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nCSlS lC8 LA8Cu8 8C8LLMS



8CLL nC 1




lL ls an open LruLh LhaL worklng women have Lo face problems [usL by vlrLue of Lhelr belng
women Worklng women here are referred Lo Lhose who are ln pald employmenL Soclal
aLLlLude Lo Lhe role of women lags much behlnd Lhe law 1hls aLLlLude whlch conslders
women flL for cerLaln [obs and noL oLhers colors Lhose who recrulL employees 1hus women
flnd employmenL easlly as nurses docLors Leachers Lhe carlng and nurLurlng secLors
secreLarles or ln assembllng [obsLhe rouLlne submlsslve secLors 8uL even lf well quallfled
women englneers or managers or geologlsLs are avallable preference wlll be glven Lo a
male of equal quallflcaLlon A gender blas creaLes an obsLacle aL Lhe recrulLmenL sLage lLself
When lL comes Lo remuneraLlon Lhe law proclalms equallLy buL lL ls seldom puL lnLo pracLlce
1he lnbullL convlcLlon LhaL women are capable of less work Lhan men or less efflclenL Lhan
men governs Lhls ln[usLlce of unequal salarles and wages for Lhe same [ob 1he age old bellef
of male superlorlLy over women creaLes several hurdles for women aL Lhelr place of work
Women on Lhe way up Lhe corporaLe ladder dlscover LhaL Lhey musL be much beLLer Lhan
Lhelr male colleagues Lo reach Lhe Lop Cnce aL Lhe Lop male colleagues and subordlnaLes
ofLen expecL much greaLer experLlse and efflclency from a woman boss Lhan from a male
boss CondlLloned by soclal and psychologlcal LradlLlon women colleagues Loo don'L lend
supporL Lo Lhelr own sexWorklng ln such condlLlons lnevlLably puL much greaLer sLraln on
women Lhan whaL men experlence 1hese problems Lend Lo make women less eager Lo
progress ln Lhelr careers lndeed many of Lhem choose less demandlng [obs for whlch Lhey
may even be overquallfled A woman's work ls noL merely conflned Lo pald employmenL
She has Lo almosL always shoulder Lhe burden of household chores as well A woman could
sLlll bear up wlLh Lhese problems lf she had conLrol over Lhe money she earns 8uL ln mosL
famllles even now her salary ls handed over Lo faLher husband or lnlaws So Lhe baslc
moLlve for seeklng employmenL of geLLlng lndependence ls nulllfled ln many women's case
roblems of gender blas beseL women ln Lhe lndusLrlal secLor
1echnologlcal advancemenL resulLs ln reLrenchmenL of women employees no one Lhlnks of
upgradlng Lhelr skllls MaLernlLy leave ls seldom glven lL ls much easler Lo LermlnaLe Lhe
woman's employmenL and hlre someone else 1rade unlons do llLLle Lo amelloraLe Lhe loL of
women workers Women's lssues do noL occur on Lhe prlorlLy llsL of mosL of Lhe Lrade
unlons Women golng Lo work are ofLen sub[ecL Lo sexual harassmenL ubllc LransporL
sysLem ls over crowded and men Lake advanLage of Lhe clrcumsLances Lo physlcally harass
women Colleagues offer unwanLed aLLenLlon whlch can sLlll be shaken off buL a woman ls
placed ln a dlfflculL slLuaLlon lf Lhe hlgher offlcer demands sexual favourslf refused Lhe boss
can easlly Lake lL ouL on Lhe woman ln oLher ways Lo make llfe mlserable for her 1here have
been several cases of sexual harassmenL recenLly lnvolvlng even Lhe senlor women offlclals
Cn Lhe oLher hand lf a woman ls pralsed for her work or promoLed on merlL her colleagues
do noL heslLaLe Lo aLLrlbuLe lL Lo sexual favours1he psychologlcal pressure of all Lhls can
easlly lead Lo a woman qulLLlng her [ob MosL of Lhe problems LhaL beseL worklng women
are ln reallLy rooLed ln Lhe soclal perspecLlve of Lhe poslLlon of women 1radlLlonally men
are seen as Lhe bread wlnner and women as Lhe housekeepers chlld bearers and
rearers1hls LypecasL role model conLlnues Lo puL obsLacles before Lhe worklng women A
fundamenLal change ls requlred ln Lhe aLLlLudes of Lhe employers pollcy makers famlly
members and oLher relaLlves and Lhe publlc aL large
AL presenL women workers consLlLuLe abouL oneLhlrd of Lhe LoLal Call CenLre and 8C
workforce ln lndla Powever desplLe such a ma[or economlc conLrlbuLlon of women Lo Lhe
lndusLry several challenges faced by Lhem sLlll remaln Lo be addressed As per nlrmal Mlrza
Lhe CLC of SlLaglLacom communlcaLlon and selfexpresslon are Lhe key challenges LhaL
women worklng ln Lhe 8C and Call CenLre lndusLry sLlll face ln lndla 1here ls a general lack
of confldence among women aL [unlor levels Lo speak up agalnsL lssues such as graveyard
shlfLs" (nlghL shlfLs) and lack of adequaLe safeLy and securlLy measures

Safe LransporLaLlon for women conLlnues Lo remaln a ma[or challenge ln Lhe 8C and Call
CenLre lndusLry lollowlng several lncldenLs of crlmes agalnsL women 8C employees many
8C companles have LlghLened Lhelr safeLy pollcles Companysponsored plckup and drop
vehlcles have been provlded for women employees Many company rules sLlpulaLe LhaL
women musL Lravel only ln Lhe presence of anoLher male employee lnLernal hoLllnes and
SMS servlces have been lnLroduced Lo monlLor Lhe wellbelng of commuLlng employees
AdequaLe background checks on Lhe deslgnaLed cab drlvers are also made by Lhe
employers 1hese measures have lmproved Lhe slLuaLlon conslderably Lhough lL sLlll does
noL make Lhe women employees feel 100 safe especlally when Lhey work ln nlghL shlfLs

1he socloculLural facLors also work agalnsL Lhe women who are employed wlLh 8C and
Call CenLres ln lndla Lven lf Lhe woman ls happy and saLlsfled wlLh her nlghL duLy [ob and ls
geLLlng an excellenL remuneraLlon for lL buL her Lroubles may begln once she geLs marrled
ln many cases Lhe women are forced Lo qulL Lhelr [obs because of Lhe dlsapproval of Lhe
husband and hls famlly Powever Lhe 8C lndusLry ls maklng an aLLempL Lo address Lhls
aspecL as well Zla Shelkh Lhe CCC of lnfowavz lnLernaLlonal a Mumbal based Call CenLre
says We Lry Lo reassure Lhe relaLlves of our women employees by organlzlng lamlly uays
on a regular basls"

1he governmenL on lLs parL can make lL mandaLory for companles Lo lnsLall CS ln cabs Lo
have a sLronger monlLorlng Selfdefence Lralnlng Lo women lnsLalllng CC1vs aL Lhe
workplace Lo prevenL sexual harassmenL pollce verlflcaLlon of cab drlvers securlLy guards
and peons worklng ln 8Cs and efflclenL complalnL redressal sysLems should be made
compulsory for all employers

ln 2008 a survey on gender lncluslvlLy ln Lhe l18C secLor ln lndla conducLed by Lhe P8
consulLlng flrm Mercer and nasscom revealed LhaL aparL from safeLy and securlLy flexlble
worklng hours and leave pollcy play a cruclal role ln aLLracLlng and reLalnlng women ln Lhe
8C organlzaLlon CLher pracLlces LhaL women workers appreclaLe are anLlharrassmenL
pollcy healLhcare and awareness programs women's lounge and recreaLlonal acLlvlLles

1he 8C and Call CenLre lndusLry ln lndla has a brlghL fuLure ahead Slnce women are an
lnLegral parL of Lhls lndusLry lL ls enLlrely ln Lhe employers' own lnLeresL Lo address Lhe
challenges and lssues Lhey face aL Lhe workplace

1he Lqual 8emuneraLlon AcL 1976 and ln parLlcular lLs preamble declares Lhe AcL Lo provlde
for paymenL of equal remuneraLlon and prevenLlon of any klnd of dlscrlmlnaLlon on Lhe
ground of sex or oLherwlse ln Lhe maLLer of employmenL 1he Lqual 8emuneraLlon AcL 1976
exLends Lo Lhe whole of lndla by vlrLue of SecLlon 1(2) and Lhere cannoL be dlfferenL pay
scales for dlfferenL employees carrylng ouL exacLly same work SecLlon 4(3) sLaLes LhaL
where ln an esLabllshmenL or employmenL Lhe raLes of remuneraLlon payable before
Lhe commencemenL of Lhls AcL for men and women workers for Lhe same work or work of a
slmllar naLure are dlfferenL only on Lhe ground of sex Lhen Lhe hlgher (ln cases where Lhere
are only Lwo raLes) or as Lhe case may be Lhe hlghesL (ln cases where Lhere are more Lhan
Lwo raLes) of such raLes shall be Lhe raLe aL whlch remuneraLlon shall be payable on and
from such commencemenL Lo such men and women workers"
Shocklng as lL mlghL be lndla sLands aL rock boLLom ln Lhe llsL of counLrles when lL comes Lo
gender equallLy and LhaL lncludes pay parlLy! 1hls revelaLlon was made by Lhe Clobal
Cender Cap 8eporL of 2010

lndla ranked lowesL among Lhe 88lC counLrles vlz 8razll 8ussla lndla and Chlna ln facL
sLaLlsLlcs showed LhaL Lhe average annual lncome of an lndlan worklng woman was less Lhan
oneLhlrd LhaL of an lndlan man!

Gender b|as
A woman ls pald a lesser salary Lhan a man due Lo Lhe assumpLlon LhaL a woman wlll noL
puL ln as many hours of work as a man wlll! 1hls assumpLlon prlmarlly drlves employers Lo
belleve LhaL a man deserves a hlgher pay Lhan hls female counLerparL aL a glven posL" says
Alblno Mascarenhas Pead of P8 aL a medla flrm

Sunldhl radhan CperaLlons Manager aL a 8C says ln meLros and ln corporaLe offlces
wlLh lnLernaLlonal sLandards gender blases do noL exlsL! As a maLLer of facL ln our
company employmenL and promoLlons are glven on Lhe basls of quallflcaLlon and
experlence and are noL lnfluenced by gender"

Women bosses rea||y?
1he survey also revealed LhaL only 10 lndlan women are employed aL senlor managemenL

ln my oplnlon lndla ls progresslng So whlle lnequallLy ln salarles may exlsL ln cerLaln Lowns
of lndla [obs are now becomlng more professlonal and are conformlng Lo lnLernaLlonal
sLandards of worklng" Sunldhl adds

Alblno sLaLes 1radlLlonally men were Lhe bread wlnners of Lhe famlly 1hlngs are now
changlng! Women Loo are gradually geLLlng on par wlLh men ln offlces Powever women
are hardly enLrusLed wlLh senlor poslLlons because lL ls belleved LhaL a woman won'L be able
Lo do [usLlce Lo her [ob owlng Lo her responslblllLles Lowards her home and famlly!"

1he Governments ro|e
1he lndlan ConsLlLuLlon has recognlsed Lhe prlnclple of 'Lqual ay for Lqual Work' for men
and women Powever Lhe governmenL lLself has falled Lo lmplemenL lLs prlnclple

under lLs employmenL schemes Lhe governmenL employs lakhs of women who are pald
way below Lhe mlnlmum wage

8CvlSlCnS lC8 C8LCPL
1) ln every facLory whereln more Lhan
LhlrLy women workers are ordlnarlly employed Lhere
shall be provlded and malnLalned a sulLable room or rooms for Lhe use of chlldren under Lhe
age of slx years of such women

(2) Such rooms shall provlde adequaLe accommodaLlon shall be adequaLely llghLed and
venLllaLed shall be malnLalned ln a clean and sanlLary condlLlon and shall be under Lhe
charge of women Lralned ln Lhe care of chlldren and lnfanLs

(3) 1he SLaLe CovernmenL may make rules (a) prescrlblng Lhe locaLlon and Lhe sLandards ln
respecL of consLrucLlon accommodaLlon furnlLure and oLher equlpmenL of rooms Lo be
provlded under Lhls secLlon

(b) requlrlng Lhe provlslon ln facLorles Lo whlch Lhls secLlon applles of addlLlonal faclllLles for
Lhe care of chlldren belonglng Lo women workers lncludlng sulLable provlslon of faclllLles
for washlng and changlng Lhelr cloLhlng

(c) requlrlng Lhe provlslon ln any facLory of free mllk or refreshmenL or boLh for such

(d) requlrlng LhaL faclllLles shall be glven ln any facLory for Lhe moLhers of such chlldren Lo
feed Lhem aL Lhe necessary lnLervals

WlLh Lhe fronLlers of companles expandlng offlce work ls becomlng more and more
versaLlle WlLh large global pro[ecLs ln hand offlce Lasks ofLen demand LhaL employees glve
exLra Llme Lo Lhelr pro[ecLs ouLslde of Lhe offlce Llmlngs 1hough some may argue LhaL such
ls Lhe way of buslness and employees should be flexlble Lo accommodaLe work demands
noL everyone ls able Lo comply wlLh Lhe wlshes of Lhelr employers lssues llke securlLy and
home ofLen prevenL women from venLurlng lnLo worklng laLe or overLlme ln offlces WlLh
such consLralnLs Lhey someLlmes have Lo encounLer a hard Llme ln Lhelr workplaces and
even ln Lhelr careers WlLh all Lhelr efforLs Lhls proves as a seLback Lo Lhelr repuLaLlon and
even Lhelr performance
Such slLuaLlons are awakenlng companles Lo Lhe problems of female employees and Lhey
are lncreaslngly gearlng up Lo faclllLaLe Lhem ln case of any emergencles Chandra Can[oo
general manager P8 1rlvlLron PealLhcare vL LLd Lells us abouL Lhelr provlslons As an
organlsaLlon we do noL encourage our female colleagues Lo sLay beyond 630 pm uue Lo
occaslonal offlclal exlgencles lf female sLaff has Lo work beyond offlce Llmlngs proper
LransporL and securlLy arrangemenL are ln place so LhaL such females reach Lhelr home ln
company LransporL wlLh a responslble male colleague mosLly a senlor As a resulL we donL
recelve complalnLs from our female sLaff
PeslLaLlng ln sLaylng back and compleLlng offlce chores can reflecL badly upon Lhe employee
and leave behlnd a negaLlve lmpresslon upon superlors As a resulL do LlmeconsLralnLs
prove a hlndrance ln female employees careers? AshuLosh Carg chalrman and Mu
Cuardlan Llfecare vL LLd counLers We are all lncreaslngly becomlng qulLe senslLlve
abouL Lhe workllfe balance of women employees and maklng sure LhaL Lhe envlronmenL
LhaL Lhey work ln ls female frlendly CrganlsaLlons always Lry Lo reward Lhe growLh of any
lndlvldual who ls a hlgh performer We encourage pracLlce of career growLh Lhrough an
lndlvlduals performance regardless of gender
Companles Loday are Lrylng Lo provlde speclal faclllLles Lo Lhelr women employees so as Lo
ensure LhaL Llmlngs do noL become an lssue ln Lhelr [ob and Lhey work as comforLably as
posslble vlshal Chlbber P8ulrecLor kelly Servlces suggesLs Lhe followlng measures for
Lhelr women employees ln order Lo experlence greaLer LalenL reLenLlon and employee
% llexl Llmlngs Lo compleLe Lhelr offlce work
% Safe LransporL and cab sysLem Lo escorL Lhe female employees home
% Wellness beneflLs as parL of a compensaLlon package llke lnhouse flLness clubs dlscounL
membershlps Lo gyms eLc
% Conclerge servlces an exLremely aLLracLlve perk for worklng moms
% 8eachlng ouL Lo Lhe local buslness communlLy and negoLlaLlng for lower raLes and
vouchers for daycare provlders for Lhelr women employees
Such efforLs can deflnlLely ald female employees ln farlng beLLer aL Lhelr workplaces and
ad[usLlng wlLh occaslonal ups and downs ln Lhe offlce schedule Companles need Lo reallse
LhaL such provlslons are essenLlal for Lhe women employees and are noL only almed aL
employee comforL buL also help ln exLracLlng maxlmum producLlvlLy from Lhe sLaff 1hus
Lhey can go a long way ln lmprovlng Lhe overall efflclency of Lhe offlce
1 Duty of the Lmp|oyer or other respons|b|e persons |n work p|aces and other
|nst|tut|ons lL shall be Lhe duLy of Lhe employer or oLher responslble persons ln work places
or oLher lnsLlLuLlons Lo prevenL or deLer Lhe commlsslon of acLs of sexual harassmenL and Lo
provlde Lhe procedures for Lhe resoluLlon seLLlemenL or prosecuLlon of acLs of sexual
harassmenL by Laklng all sLeps requlred
2 Def|n|t|on lor Lhls purpose sexual harassmenL lncludes such unwelcome sexually
deLermlned behavlour (wheLher dlrecLly or by lmpllcaLlon) as
a) hyslcal conLacL and advances
b) A demand or requesL for sexual favours
c) Sexually coloured remarks
d) Showlng pornography
e) Any oLher unwelcome physlcal verbal or nonverbal conducL of sexual naLure
Where any of Lhese acLs ls commlLLed ln clrcumsLances whereunder Lhe vlcLlm of such
conducL has a reasonable apprehenslon LhaL ln relaLlon Lo Lhe vlcLlm's employmenL or work
wheLher she ls drawlng salary or honorarlum or volunLary wheLher ln governmenL publlc
or prlvaLe enLerprlse such conducL can be humlllaLlng and may consLlLuLe a healLh and
safeLy problem lL ls dlscrlmlnaLory for lnsLance when Lhe woman has reasonable grounds Lo
belleve LhaL her ob[ecLlon would dlsadvanLage her ln connecLlon wlLh her employmenL or
work lncludlng recrulLlng or promoLlon or when lL creaLes a hosLlle work envlronmenL
Adverse consequences mlghL be vlslLed lf Lhe vlcLlm does noL consenL Lo Lhe conducL ln
quesLlon or ralses any ob[ecLlon LhereLo
revent|ve Steps All employers or persons ln charge of work place wheLher ln publlc or
prlvaLe secLor should Lake approprlaLe sLeps Lo prevenL sexual harassmenL WlLhouL
pre[udlce Lo Lhe generallLy of Lhls obllgaLlon Lhey should Lake Lhe followlng sLeps
(a) Lxpress prohlblLlon of sexual harassmenL as deflned above aL Lhe work place should be
noLlfled publlshed and clrculaLed ln approprlaLe ways
(b) 1he 8ules/8egulaLlons of CovernmenL and ubllc SecLor bodles relaLlng Lo conducL and
dlsclpllne should lnclude rules/regulaLlons prohlblLlng sexual harassmenL and provlde for
approprlaLe penalLles ln such rules agalnsL Lhe offender
(c) As regards prlvaLe employers sLeps should be Laken Lo lnclude Lhe aforesald prohlblLlons
ln Lhe sLandlng orders under Lhe lndusLrlal LmploymenL (SLandlng Crders) AcL 1946
(d) ApproprlaLe work condlLlons should be provlded ln respecL of work lelsure healLh and
hyglene Lo furLher ensure LhaL Lhere ls no hosLlle envlronmenL Lowards women aL work
places and no employee woman should have reasonable grounds Lo belleve LhaL she ls
dlsadvanLaged ln connecLlon wlLh her employmenL
4 Cr|m|na| roceed|ngs Where such conducL amounLs Lo a speclflc offence under Lhe
lndlan enal Code or under any oLher law Lhe employer shall lnlLlaLe approprlaLe acLlon ln
accordance wlLh law by maklng a complalnL wlLh Lhe approprlaLe auLhorlLy
ln parLlcular lL should ensure LhaL vlcLlms or wlLnesses are noL vlcLlmlzed or dlscrlmlnaLed
agalnsL whlle deallng wlLh complalnLs of sexual harassmenL 1he vlcLlms of sexual
harassmenL should have Lhe opLlon Lo seek Lransfer of Lhe perpeLraLor or Lhelr own Lransfer
S D|sc|p||nary Act|on Where such conducL amounLs Lo mlsconducL ln employmenL as
deflned by Lhe relevanL servlce rules approprlaLe dlsclpllnary acLlon should be lnlLlaLed by
Lhe employer ln accordance wlLh Lhose rules
6 Comp|a|nt Mechan|sm WheLher or noL such conducL consLlLuLes an offence under law or
a breach of Lhe servlce rules an approprlaLe complalnL mechanlsm should be creaLed ln Lhe
employer's organlsaLlon for redress of Lhe complalnL made by Lhe vlcLlm Such complalnL
mechanlsm should ensure Llme bound LreaLmenL of complalnLs
7 Comp|a|nts Comm|ttee 1he complalnL mechanlsm referred Lo ln (6) above should be
adequaLe Lo provlde where necessary a ComplalnLs CommlLLee a speclal counsellor or
oLher supporL servlce lncludlng Lhe malnLenance of confldenLlallLy
1he ComplalnLs CommlLLee should be headed by a woman and noL less Lhan half of lLs
member should be women lurLher Lo prevenL Lhe posslblllLy of any undue pressure or
lnfluence from senlor levels such ComplalnLs CommlLLee should lnvolve a Lhlrd parLy elLher
nCC or oLher body who ls famlllar wlLh Lhe lssue of sexual harassmenL
1he ComplalnLs CommlLLee musL make an annual reporL Lo Lhe CovernmenL deparLmenL
concerned of Lhe complalnLs and acLlon Laken by Lhem
1he employers and person ln charge wlll also reporL on Lhe compllance wlLh Lhe aforesald
guldellnes lncludlng on Lhe reporLs of Lhe ComplalnLs CommlLLee Lo Lhe CovernmenL
Worker's In|t|at|ve Lmployees should be allowed Lo ralse lssues of sexual harassmenL aL
a workers' meeLlng and ln oLher approprlaLe forum and lL should be afflrmaLlvely dlscussed
ln LmployerLmployee MeeLlngs
9 Awareness Awareness of Lhe rlghLs of female employees ln Lhls regard should be creaLed
ln parLlcular by promlnenLly noLlfylng Lhe guldellnes (and approprlaLe leglslaLlon when
enacLed on Lhe sub[ecL) ln a sulLable manner
10 1h|rd arty narassment Where sexual harassmenL occurs as a resulL of an acL or
omlsslon by any Lhlrd parLy or ouLslder Lhe employer and person ln charge wlll Lake all
sLeps necessary and reasonable Lo asslsL Lhe affecLed person ln Lerms of supporL and
prevenLlve acLlon
11 1he CenLral/SLaLe CovernmenLs are requesLed Lo conslder adopLlng sulLable measures
lncludlng leglslaLlon Lo ensure LhaL Lhe guldellnes lald down by Lhls order are also observed
by Lhe employers ln rlvaLe SecLor
12 1hese guldellnes wlll noL pre[udlce any rlghLs avallable under Lhe roLecLlon of Puman
8lghLs AcL 1993

Workers who are more exposed Lo sexual harassmenL aL workplace geL hlgher pay cheques a
new sLudy has revealed
vanderbllL unlverslLy economlsL !onl Persch calculaLed Lhe flrsL measures of sexual harassmenL
rlsks aL work by lndusLry age group and sex newswlse reporLed
Pe found LhaL female workers are slx Llmes more llkely Lhan male workers Lo experlence sexual
harassmenL on Lhe [ob
ln analyzlng workers' wages Persch asserLed LhaL flrms musL pay workers more for exposure Lo
Lhe rlsk of sexual harassmenL
Sexual harassmenL ln Lhe workplace ls so unlversally desplsed LhaL people requlre some exLra
compensaLlon for exposure Lo a sexually harasslng envlronmenL" sald Persch professor of law
and economlcs
1he sLudy conducLed by Persch revealed LhaL women ln [obs wlLh an average rlsk of sexual
harassmenL are pald on average 23 cenLs per hour more Lhan comparable women ln [obs wlLh
llLLle rlsk of sexual harassmenL

CPlLu LA8Cu8
lndla has Lhe largesL populaLlon of chlld labourers ln Lhe world Accordlng Lo sLaLlsLlcs
provlded by non governmenLal organlzaLlons (nCCs) roughly 60 mllllon chlldren are
worklng as chlld labourers Accordlng Lo Lhe officio/ estimotes of census 2001 Lhere were
127 mllllon economlcally acLlve chlldren ln Lhe agegroup of 314 years 1he number used
Lo be 113 mllllon durlng 1991
MosL of Lhe chlld labourers ln lndla belong Lo Lhe soclal groups Scheduled 1rlbes (S1s)
Scheduled CasLes (SCs) and CLher 8ackward Classes (C8Cs) A slgnlflcanL chunk of chlld
labourers are mlnorlLles 1hey are recrulLed for reduclng cosLs of producLlon and because of
Lhelr lnherenL weakness Lo unlonlze for bargalnlng beLLer wages lmproved work condlLlons
and relaLed labour rlghLs 1haL ls why we have Lhe paradox of havlng a large pool of chlld
labour amldsL hlgh level of adulL unemploymenL

Works LhaL needs dexLerlLy ls ofLen done by Lhem Labour recrulLers ofLen geL chlld
labourers from poverLy sLrlcken areas and Lhose areas LhaL have undergone droughLs and
floods or where agrlculLure has falled lL ls a well esLabllshed facL now LhaL Lrafflcklng of
women and chlldren ls qulLe prevalenL ln Lhls parL of Lhe world

Accordlng Lo sLaLlsLlcs provlded by lndlan nCCs 70 percenL of chlld labourers are engaged
ln agrlculLure 1hey also work ln consLrucLlon lndusLry quarrles mlnes brlck kllns and small
scale lndusLrles (oootqoolzeJ sectot) 1hey are ofLen found engaged ln household acLlvlLles
sLreeL resLauranLs (Jbobos) and hazardous lndusLrles

Chlld labour ls consldered as Lhe denlal of human dlgnlLy and freedom 1haL ls why Lhere ls
demand for use and sale of falr Lrade producLs (losteoJ of ftee ttoJe ptoJocts) ln whose
manufacLurlng chlld labour hasn'L been absorbed 1he Chlld Labour (rohlblLlon and
8egulaLlon) AcL 1986 prohlblLs chlld labour ln cerLaln occupaLlons and processes alone and
Lhelr condlLlons of work are regulaLed ln Lhe resL

1woLhlrds of Lhe chlld workers ln lndla were engaged ln agrlculLure and abouL 17 percenL
were engaged ln manufacLurlng accordlng Lo Lhe 200405 Notiono/ 5omp/e 5urvey
Orqonisotion resu/ts More glrls Lhan boys were found Lo be engaged ln agrlculLure and
manufacLurlng CneLenLh of Lhe boys were engaged ln Lrade as compared Lo [usL 2 percenL
of glrls AbouL 11 percenL of glrl chlld workers were engaged ln domesLlc duLles ln rural
areas collecL waLer and flrewood and prepare cow dung cakes for fuel
ln lndla explolLaLlon of llLLle chlldren for cheap labor ls an accepLed pracLlce (and norm) and
ls percelved by Lhe local populaLlon as a necesslLy Lo earn llvellhoods Chlld labourers
engaged ln carpeL weavlng lndusLrles are pald poorly and Lhey work for long hours ln
unhyglenlc condlLlons Chlldren worklng ln such unlLs are malnly mlgranL workers from
norLhern lndla who are senL here by Lhelr famllles Lo earn some money and send lL back Lo
Lhem 1helr famllles dependence on Lhelr lncome forces Lhem Lo endure Lhe onerous work
condlLlons ln Lhe carpeL facLorles

Powever Lhere are some myLhs surroundlng Lhe assoclaLlon beLween poverLy lncldence of
chlld labour and school aLLendance lf one can remember Lhe 9ub/ic keport on 8osic
ducotion {9kO8) survey was conducLed ln laLe 1996 ln 188 randomlyselecLed vlllages of
sLaLes of 8lhar Madhya radesh 8a[asLhan and uLLar radesh 1hese four sLaLes accounL for
more Lhan half of lndlas ouLofschool chlldren Aslde from surveylng all Lhe schoollng
faclllLles ln Lhe sample vlllages Lhe 8C8L Leam lnLervlewed 1221 households 1he 8C8L
survey challenges several myLhs abouL Lhe causes of educaLlonal deprlvaLlon ln rural lndla
1he survey exposed Lhe myLh LhaL elemenLary educaLlon ln lndla ls free LhaL lndlan parenLs
have llLLle lnLeresL ln educaLlon and LhaL economlc dependence on chlld labour ls Lhe maln
reason why poor famllles are unable Lo send Lhelr chlldren Lo school