2x, X must be equal to 2x.
(b) In the equation 9d+0.1e = P, P is a variable.
(c) There are no solution for the equation y2 + 1 = 0
(d) The unknown in the equation 9x+1=5 has only one solution.

(3) Given that the area of a circle is “radius to the power 2 times pi”.
(a) Write down the formula of circle using A as the area, r as the radius and π as pi.

(b) If circle a has radius of 9 cm, find its area in terms of L using substitution method.

(c) If another circle has radius of 7cm, find the difference of the area of circles in (c) and (b).

K K  
(4) 9  1 (5) x  14  21  x  2
   
P. 2.8
Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

(6) When 16 is added to the product of a number and 6, it is equal to the result of 34 minus the
product of 3 times the number, find the number.

(7) The sum of five consecutive even numbers is 220. Find the largest number.

NO
(8) When y=1400, b=20 and c=0.5, find the value of H when H
J

(9) If the prices of table tennis ball and tennis ball are $a and $y respectively, find the total cost for y
table tennis balls and 2a table tennis balls.
P. 3.1
Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Getting started
Getting started
Watch the traffic lights: Red…. Red
ed and yellow
yellow… green… yellow… and back to red . There are actually lots of
patterns and sequences around us, including machines, natural scenery, or even months and lesson cycles…
cycles
In this chapter, we are going to investigate more on mathematical sequences and patterns.

Warm-up

Observe the pattern of the followings.

(pascal triangle) (Koch snowflake)


Just for interest.

Basic concepts
(A) Describing patterns
Besides observing patterns, we need to learn the way to express different sequences and patterns.
(1) Observe the change(increase/decrease)
ecrease) in amount or quantity
(2) Then say “when the number of ……
……. increases/decreases by……, the number of …..
.. increases/decreases
by ………” or “The (size of first …)) first number is ….. The next number is formed by ……… This pattern goes on”

Example 3.1a
Describe the pattern of the followings.
(a) (b)

, , … , ,, …

Solution: (a) When the number of packs of KitKats increases by 1, the number of letter Ks increases
by 2. (b) The first picture contains 1 rabbit. The next one is formed by adding 2. The pattern goes on
P. 3.2
Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Example 3.1b
(1) 3 x 9 = 27, 5 x 11 = 55, 13 x 7 = 91, 1 x 17 = 17 …. From the above results, guess the pattern of
the product of two odd numbers.
(2) Describe the pattern: 1,4,5,9,14,23…
Solution: (1) we can see that the answers are ALL odd numbers, so we can guess that the product
of two odd numbers must be an odd number.
(2) Can you guess the next 2 numbers? They are 37 and 60. The 1st number is 1 and the 2nd number
is 4. The next number is formed by summing up the previous two numbers. This pattern goes on.

Ch. 3.2
Polygonal numbers include triangular numbers and square numbers. Others will not be taught this
year (such as pentagonal numbers).
(A) triangular numbers.
PP
The formula for triangular number is .

(B) square numbers.
The formula for triangular number is n2.

Question Patterns:
(1) Find the nth triangular / square number.
(2) From xxx to xxx, list all triangular / square number.
(3) Which triangular / square number is xxx?

Ch. 3.3
Definition of sequence: A set of numbers arranged under particular order forms a sequence.
Term describe the number(s) involved in a sequence.
Sequence (1): Square sequence: 1,4,9,16,25… (square numbers)
Sequence (2): Triangular sequence: 1,3,6,10,15,21… (triangular numbers)
Sequence (3): Arithmetic sequence: In such sequence, the difference between any two consecutive
terms is always the same. E.g: 5,7,9,11,13… OR 18,118,218,318,418…
Sequence (4): Geometric sequence: In such sequence, the quotient of any two consecutive terms is
the same. E.g: 12,24,48,96,192,384… OR 2,4,8,16,32,64,128…

One more sequence is the switch of positive and negative sign. In case of odd-number terms (1st,
3rd…) are negative while the rest are positive, times (-1)n to the sequence, otherwise times (-1)n+1.
P. 3.3
Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Example 3.3a
Describe the pattern and tell the name of sequence:
(a) 1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22…
(b) 100,50,25,12.5,6.25,3.125 …
Solution: They must be either arithmetic sequence or geometric sequence. Try to pick up numbers
among the sequences and compare their quotients / difference.
(a) The 1st number is 1. The next number is obtained by adding 3 to the previous number. This
pattern goes on. It is an arithmetic sequence.
(b) The 1st number is 100. The next number is obtained by dividing the previous number by 2. This
pattern goes on. It is a geometric sequence.

Example 3.3b
Write down the pattern and find the next three terms of the followings:
(a) 5,10,15,20,25,…. (b) -1, +3, -9, +27, -81…
Solution:
(a) It is easy to see an arithmetic sequence. Each term is formed by adding 5 to the previous
number. So the next 3 numbers are 25+5=30 , 25+5x2=35 and 25+5x3=40.
(b) It is easy to see a geometric sequence (x3). Each term is formed by multipling the previous
number by (-3). Therefore we can easily obtain the following 3 numbers +243, -729 and +2187.

Fibonacci sequences
The Fibonacci sequence was generated by a Mathematician which can describe the growth of
rabbits and plants. In the Fibonacci sequence of numbers, each number after the first two is the
sum of the previous two numbers.
Thus the sequence is 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, etc.

Ch. 3.4
After investigating different sequences, we should further know more about finding out random
terms in sequences, as well as to describe them.
Finding the nth term
If you are asked to find the nth term in a sequence, either a string of numbers OR a “formula” will
be given.
In the 1st case, we should try to find out the pattern. Then we can use the pattern found to further
find the value of other terms.
P. 3.4
Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Example 3.4a
(1) Find the number pattern of the sequence 1,3,6,10,15…
(2) Find the number pattern of the sequence 3,6,9,12,15…
(3) Find the number pattern of the sequence 2,5,8,11,14…
Solution: Both Q(1) and (2) are straight-forward. But you need to think more when dealing with
questions like Q(3).
QQ
In Q(1), we can see the triangular sequence. Thus the sequence is , in which n stands for

the number of terms. The 1st term is 12, followed by 22,32 and 42 etc.
In Q(2), we can see an arithmetic sequence, and all the terms are multiples of 3. Thus we can
obtain that each term is generated by multiplying the number of term with 3. So the pattern
should be 3n.
In Q(3), we can also see an arithmetic sequence. We can think in two ways.
First, by looking at Q(2) again, we can easily find that the difference between terms in (2) and (3)
QQ
is 1 (3-2; 6-5; 9-8 etc.). That means the sequence should be -1.

Example 3.4b
(1) Find the number pattern and the 99th term of sequence.
   
(a) 6,11,16,21,26… (b) , , , ,… (c) 4,8,16,32,64…
   )
[Tips: Think about 5,10,15,20… ; 1,3,5,7 and 2,4,6,8… ; 2,4,8,16,32…]
Solution: The above sequences have patterns not easily seen. We should compare them with
some known sequences such as arithmetic ones and geometric ones.
In Q(1), we can see an arithmetic sequence as the difference between any two consecutive terms
is 5. Furthermore, by observing the sequence 5,10, 15,20… we can conclude that the pattern of
5,10,15,20… plus one can obtain the (a) pattern. So the answer should be 5n+1.
In Q(2), we can observe fractions. Do not be confused with fractions as we can divide each of
them into two parts: numerators and denominators. Have a look at denominators (2,4,6,8..) first.
We can easily observe the “2n” pattern. By referring to the “2n-pattern”, we can conclude that
the “2n-pattern” minus one equals to the pattern of numerator. So the number pattern for the
Q
whole fraction is .
Q
In Q(3), we can see a geometric sequence. Unfortunately we miss the number 2. So what can we
do? Considering 21 = 2 and 22 = 4, we can express the sequence as 22, 23, 24 and so on, which the
n+1
power have a continuous arithmetic sequence (2,3,4…) right? So the final answer is 2 (next pg)
P. 3.5
Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

  99+1


And the 99th term of (a) is 5(99)+1 = 496; (b) is .= ; (c) is 2 = 2100.
 %
[TIPS: No need to express the real value when the answer is too big or small]

Example 3.4c
Questions will be expressed in diagrams. Find the pattern and construct the 5th diagram.
(a) (b)

Solution: Directly count the number of “sticks” or geometric shapes (such as triangles).
(a) The number of small triangles are 1,4 and 9 respectively. That means the no. of triangles is
square numbers determined

Tips for Ch.3


(1) Finding the sequence: In order to increase the difficulty, sequences appeared in exam. Or UT
papers are most likely “adjusted”. For example 1,2,4,8,16 will be adjusted up to 2,3,5,9,17; while
1,3,6,10,15 will be adjusted to 2,6,12,20,30, etc. In order to help thinking, you are kindly advised
to: (a) to do more exercises as to be more familiar with common arithmetic and geometric
sequences; (b)to list out other sequences when dealing with “strange sequences”; (c) try to
slightly “adjust” back the sequence (such as reduce the terms by 1 or dividing the terms by 3 etc.).

Rev. Ex. 3

(1) Find the 25th and 44th square number.

(2) Find the difference between the 9th and 15th triangular number.

(3) Find the nth term of the following sequences.


  S
(a) 8,15,22,29,36… (b) , , , … (c) 1,0.1,0.01,0.001…
 & S =
P. 3.6
Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

(4) Find the pattern, then the 10th term in the following sequences.
(a) 109,119,129,139… (b) 16,25,36,49

S %
(c) 3, 13,23,33,43… (d) , , ,
  &= S=

(e) 2,4,7,11,16,22… (f) 100,1000,10000,100000…

(g) 1+1,3+4,6+9,10+16… (h) 7, 18, 29, 40, 51…


P. 4.1
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

Getting started
Getting started
In this chapter, we are going to talk about some basic elements in geometry, such as angles, triangles,
polygons and drawing nets.

Ch.4.0
Getting started
Definition of some common elements are shown.

Line segment—a line with two endpoints

Angle—two rays that meet at a point

Vertex—the point where the rays meet in an angle

Point should have no size or area.

Planes are surfaces with shape but no thickness.

Getting started
Ch.4.1 and 4.2
If an object rotates one round, it has already rotated for one complete turn, which is 360o.
Note that there are some units smaller than degree as well. They are minute and second.
1 degree = 60 minutes and 1 minute = 60 seconds. That means 1 degree = 3,600 seconds.
For instance, 1 degree 1 minute 1 second is written as 1o1’1”.

Types of angle
We should be familiar with the 5 types of angles. [Ф represents the size of angle]

Ф < 90 Ф = 90 90< Ф<180


Acute angle Right angle Obtuse angle
P. 4.2
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

Ф = 180
Ф = 360
180 < Ф < 360
Straight angle Reflex angle *** Explementary angle/
Conjugate angle

Two Angles are complementary if they add Two angles are supplementary if they add up
up to 90 degrees. to 180°.
If two supplymentary angles are found, you can say they lie on a straight line.

Getting started
Example 4.1a
Measure the following angles, mark their size and name them.

Answer: 72o (acute), 120o (obtuse), 90o (right).

Ch.4.1b
Find the size of the following angles and answer the question.
(1) Is angle ABC a right angle? (2) Prove that ABC is a straight line.

B C A B C
P. 4.3
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………
…………..………..…..

Solution: Use the protractor to measure each angle. Remember the terms “supplementary
“ angles”
and “complementary angles”.
(1) Two angles are 58o and 32o respectively. ABC is a right angle.
(2) Two angles are 139o and 41o respectively. ABC is a straight line because angle ABC = 180o.

Getting started
Ch. 4.3
Triangles are commonly seen in geometry. They share many properties.
Types of triangle

Isosceles triangle Equilateral triangle Scalene triangle

Acute-angle triangle Right-angle triangle Obtuse-angle


Obtuse triangle

Getting started
Illustration
Use a protractor to measure the angles inside the following triangles. Sum them up. What can you find?

SOLUTION: You can always find that the sum of 3 angles inside any triangles must be 180o. (Try again or
measure them precisely if you do not get close to 180o.)

From the example above, we can deduce that the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180o.
[abbreviation: angle sum of triangle OR ∠sum of △]
P. 4.4
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………
…………..………..…..

Getting started
Ch. 4.4
Types of polygon

Number of straight line segments Polygonals


3 Triangle
4 Quadrilateral
5 Pentagon
6 Hexagon
7 Heptagon
8 Octagon
9 Nonagon
10 Decagon
< 10 (n) n-gon
Concave and convex polygon
If all the interior angles of a polygon are less than 180o, it is called “convex polygon”. Otherwise it
is named as “concave polygon”

Equilateral, equiangular and regular

Polygons with equal side Polygons with all interior Polygons which are both
length are called “equilateral angles equal are called equilateral and equiangular are
polygons”. “equiangular polygons”. called “regular polygons”.
E.g: Rhombus and square E.g: rectangle and square(90o) E.g: square and regular triangle

Sum of interior angles


We can divide a polygon into triangles, but the number of triangles should be as less as possible.
Getting started
Example 4.4
Find the sum of all interior angles in each of the following figures.
(a) (b)

Solution: 720o and 540o


P. 4.5
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………
…………..………..…..

Getting started
Ch. 4.5
Types of solid

Cuboid Cube Prism Cone


Rectangular prism with 6 Prism with 6 square A solid with polygonal A solid with
rectangular faces faces base and parallelogram circular base and
faces only one vertex.

Sphere Pyramid Cylinder


A round ball. A solid where the upper surfaces are A solid with uniform cross
triangular and converge on one poin
point section.
Solids have either (i) planes OR (ii) curved surface on it.
Sphere, cone and cylinder have curved surface. The rest have planes.

Cross section
A cross section is the intersection of a 3D
3D-solid.
We can always obtain the same sizesize-and-shape cross section in prisms,, and the cross-section
cross is
called uniform cross-section.

Prisms have uniform cross-section


section but not other solids.
P. 4.6
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………
…………..………..…..

Polyhedra
Closed solids which are formed by polygons are called polyhedra.

Face

Edge

Vertex
Face, edge and vertex are represented in F, E and V.

Euler’s Formula (V-E+F = 2)


Using Euler’s formula, we can easily find the vvalue of V, E or F, or just to prove the existence of
given solids.
V= Number of vertices / E= Number of edges / F= Number of faces
Example:
V= 4 V=8
E= 6 E=12
F= 4 F=6

V-E+F=2
E+F=2 V-E+F=2

Triangular Pyramid Cube


V= 6 V= 5
E= 12 E= 8
F= 8 F= 5

V-E+F=2
E+F=2 V-E+F=2

Rectangular Pyramid

Regular octahedron
All 3D solids should suit the law of V
V-E+F=2.

Getting started
Example 4.5
Find the no. of vertices, edges and faces of (a) rectangular block, (b) pentagonal prism and (c) triangular
prism.
SOLUTION: (a) 8/12/6 (b) 10/15/7 (c) 6/9/5.
P. 4.7
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

Getting started
Ch. 4.6
2D representation of solids
Besides directly constructing out “fake-3D figures”, we can also make use of grid papers to construct them.
Types of grids
Isometric grids Oblique grids

To construct a diagram on the grid paper, follow the following procedures:


(1) Choose any vertex from the base of a solid to be the lowest point on the gridpaper.
(2) Mark the lowest point.
(3) Pay special attention to the length of sides and copy them one by one onto the gridpaper.

(4) Getting started


Example 4.6a
Construct the following solids on an isometric gridpaper.
(a) 4 (b) (c) 3
2
6 3
2 3
3
4 2 2 3
Y 2
1 3
4
X Z
SOLUTION

X
Y
Z
P. 4.8
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

From the examples shown on the previous page, we can see that obtaining a lowest point first is
very important. We can use the point to extend the solid side by side. Beware of the length as
drawing on gridpapers can easily cause careless mistakes.

(5) Getting started


Example 4.6b
Construct the following solids on an oblique gridpaper.
(a) (b)
4
3 1
3 1 4
3
1 1 3
2
A 1 4
B
SOLUTION: Also set a lowest point to aid drawing.

A
B
(6) Getting started
Ch. 4.6

Terms Explanation
Parallel lines Lines that can never cut each other even
extended infinitively.
Radius The distance between the center of circle and
the side of circle.
Center of circle The central point of circle.
Perpendicular to.. Makes 90o-angle to …

Refer to the textbook p. 4.37 to p. 4.43 for the ways to construct parallel lines, perpendicular lines
and circles.
P. 4.9
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

G
Rev. Ex. 4
(1) Find the number of vertices(V), edges(E) and faces(F) in the following cases.
Name of solid V E F
Cube
Triangular pyramid
Hexagonal prism

(2) Classify the following triangles.


(a) all interior angles are not equal. (b)two interior angles are 60o.
(c) a triangle with one interior angle of 178o (d) a triangle with two sides equal and one interior angle of 45o

(3) (a)Construct a circle with diameter 5cm. (The length of diameter is two times the length of radius)
(b)Given that the formula for finding areas of circle is T  UV  , which A stands for the area of circle and
r stands for the length of radius. Find the area of circle in (a).

(4) Name three solids which have uniform cross-section.

(5) Find the sum of all interior angles in each of the following figures.
(a) (b) (c)
P. 4.10
Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

(6) How many faces does a regular icosahedron and regular dodecahedron have?

(7) Construct a line DX and DY so that DX is perpendicular to AB while DY is parallel to AB.

A B

(8) Find the following unknown angles.


(a) Find angle ADC and prove (b) AED is isoceles acute triangle
ADC is an isoceles triangle. Find BAC and find BCA if ∠ABC = ∠ACB
A A
18o
60o

15o 40o
B D C D E
B C

(9) Draw a cuboid with length 3 units, width 4 units and height 5 units on an isometric grid paper.
Draw a cube with side length of 5 units on an oblique grid paper.
P. 5.1
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Getting started
Getting started
Have you ever seen words like “discount” and “profit percent”? Or have you ever heard that the inflation rate
was increased by 6.1%? Actually percentage is a ratio representing the comparison between old and new
values. Let us investigate more on the basic concepts and uses of percentage.

Warm up
Getting started
Calculate the followings.
 == = ===
(1)600x (2)1000x (3)50x (4)90 x
== == == ==

Actually you are working on some operations similar to percentage!!!


Percentage is actually fraction with 100 as the denominator.

Ch. 5.2
Getting started
Arithmetic of percentages
The arithmetic of percentages is very similar to that of integers and fractions. The only difference is
that a percentage sign(%) is shown on the final answer.

Example 5.2
Getting started
(1) 30%+65%-20% (2) 50 x (1-40%) (3) (7.5+50%) ÷ (60%-20%)

SOLUTION: Just change the percentages to fractions and you can work out the answers easily.
(1) 30%+65%-20% (2) 50 x (1-40%) (3) (7.5+50%) ÷ (60%-20%)
=0.3+0.65-0.2 = S= =
= 50 x   == = (7.5+0.5) ÷ ==  ==
=0.75
= 50 x 0.6 = 8 ÷ 0.4
=30 = 20

Ch. 5.3
Getting started
Deeper operations using percentage
Some questions related to percentage usage will appear starting from Ch.5.3.

Example 5.3a
Getting started
(1) 45 % of a number is 9. Find the number.
(2) 180% of a number is 54. Find the number.
P. 5.2
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

SOLUTION: Again convert the percentages into fractions.


(1) Let n be the number. (2) Let y be the number.
n x 45% = 9 y x 180% = 54
 y x 1.8 = 54
nx =9
66
y = 54 ÷ 1.8
 y = 30
n=9÷
66
n = 20

Example 5.3b
Getting started
(1) There are 18 girls inside a class with 30 students. Find the percentage of boys in the class.
(2) 20% of students do not wear glasses. If 32 students wear glasses, find the total number of
students.

SOLUTION: Again read the questions carefully.


(1) There are 18 girls in class, so 12 boys in class. (2) 20% students do not wear glasses, so 80%
So % of boys in class students wear glasses.
WXYZ[\ ]^ Z]_` aW bcd`` So % of students without glasses = 1-20% = 80%
= g ==%
e]edc W].]^ `eXf[We` 80% of students =32 students, so 20% of students
&=% = 32 ÷ 80% x 20% = 8
= &=
g ==%
So the total no. of students = 32 + 8 = 40
= 40%

Ch. 5.4
Getting started
Percentage increase and decrease
Comparing $50 and $55, what is the fraction of the change in amount of money to the old value?
The fraction times 100% can obtain the so-called “percentage change”.

Remember the following formulae:


aWb\[d`[
Percentage increase = g ==%
]\aiaWdc jdcX[

f[b\[d`[
Percentage decrease = ]\aiaWdc jdcX[
g ==%

By using the formulae above, we can easily obtain the percentage increase or decrease.
P. 5.3
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Example 5.4a
Getting started
(1) If the price of a doll increases from $100 to $170, find the percentage increase.
(2) If the price of a fund decreases from $500 to $405, find the percentage decrease.
(3) If the price of a packet of noodles increases by 50%, the new price will be $3. Find the old price.

Solution: The 1st question is straight forward. But beware of the 3rd question.
(1) The percentage increase (3) The new price of noodles is obtained by
=== increasing the old price by 50%, so we can set up
= g ==%
== an equation:
= 70% (old price) + (old price) x 50% = 3
100% x (old price) + 50% x (old price) = 3
(2) The percentage decrease 150% x (old price) = 3
== == Old price = 3 ÷ 1.5
= g ==%
== Old price = 2
= 20%

From the operations above, we can see that operating with percentage is not that easy.
Sometimes we should think of how to obtain old/ new values, or even using unknowns.

Example 5.4b
Getting started
(1) The price of a mobile phone in March was $2000. Its price decreased by 20% in April.
(a) Find the value decreased.
(b) If Mary has only $1,200, how much money does she need in order to purchase the phone in
April?
(c) If the price of the mobile further drops 20% in May, can Mary buy the phone by just using her
money? Express your answer with proof.
SOLUTION: It is easy to understand the above questions. But the mainpoint is that you need to
fully express the reasons for question (c) and a complete process in (b).
(a) The value decreased by: 2000 x 20% = $400
(b) Mary still needs: [price of phone in April – Mary’s money] = (2000-400) – 1200 = $400
(c) In order to prove whether Mary has enough money, we should find the price of the mobile
phone in May.
The price of the phone in May = (2000 – 400) x (1 – 20%) = $1,280
Since the price of the phone in May is higher than the money Mary gets, she still does not own
enough money to buy the phone.
P. 5.4
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Ch. 5.5
Getting started
Profit and loss
Similarly, we can use the above ways to find the profit percent or loss percent of certain business.
Formulae:
klmnop smqq
Profit percent = r 100% loss percent = r 100%
-mqp -mqp

Where the profit and loss are decided by the difference between the income and cost. If the income
is bigger than cost, then a profit is resulted. Otherwise a loss will be made.

(1) Example 5.5


(1) A fund is at first sold at $30 each. Three days later the price of each fund rises to $45.
(a) Find the profit percent.
(b) If Mr. Lee bought 100 units of fund with $30 each, find his total earnings.
(2) A suit is sold at 20% higher than the cost. If the marked price now is $180.
(a) Find the total cost of the suit.
(b) If the marked price decreases by 20%, find the loss percent.
SOLUTION: Finding profit % / loss % is similar to that of % increase and decrease.
(1a) The profit percent (2a) The total cost of the suit
t\]^ae = 180 ÷ (1+20%)
= b]`e g ==%
Cost+profit = $150
&= (100%+20% [Watch the diagram on the left to
= g ==% 20%
&=
=120% ) know how (1+20%) is obtained.
= 50% (2b)
cost The new marked price
100%
(1b) Mr. Lee’s total earnings =180 x (1-20%) = $144
= (45-30) x 100 The loss = 150-144 = $6
= $1,500 So the loss percent
c]``
= g ==%
b]`e

S
= g ==% = 4%
=

From the examples shown in example 5.5, we can see that drawing diagrams can help us to
understand the questions. Try to draw out some diagrams if you find the questions too difficult to
be understood by just reading.
P. 5.5
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

(1) Ch. 5.6


Discount and discount percent
Discount = Marked price – Selling price
uoq-mvwp
Discount percent = r 100%
x+lyzu klo-z

Use the formulae shown above to solve the following problem related to discount.

*** The way to express discount:


“30% off” = 70% of the original price (1-30%=70%)

(1) Example 5.6


(1) A watch which was marked at $400 was sold at 30% less.
(a) Find the discount
(b) Find the selling price.
(2) A picture was sold at $4500 after a “10%-off promotion”.
(a) Find the discount.
(b) If the picture had been sold at the original marked price, the profit percent would have
been 150%. Find the new profit percent.
SOLUTION: (2a) 90% of the marked price
(1a) The discount equals to the selling price, so
= marked price – selling price Selling price x (1-10%) = 4500
= 400 x 30%
= 120 Let $y be the selling price.
(1b) The selling price Y x (1-10%) = 4500
= 400 – 120 y = 5000
= 280 So the discount = 5000-4500 = $500

(2b) remember the formula…


t\]^ae
g ==% = profit percent ?
b]`e

According to the question…


Let $c be the cost.
So the new profit percent
===b
t\]^ae b
g ==% = 150%
= b]`e
g ==%
5000 – c = 150% x c
== ===
= g ==% 5000 = 1.5c + c
===
5000 = 2.5c
= 125%
c = 2000
P. 5.6
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

(1) Rev. Ex 5
(1) A watch is sold at 120% of its cost and a profit of $50 is made.
(a) Find the cost.
(b) Find the selling price.

(2) 45% of a number equals to 117.


(a) Find the number.
(b) Find the difference between 50% of the number and 100.

(3) A company got an income of $5,000,000 but the cost was 60% higher than the income. Find
the loss percent. (Tips: First find the cost, then find the loss and finally obtain the loss %)

(4) Mr. Lee had a tea in a restaurant. He totally paid $240 for the meal, including the fee for all
dishes and subcharge, which is 20% of the fee for dishes.
(a) Find the total fee for all dishes.
(b) If the restaurant got 50% profit percent for the meal, find the total cost of the meal.
P. 5.7
Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

(5) If a dress is sold at $2500 at a profit of 25%.


(a) Find the total cost of the dress.
(b) If a further discount of “20.2% off” is given after a 20% decrease in the find the profit
percent.

  
(6) Mary, Tom and Peter had received their exam. paper. Their results were , and
 = =

respectively.
(a) Represent their examination mark in percentages.
(b) Arrange their marks in ascending order.

(7) Find the percentage INCREASES in the following cases.


(a) When $60 becomes $600.
(b) When $60 becomes 60 cents.

(8) As the price of pork increases from $28/kg to $35/kg, Mrs. Lau reduces her conumption of
pork by 30%. What is the percentage change in her expenditure on pork?
P. 6.1
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)
D Warm up
Graphs and charts can be seen everyday. Stock market index, voting survey or even the
investigation of “which programmes are the most popular?”.

(1)
D Ch. 6.1 & 6.2
Key terms
Trend Trends are patterns or shifts according to time. An upward trend, for instance,
would contain a section of data points that increased as time passed
Sample A sample is a subgroup or small portion of the population that is examined when
the entire population can not be evaluated. For example, if a process produces
one thousand items a day, the sample size could be perhaps three hundred.
You should also be familiar with the ways to analyse information before charting.
These have been mentioned in the textbook Ch.6 from p.6.4 to p.6.8.

How to construct a chart?


Gathering Data: To begin any run chart, some type of process or operation must be available to
take measurements for analysis. Measurements must be taken over a period of time. The data
must be collected in a chronological or sequential form. You may start at any point and end at any
point.
Organizing Data: Once the data has been placed in chronological or sequential form, it must be
divided into two sets of values x and y. The values for x represent time and the values for y
represent the measurements taken from the manufacturing process or operation.
Charting Data: Plot the y values versus the x values by hand or by computer, using an
appropriate scale that will make the points on the graph visible. Next, draw vertical lines for the x
values to separate time intervals such as weeks. (Draw horizontal lines to show where trends in
the process or operation occur or will occur.)
Interpreting Data: After drawing the horizontal and vertical lines to segment data, interpret
the data and draw any conclusions that will be beneficial to the process or operation. Some
possible outcomes are:

• Trends in the chart


• Cyclical patterns in the data
• Observations from each time interval are consistent
P. 6.2
Ch.66 Statistical Graphs ….……
….……..………..….

(1)
D Ch. 6.3
Presentation of Data and Data analysis
In this sub-chapter,
chapter, we should be very familiar with the following types of graphs.
Bar Chart (left)
6 15
Bar chart makes use of horizontal bars which are
4 10
proportional to the values they represent.
2 5

0 0
Compound bar chart (right)
Compound ones can be used to compare similar
Blue = Students ; Red
ed = teachers; datum such as genders
Green = Parents We can easily obtain the data by looking at the
“length” of each bar by using the y-axis.
y
(1st column: F.1 students;
2nd column: F.2 students; When drawing bar charts, we should label the bars
3rd column: F.3 students; with a box to tell the readers what the bars
th
4 column: F.4 students) represent. Also, we should name the columns
colu so
that others can know who the “interviewers” are.
Pictogram makes use of simple diagrams to convey
number data.
Note that you need to tell others the amount/
quantity each picture represents. Each picture is
not necessarily to represent “1””.
(each picture = 100 animal)
Pie charts consists of a circle split into different
sectors, which the sizes are determined by the
values they represent as well.
We can get the data of the pie chart by (i)
measuring the angles of sectors, or (ii) finding out
the
he percentage of each sector (usually given).
Scatter Diagram makes use of points / crosses to
represent every data on a chart. It is mainly used to
find out the main trend of survey results, or the
distribution of datum.
Both the x-axis and y-axis
axis should
shou be noticed when
plotting data onto the graph. Labels are not
necessary since only one type of data is compared.
P. 6.3
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs
hs ….……
….……..………..….

Broken- Line graph shows the statistics by


6
continuous broken lines, which are linked by dots
4 representing datum.
2 The y-axis helps us to read
ead the values. Note that

0
labels should be shown to clarify different lines.

Stem-and-leaf diagram helps us to represent a large


amount of data in ascending order. We can easily
obtain the trend and the smallest/largest group,
etc.

Topic
X-axis
axis
Y-axis
axis

(1)
D Example 1

(a) What is the topic of chart?


(b) Correct to the nearest 5,000,000
people, find the number of males in 1959
and 1999.
(c) Find
nd the trend of population in the
past 40 years.
[Left bar= males, middle=female;
right=total population]
SOLUTION:
(a) Topic is shown on the top of the chart. It is “total
total UK resident population 1959-99).
1959
(b) The bar in 1959 is in between 20 million and 30 million, so it should be around 25 million.
The number of males in 1999 is very close to 30 million, so it sh
should
ould be around 30 million.
(c) We can see a continuous growth in the total population iinn UK in the past 40 years.
Or you can say both male and female population kept increasing over the past 40 years.
P. 6.4
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)
Example 2
(a) How many days were included on
the chart?
(b) Find the maximum travel time.
(c) Find the minumum travel time.
(d) Can you find a trend in the chart
on the left?

[ 30 on the y-axis represents 30


minutes]
SOLUTION:
(a) By counting the number of dots / the number of days on the x-axis, there are 20 days.
(b) The maximum travel time should be on the first Saturday ,that is 35 minutes.
(c) Similar to Q(b), the minum time should be 25 minutes.
(d) Why not compare the peaks (maximum values)? We can see that the travel time spent on
Monday and Saturday is much longer than the rest days.

From the above examples, we can clearly observe the basic types of questions that are popularly
asked. Furthermore, some questions like “to reconstruct the diagram in another type of chart” or
“find the average number” are often asked.
(1)
Example 3
(a) Which type of sector shares the largest
employment percentage?
(b) If there are totally 360,000 people
employed for primary sector, find the no. of
people in secondary and tertiary sector.
(c) Hence, find the difference between
the no. of people working for primary and
tertiary sector.
SOLUTION: Bar chart only represents the proportion of each sector but not ANY TRUE OR REAL
NUMBERS. They are usually given when you are asked to find the absolute value of a sector.
(a) Tertiary Sector. [which occupies more than half of the pie]
(b) Percentage question again. The no.in secondary sector= 360000÷ 6% x 30% = 1800000
The no.in tertiary sector= 360000÷ 6% x 64% = 3840000
(c) The difference = 3840000 – 360000 = 3480000
P. 6.5
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)
Example 4

(a) By comparing the two pie charts, tell the trend of emplyment sectorsin UK.
(b) Can we say that “the number of people working for secondary sectors in 1960 must be more
than that in 1990s”? Why or why not?
SOLUTION:
(a) Most people in 1990 work for tertiary industry, which is totally different from the
evenly-distributed condition in 1960s. (44%, 34% and 22% can be described as “even)
(b) No. Since no real numbers are given, we can only say that “the % of people working… must be
more than that in 1990s.”.

(1)
Example 5
You are given a set of data as follow. Construct a bar chart with apprioprate datum.
(Information is related to “the number of students who are addicted to online games.”)
No. of girls 70 60 50 50 30
No. of boys 40 50 60 80 120
Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
SOLUTION:

140
120
100
80
Girls
60
Boys
40
20
0
04 05 06 07 08
Year (y-axis represents the no. of students)
P. 6.6
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)
Example 6
Scatter diagrams
Scatter diagrams help us to obtain the trends of certain category. The trend can be described as
“positive relation(or coreelation)”, “negative relation” or “no apparent relation”.
(1) try to describe the following scatter diagrams’ trends.

SOLUTION: We can deduce that both diagrams show a “positive relation”.


(2) Try to explain the trends.
SOLUTION: reasonsable ansewrs are commonly accepted. (reference answer only)
(a) Math final marks occupies a large proportion of the SAT math score.
(b) People growing high should have more muscles, so the weight will be higher as well.

(1) Example 7

The above three scatter diagrams have different topics. Given that the x-axis represents the
number of rainy days, try to guess what the x-axes represent.
SOLUTION: In the left chart, more rainy days results in higher x-axis values. We can guess that the
x-axis represents the no. of umbrellas sold, or the humidity.
The chart in the middle shows that more rainy days cause a decrease in the number of bread sold
or the number of new movies.
P. 6.7
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

The way to construct a stem-and-leaf diagram

Again by reading both the


“stem” and the “leaf” part,
we can obtain the numbers
or data again.

We can count the total


number of datum and
find out the maximum or
minimum data.

(1)
Example 8
(a) How many students have taken the science test?
(b) What was the highest mark and the lowest mark?
(c) If 10 students got a credit, find the minimum mark of
getting a credit.
(d) Find the number of students whose mark was odd
numbers.

SOLUTION:
(a) by counting the number of integers on the right, we
can get a total of 19 students.
(b) The highest mark and lowest mark should be 100 and
72.
(c) By counting 10 students from 100 mark downwards, you should stop at “87”. Therefore the
minimum mark should be 87.
(d) By counting the number of odd numbers on the “leaf” part, we can get the answer of 10.
(1)
Example 9
Construct a stem-and-leaf diagram by using the data below.

Title: The Number of Candy Students Bought


10 8 5 12 21
25 15 12 34 32
P. 6.8
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

SOLUTION:
We have observed many many examples, and we can conclude
that different types of graph have different functions.
Pictogram To represent the distribution of a group of
similar objects.
Scatter diagram To show a trend / relation of two different
types of information.
Bar chart To show the distribution / number of
(histogram) objects in relatively long period of time.
Broken-line graph To show the trend of only ONE type of
data.
Stem-and-leaf To group datum together by separating
(or back-to-back) their according to their digits in value.
Pie Chart To show the proportion of different
datum surrounding one topic. Usually no
real numbers are required for comparison

(1)
Example 9
Determine which graph(s) should be used in the following cases.
(a) To compare the percentage of students from 7 forms who read books regularly.
(b) To observe the relation between the no. of sleeping hours and the no. of working hours.
(c) To express the GDP of a country over the last 20 years.
(d) To show the “shape” of the number of tigers and sharks.

SOLUTION:
(a) Pie chart should be the most suitable one. Using compound bar charts can only help us to find
the sum of datum, and simple bar charts cannot easily represent datum of 7 forms of students
(and for comparison).
(b) Scatter diagram should be used to help us analyze whether a positive/negative relation can be
found.
(c) Broken-line graph or bar chart. They both help us to see the trend of GDP of a country in a
relatively long period of time.
Scores
(d) Stem-and-leaf diagram. Diagram is shown on the right.
Leaf Stem Leaf
Tigers Sharks
CONCLUSION:
Be careful when drawing diagrams, as you may miss the topic, 0379 3 22

x-axes and y-axes description, as well as the labels for indicating 28 4 355

the name of datum you want to express on charts. 1397 5 46889


P. 6.9
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)
Rev. Ex. 6
From Q3 onwards, finish the questions by using another piece of paper.

(1a) Construct a stem-and-leaf diagram to show the temperature in Hong Kong over the past
month using the data below:
28 24 24 22 19 21 21 27 21 26 23 21 18 17 19 20 21 14 17 20 23 21 17 16 15 30 15 18

(1b) guess the month investigating in (a). Give reasons.

(2) Tom wants to investigate on the proportion of different types of products he sold in the store.
(a) Suggest the most suitable type of graph / diagram to use.
(b) Given that the sales record of the store is shown below, construct a chart/diagram.

Toys Food Clothes Necessities others


$300,000 $200,000 $150,000 $250,000 $100,000

(3a) Use the following data which recorded the temperature in June to construct a stem-and leaf
diagram.
(3a) Temp. in June [Unit In Fo]
77 80 82 68 65 59 61
57 50 62 61 70 69 64
67 70 62 65 65 73 76
87 80 82 83 79 79 71
80 77
P. 6.10
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(3b) Construct a back-to-back stem-and-leaf diagram using the following data which recorded the
temperature in July as well.

(3b) Temp. in December [Unit In Fo]


36 40 42 49 58 49 46
50 29 36 71 51 24 36
49 25 19 78 54 34 64
58 46 55 49 60 71 44
31 38 49
(4) You are given the following information to construct a bar chart showing the trend of sales
record of BarkNShop.

(5) Read the chart below and answer questions.

(a) Find the total number of villages in Upland.


(b) Find the difference between the total no. of middle Monongahela and Late Monongahela.
(c) Give a topic for the chart.
(d) Given a possible explanation for the sudden decrease in the no. of villages in late Monongahela.
P. 6.11
Ch.66 Statistical Graphs ….……
….……..………..….

(6) The following bar chart shows the age of workers in a company.

(a) There are at least 3 things missing. Re


Re-add them.
(b) Find the total number of people working in the company.
(c) Use another type of diagram to represent the data which can still show the distribution of
ages of workers.

(7) The following chart shows the music preferences in young adults from 14 to 19.

50% = rap
25% = alternative
13% = rock and roll
?% = country music
the rest = classical music

(a) Find the angle of the sector of “alternative choice”.


(b) Find the percentage of adults who like “country music”.
(c) If 500 youngg adults are interviewed, find the no. of adults who like rap music.
(d) Redraw the pie chart to show the real number of adults who like different kinds of music.
[assume the total number of adults interviewed is 500]

(8) Tell the type of relation observed in the following scatter diagrams.
P. 6.12
Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(9) The chart below shows the general income of people in Utopia made annually.

(a) Describe the trend.


(b) How much income did most people earn?
(c) Are there big differences in the income of men and women?
(d) Suggest a reason for the phenomenon of few people getting high income in Utopia.
(e) Suggest another chart which can also show the number of men and women getting different
incomes, as well as the total number of women and men getting the same income?

(10) The following chart shows the favourite subjects of S.1 students.

(a) What is the name of the type of chart / diagram?


(b) Which subject is the least popular?
(c) How many students are interviewed?
(d) Reconstruct the chart/diagram above into a histogram.