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Handbook

Basic ProPerties
1. Visual Aspects the coating should be looked at through a microscope (magnification 30X) and has to show no cracks and/or pores. the wholeness of the coating prevents the foodstuff to penetrate through to the substrate and the consequent risks of undermining the adhesion and damage in long-term use.

2. Dry Film Thickness (DFT) every coating has its own specifications set by the coating manufacturer. cookware manufacturers have to follow these specifications and the DFt must be controlled and written down after the final application. sometimes it is difficult to measure the DFt directly on the substrates during the production, like in case of cast aluminium, stainless steel and hard base substrates. Under these circumstances DFt measurements must be carried out on smooth aluminium panels in order to have a value as close as possible to the real one. as a rule of thumb: the higher the DFt the more durable the coating.

3. Adhesion (Cross-hatch) (DIN EN ISO 2409) With regards to non-stick coatings, there are some properties, which at ILAG we call basic: they are unavoidable and must be fulfilled to ensure that a non-stick coated houseware item, independent from its level of quality, can be sold on the market and used safely. the strength of a coatings adhesion to the substrate can easily be measured with the crosshatch test. the procedure requires that a cross pattern of 100 squares is carved on the surface by making 11 parallel cuts, approx. 5 cm long and at a distance of 1 2 mm from each other, and then repeating the 11 cuts perpendicular to the previous ones. the cuts must go through the coating down to the substrate. after that, a normalised tape, wide enough to cover the pattern, is pressed on it with a force of 10 N/cm2 and then sharply torn off. this operation has to be repeated 5 times in succession, every time using a new tape: no square should be pealed off. For intensification the test item can be boiled in water for 15 minutes and subsequently the tear off test can be repeated.

Suitability for Food Contact every non-stick coating, once applied, must be tested by an independent institute in order to control its suitability for food contact. a food approval certificate is mandatory. there are several standards with regards to food contact, for nearly every country in the world, but the most accepted ones are the following: EEC Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 USA FDA CFR Title 21 Food and Drugs DE LFBG und BfR Standards

NoN-stick tests
1. Cookware and Electrical Appliances For cookware and electrical appliances the most used tests are: Egg test: BS 7069:1988 Milk test: AFNOR NF D 21-511 Pancake test: BS 7069:1988 For some particular products (e.g. breadmaker, rice cooker, raclette-grill, etc) other non-stick specific tests may be carried out. it is important to test the coating continuously over a certain period of time, to make sure that the non-stick property will last long enough. all non-stick tests can be combined with mechanical or chemical abuse which simulates a typical long-term household use.

2. Bakeware cake release is, of course, the most important property for bakeware. Baking Test: ILAG Baking test AA-063 the behaviour of a bakeware coating is tested with standardised baking mixtures. the quality of the non-stick-effect is tested with different baking methods e.g. with or without fat, with cleaning by hand or by dishwasher. the results will lead to different classifications and judgements of the coating.

3. Roasters and Oven Dishes a non-stick pan must be non-stick. this statement should be obvious to everybody but, surprisingly, this is not the case even to professionals who have been working in this business for many years. Non-stick, release, easy-clean are all terms used, sometimes in a confusing way, to define the most important performance criteria for non-stick cooking utensils. this is why, at iLaG, we give high importance to this topic and are continuously testing it. The best way to evaluate non-stick properties is simply by cooking, frying, grilling and baking. At ILAG we perform continuous usage cycles under short and long-term use conditions: because consumers expect non-stick to be effective on new items and durable over time. For roasters and oven dishes, further-reaching tests are carried out. Roasting Test: ILAG Chicken Roasting test AA-062 after 15 roasting cycles, combined with hand wash and dishwasher cycles the test items are judged in non-stick properties, staining, cleanability and corrosion resistance.

Simulation of Deterioration Non-stick and cleanability properties may deteriorate upon time. Long-term use can be simulated with mechanical abrasion of the upper surface of the coating or with a dishwasher test (see also chapter on abrasion tests).

corrosioN tests
1. Salt Water Test: AFNOR NF D 21-511 the salt-water test is used to judge the coatings in terms of resistance to blistering, undermining, and other defects. Variation of the standard are possible, but the following parameters must be defined and noted: - concentration of salt as a percentage in weight (standard 10 %) - Number of hours and/or cycles under testing (20 hours) - in-use temperature (boiling)

2. Rice-Tomato Test: DIN CEN/TS 12983-2 in the ceN-test the item is subjected to a combination of different cooking cycles based on acid ingredients (tomatoes), salt and starch (rice) at elevated temperatures. this test is used to evaluate resistance to blistering, undermining and staining (due to the presence of tomato which is, by nature, highly staining).

in normal cooking, highly aggressive ingredients are commonly used: tomatoes, salt, vinegar, different spices, etc. some recipes require slow, long cooking in combination with high temperatures. Furthermore, pots and pans are often used as containers to store leftovers (from stove to fridge), a habit that prolongs the time of exposure of the coating to aggressive solutions. Under these circumstances, there is always a risk of corrosion, leading to blistering, undermining and peeling off. In the houseware industry there are very few standards with regards to corrosion resistance that are generally accepted. Usually these tests cover only a part of the usage or are related to the material of the body. As a result, coatings- and houseware manufacturers have created specific tests (or combinations of different tests) on the basis of their own experiences. Mostly used Tests are: - Salt-water test: AFNOR NF D 21-511 - Rice-tomato test: DIN CEN/TS 12983-2 - Tomato test: Corrosion Test W (8) acc. ILAG

3. Tomato Test: Corrosion-Test W (8) acc. ILAG since tomatoes have already a low pH-value, this test is focusing specifically on the evaluationof the resistance to acid ingredients. in addition elevated temperatures are used are used to make conditions more severe. this specific test is made even more aggressive by adding salt and/or acetic acid. similar to previous tests, the tomato-test also helps in evaluating the resistance to blistering, undermining, staining, etc.

aBrasioN tests
2. LGA Abrasion Test this test uses a special mixture of steel balls, abrasive agent (silica grits) and water, which is poured into the item. the items are then positioned onto an orbital shaking machine, turning at a speed of 300 rpm: the mixture heavily abuses the coating. Judgement after 15/30/45 minutes of test

3. British Standard Abrasion Test: BS 7069:1988 PtFe is a thermoplastic polymer, soft by nature. as a consequence, non-stick coatings are highly sensitive to mechanical abuses like the impact of metal utensils used in cooking. thanks to reinforcing additives, the latest generation of non-stick coatings shows considerably improved surface hardness and wear resistance and therefore longer life-time this lead to different attempts to test the durability of non-.stick coatings by simulating the impact of intensive, daily use. test results give an idea on how coatings are expected to withstand daily, harsh use. Definition abrasion resistance refers to the capability of coatings to withstand superficial rubbing and scratching without being worn away. abrasion resistance is a matter of toughness, rather than hardness. the toughness is a necessary property for cook- and bakeware since it gives good indications of life-time: coatings with higher abrasion resistance have longer expected lifetime. there are many in-house developed abrasion test, but only few are specified and acknowledged as standards the test listed below are considered very import, particularly in cookware and bakeware. MtP abrasion test (Mechanical tiger Paw) LGa abrasion test British standard abrasion test Bs 7069: 1988 Dry abrasion test (iLas internal test) 1. MTP Abrasion Test (Mechanical Tiger Paw) the test uses a special rotating head to which three ballpoint pen refills are attached under a specific load. the items are positioned on a hotplate and brought up to a temperature of 200c. the hotplate is moving forth and back. the test will be scored according to the first break though (metal contact eMk) and the caused change after a defined running time. this test uses a specified scotch-Brite pad, which is rubbed back and forth under a specific load, on the coating, in combination with water and detergent. the test tries to simulate the cleaning and scrubbing action on cook- and bakeware. similar to the previous test, the longer the coating withstands without being removed the longer the expected lifetime.

4. Dry Abrasion Test: (internal ILAG test method) this test uses an abrasive pad that rotates on the coating under a certain load and a certain speed. the number of rotations carried out to expose the substrate is an indication of lifetime expectation.

All abrasion tests can be used in combination with non-stick tests to show the non-stick behaviour under harsh conditions.

QUaLity Processes
How ILAG controls the High Level of Quality during Productions? - keeping constant contact with the manufacturer is a very important point, to make sure that problems are found immediately and the appropriate solution is implemented accordingly. - creating test reports for all testing activities; - Working closely with the manufacturer to recognise weaknesses in the production and optimise the product and the manufacturing processes to guarantee a constant improvement process. - continuously testing continuously the quality according to iLaGs quality standards in the iLaG test kitchen in switzerland and in shanghai - ongoing quality tests by independent, external test institutes.

Introduction of ILAG Quality Coatings to New Producers 1. First of all, a discussion between the customer, the manufacturer and iLaG is a must to clarify needs, expectations and quality / price level of the item in order to specify the coating system. 2. Pre-inspection visit at the manufacturers site to check the existing equipment and evaluate technical capabilities in applying our coatings. 3. inspection of the quality management, organization, procedures and instruments in production. 4. application trial on the line for iLaG laboratory testing. 5. if results are positive, release of the 1st test report; if results are negative, evaluation of different solutions to improve the manufacturing process. 6. Zero production trial on the line to reconfirm laboratory test results. 7. according to the results, release of the approval test report. the manufacturer is now approved to work with iLaGs coatings according to the standards. 8. During the first productions, iLaGs technical staff support the production and retest the quality in the laboratory to ensure the high level of quality.

The ILAG Test Kitchen FACTS every year iLaG tests hundreds of bake- and cookware items, as well as electrical appliances according to our and the customers standards, in order to always guarantee the high quality level. For that we use, per year approx.: - 1800 h manpower - 300 test reports - 250 kg chicken drum-sticks - 300 kg salt - 360 kg ketchup - 600 kg peeled tomato - 100 kg butter - 700 bake mixtures - 600 bread mixtures - 2000 eggs - more than 4000 kg destroyed test items - Furthermore uncounted Dishwasher cycles, abrasion rubs, abrasion tests, crosshatches and much more

sUMMary oF test MetHoDs


For your specific needs of non-stick coatings, ILAG coatings will meet your requirements and needs for nearly all market fields and applications.

Basic Properties Food approval: - eec regulation (ec) No. 1935/2004 - Usa FDa cFr title 21 Food and Drugs - De LFBG and Bfr standards - Visual test method: - Microscope (magnification 30x) - Dry Film thickness (DFt): - measurement with test equipment - cross hatch: - DiN eN iso 2409 Non-stick Tests egg / Pancake test: Milk-test: Baking test: roasting test: Corrosion Tests salt water test: rice-tomato test: tomato test: Abrasion Tests LGa abrasion test: British standard test: Dry abrasion test:

- Bs 7069:1988 - aFNor NF D 21-511 - iLaG Baking test aa-063 - iLaG chicken roasting test aa-062

- aFNor NF D 21-511 - DiN ceN/ts 12983-2 - corrosion test W (8) acc. iLaG

- specific test methods by LGa De-Nrnberg - Bs 7069:1988 - internal spec of iLaG aa-066

regiONal OFFiCes:
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To contact please check our website www.ilag.ch

Industrielack AG Alpenblickstrasse 5 CH-8853 Lachen / Switzerland e-mail: info@ilag.ch Tel.: +41 55 451 29 29 Fax: +41 55 451 29 99

ILAG High Performance Coatings (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. No. 1299 Beihe Road, Jiading North Industrial Zone CN-201807 Shanghai (P.R.China) e-mail: info@ilag.com.cn Tel.: +86 21 5165 13 82 Fax: +86 21 5165 13 89

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