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Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia means an abnormal high level of potassium in the blood. This condition is a
medical emergency since it can cause cardiac arrest. Some management are: insulin (to
increase cellular reuptake); a gluconate (antagonize cardiac effect); Na bicarbonate (reverse
acidosis); kayexalate (K exchange resin); dialysis; and diuretics.





Potassium Deficit
Potassium deficit is also known as pokalemia. Clients are advised to eat potassium rich foods
like banana, raisins, dry fruits, nuts, celery and
potato skin.
Never give potassium preparation in IV
push because it can cause death. Remember, it is
the killer drug in lethal injection.



nemonics For Nursing
Nursing Assessment


Areas of the Heart


ne of the most important Mnemonics For Nursing and parts of physical examination is
auscultation of the heart. It is done by using the stethoscope to hear the sounds made by the
heart to determine the heart condition; normal or pathological.























%he Classical "!s" of Compartment Syndrome
W !ain - usually severe, deep, constant and poorly localized and felt early by the patient.
W !ulse - lack of pulse rarely occurs in the patient
W !allor - bruising and shiny swollen skin
W !aresthesia - altered sensation
W !aralysis - a late finding in compartment syndrome





























!s of Dyspnea
Dyspnea - shortness of breath or difficult, labored breathing is a subjective symptom of
breathlessness.






































mergency %rauma Assessment
Airway - it is the first priority. Assess it by determining the ability of air to pass unobstructed
into the lungs.
reathing - to determine patient ability to ventilate and oxygenate.
Circulation - to identify hypovolemia, cardiac tamponade, and external sources of hemorrhage.
Disability - can be determine by performing gross mental status and motor examinations.
amine - check the pupils for size, symmetry, and reactiveness to light
Fahrenheit - check patient exposure and control of the immediate environment.
Head to %oe Assessment - remove patient clothes completely for a thorough physical
examination.
Intervention - initiate treatment.





nemonics For Nursing
Nursing Assessment !art 3



The following Mnemonics for Nursing about Assessment can help you easily memorize this
subject in preparation for your nursing examination.



Shock

Insufficient supply of blood flow to tissues or body organs sometimes result to shock. Some
waste products due to imbalance of oxygen supply and demand damage the organs can result in
collapse, coma or even death if not treated promptly. But how can you render treatment if you
do not know the signs?
The picture below shows the early and late signs of shock. Learn it easy with the help of
mnemonics.







%he Stethoscope


From the Greek word stthos - chest and skop - examination. Stethoscope is a medical
instrument used for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of the body. Most commonly
used to measure blood pressure with the combination of a sphygmomanometer.
Stethoscope is also used to listen to lung, heart sounds, intestines and blood flow in arteries and
veins.










!hysical Assessment


Mnemonics for Nursing about Physical Assessment.
Inspection - comes from a Latin word "nspectio" or the act of beholding. It requires the used
of the naked ee for thorough visualization of the client.
!alpation - an examination using the hands to determine its size, shape, firmness, or
location.
!ercussion - an assessment used to determine the condition of the underlying body structure
by tapping the body surface.
Auscultation - from the Latin word auscultare - to listen. The term was introduced by Ren-
Thophile-acinthe Laennec as a technical term to use for listening to the internal sounds of
the body using the stethoscope.








%rauma Survey













Hydration Status
Hemoglobin - it is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.
4rmal Values:
W Male: 13.8 to 17.2 gm/dL
W Female: 12.1 to 15.1 gm/dL
Overhydrati43 - Lower-than-normal
ehydrati43 - Higher-than-normal


Hematocrit - it is the proportion, by volume, of the blood that consists of red blood cells. This
measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells.
4rmal Values:
W Male: 40.7 - 50.3%
W Female: 36.1 - 44.3%
Overhydrati43 - Low hematocrit
ehydrati43 - High hematocrit


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Nursing Assessment I

Nursing Assessment II




Autonomic Nervous System #esponse
$ 4r ut434mic erv4us $ystem acts as a control system of peripheral nervous system.
ANS is divided into two (2) subsystems namely:!arasmpathetic Nervous Sstem (!SNS) and
Smpathetic Nervous sstem.
When body naturally regenerates itself and maintains chemical and metabolic balance #est
and Digest) - Parasympathetic response occurs.
When the human body immediately or automatically reacts to a threatening situation Fight or
Flight) - Sympathetic response occurs.









leeding !recautions
Bleeding precaution is a nursing intervention to reduce stimuli that may cause hemorrhage or
bleeding in at-risk clients.
You must avoid the following:
W Contact sports or activities that may cause falls or injury
W Sharp objects, such as razors
W Stiff-bristled toothbrushes
W Constipation, rectal suppositories or enemas
W Medicine by injection, unless absolutely necessary
r just look at the picture of the nemonics For Nurses below for easy memorization of bleeding
precaution.
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asic Care nemonics !art II

asic Care nemonics !art 2



lood pressure !) - it is one of the principal vital signs. BP is the pressure exerted by
circulating blood or cardiac output against the walls of blood vessels.
BP decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries. It rapidly
drops along the small arteries and arterioles, and decreases continuously as the blood moves
through the capillaries and back to the heart through veins.
BP is usually expressed in terms of the systolic (maximum) pressure over diastolic (minimum)
pressure (mmHg), for example 140/90.
Blood pressure reading higher than systolic of 140 and diastolic higher than 90 is considered as
High Blood Pressure yperte3si43; and a reading of 90/60 mmHg or lower is considered Low
Blood Pressure yp4te3si43.








#A% Diet
Basic Care Mnemonics about The BRAT diet - it is a treatment prescribed for patients with
diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis and other gastrointestinal distress. It consists of foods that
are relatively bland and low in fiber. Low-fiber foods were recommended because high fiber diet
can cause gas and possibly worsen the condition of the patient.
B-BANANAS - it is bland fruit that can be constipating and a good thing when symptoms
include diarrhea.
R-R - well tolerated by the stomach and likely to not cause further nausea.
A-A!!LSAU - its creamy consistency goes down easily and soothes a dry throat.
T-TOAST - adds calories needed by he client to gain strength. A yummy food specially with a
little bit of jelly.







%ransient Incontinence


When a certain person cannot control evacuating wastes or urine from the body, it is called
incontinence.
Type of this medical condition is what we called Transient ncontinence.
This type usually occurs in older people and it is temporary, when the underlying causes
disappears and so the transient incontinence. So we can conclude that transient incontinence is
a temporary type of urinary incontinence.