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Designing and Proportioning Normal Concrete Mixtures

ACI 211

ACI 211
A Properly Proportioned Concrete Mix Should Posses These Qualities.
Acceptable Workability of Freshly Mixed Concrete Durability, Strength and Uniform Appearance of the Hardened Concrete Economy

SLUMP
Normally specified Choice based type of construction shown on Table 9-6

Slump

WATER CONTENT
Approximation based on slump, maximum size of the coarse aggregate, and type of concrete (air-entrained, or non airentrained)- see Table 9-5 Air contents for AE concrete are normally specified but can also be determined by exposure conditions based on Table 9-5

WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO
Concrete strength is specified by the design engineer. Based on specified concrete strength and type of concrete (AE or non AE) see Table 9-3. W/C ratio may be modified due to certain environmental conditionssee Tables 9-1 and 9-2. Concrete strength may also be modified due to special conditions-see Table 9-11

Water/Cement Ratio

Cementitious Content
Cement Content = Recommended water content (Table 9-5) / the recommended water-to-cement ratio (Table 9-3 or 9-1 or 9-2) Cementitious Material = Portland cement, fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume.

Coarse and Fine Aggregate Contents


How much does 1 cy of portland cement concrete (PCC) weigh? What is the volume of 1 cy of PCC?

COARSE AGGREGATE
Coarse aggregate size specified Determination of VOLUME of CA recommended per unit volume of concrete Volume based on maximum size of CA and fineness modulus of sand Table 9-4 Weight of CA = volume of CA x dry rodded unit weight of CA x 27 cf.

Volume Formulas
Vol. of water = wt. of water/62.4 pcf Volume of portland cement = wt. of PC/(3.15 x 62.4) Vol. of CA = wt. of CA/(SG(ca) x 62.4) Volume of Air = (%Air content x 100)/27

FINE AGGREGATE
Fine Aggregate Content = 27 cu. ft. Volume of water - Volume of Cement Volume of Coarse Aggregate Volume of Air Weight of FA = volume of FA x specific gravity of FA x 62.4

Dry Weights vs. Actual Weights


Batch weights calculated from volumes assume dry CA and dry FA. Actual weight of CA and FA are NOT dry Adjustment based on moisture contents for both CA and FA. Dont forget about correcting for water content also.

Trial Batch
Slump should be within -inch of maximum design value. Air content should be within 0.5% of maximum design value. Avg. required compressive strength (psi) @ 28 days must be equal to or greater than:
f(cr) = f(c) + 1.34S f(cr) = f(c) + 2.33S -500

Mix Proportioning Absolute Volume Method

Moisture

Additions