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SSU Mathematics

Form one Mathhematics

Chapter 1-6 Notes

Tutor: Tutee:

Class Class

E-mail E-mail

Phone Phone

P. 1.1

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Getting started

Getting started

We always make use of numbers to express the change, either an increase or decrease in amount or quantity.

To classify the “direction” of changes, directed numbers are used.

The chart on the right shows the balance record of the bank account January Gained $9,900

of Mr. Chan. February $5,800 loss

(a) How many months did money lose from the account?

March Withdrawn $800

(b) If there are no money deposited before January, find the balance

April Deposit $4,700

(結餘) of the account in April.

ANS: (a) 2 months; (b) $8,000

Basic concepts Reminder

(A) Positive and negative numbers

Since 0 does not have

Numbers larger than zero are called positive numbers, while those smaller than zero “size”, it is neither

are called negative numbers. Both of them have size and direction, so they are called positive nor negative.

“directed numbers”. Both positive and negative whole numbers and zero are all integers.

Phrases expressing an

Express the following statements by using directed numbers. increase in amt./ qty. :

(i) Find the change in the amount of sweets if I get 36 more sweets. Add, plus, higher, raise,

(ii) Mr. Kwok got a $1,500 raise in his salary. Find his salary change. refilled, above, gain, up

put in, surplus, etc.

In these two questions, we can quote “get sth. more” and “raise” , which

show an increase in quantity. Therefore the solutions are +36 and +$1500.

Phrases expressing an

(i) HSBC got a loss of $5.6 billion after gaining $4.7 billion, find the final profit. decrease in amt./ qty. :

(ii) If the temperature of Toronto in the morning was 7 degrees, which was 17 loss, reduce, down

degrees higher than that in the evening, find the temp. in the evening. fall, deficit, step back,

smaller, descend, etc.

In these cases, we can see phrases like “loss” and “higher”, but the answers

are both negative. The solution for (i) is -$1.1 billion, while (ii) is (7-17) 0C Reminder

= -10 0C instead of 24 0C(the temperature in the morning was higher than Remember to write

down the unit(s) for

that in the evening.). Be careful when reading similar questions.

the answer if necessary

P. 1.2

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

The examples before are too straight-forward to be seen in tests or exams. More studies and

calculations are required in the following examples.

Example 1.1c

(1) The initial price of a fund is $50. The table below shows its performance over the past 5 days.

Finish the table.

Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Status Gained $2 Lost $4 Up $7 Fell $9 Unchanged

Change in price

Price of fund

Solution: Words like gain and up represents increases; while lost and fell represents decreases.

Unchanged represents “0”. By using simple calculation, you can get the price of fund.

Change in price +$2 -$4 +$7 -$9 $0

Price of fund $52 $48 $55 $46 $46

(2) The following table shows the sales record of Tasty Food shop.

Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Income $47,000 $32,000 $39,000 $29,500 $15,000

Cost $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $40,000

Balance

(i) Fill in the balance (except for Saturday).

(ii) Find the sum of balance from Monday to Tuesday.

(iii) How much income is required (at least) on Saturday to prevent a loss throughout the week?

Answer:

balance +$12,000 -$3,000 +$4,000 -$5,500 -$20,000

(ii) The balance is: 12000-3000+4000-5500-20000 = -$12,500

(iii) In order to prevent a loss, it means that the minimum balance should be $0 (not $1 because $0

also represents no loss). So the income should cover the $12,500 loss (as calculated in ii) and the

cost on Saturday. Solution: the income on Saturday= 12,500+40,000 = $52,500 Reminder

Do practice more on

Summary of Ch.1.1 simple calculation

to speed up

(2) To learn vocabularies and phrases related to the change in quantity or amount.

(3) To make use of directed numbers to solve problems and structured questions.

(4) Do not miss any units (if necessary) and “plus signs” / “negative signs”.

E.g: (Adding $5 should be written as +$5 but not $5)

P. 1.3

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………

…………………..

The number line is a line labeled with numbers in ascending order from left to right, that extends in

both directions. (Both vertically and horizontally are acceptable)

Example 1.2a

(1) Represent the following points on a number line.

A = 6, B = -4, C = 0, D = -1.5, E = 3

(2) Indicate the height of different places by using vertical number line.

a. Mt. Kosciusko (2230

2230 m above sea level

level) ; b. Bangalore (1000

1000 m above sea level);

level

c. Death Valley (85 m below sea level

level) ; d. Qattara Depression (392

392 m below sea level)

level

Solution:

B D C E A

Reminder Reminder

Use crosses instead of Remember to write

dots to represent the letters or names

Directed numbers above each point.

Note Note

Below ground floor, Prevent using vertical

below sea level, etc number lines but use

represents zero. ruler to sketch lines.

Ascending

scending order and descending order

Furthermore, we can make use of number lines tto o arrange numbers according to their value.

We can arrange numbers in “ascending order” and ““descending order”.

Ascending order: -9 < -8.99 < -8.9

8.9 < -8 < 0 < 8 < 88

Descending order: 88 > 8 > 0 > -88 > -8.9 > -8.99 > -9

Compare numbers

On the number line, the number on the right is always greater than the number on the left.

That means we can compare numbers by checking their position on the number line.

A B C D

A must be greater than B. C must be smaller than D.

P. 1.4

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

When comparing positive numbers, bigger number should have larger value. (+18 > +17)

When comparing negative numbers, smaller number should have larger value. (-17 > -18)

When comparing both positive and negative numbers, positive ones should be larger. (+1 > -1)

We use “a>b” to represent a larger than b, “b>a” represents b larger than a.

Example 1.2b

(a) (+7) ____ (-7) (b) -10 ______ -9 (c) +9.2 ______ +9

Solution: Comparing the signs, we can get +7>-7; and comparing numbers, we can get “<” in (b)(c)

Example 1.2c

Arrange the following numbers is descending order.

(a) 7.5, -4.208, 4.208, +0.1, (b) , , , , ,

Solution: (a) -4.208 and are smaller than 0 while 0.1, 4.208 and 7.5 are larger than 0.

Therefore 7.5 > 4.208 > +0.1 > > -4.208

In (b), , and are smaller than 0, while , and are larger than 0.

By finding the LCD (least Common Denominator 共同的最少分母), we can obtain

.

More to learn

Think about the following cases: there are 4 biscuits on a plate, when 9 people and 90 people are

sharing them, in which case each person can share larger amount of biscuit? Of course the 1st case!

When comparing negative numbers,

If the numerators (分子) are the same, then larger denominator (分母) indicates a larger number.

If the denominators are the same, then larger numerator indicates a smaller number.

(And vice versa for positive cases.) [
and ]

Now try rearranging the followings: , , , ,

P. 1.6

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Summary of Ch.1.2

(1) To learn about the use of number lines [labeling, marking crosses]

(2) To arrange different numbers and integers in both ascending and descending order

(3) To learn faster ways to arrange numbers.

We have mainly two ways to deal with the problems related to directed numbers.

(a) By using number lines ; OR (b) By direct calculation

Consider the addition of (+2) + (+3).

The plus sign, +, tells us to face the positive direction. So, to evaluate 2 + 3, start at 2, face the

positive direction and move 3 units forwards. Note

Use rulers to draw the

arrow in order to

sharply pointing (5) but

not 4.5 or 4.8 .

When considering (-2) + (-3), start at (-2) and face the negative direction and move 3 units backwards.

On the number line, left numbers are always smaller than those on the right. Similarly, an arrow

pointing to the left indicates a negative direction and positive direction for arrows to the right.

When you are required to sketch a number line to work out the answer, follow the procedures:

(1) Sketch the number with the range enough to show the whole process of calculation.

For example, when asked (+5) – (+9), sketch a number line including (+5) and (-4)[the answer].

(2) Point up the original value (+5) and sketch an arrow towards the “answer” (-4). Sketch the arrow

to the left if subtraction is needed, or draw it to the right in addition. Note

The intervals (gaps)

between numbers

are not neccesarily

∴(+5) – (+9) = (-4) to be one.

▲ Finally write down the statement above to show the final answer.

P. 1.7

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Example 1.3a

Use number lines to find the values of the following expressions.

(a) (-5)+ (+12) (b) (+14)+ (-17) (c) (-1) - (+3) (d) (-4)- (-9)

Solution: First draw the number lines. Then sketch out the arrow(s). Finally write down the

statement which was often forgotten.

(a) (b) You gained a loss of 17 = -17

(c) (d)

I take away 3 = -3 You reduced $9 loan= 9 gained = +9

From the cases above, we can deduct the followings:

(1) a + (+b) = a+b ; (2) a + (-b) = a-b; (3) a – (+b) = a-b; (4) a – (-b)= a+b

Example 1.3b

(a) The temperature of London dropped from 12 0C to -3 0C. Find the temperature change.

(b) Mandy got $1,500 in her bank but -$750 after one month. Find the difference in two months.

SOLUTION: Just find out the keywords like “change” and “difference” and carry out subtraction.

(a) The temp. change = 12 – (-3) = 150C (b) The difference = 1,500- (-750) = $2,250

We have mainly three types of brackets: parentheses (), square brackets [] and braces {}.

When we meet brackets in mathematical expression, we should calculate the ones in the

parentheses first, followed by square brackets and finally braces.

Example 1.3c

Find the values of (a) –{-[9+(-5)]} ; (b) (-1) – [5-(-1)] and (c) (-4) + [ (-2)-(4-9)]

Solution: Follow the order of brackets. Beware of positive and negative signs.

(solution on the next page)

P. 1.8

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

= –[-(9-5)] = (-1) – [5+1] = (-4) + [ (-2)-(-5)]

= –(-4) = (-1) – 6 = (-4) + [ (-2)+5]

= +4 = -7 = (-4) + (+3)

= -1

(2) Operation with brackets

A. Multiplication

We can prove some so-called laws in the book by the following examples.

(a) (+)(+) = (+): (+4)x (+3) = (+4)+(+4)+(+4) = +12

(b) (+)(-) = (-): (+4)x (-3) = (-3)+(-3)+(-3)+(-3) = -12 // (-)(+)=(-): (-4)x (+3) = (-4)+(-4)+(-4) = (-12)

(c) (-)(-) = (+): (-4)x (-3) = opposite of 4 x (-3) = opposite of (-12) = (+12)

B. Division

If you still do not understand the rules of division, try to have a look at the followings.

Consider cases (+5) (-1) and (-4) (-2),

you need to (1) locate the original value (+5) and (-4) on the number line, (2) reflect it along “0”.

(-5) A B (-4) (+4) B A (+5)

(+5) (-1)

(-4) (-2),

Then just continue to work out the answers.

(+5) (-1) = (-5) 1 = (-5) (-4) (-2) = (+4) 2 = (+2)

By the way shown above, we can obtain the four rules.

3

3 [reflect then do division]

no reflection

3 3 [reflect then do division]

no reflection

P. 1.9

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

Example 1.4

(a) (-12) ÷[ 2x (3-4)] (b) (c)

SOLUTION

(a) (-12) ÷[ 2x (3-4)] (b) (c)

=(-12) ÷[ 2x (-1)]

=(-12) ÷(-2) = =

%

=6

= = =

&

(2) To further understand the rules of multiplication and division

Rev. Exercise

(1) Use number lines to find the values of the following expressions.

(a) (-4) + (-5) (b) (+7) – (+9)

(a) 144 5 7 (b) 12 19 $ 7 7

Note

In examinations, you

Should copy the given

Expression before any

further calculation.

P. 1.10

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

(c) (d)

)$*

(a) +0.5, +4.7, -1.5, +0.01, -4.75 (b) , , , ,

)

(4) Write down the elevation information of the following places on a horizontal number line. Use

the minus sign (–) to represent elevation below sea level.

a. Toronto (Canada) –14ºC b. Melbourne (Australia) 30ºC

c. London (UK) –6ºC d. New Delhi (India) 20ºC

(5a) Suppose +$1000: represents to deposit $1000 into a bank account, what does "-$500" mean?

(5b) Suppose "-$200" represents the price of a computer was decreased by $200, use a directed number to

represent the change in price of a computer if the price of 16 computers were decreased by $8000.

(6) A company had a loss of$22500 in the first month, a profit of $34,050 in the second month, a profit of

$38,500 in the third month and a loss of $8,500 in the fourth month. Use directed number to represent the

net profit over the past four months.

P. 1.11

Ch.1 Directed Numbers…………………..

(7) Mrs.Li reduced her weight by 2 kg in the first week, gained 1/2kg in the second week, continued to gain 1

kg in the third week, but lost 3 kg in the fourth week.

(a) Find the change of her weight. (b) Find her latest weight if her weight on 2nd week was 66 kg.

(8) A submarine moved u 50 m from 100m below the sea-level,then it descended by 80m.

(a) Use a directed number to represent the location of the submarine.

(b) Use a number line to represent the change in height of submarine.

(9) 3 people played “poker” for 4 rounds. The following table shows the point distribution of each game.

1 +57 -28 -29

2 +14 -5 -9

3 -46 +50 -4

4 -27 -9 +36

(b) How many points did each player get after 4 rounds?

(c) If Steven gave up the game after the 4th round, at least how many points should Kevin win in the 5th

round so that his total score can pass Sunny and win?

P. 2.1

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Getting started

Getting started

Besides numbers, letters and “latin letters” are used in mathematical expressions and operations. That is,

when we are meeting some unknowns in the question, necessary to be used.

Algebraic expressions are expressions involving the four arithmetic operations of numbers and letters.

Warm-up

Uncle James likes proposing new mathematical questions. Help him to solve the puzzle below.

+ M O R E

M O N E Y

Basic concepts

(A) Arithmetic operations

Arithmetic operations include addition(+), subtraction(-), multiplication (x) and division. It is important to

remember the way to read them out.

Addition (+) a Plus b, add a to b, the sum of a and b, etc.

subtraction(-) The difference between a and b, subtract a from b, a minus b, etc.

multiplication (x) a times b, a multiplies b, multiply a by b, the product of a and b.

division a is divided by b, a over b, dividing a by b, the quotient of a over b.

When reading word statements, we should pay special attention to the order. For example, we should add

+, +

brackets when necessary, or classify or ..

- -

Reminder

Example 2.1a

Subtract a from b can

Be written as b-a but

(1) Express the followings by using algebraic expressions.

not b-a.

(a) Add y to the difference of z and x.

(b) Subtract / from the product of 0 123 4.

(c) Subtract a from of b and divide the result by 7 (d) Subtract a from the quotient of b over 7

(e) a minus x and multiply their difference by 5

(a) y+ (z-x) (b) 04 / In question (e), we

,+ , should obtain (a-x)

(c) (d) 1 then 5(a-x) but not 5a-x

(e) 5(a-x)

9 5 6 7

+ 1 0 8 5

Answer for warm-up ex.: 1 0 6 5 2

P. 2.2

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Index notation is used to show the repeated multiplication of a same letter.

.5 should be read as “b to the power y”, which stands for b times itself for y times.

Remember, algebraic expressions are expressions involving the four arithmetic operations of numbers and

letters. Therefore a+b and 9a-4x are algebraic expression.

Example 2.1b

7555788

(1) Express the following expressions with index notation : (a) xxyxyayxxz ; (b)

8857

7 9 5:

(2) Expand the following expressions: (a) x7y2z5 ; (b)

8;

Solution: Be careful while expanding / counting letters.

(1a) xxyxyayxxz = xxxxxyyyza = ax5y3z

7555788 7755588

(1b) = = xyy

8857 75888

Extra!

(2a) x7y2z5 = xxxxxxxyyzzzzz

< <

7 9 5: 77755555

(2b) = <= when a>0

8; 8888

To deal with questions with algebra, we should (a) learn to simplify our expressions, and (b) to write

down an expression according to the questions given.

Example 2.1c

(1) Tommy has $3x while Bobby has 2 times the money of Tommy. Find the sum of their money.

(2) Joe has (4y-4) sweets while Sally got (3y+5) less than Joe. Find the total amount of sweets they

got.

Solution: Do not be confused by both letters and integers. Just identify which operations to use.

(1) The sum of money = 3x + 2(3x) = 3x + 6x = $9x [remember the unit!]

(2) The total amount of sweets = Joe’s sweets + Sally’s sweets = (4y-4)+[(4y-4)-(3y+5)] = 5y-13

P. 2.3

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Example 2.1d

(1) Jason’s father is 4 times older than Jason who is x years old. Find their age sum.

(2) x+2 is the middle among three consecutive odd numbers. Find the sum of the three numbers.

Solution: The two questions above are not as straight-forward as those in 2.1c. Analysis is needed

(1) Jason is x years old, so his father should be 4(x) = 4x years old. Ans.: x+4x = 5x

(2) x+2 is the middle among three consecutive odd numbers, so the smallest and largest numbers

are (x+2)-2 = x and (x+2)+2 = (x+4) respectively.

Ans: Sum of 3 numbers= (x+2)-2 + (x+2) + (x+2)+2 = 3x +6

(1) Ways to write down / convert / read aloud arithmetic operations

(2) Definition of “algebraic expressions” and the use

(3) Index notation and simplification

Ch. 2.2

(A) Formulae and Substitution

When you are given an algebraic expression and the respective values of letters, you can work out

the value of the expression easily. But beware of some details.

Names

Example

to 2.1d

learn

(1) If you are given an algebraic expressions with equal sign and at least one variable with

changeable values, it is called a formula. For example x+6=2y and X= 9y are formulae, but not

2x+1=3 since x can only have one value.

(2) Letters in formulae (plural of formula) which can be changed or affected by other letters are

called variables. [x and y are variables in “x=2y+3” ]

(3) Furthermore, if some variables’ values are given, we can know the values of remaining variables.

They are called unknowns which are targets need to be solved and are commonly final answers.

[R is unknown in “R=2x+y2” but not “R+2=7

(4) Replacing letters (variables) in formulae by numbers in order to work out the value of unknowns

are called substitution. For example, if a=1 and b=2, then by using substitution we can get a+b = 3.

P. 2.4

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Example 2.2a

4

(1) Given that the formula for getting the volume of sphere is V

3

πr3 , find the volume of a

football if its radius (r) is 9. [Let π ]

(2) Given that the calculation of point(P) of a game is determined by a formula P 0.6x 0.8y.

Find the points Tom get if his x are y values are 5 and 20 respectively.

Solution: Beware of substituting numbers and copying the formula first. DO NOT add units if they

are not given; but you are reminded to write down a statement to finish the whole operation.

4 (2) P 0.6x 0.8y

(1) V 3 πr3

P 0.65 0.820

4 22 3 P 19

V 9 ∴ Tom gets 19 points.

3 7

) Reminder

V= If you forget to copy the

formula, PP-1 may be

)

∴ The volume is . resulted.

Example 2.2b

If a = 8 and b = 4, find the values of the following expressions. Reminder

Copy the whole question

IJ I*

(a) ab+a÷b (b) (c) once. It should be

IJ J9

always practiced.

Solution:

(a) ab+a÷b IJ I*

(b) (c)

= (8)x(4) + 8÷4 IJ J9

= 34 ) )*

= =3 = =1

) 9

Ch. 2.3

In this sub-chapter, we should know how to solve linear equations in one unknown.

There are most probably one or two answers in equations, and the answer(s) are called solution.

Skills:

In order to solve equations, we should try removing the numbers and leaving the unknown on one

side. To do so, we can try to “balance” the whole equation.

P. 2.5

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Example 2.3a

K K

(a) 3y – 6 = 18 (b) 8x (c) 6 = 14

(a) 3y – 6 = 18 K

(c) + 6 = 14

3y – 6 +6 = 18 +6 [try to remove -6]

3y = 24 K

+ 6 - 6 = 14 -6 [removing +6]

y= 8 [removing (3 times)]

K

=8 x = 72 [removing ]

K ** In case (a), why shouldn’t we remove 3 from

(b) +8=6

3y first? Just expand the operation and you can

K get the answer.

+ 8 – 8 = 14 – 8 [remove (+8) first]

3y – 6 = 18 → y + y + y – 6 = 18 (that means

K only -6 can be removed)

=6

In these cases, we should remove the numbers

(or expressions) from the farthest[-6 in 3y-6],

x =6 [remove ( ) times]

then closer and finally the closest (3 in 3y).

Example 2.3b

J

(a) 3y – 7 = 5y – 9 (b) 0.5(c-6) = 17 (c) –2=b+3

Solution: Try to group like terms (terms with same unknowns, or integers) together first.

(a) 3y – 7 = 5y – 9 (b) 0.5(c-6) = 17 J

(c) –2=b+3

3y -3y – 7 = 5y – 3y (c-6) = 17 ÷ 0.5

- 7 = 2y - 9 c-6 = 34 J

-2+2 = b + 3 +2

(-7)+ 9 = 2y c = 40

2 = 2y J

Reminder =b+5

y=1

Reminder J

0.5 is equal to ÷ –b = b + 5 –b

The unknown should be

placed on the left hand JJ

side in the answer.

=5

Prove

-b = 4 6–b =5x2

(-1) x b = 4 6 – b -6= 10 – 6

(-1) x b ÷(-1) = 4÷(-1) -b = 4

b = -4 b = -4

P. 2.6

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

Ch. 2.4

After learning algebraic expressions, we should learn how to solve problems by using equations.

(1) Let statement--- introduce an unknown;

(2) Set up an equation according to the question; and

(3) Solve the equation and write word statements to finish the whole operation.

Example 2.4

(1) Tommy is four times older than May. Find May’s age if their age sum is 65.

(2) A number is divided by 24, and the result is further subtracted from 30 and the final result is 10.

Find the number.

Solution: Try to understand the questions and set up an equation.

(1) Let x be May’s age. (2) Let n be the number.

(Then Tommy’s age should be 4x) 30 - n ÷ 24 = 10

x + 4x = 65 30 - n ÷ 24 + n ÷ 24 = 10 + n ÷ 24

5x = 65 Reminder 30 = 10 + n ÷ 24

x = 13 We can “carry” the 30 – 10 = n ÷ 24

∴May should be 13 years old. Unknown to another 20 = n ÷ 24

side to make it positive.

n = 480

∴the number is 480.

Summary of 2.4

(1) The definition of solution, unknown, variable and equation.

(2) To solve simple algebraic equations.

(3) To remember the ways to solve equations by using algebra.

[Tips: DO NOT forget to write down a word statement because your unknown does not appear in

the question. If you only give the value of unknown, it does not represent you have found the

answer for the question.]

Rev. Ex.

Heat: (1) Change the following word statements into algebraic expressions.

(a) Multiply x by 3 and sum the result up with 9

(b) Divide the quotient of 171 over x by 5.

(c) Multiply the sum of x and y by the difference between z and 7.

P. 2.7

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

(a) In the equation X = 3y + 2x, X must be equal to 2x.

(b) In the equation 9d+0.1e = P, P is a variable.

(c) There are no solution for the equation y2 + 1 = 0

(d) The unknown in the equation 9x+1=5 has only one solution.

(3) Given that the area of a circle is “radius to the power 2 times pi”.

(a) Write down the formula of circle using A as the area, r as the radius and π as pi.

(b) If circle a has radius of 9 cm, find its area in terms of L using substitution method.

(c) If another circle has radius of 7cm, find the difference of the area of circles in (c) and (b).

K K

(4) 9 1 (5) x 14 21 x 2

P. 2.8

Ch.2 Basic Algebra ……..…………………..

(6) When 16 is added to the product of a number and 6, it is equal to the result of 34 minus the

product of 3 times the number, find the number.

(7) The sum of five consecutive even numbers is 220. Find the largest number.

NO

(8) When y=1400, b=20 and c=0.5, find the value of H when H

J

(9) If the prices of table tennis ball and tennis ball are $a and $y respectively, find the total cost for y

table tennis balls and 2a table tennis balls.

P. 3.1

Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Getting started

Getting started

Watch the traffic lights: Red…. Red

ed and yellow

yellow… green… yellow… and back to red . There are actually lots of

patterns and sequences around us, including machines, natural scenery, or even months and lesson cycles…

cycles

In this chapter, we are going to investigate more on mathematical sequences and patterns.

Warm-up

Just for interest.

Basic concepts

(A) Describing patterns

Besides observing patterns, we need to learn the way to express different sequences and patterns.

(1) Observe the change(increase/decrease)

ecrease) in amount or quantity

(2) Then say “when the number of ……

……. increases/decreases by……, the number of …..

.. increases/decreases

by ………” or “The (size of first …)) first number is ….. The next number is formed by ……… This pattern goes on”

Example 3.1a

Describe the pattern of the followings.

(a) (b)

, , … , ,, …

Solution: (a) When the number of packs of KitKats increases by 1, the number of letter Ks increases

by 2. (b) The first picture contains 1 rabbit. The next one is formed by adding 2. The pattern goes on

P. 3.2

Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Example 3.1b

(1) 3 x 9 = 27, 5 x 11 = 55, 13 x 7 = 91, 1 x 17 = 17 …. From the above results, guess the pattern of

the product of two odd numbers.

(2) Describe the pattern: 1,4,5,9,14,23…

Solution: (1) we can see that the answers are ALL odd numbers, so we can guess that the product

of two odd numbers must be an odd number.

(2) Can you guess the next 2 numbers? They are 37 and 60. The 1st number is 1 and the 2nd number

is 4. The next number is formed by summing up the previous two numbers. This pattern goes on.

Ch. 3.2

Polygonal numbers include triangular numbers and square numbers. Others will not be taught this

year (such as pentagonal numbers).

(A) triangular numbers.

PP

The formula for triangular number is .

(B) square numbers.

The formula for triangular number is n2.

Question Patterns:

(1) Find the nth triangular / square number.

(2) From xxx to xxx, list all triangular / square number.

(3) Which triangular / square number is xxx?

Ch. 3.3

Definition of sequence: A set of numbers arranged under particular order forms a sequence.

Term describe the number(s) involved in a sequence.

Sequence (1): Square sequence: 1,4,9,16,25… (square numbers)

Sequence (2): Triangular sequence: 1,3,6,10,15,21… (triangular numbers)

Sequence (3): Arithmetic sequence: In such sequence, the difference between any two consecutive

terms is always the same. E.g: 5,7,9,11,13… OR 18,118,218,318,418…

Sequence (4): Geometric sequence: In such sequence, the quotient of any two consecutive terms is

the same. E.g: 12,24,48,96,192,384… OR 2,4,8,16,32,64,128…

One more sequence is the switch of positive and negative sign. In case of odd-number terms (1st,

3rd…) are negative while the rest are positive, times (-1)n to the sequence, otherwise times (-1)n+1.

P. 3.3

Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Example 3.3a

Describe the pattern and tell the name of sequence:

(a) 1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22…

(b) 100,50,25,12.5,6.25,3.125 …

Solution: They must be either arithmetic sequence or geometric sequence. Try to pick up numbers

among the sequences and compare their quotients / difference.

(a) The 1st number is 1. The next number is obtained by adding 3 to the previous number. This

pattern goes on. It is an arithmetic sequence.

(b) The 1st number is 100. The next number is obtained by dividing the previous number by 2. This

pattern goes on. It is a geometric sequence.

Example 3.3b

Write down the pattern and find the next three terms of the followings:

(a) 5,10,15,20,25,…. (b) -1, +3, -9, +27, -81…

Solution:

(a) It is easy to see an arithmetic sequence. Each term is formed by adding 5 to the previous

number. So the next 3 numbers are 25+5=30 , 25+5x2=35 and 25+5x3=40.

(b) It is easy to see a geometric sequence (x3). Each term is formed by multipling the previous

number by (-3). Therefore we can easily obtain the following 3 numbers +243, -729 and +2187.

Fibonacci sequences

The Fibonacci sequence was generated by a Mathematician which can describe the growth of

rabbits and plants. In the Fibonacci sequence of numbers, each number after the first two is the

sum of the previous two numbers.

Thus the sequence is 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, etc.

Ch. 3.4

After investigating different sequences, we should further know more about finding out random

terms in sequences, as well as to describe them.

Finding the nth term

If you are asked to find the nth term in a sequence, either a string of numbers OR a “formula” will

be given.

In the 1st case, we should try to find out the pattern. Then we can use the pattern found to further

find the value of other terms.

P. 3.4

Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

Example 3.4a

(1) Find the number pattern of the sequence 1,3,6,10,15…

(2) Find the number pattern of the sequence 3,6,9,12,15…

(3) Find the number pattern of the sequence 2,5,8,11,14…

Solution: Both Q(1) and (2) are straight-forward. But you need to think more when dealing with

questions like Q(3).

QQ

In Q(1), we can see the triangular sequence. Thus the sequence is , in which n stands for

the number of terms. The 1st term is 12, followed by 22,32 and 42 etc.

In Q(2), we can see an arithmetic sequence, and all the terms are multiples of 3. Thus we can

obtain that each term is generated by multiplying the number of term with 3. So the pattern

should be 3n.

In Q(3), we can also see an arithmetic sequence. We can think in two ways.

First, by looking at Q(2) again, we can easily find that the difference between terms in (2) and (3)

QQ

is 1 (3-2; 6-5; 9-8 etc.). That means the sequence should be -1.

Example 3.4b

(1) Find the number pattern and the 99th term of sequence.

(a) 6,11,16,21,26… (b) , , , ,… (c) 4,8,16,32,64…

)

[Tips: Think about 5,10,15,20… ; 1,3,5,7 and 2,4,6,8… ; 2,4,8,16,32…]

Solution: The above sequences have patterns not easily seen. We should compare them with

some known sequences such as arithmetic ones and geometric ones.

In Q(1), we can see an arithmetic sequence as the difference between any two consecutive terms

is 5. Furthermore, by observing the sequence 5,10, 15,20… we can conclude that the pattern of

5,10,15,20… plus one can obtain the (a) pattern. So the answer should be 5n+1.

In Q(2), we can observe fractions. Do not be confused with fractions as we can divide each of

them into two parts: numerators and denominators. Have a look at denominators (2,4,6,8..) first.

We can easily observe the “2n” pattern. By referring to the “2n-pattern”, we can conclude that

the “2n-pattern” minus one equals to the pattern of numerator. So the number pattern for the

Q

whole fraction is .

Q

In Q(3), we can see a geometric sequence. Unfortunately we miss the number 2. So what can we

do? Considering 21 = 2 and 22 = 4, we can express the sequence as 22, 23, 24 and so on, which the

n+1

power have a continuous arithmetic sequence (2,3,4…) right? So the final answer is 2 (next pg)

P. 3.5

Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

And the 99th term of (a) is 5(99)+1 = 496; (b) is .= ; (c) is 2 = 2100.

%

[TIPS: No need to express the real value when the answer is too big or small]

Example 3.4c

Questions will be expressed in diagrams. Find the pattern and construct the 5th diagram.

(a) (b)

Solution: Directly count the number of “sticks” or geometric shapes (such as triangles).

(a) The number of small triangles are 1,4 and 9 respectively. That means the no. of triangles is

square numbers determined

(1) Finding the sequence: In order to increase the difficulty, sequences appeared in exam. Or UT

papers are most likely “adjusted”. For example 1,2,4,8,16 will be adjusted up to 2,3,5,9,17; while

1,3,6,10,15 will be adjusted to 2,6,12,20,30, etc. In order to help thinking, you are kindly advised

to: (a) to do more exercises as to be more familiar with common arithmetic and geometric

sequences; (b)to list out other sequences when dealing with “strange sequences”; (c) try to

slightly “adjust” back the sequence (such as reduce the terms by 1 or dividing the terms by 3 etc.).

Rev. Ex. 3

(2) Find the difference between the 9th and 15th triangular number.

S

(a) 8,15,22,29,36… (b) , , , … (c) 1,0.1,0.01,0.001…

& S =

P. 3.6

Ch.3 Patterns and sequences ………..…..

(4) Find the pattern, then the 10th term in the following sequences.

(a) 109,119,129,139… (b) 16,25,36,49

S %

(c) 3, 13,23,33,43… (d) , , ,

&= S=

P. 4.1

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

Getting started

Getting started

In this chapter, we are going to talk about some basic elements in geometry, such as angles, triangles,

polygons and drawing nets.

Ch.4.0

Getting started

Definition of some common elements are shown.

Getting started

Ch.4.1 and 4.2

If an object rotates one round, it has already rotated for one complete turn, which is 360o.

Note that there are some units smaller than degree as well. They are minute and second.

1 degree = 60 minutes and 1 minute = 60 seconds. That means 1 degree = 3,600 seconds.

For instance, 1 degree 1 minute 1 second is written as 1o1’1”.

Types of angle

We should be familiar with the 5 types of angles. [Ф represents the size of angle]

Acute angle Right angle Obtuse angle

P. 4.2

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

Ф = 180

Ф = 360

180 < Ф < 360

Straight angle Reflex angle *** Explementary angle/

Conjugate angle

Two Angles are complementary if they add Two angles are supplementary if they add up

up to 90 degrees. to 180°.

If two supplymentary angles are found, you can say they lie on a straight line.

Getting started

Example 4.1a

Measure the following angles, mark their size and name them.

Ch.4.1b

Find the size of the following angles and answer the question.

(1) Is angle ABC a right angle? (2) Prove that ABC is a straight line.

B C A B C

P. 4.3

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………

…………..………..…..

Solution: Use the protractor to measure each angle. Remember the terms “supplementary

“ angles”

and “complementary angles”.

(1) Two angles are 58o and 32o respectively. ABC is a right angle.

(2) Two angles are 139o and 41o respectively. ABC is a straight line because angle ABC = 180o.

Getting started

Ch. 4.3

Triangles are commonly seen in geometry. They share many properties.

Types of triangle

Obtuse triangle

Getting started

Illustration

Use a protractor to measure the angles inside the following triangles. Sum them up. What can you find?

SOLUTION: You can always find that the sum of 3 angles inside any triangles must be 180o. (Try again or

measure them precisely if you do not get close to 180o.)

From the example above, we can deduce that the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180o.

[abbreviation: angle sum of triangle OR ∠sum of △]

P. 4.4

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………

…………..………..…..

Getting started

Ch. 4.4

Types of polygon

3 Triangle

4 Quadrilateral

5 Pentagon

6 Hexagon

7 Heptagon

8 Octagon

9 Nonagon

10 Decagon

< 10 (n) n-gon

Concave and convex polygon

If all the interior angles of a polygon are less than 180o, it is called “convex polygon”. Otherwise it

is named as “concave polygon”

Polygons with equal side Polygons with all interior Polygons which are both

length are called “equilateral angles equal are called equilateral and equiangular are

polygons”. “equiangular polygons”. called “regular polygons”.

E.g: Rhombus and square E.g: rectangle and square(90o) E.g: square and regular triangle

We can divide a polygon into triangles, but the number of triangles should be as less as possible.

Getting started

Example 4.4

Find the sum of all interior angles in each of the following figures.

(a) (b)

P. 4.5

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………

…………..………..…..

Getting started

Ch. 4.5

Types of solid

Rectangular prism with 6 Prism with 6 square A solid with polygonal A solid with

rectangular faces faces base and parallelogram circular base and

faces only one vertex.

A round ball. A solid where the upper surfaces are A solid with uniform cross

triangular and converge on one poin

point section.

Solids have either (i) planes OR (ii) curved surface on it.

Sphere, cone and cylinder have curved surface. The rest have planes.

Cross section

A cross section is the intersection of a 3D

3D-solid.

We can always obtain the same sizesize-and-shape cross section in prisms,, and the cross-section

cross is

called uniform cross-section.

section but not other solids.

P. 4.6

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………

…………..………..…..

Polyhedra

Closed solids which are formed by polygons are called polyhedra.

Face

Edge

Vertex

Face, edge and vertex are represented in F, E and V.

Using Euler’s formula, we can easily find the vvalue of V, E or F, or just to prove the existence of

given solids.

V= Number of vertices / E= Number of edges / F= Number of faces

Example:

V= 4 V=8

E= 6 E=12

F= 4 F=6

V-E+F=2

E+F=2 V-E+F=2

V= 6 V= 5

E= 12 E= 8

F= 8 F= 5

V-E+F=2

E+F=2 V-E+F=2

Rectangular Pyramid

Regular octahedron

All 3D solids should suit the law of V

V-E+F=2.

Getting started

Example 4.5

Find the no. of vertices, edges and faces of (a) rectangular block, (b) pentagonal prism and (c) triangular

prism.

SOLUTION: (a) 8/12/6 (b) 10/15/7 (c) 6/9/5.

P. 4.7

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

Getting started

Ch. 4.6

2D representation of solids

Besides directly constructing out “fake-3D figures”, we can also make use of grid papers to construct them.

Types of grids

Isometric grids Oblique grids

(1) Choose any vertex from the base of a solid to be the lowest point on the gridpaper.

(2) Mark the lowest point.

(3) Pay special attention to the length of sides and copy them one by one onto the gridpaper.

Example 4.6a

Construct the following solids on an isometric gridpaper.

(a) 4 (b) (c) 3

2

6 3

2 3

3

4 2 2 3

Y 2

1 3

4

X Z

SOLUTION

X

Y

Z

P. 4.8

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

From the examples shown on the previous page, we can see that obtaining a lowest point first is

very important. We can use the point to extend the solid side by side. Beware of the length as

drawing on gridpapers can easily cause careless mistakes.

Example 4.6b

Construct the following solids on an oblique gridpaper.

(a) (b)

4

3 1

3 1 4

3

1 1 3

2

A 1 4

B

SOLUTION: Also set a lowest point to aid drawing.

A

B

(6) Getting started

Ch. 4.6

Terms Explanation

Parallel lines Lines that can never cut each other even

extended infinitively.

Radius The distance between the center of circle and

the side of circle.

Center of circle The central point of circle.

Perpendicular to.. Makes 90o-angle to …

Refer to the textbook p. 4.37 to p. 4.43 for the ways to construct parallel lines, perpendicular lines

and circles.

P. 4.9

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

G

Rev. Ex. 4

(1) Find the number of vertices(V), edges(E) and faces(F) in the following cases.

Name of solid V E F

Cube

Triangular pyramid

Hexagonal prism

(a) all interior angles are not equal. (b)two interior angles are 60o.

(c) a triangle with one interior angle of 178o (d) a triangle with two sides equal and one interior angle of 45o

(3) (a)Construct a circle with diameter 5cm. (The length of diameter is two times the length of radius)

(b)Given that the formula for finding areas of circle is T UV , which A stands for the area of circle and

r stands for the length of radius. Find the area of circle in (a).

(5) Find the sum of all interior angles in each of the following figures.

(a) (b) (c)

P. 4.10

Ch.4 Basic Geometry …………..………..…..

(6) How many faces does a regular icosahedron and regular dodecahedron have?

A B

(a) Find angle ADC and prove (b) AED is isoceles acute triangle

ADC is an isoceles triangle. Find BAC and find BCA if ∠ABC = ∠ACB

A A

18o

60o

15o 40o

B D C D E

B C

(9) Draw a cuboid with length 3 units, width 4 units and height 5 units on an isometric grid paper.

Draw a cube with side length of 5 units on an oblique grid paper.

P. 5.1

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Getting started

Getting started

Have you ever seen words like “discount” and “profit percent”? Or have you ever heard that the inflation rate

was increased by 6.1%? Actually percentage is a ratio representing the comparison between old and new

values. Let us investigate more on the basic concepts and uses of percentage.

Warm up

Getting started

Calculate the followings.

== = ===

(1)600x (2)1000x (3)50x (4)90 x

== == == ==

Percentage is actually fraction with 100 as the denominator.

Ch. 5.2

Getting started

Arithmetic of percentages

The arithmetic of percentages is very similar to that of integers and fractions. The only difference is

that a percentage sign(%) is shown on the final answer.

Example 5.2

Getting started

(1) 30%+65%-20% (2) 50 x (1-40%) (3) (7.5+50%) ÷ (60%-20%)

SOLUTION: Just change the percentages to fractions and you can work out the answers easily.

(1) 30%+65%-20% (2) 50 x (1-40%) (3) (7.5+50%) ÷ (60%-20%)

=0.3+0.65-0.2 = S= =

= 50 x == = (7.5+0.5) ÷ == ==

=0.75

= 50 x 0.6 = 8 ÷ 0.4

=30 = 20

Ch. 5.3

Getting started

Deeper operations using percentage

Some questions related to percentage usage will appear starting from Ch.5.3.

Example 5.3a

Getting started

(1) 45 % of a number is 9. Find the number.

(2) 180% of a number is 54. Find the number.

P. 5.2

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

(1) Let n be the number. (2) Let y be the number.

n x 45% = 9 y x 180% = 54

y x 1.8 = 54

nx =9

66

y = 54 ÷ 1.8

y = 30

n=9÷

66

n = 20

Example 5.3b

Getting started

(1) There are 18 girls inside a class with 30 students. Find the percentage of boys in the class.

(2) 20% of students do not wear glasses. If 32 students wear glasses, find the total number of

students.

(1) There are 18 girls in class, so 12 boys in class. (2) 20% students do not wear glasses, so 80%

So % of boys in class students wear glasses.

WXYZ[\ ]^ Z]_` aW bcd`` So % of students without glasses = 1-20% = 80%

= g ==%

e]edc W].]^ `eXf[We` 80% of students =32 students, so 20% of students

&=% = 32 ÷ 80% x 20% = 8

= &=

g ==%

So the total no. of students = 32 + 8 = 40

= 40%

Ch. 5.4

Getting started

Percentage increase and decrease

Comparing $50 and $55, what is the fraction of the change in amount of money to the old value?

The fraction times 100% can obtain the so-called “percentage change”.

aWb\[d`[

Percentage increase = g ==%

]\aiaWdc jdcX[

f[b\[d`[

Percentage decrease = ]\aiaWdc jdcX[

g ==%

By using the formulae above, we can easily obtain the percentage increase or decrease.

P. 5.3

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Example 5.4a

Getting started

(1) If the price of a doll increases from $100 to $170, find the percentage increase.

(2) If the price of a fund decreases from $500 to $405, find the percentage decrease.

(3) If the price of a packet of noodles increases by 50%, the new price will be $3. Find the old price.

Solution: The 1st question is straight forward. But beware of the 3rd question.

(1) The percentage increase (3) The new price of noodles is obtained by

=== increasing the old price by 50%, so we can set up

= g ==%

== an equation:

= 70% (old price) + (old price) x 50% = 3

100% x (old price) + 50% x (old price) = 3

(2) The percentage decrease 150% x (old price) = 3

==== Old price = 3 ÷ 1.5

= g ==%

== Old price = 2

= 20%

From the operations above, we can see that operating with percentage is not that easy.

Sometimes we should think of how to obtain old/ new values, or even using unknowns.

Example 5.4b

Getting started

(1) The price of a mobile phone in March was $2000. Its price decreased by 20% in April.

(a) Find the value decreased.

(b) If Mary has only $1,200, how much money does she need in order to purchase the phone in

April?

(c) If the price of the mobile further drops 20% in May, can Mary buy the phone by just using her

money? Express your answer with proof.

SOLUTION: It is easy to understand the above questions. But the mainpoint is that you need to

fully express the reasons for question (c) and a complete process in (b).

(a) The value decreased by: 2000 x 20% = $400

(b) Mary still needs: [price of phone in April – Mary’s money] = (2000-400) – 1200 = $400

(c) In order to prove whether Mary has enough money, we should find the price of the mobile

phone in May.

The price of the phone in May = (2000 – 400) x (1 – 20%) = $1,280

Since the price of the phone in May is higher than the money Mary gets, she still does not own

enough money to buy the phone.

P. 5.4

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Ch. 5.5

Getting started

Profit and loss

Similarly, we can use the above ways to find the profit percent or loss percent of certain business.

Formulae:

klmnop smqq

Profit percent = r 100% loss percent = r 100%

-mqp -mqp

Where the profit and loss are decided by the difference between the income and cost. If the income

is bigger than cost, then a profit is resulted. Otherwise a loss will be made.

(1) A fund is at first sold at $30 each. Three days later the price of each fund rises to $45.

(a) Find the profit percent.

(b) If Mr. Lee bought 100 units of fund with $30 each, find his total earnings.

(2) A suit is sold at 20% higher than the cost. If the marked price now is $180.

(a) Find the total cost of the suit.

(b) If the marked price decreases by 20%, find the loss percent.

SOLUTION: Finding profit % / loss % is similar to that of % increase and decrease.

(1a) The profit percent (2a) The total cost of the suit

t\]^ae = 180 ÷ (1+20%)

= b]`e g ==%

Cost+profit = $150

&= (100%+20% [Watch the diagram on the left to

= g ==% 20%

&=

=120% ) know how (1+20%) is obtained.

= 50% (2b)

cost The new marked price

100%

(1b) Mr. Lee’s total earnings =180 x (1-20%) = $144

= (45-30) x 100 The loss = 150-144 = $6

= $1,500 So the loss percent

c]``

= g ==%

b]`e

S

= g ==% = 4%

=

From the examples shown in example 5.5, we can see that drawing diagrams can help us to

understand the questions. Try to draw out some diagrams if you find the questions too difficult to

be understood by just reading.

P. 5.5

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

Discount and discount percent

Discount = Marked price – Selling price

uoq-mvwp

Discount percent = r 100%

x+lyzu klo-z

Use the formulae shown above to solve the following problem related to discount.

“30% off” = 70% of the original price (1-30%=70%)

(1) A watch which was marked at $400 was sold at 30% less.

(a) Find the discount

(b) Find the selling price.

(2) A picture was sold at $4500 after a “10%-off promotion”.

(a) Find the discount.

(b) If the picture had been sold at the original marked price, the profit percent would have

been 150%. Find the new profit percent.

SOLUTION: (2a) 90% of the marked price

(1a) The discount equals to the selling price, so

= marked price – selling price Selling price x (1-10%) = 4500

= 400 x 30%

= 120 Let $y be the selling price.

(1b) The selling price Y x (1-10%) = 4500

= 400 – 120 y = 5000

= 280 So the discount = 5000-4500 = $500

t\]^ae

g ==% = profit percent ?

b]`e

Let $c be the cost.

So the new profit percent

===b

t\]^ae b

g ==% = 150%

= b]`e

g ==%

5000 – c = 150% x c

== ===

= g ==% 5000 = 1.5c + c

===

5000 = 2.5c

= 125%

c = 2000

P. 5.6

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

(1) Rev. Ex 5

(1) A watch is sold at 120% of its cost and a profit of $50 is made.

(a) Find the cost.

(b) Find the selling price.

(a) Find the number.

(b) Find the difference between 50% of the number and 100.

(3) A company got an income of $5,000,000 but the cost was 60% higher than the income. Find

the loss percent. (Tips: First find the cost, then find the loss and finally obtain the loss %)

(4) Mr. Lee had a tea in a restaurant. He totally paid $240 for the meal, including the fee for all

dishes and subcharge, which is 20% of the fee for dishes.

(a) Find the total fee for all dishes.

(b) If the restaurant got 50% profit percent for the meal, find the total cost of the meal.

P. 5.7

Ch.5 Percentage …………………..………..….

(a) Find the total cost of the dress.

(b) If a further discount of “20.2% off” is given after a 20% decrease in the find the profit

percent.

(6) Mary, Tom and Peter had received their exam. paper. Their results were , and

= =

respectively.

(a) Represent their examination mark in percentages.

(b) Arrange their marks in ascending order.

(a) When $60 becomes $600.

(b) When $60 becomes 60 cents.

(8) As the price of pork increases from $28/kg to $35/kg, Mrs. Lau reduces her conumption of

pork by 30%. What is the percentage change in her expenditure on pork?

P. 6.1

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)

D Warm up

Graphs and charts can be seen everyday. Stock market index, voting survey or even the

investigation of “which programmes are the most popular?”.

(1)

D Ch. 6.1 & 6.2

Key terms

Trend Trends are patterns or shifts according to time. An upward trend, for instance,

would contain a section of data points that increased as time passed

Sample A sample is a subgroup or small portion of the population that is examined when

the entire population can not be evaluated. For example, if a process produces

one thousand items a day, the sample size could be perhaps three hundred.

You should also be familiar with the ways to analyse information before charting.

These have been mentioned in the textbook Ch.6 from p.6.4 to p.6.8.

Gathering Data: To begin any run chart, some type of process or operation must be available to

take measurements for analysis. Measurements must be taken over a period of time. The data

must be collected in a chronological or sequential form. You may start at any point and end at any

point.

Organizing Data: Once the data has been placed in chronological or sequential form, it must be

divided into two sets of values x and y. The values for x represent time and the values for y

represent the measurements taken from the manufacturing process or operation.

Charting Data: Plot the y values versus the x values by hand or by computer, using an

appropriate scale that will make the points on the graph visible. Next, draw vertical lines for the x

values to separate time intervals such as weeks. (Draw horizontal lines to show where trends in

the process or operation occur or will occur.)

Interpreting Data: After drawing the horizontal and vertical lines to segment data, interpret

the data and draw any conclusions that will be beneficial to the process or operation. Some

possible outcomes are:

• Cyclical patterns in the data

• Observations from each time interval are consistent

P. 6.2

Ch.66 Statistical Graphs ….……

….……..………..….

(1)

D Ch. 6.3

Presentation of Data and Data analysis

In this sub-chapter,

chapter, we should be very familiar with the following types of graphs.

Bar Chart (left)

6 15

Bar chart makes use of horizontal bars which are

4 10

proportional to the values they represent.

2 5

0 0

Compound bar chart (right)

Compound ones can be used to compare similar

Blue = Students ; Red

ed = teachers; datum such as genders

Green = Parents We can easily obtain the data by looking at the

“length” of each bar by using the y-axis.

y

(1st column: F.1 students;

2nd column: F.2 students; When drawing bar charts, we should label the bars

3rd column: F.3 students; with a box to tell the readers what the bars

th

4 column: F.4 students) represent. Also, we should name the columns

colu so

that others can know who the “interviewers” are.

Pictogram makes use of simple diagrams to convey

number data.

Note that you need to tell others the amount/

quantity each picture represents. Each picture is

not necessarily to represent “1””.

(each picture = 100 animal)

Pie charts consists of a circle split into different

sectors, which the sizes are determined by the

values they represent as well.

We can get the data of the pie chart by (i)

measuring the angles of sectors, or (ii) finding out

the

he percentage of each sector (usually given).

Scatter Diagram makes use of points / crosses to

represent every data on a chart. It is mainly used to

find out the main trend of survey results, or the

distribution of datum.

Both the x-axis and y-axis

axis should

shou be noticed when

plotting data onto the graph. Labels are not

necessary since only one type of data is compared.

P. 6.3

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs

hs ….……

….……..………..….

6

continuous broken lines, which are linked by dots

4 representing datum.

2 The y-axis helps us to read

ead the values. Note that

0

labels should be shown to clarify different lines.

amount of data in ascending order. We can easily

obtain the trend and the smallest/largest group,

etc.

Topic

X-axis

axis

Y-axis

axis

(1)

D Example 1

(b) Correct to the nearest 5,000,000

people, find the number of males in 1959

and 1999.

(c) Find

nd the trend of population in the

past 40 years.

[Left bar= males, middle=female;

right=total population]

SOLUTION:

(a) Topic is shown on the top of the chart. It is “total

total UK resident population 1959-99).

1959

(b) The bar in 1959 is in between 20 million and 30 million, so it should be around 25 million.

The number of males in 1999 is very close to 30 million, so it sh

should

ould be around 30 million.

(c) We can see a continuous growth in the total population iinn UK in the past 40 years.

Or you can say both male and female population kept increasing over the past 40 years.

P. 6.4

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)

Example 2

(a) How many days were included on

the chart?

(b) Find the maximum travel time.

(c) Find the minumum travel time.

(d) Can you find a trend in the chart

on the left?

minutes]

SOLUTION:

(a) By counting the number of dots / the number of days on the x-axis, there are 20 days.

(b) The maximum travel time should be on the first Saturday ,that is 35 minutes.

(c) Similar to Q(b), the minum time should be 25 minutes.

(d) Why not compare the peaks (maximum values)? We can see that the travel time spent on

Monday and Saturday is much longer than the rest days.

From the above examples, we can clearly observe the basic types of questions that are popularly

asked. Furthermore, some questions like “to reconstruct the diagram in another type of chart” or

“find the average number” are often asked.

(1)

Example 3

(a) Which type of sector shares the largest

employment percentage?

(b) If there are totally 360,000 people

employed for primary sector, find the no. of

people in secondary and tertiary sector.

(c) Hence, find the difference between

the no. of people working for primary and

tertiary sector.

SOLUTION: Bar chart only represents the proportion of each sector but not ANY TRUE OR REAL

NUMBERS. They are usually given when you are asked to find the absolute value of a sector.

(a) Tertiary Sector. [which occupies more than half of the pie]

(b) Percentage question again. The no.in secondary sector= 360000÷ 6% x 30% = 1800000

The no.in tertiary sector= 360000÷ 6% x 64% = 3840000

(c) The difference = 3840000 – 360000 = 3480000

P. 6.5

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)

Example 4

(a) By comparing the two pie charts, tell the trend of emplyment sectorsin UK.

(b) Can we say that “the number of people working for secondary sectors in 1960 must be more

than that in 1990s”? Why or why not?

SOLUTION:

(a) Most people in 1990 work for tertiary industry, which is totally different from the

evenly-distributed condition in 1960s. (44%, 34% and 22% can be described as “even)

(b) No. Since no real numbers are given, we can only say that “the % of people working… must be

more than that in 1990s.”.

(1)

Example 5

You are given a set of data as follow. Construct a bar chart with apprioprate datum.

(Information is related to “the number of students who are addicted to online games.”)

No. of girls 70 60 50 50 30

No. of boys 40 50 60 80 120

Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

SOLUTION:

140

120

100

80

Girls

60

Boys

40

20

0

04 05 06 07 08

Year (y-axis represents the no. of students)

P. 6.6

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)

Example 6

Scatter diagrams

Scatter diagrams help us to obtain the trends of certain category. The trend can be described as

“positive relation(or coreelation)”, “negative relation” or “no apparent relation”.

(1) try to describe the following scatter diagrams’ trends.

(2) Try to explain the trends.

SOLUTION: reasonsable ansewrs are commonly accepted. (reference answer only)

(a) Math final marks occupies a large proportion of the SAT math score.

(b) People growing high should have more muscles, so the weight will be higher as well.

(1) Example 7

The above three scatter diagrams have different topics. Given that the x-axis represents the

number of rainy days, try to guess what the x-axes represent.

SOLUTION: In the left chart, more rainy days results in higher x-axis values. We can guess that the

x-axis represents the no. of umbrellas sold, or the humidity.

The chart in the middle shows that more rainy days cause a decrease in the number of bread sold

or the number of new movies.

P. 6.7

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

“stem” and the “leaf” part,

we can obtain the numbers

or data again.

number of datum and

find out the maximum or

minimum data.

(1)

Example 8

(a) How many students have taken the science test?

(b) What was the highest mark and the lowest mark?

(c) If 10 students got a credit, find the minimum mark of

getting a credit.

(d) Find the number of students whose mark was odd

numbers.

SOLUTION:

(a) by counting the number of integers on the right, we

can get a total of 19 students.

(b) The highest mark and lowest mark should be 100 and

72.

(c) By counting 10 students from 100 mark downwards, you should stop at “87”. Therefore the

minimum mark should be 87.

(d) By counting the number of odd numbers on the “leaf” part, we can get the answer of 10.

(1)

Example 9

Construct a stem-and-leaf diagram by using the data below.

10 8 5 12 21

25 15 12 34 32

P. 6.8

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

SOLUTION:

We have observed many many examples, and we can conclude

that different types of graph have different functions.

Pictogram To represent the distribution of a group of

similar objects.

Scatter diagram To show a trend / relation of two different

types of information.

Bar chart To show the distribution / number of

(histogram) objects in relatively long period of time.

Broken-line graph To show the trend of only ONE type of

data.

Stem-and-leaf To group datum together by separating

(or back-to-back) their according to their digits in value.

Pie Chart To show the proportion of different

datum surrounding one topic. Usually no

real numbers are required for comparison

(1)

Example 9

Determine which graph(s) should be used in the following cases.

(a) To compare the percentage of students from 7 forms who read books regularly.

(b) To observe the relation between the no. of sleeping hours and the no. of working hours.

(c) To express the GDP of a country over the last 20 years.

(d) To show the “shape” of the number of tigers and sharks.

SOLUTION:

(a) Pie chart should be the most suitable one. Using compound bar charts can only help us to find

the sum of datum, and simple bar charts cannot easily represent datum of 7 forms of students

(and for comparison).

(b) Scatter diagram should be used to help us analyze whether a positive/negative relation can be

found.

(c) Broken-line graph or bar chart. They both help us to see the trend of GDP of a country in a

relatively long period of time.

Scores

(d) Stem-and-leaf diagram. Diagram is shown on the right.

Leaf Stem Leaf

Tigers Sharks

CONCLUSION:

Be careful when drawing diagrams, as you may miss the topic, 0379 3 22

x-axes and y-axes description, as well as the labels for indicating 28 4 355

P. 6.9

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(1)

Rev. Ex. 6

From Q3 onwards, finish the questions by using another piece of paper.

(1a) Construct a stem-and-leaf diagram to show the temperature in Hong Kong over the past

month using the data below:

28 24 24 22 19 21 21 27 21 26 23 21 18 17 19 20 21 14 17 20 23 21 17 16 15 30 15 18

(2) Tom wants to investigate on the proportion of different types of products he sold in the store.

(a) Suggest the most suitable type of graph / diagram to use.

(b) Given that the sales record of the store is shown below, construct a chart/diagram.

$300,000 $200,000 $150,000 $250,000 $100,000

(3a) Use the following data which recorded the temperature in June to construct a stem-and leaf

diagram.

(3a) Temp. in June [Unit In Fo]

77 80 82 68 65 59 61

57 50 62 61 70 69 64

67 70 62 65 65 73 76

87 80 82 83 79 79 71

80 77

P. 6.10

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(3b) Construct a back-to-back stem-and-leaf diagram using the following data which recorded the

temperature in July as well.

36 40 42 49 58 49 46

50 29 36 71 51 24 36

49 25 19 78 54 34 64

58 46 55 49 60 71 44

31 38 49

(4) You are given the following information to construct a bar chart showing the trend of sales

record of BarkNShop.

(b) Find the difference between the total no. of middle Monongahela and Late Monongahela.

(c) Give a topic for the chart.

(d) Given a possible explanation for the sudden decrease in the no. of villages in late Monongahela.

P. 6.11

Ch.66 Statistical Graphs ….……

….……..………..….

(6) The following bar chart shows the age of workers in a company.

Re-add them.

(b) Find the total number of people working in the company.

(c) Use another type of diagram to represent the data which can still show the distribution of

ages of workers.

(7) The following chart shows the music preferences in young adults from 14 to 19.

50% = rap

25% = alternative

13% = rock and roll

?% = country music

the rest = classical music

(b) Find the percentage of adults who like “country music”.

(c) If 500 youngg adults are interviewed, find the no. of adults who like rap music.

(d) Redraw the pie chart to show the real number of adults who like different kinds of music.

[assume the total number of adults interviewed is 500]

(8) Tell the type of relation observed in the following scatter diagrams.

P. 6.12

Ch.6 Statistical Graphs ….……..………..….

(9) The chart below shows the general income of people in Utopia made annually.

(b) How much income did most people earn?

(c) Are there big differences in the income of men and women?

(d) Suggest a reason for the phenomenon of few people getting high income in Utopia.

(e) Suggest another chart which can also show the number of men and women getting different

incomes, as well as the total number of women and men getting the same income?

(10) The following chart shows the favourite subjects of S.1 students.

(b) Which subject is the least popular?

(c) How many students are interviewed?

(d) Reconstruct the chart/diagram above into a histogram.

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