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Review

INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT

Explain the apparent differences between the concepts of leadership and management Evaluate how situation and organisational context impact upon leadership style Understand the potential benefits and risks of shared and delegated leadership Understand how position and personal attributes can be a source of power for leaders Understand various psychological processes which explain how leaders influence people Discuss how leadership styles and behaviour may need to be adapted when working in other cultures

Key Terms
MOTIVATION thedrivingforcewithin individualsbywhichthey attempttoachievesomegoal inordertofulfilsomeneedor expectation COERCIVEPOWER

Managementisaboutgettingthingsdonewiththeaidofpeopleandotherresourcestoachievedefinedobjectiveswith maximumefficiency.Leadershipimpactsorganisationaleffectiveness;thefunctionoftheleaderistoensurethe organisationdoestherightthingwhilstthemanagerensuresthingsaredoneright(efficiency);theleaderisconcerned withestablishingdirection,thevisionandorganisationalgoalsandinfluencingfollowerstoobtaincommitment. Consequently,theleadermustbeagoodcommunicatorandabletoinfluenceothersmotivatingandinspiring. Leadershipisanimportantrolerequirementformanagers.Therearemanywaystomeasureleadershipeffectiveness suchasperformance,followersatisfactionandcommitmentandtheextenttowhichtasksarecompletedandgoalsare attained. Powerdescribestheabilitytoinfluenceothersattitudesandin behaviour.Thereareseveraltypesofpower:reward,coercive, referent(Charisma),legitimate(positionpower),expert, informational,affiliationandgroup.Theexerciseofpowermaybe perceivedbyfollowersineithernegativeorpositiveterms.Thetype ofbehaviourusedintentionallytoinfluencetheattitudesand behaviourofanotherpersonisusuallycalledaninfluencetactic. Participativeleadership(consultation,jointdecisionmaking,power sharing,decentralisation,empowermentanddemocratic management)involveseffortbyaleadertoencourageandfacilitate participationbyothersinmakingimportantdecisions.Participative leadership,delegationandempowermentareconceptslinkingthe powerandbehaviourapproachestoleadership.Participative leadershipcantakemanyforms.

theabilityofaleadertoexert influencebasedonthebeliefof followersthattheleadercan administerunwelcome penaltiesorsanctions. EXPERTPOWER anindividual'spowerderiving fromtheskillsorexpertiseof thepersonandthe organization'sneedsforthose skillsandexpertise INFORMATIONPOWER theabilityofaleadertoexert influencebasedonthebeliefof followersthattheleaderhas accesstoinformationthatis notpublicknowledge. LEGITIMATE (ORGANISATIONAL)POWER Basedonthesubordinate's perceptionthattheleaderhas arighttoexerciseinfluence becauseoftheleader'sroleor positionintheorganisation. Thispowerisbasedon authorityandrelatedtoa person'spositionwithinan organisation. POWER "istheabilityofindividualsor groupstopersuade,induceor coerceothersintofollowing certaincoursesofaction" LEADERSHIP "theprocessofinfluencing otherstounderstandandagree aboutwhatneedstobedone andhowtodoit,andthe processoffacilitatingindividual andcollectiveeffortsto accomplishsharedobjectives"

Leadershipbehavioursmaybegroupedintothosefocussingon workandthoseconsideringthefollower.Considerationbehaviours arebasedonrelationshipbuilding(relationsorientedbehaviour), supporting,developing,recognisingandhelpingothers.Specific taskbehavioursincludeplanningworkactivities,clarifyingrolesand objectivesandmonitoringoperationsandperformancehowthings getdone.Thetwokeyorientations(taskandrelationshipbuilding) reflectaconcernforpeopleandaconcernforproduction,bothof whichareimportantforeffectiveleadership.Thecontingency theoryofleadershipisaperspectivewhichsuggeststhatleaders mustadjusttheirstyleinamannerconsistentwithaspectsofthe contexti.e.thereisnooneidealleadershipstyle. Leadershipistheabilitytoinfluence,motivate,andenableothersto contributetowardtheeffectivenessandsuccessofthe organization;wemustunderstandtheirneedsandgoalsinorderto motivatethemtounderstandtheirvalues,attitudeandbeliefsand inparticularthoseinrelationtowork(Workattitudesvaryfrom countrytocountry).TheInternationalmanagershouldtake accountofWorkcentralityandotherattitudestoworkwhen seekingtoencouragepeopletoperformtheirjobsefficientlyand effectivelythroughavarietyofmotivationaltechniques.Leadersof internationalorganizationsneedtorecognizethatnotionsofwhat constitutesidealleadershipmaybeculturedependentandmay needtoadapttheirstylesandbehavioursaccordingtowhereand withwhomtheyareworking.Knowledgeaboutparticularcultural variationsinleadershipcanhelpsuchmanagersmoreaccurately anticipatepotentialproblemsincrossculturalinteractionswithin business.

K e l l y 2009