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INTRODUCTION

Milk is the essential and basic commodity. t gives the basic nutrition that every human
must need to lead a healthy life. Every where around the world people consume milk.
The natural sources of milk are animals. Milk is selling in packed and unpacked form.
Packed milk is sterilized milk sold by the companies and unpacked milk is sold locally
by gawalas. n recent years significant changes has been made in the consumption
pattern of milk. These changes are also increasing in Pakistan that's why many food
producing companies also add milk in their product list. After working on this project we
will be able to conclude the changes in consumption pattern of packed or unpacked
milk. Milk is inevitable in our day-to-day life. Hardly is any human being who does not
taste milk through out his life. Pakistan being basically agricultural country milk and
dairy products are by-products of several million agriculturalists. n these days when
almost all items are sold in readymade forms in packets and milk is no more exception.
t can be purchased at any time from a grocery shop. t is also good from health point of
view as it is purified and the cholesterol content is removed from it.
RESEARCH DESIGN
Research Tools
Tool of research used for the data collection were personal interviewing and
questionnaire. These questionnaires were distributed to the families residing in different
localities of karachi. These families covered almost all income groups.
Type of Study
Aim of this research was to study the influence of the independent variables that is
hygiene, taste, convenience, nourishment and economy in use over the dependent
variable, which is preference of milk. This study was correlational type of study. The
research was analytical in nature. This was an ex post facto research because variables
were neither controlled nor manipulated and no artificial setting was created for the
study. The research was a cross-sectional study. The time to complete the research
was about six months.
Unit of Analysis
The research was conducted to examine people's reference of a type of milk regarding
their considerations of convenience, economy, hygiene, taste and nourishment. As milk
is a product relating to household consumption, therefore, the unit of analysis for this
research study was families of different localities belonging to different income groups.
!opulation and Sample
Population of the research undertaken comprised of the people of different localities of
Multan. Unstructured and structured interviews were conducted using a sample of 150
respondents. These areas were:
Malir Cantt
F.B Area
Gulshan
Korangi
North Nazimabad
Defence
The whole population was equally divided into the relevant income groups so that
opinion of every income group family with reference to their milk preference could be
registered. The sampling procedure was, thus, judgement sampling.
RESEARCH METHOD
People prefer fresh milk, because of its easy availability, low price, free from germs and
good taste.
Research Based on the qualitative method, it also based on the observations, the most
important variables in comparison of fresh and packed milk are quality, price, hygiene,
taste and nourishment the variable of primary interest or the dependent variable is "
preference for the type of milk. The independent variables influencing are below:
O Quality
O Price
O Hygiene
O Taste
O Nourishment
O ncome
The most influencing factor is the income of families. Most of families may strongly
believe that the independent variables are in favor of a certain kind of milk, but they will
surely prefer the one they can afford.

SAMPLING
The sample is the families living in Karachi. The sample size is 150. We will equally
divide questionnaire in different areas in Karachi. Convenient sampling would be
applied in this research for selecting the sample basically on the basis of geographical
convenient sampling & judgment sampling.
SAM! TECH"UES OF THE RESEARCH
What do we mean by sampling is the use of simple random technique of sampling.
While selecting a book, We read some pages or lines or related topic of the research
and selected the Sampling Techniques.
SAM!
The process of using a small number of items or parts of the whole population to make
conclusions about the whole population.
SAM!ES
A sample is a subset or some part of a large population. n research 150 respondents
were selected by me to represent the sample.
!O!UATO
A complete group of entities shares some common set of characteristics. The
population of our research was the population of karachi.
SAM! UT
A single element or group of element subject to the selection in the sample in case of
this research-sampling unit was selected respondents.
SAM!E SE SEECTO
The selection of sample size proves to be the most difficult job while you are going to
get the information from the people. We have taken sample size of 150. The reason
behind this selection is that in such type of informal studies that is enough number of
samples to get the conclusion.

"UESTIONAIRE

"UESTO DES
We question consists of the following items
n question design process, we have considered the factors given here under:
1) Relevancy and accuracy of the question was considered as the first important
objective.
However, We have also tried my best that the wording of the question should be simple
and easily understandable
2) Our questionnaire required two types of information;
First, consumer behavior about the packed milk.
3) These questions were about knowledge of the residence and their monthly
income. After deciding what should be asked, We focused our attention on the
following points:
-Question contents should be relevant and accurate.
-Question wording should be easy.
-Question sequence should be logical.
-Question should be pure of complexity and ambiguity.
-Open ended question were asked.

DATA COLLECTION
Primary and secondary data are the types of data which are used in this research.
Primary data will be based on the questionnaire will be of 16 questions. Which will be
ask from the families of different localities
Secondary data collected through internet newspaper etc.
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The methods which we have used are as under:
Questionnaire
nterview.


MILK CONSUMPTION:
packed milk 14 23.33%
opened milk 6o 35 58.33%
both 11 18.33%


nterpretations:
Based on the results from survey from the selected six areas of Karachi, 23% people
use packed milk. 59% uses opened milk while 18% uses both packed and opened milk.
ACTORS ON WHICH THE PREERENCE O OPEN MILK DEPEND:
!RCE:
price
Frequency
of
Frequency
in %
respondent
very high 16 26.66%
high 23 38.33%
medium 10 16.66%
low 9 15%
very low 2 3.33%


TER!RETATO:
Preference of opened milk on the basis of price is high ie. 64%.

HYEE:
hygine
Frequency
of
respondent
Frequency
in %
very high 7 11.66%
high 15 25%
medium 19 31.67%
low 14 23.33%
very low 5 8.33%


TER!RETATO:
11.6% people rate the factor 'hygiene' on very high, 25% people rate on high.,31.67 rate
on middle,23.33% rate on low and 8.33% rate very low.

UTRTO:
nutrition
Frequency
of
respondent
Frequency
in %
very high 9 15%
high 17 28.33%
medium 21 35%
low 9 15%
very low 3 5%


TER!RETATO:
Nutrition is most important factor 15% people think in opened milk nutrition's are very
high. 29% think there is high nutrition, 36% rate this factor at medium while 15% and
5% rate it at low and very low respectively.
CO'ECE:
convenience
Frequency
of
respondent
Frequency
in %
very high 17 28.33%
high 21 35%
medium 12 20%
low 8 13.33%
very low 2 3.33%


TER!RETATO:
t is very convenient to get opened milk based on the results. The results are 64%
people rate convenience of opened milk high and 16% rate on low
TASTE:
taste
Frequency
of
respondent
Frequency
in %
very high 15 25%
high 24 40%
medium 11 18.33%
low 8 13.33%
very low 2 3.33%


TER!RETATO:
There is natural taste in opened milk so large respondents 65% believe that in opened
milk taste is very natural. 19% rate at medium due to addition of water in it while 16%
rate it on low.

ACTORS ON WHICH THE PREERENCE O PACKED MILK DEPEND:
!RCE:
price
Frequency of
respondent Frequency in %
very high 8 13.33%
high 9 15%
medium 14 23.33%
low 18 30%
very low 11 18.33%


TER!RETATO:
Price of packed milk is high as compare to opened milk. 28% people preferred packed
milk on price while 24% rate it medium and 48% rate it low. t means high price effect on
purchases of packed milk

HYGENE:
hygine
Frequency of
respondent Frequency in %
very high 17 28.33%
high 29 48.33%
medium 9 15%
low 3 5%
very low 2 3.33%


TER!RETATO:
Packed milk is more hygienic than unpacked milk therefore 77% people think packed
milk is highly hygienic while 15% rate it at medium and 8% believe that packed milk is
un hygienic.

UTRTO:
nutrition
Frequency of
respondent Frequency in %
very high 11 18.33%
high 29 48.33%
medium 13 21.66%
low 5 8.33%
very low 2 3.33%



TER!RETATO:
67% rate that there is high nutrition in packed milk while 22% rate it medium and the
remaining 11% believe there is no nutrition.
CO'ECE:

convinience
Frequency of
respondent Frequency in %
very high 8 13.33%
high 16 26.66%
medium 16 26.66%
low 13 21.66%
very low 7 11.67%


TER!RETATO:
39% people feel convenient in getting packed milk, 27% people rate convenience of
packed milk at medium and 33% rate at low.


TASTE:
taste
Frequency of
respondent Frequency in %
very high 15 25%
high 16 26.66%
medium 16 26.66%
low 11 18.33%
very low 8 13.33%


TER!RETATO:
The taste is same as in opened milk so large respondents 47% believe that in packed
milk there is no difference in taste. 24% rate at medium due to addition of water in it
while 29% rate it on low.