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1. Introduction

In our modern world the transportation of dangerous goods such as oil, gases and chemicals with its resulting harmful consequences in case of accidents stand in harsh contrast with the growing shift of emphasis on preserving an intact environment. In Germany the German Bight, an area with high ship traffic but surrounded with numer ous islands and vast areas of ecological precious Wadden Sea is a very good example for this actual conflict. With the growth in size and numbers of modern cargo ships although the number of accidents causing more complex environment damage are rising. Especially the groundings of tanker ships like Amoco Cadiz and wood freighter Pallas are responsible for many changes in legislations as well as a change in our society on ships safety.

After the grounding of wood freighter Pallas a so called independent commission of experts lead by Dr. Claus Grobecker was introduced by the german government with the goal to analyse the existing emergency recovery plan and develop ways of improvement. After major difficulties were identified during rigging Emergency Towing connections, especially in bad weather conditions recommendations on Emergency Towing Systems were made. Germany strongly supported the mandatory Emergency Towing Systems for tankers above 20,000tdw but failed to implement a new legislation during the IMO sub-committee meetings. In the end the MSC Circular 1255 was

created, an IMO circular that obligates ships owners for other ships than tankers above 20,000tdw to implement written Emergency Towing Procedures

In 2010, I started to implement a booklet on Emergency Towing Procedures for a bulk carrier owned by the shipping company Schepers. During my work on the booklet I started to question the effectiveness of the new Guidelines. That`s why I`ve chosen the topic Emergency Towing Procedures with the objective to show that a proper implementation of Emergency Towing Systems on board of all merchant ships above 300GT would be a much more worthy solution than the existing implementation of the MSC Circular 1255. In my thesis I briefly define and describe the nature of an emergency towing situation. After the short introduction I highlight important aspects on emergency towing with a strong focus on the dangerous and difficult parts. This proves the complexity of an emergency situation where dedicated time to plan and experts are missing. In the third chapter I give an overview of the previous events and explain the Recommendation of exerts. Then I present the actual IMO-Resolution followed by an overview of Emergency Towing Systems as claimed by many experts. In the end I provide a logic conclusion favouring a fixed ETS for every seagoing ship. My opinion is controversially discussed in the IMO committees. Many officials and experts have different opinions on this topic. Until now it`s uncertain if the Emergency Towing Procedure Booklet improves ships safety.

2. Emergency Towing
2.1. History and Definition of Emergency Towing

Until the 1980s professional salvage companies worked with a network of standby Salvage tugs which were stationed on strategic points waiting for casualties to occur. The tug which arrived first contracted the distressed vessel with Lloyds Open Form No Cure No Pay.

Figure: 1 No Cure No Pay Salvage Agreement1

The Practice of Ocean Rescue page 248, Annex1

However several aspects lead to a steady decrease of accidents and fewer tugs: Increased integration2 higher ergonomic standard (interaction between human and technique) better navigational aids ewer but bigger ships like VLCC needed bigger more expensive tugs Working conditions for crews improved resulting in more expenses Distressed vessels were looking for the cheapest tug, so traditional salvage companies (LOF) were put out of business

Thats why in 1984 for example the German government provided with MV Mellum the necessary capacities in case of an emergency towing situation. Therefore the expression emergency towing was created by the government with best intentions to react as fast as possible in case of an emergency but without competing against professional salvage companies. However for a salvage tug company there is no emergency towing as far as theres no emergency firefighting for the firefighters. Once a vessel is on the hook during bad weather conditions it would be irresponsible to let go in favor of another or several other tugs. The official definition: Preparations for the establishment of a towing connection with a casualty: Keeping of position or controlled drift of a casualty against wind and current until manoeuvrability has been regained or a safe anchorage has been found or a

Research study programs: MASIS, ATOMOS, Regional Traffic Information Service, Man Ship Interface Systems

commercial salver has taken over or existing threats for marine traffic, the coast and/or the environment can be assumed averted.3 But Emergency Towing shouldn`t be misunderstood as an emergency towing connection for a distress situation. Because the suitability of the tug and the quality of the towing connection are most vital especially during an emergency towing situation emergency towing should be understood as a towing connection, made as good as possible under the prevailing circumstances with an Emergency Towing Vessel (ETV).

Figure 2: UK ETV Anglian Princess during an emergency towing exercise4

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http://www.envir.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=preview/id=831438/The+German+Emergency+Towing+Strategy.pdf http://www.maritimejournal.com/__data/assets/image/0009/168048/Anglian_Princss.JPG

2.2. Reasons and Consequences of an Emergency Towing Situation


Accident: Main Engine, Steering, Collision, Fire, Explosion, Flooding, .. Might Lead Disabled Vessel Hard ground Wind + current Bad weather Hull integrity

threatened
Immediate Danger requires Action Resolving Problem Cargo not secure lashed

If Fails

Vessel is at a high risk for causing pollution

Emergency Anchoring

If Fails

Inform

Emergency Towing

ETV on Standby

The corollary of a Ship Not Under Command can be severe depending on the external circumstances. At open sea with good weather conditions and no immediate danger in close location an Emergency Towing Service might not be necessary. But a main engine failure in a VTS with dense traffic under severe circumstances is a really serious situation. In such an impasse the most important is to keep the crew safe. A good Captain will, depending on the situation evacuate all but a basic crew with best skills if safety permits. Depending on the weather conditions it might be impossible for a helicopter to lift-off. Under such circumstances the salvage tug`s rescue boat is no better solution, either. If the casualty at this time is already drifting in shallow water the hull integrity can be disturbed due to contact with rocks or other obstacles. The worst that can happen is a mixture of several reasons leading to a vessel in distress under worst circumstances. These circumstances can directly lead to loss and Injury of Crew, cause environmental damage and destroy the ships and it`s cargo.

2.3. Comparing Emergency Towing with Ocean Towage

This chapter gives a compromised overview to bear the most important aspects regarding safety precautions and key decision points that must be assessed prior to towing. The U.S. Fleet Admiral Nimitz therefore incisively said: "The time for taking all measures for a ship's safety is while still able to do so. Nothing is more dangerous than for a seaman to be grudging in taking precautions lest they turn out to be unnecessary. Safety at sea for two thousand years has depended on exactly the opposite philosophy".5 As every towing action is unique in its requirements a survey will be held prior to preparation. Key points of a first inspection will be the ships structural integrity, hull thickness, stability markers, and the condition of ventilation flaps and other openings. If any doubts remain usually a dry dock inspection will be held. Then after a careful assessment of further information on ships stability, deck structures, dead weight, etc. a proper tug for the specific job will be chosen.

U.S. ARMY TOWING MANUAL, SL740-AA-MAN-010,REVISION 3 from 2 July 2002, page 120

Next the right equipment for rigging a safe towing connection will be selected. Countless requirements face a variety of possible towing equipment that can be used. Some key points for different set-ups might be: Backup system available Weak point required Length of swell How much hawser flexibility required Towing machine used Navigating in ice Size of Fairleads

Emergency scenarios (fire, abandon ship, grounding, ..) including backup solutions must be worked out, navigational preparation needs to be completed and the rigged towline system has to be inspected. As a precaution the Noble Denton Guidelines for marine transportations 6requires that all remaining heavy fuel must be identified and shall be minimized where possible. The towing of ships is a wide subject of study. Even after many years of practise professional tug captains still can learn new lessons cause of the uniqueness of each tow.

TECHNICAL POLICY BOARD GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 0030/ND, page 93

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45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Figure 3: Comparison between ocean towing and emergency towing alienable depends on variables of situation (weather, skills of crew, availability of winches, etc) uncertain in emergency situation not possible for whatever reason 11 7 6

The diagram shows the results after a comparison between ocean towing and emergency towing. The ratio of uncertainties during emergency towing to regular ocean towage is about 1:5. This clearly shows that strategies for emergency towing will decided upon other factors. It lies in the nature of an emergency that safety is impaired. Therefore creativity is needed. If there`s no attachment point strong enough the whole anchor winch or a pair of two bitts will be used for securing the chaffing chain

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or main hawser. Uncalculated risks must be taken to save the life of seaman and prevent major damage to our environment. But with every additional uncertain factor the risk for the life of the crew is rising. And especially if seaman are unprepared and have no experience the success of establishing a towing connection can be drastically reduced7. In an emergency situation immediate action is required and only limited resources are available in a short period of time. Further and greater damage needs to be avoided or at least kept as small as possible. The life of the crew and the environment are threatened. The senior salvage Master and Captain of the ETV Abeille Bourbon therefore concludes that success depends on timely action by experienced personnel and organization8.

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Helmepa / Tsavliris Salvage: A Guide for the Emergency Towing Arrangements, 1998 Claden, Responding to major marine casualty

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2.4. Towing procedures for distressed ships

The phases of rescue towing with an ETV can be conventionally broken down into 9five steps.

Step 1: Preparation of the tow gear while on route to the site of the casualty Step 2: Assessment of actual conditions on arrival at the casualty Step 3: Connecting the tow gear Step 4: Getting the tow underway or clear of danger Step 5: Delivery of the vessel to a safe place

During emergency towing step three is the most dangerous because in no other phase all the crew is involved if the ships was not abandoned before. In the sub paragraphs I only focus on step three to point out the importance of timely decisions taken by experts. The scope of this chapter is to give a brief survey on methods and equipment involved in emergency towing. First I will provide a matrix that shows how circumstances limit the possibilities of how a towing connection can be established. Then from a casualties perspective the two main basic procedures for initiating a connection are presented. As each situation varies a basic procedure will be adopted depending on the prevailing circumstances.

Rescue Towing, Volume One by Michael Hancox, ISBN: 1 870945395

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2.4.1. Decision matrix for initiating the connection

Initiating the connection of the towing gear is the most dangerous part during an emergency towing operation for both the tug and the casualty. Depending on the circumstance initiating a towing connection can take a few hours or even is impossible. As the situations vary there`s no common procedure. However after many years of experience combined with creativity emergency towing vessels have developed some general patterns that can be adapted and combined to solve a specific problem.

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2.4.1.1. System decision Matrix for weather conditions

As all other existing Emergency Towing Booklets are providing decision matrix with weather as the most important variable you can find a quick evaluation of usable systems during bad weather conditions. Bad weather Crew onboard Casualty All by ETV Depending on Electricity ETS by Casualty ETS by Helicopter Figure 4: Bad weather matrix Abandoned Ship / Fire / Flooding etc. No electricity Very limited time

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Good weather Crew onboard Casualty All by ETV ETS by Casualty ETS by Helicopter Figure 5: good weather matrix Abandoned Ship / Fire / Flooding etc. No electricity Very limited time

depending on freeboard or Heli

Conclusion: Helicopter use is most affected by weather conditions. If no electricity is available the ways of establishing a connection are most compromised.

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2.4.1.2. System decision Matrix for Availability of Electricity

After realizing that the availability of electricity compromises the amount of usable systems for emergency towing the most, a second matrix sorted by availability of electricity is provided below. Electricity available Crew onboard Casualty Abandoned Ship / Fire / Flooding etc. Bad weather Very limited time

All by ETV

Depending on weather, Freeboard and Heli

ETS by Casualty ETS by Helicopter Figure 6: electricity available matrix

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No electricity Crew onboard Casualty All by ETV Abandoned Ship / Fire / Flooding etc. Bad weather Very limited time

Depending on weather, Freeboard and Heli

ETS by Casualty ETS by Helicopter Figure 7: no electricity available matrix

Conclusion: Weather electricity is available or not doesn`t exclude a particular system for initiating a connection and emergency towing. After comparing both decision matrix it is clearly that electricity is the best variable cause it doesn`t exclude a certain system. After electricity weather is the biggest influencing factor. Electricity as a variable is a better decision cause it doesn`t exclude certain options. But the availability or non-availability causing two different methods of rigging an emergency towing system. If you take weather as an option you can only exclude but not choose between certain methods as shown in the next chapters.

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2.4.1.3. Decision Matrix for initiating a connection

In principal there are three options on how to initiate a towing connection. A helicopter can transfer an Emergency Towing System (ETS) if the casualty is not equipped or a messenger line can be used by the ETV or the casualty and being transferred by shooting or throwing or lowering. The helicopter transfer and shooting of a messenger line are good options if no winch power is available on the casualty . Although there`s a lower risk cause tug and casualty can for the main part of this procedure operate at a larger distance. Depending on the circumstances a Dyneema Line can be used as a main hawser or the Dyneema Line can be used as a second messenger line to get a steel hawser as main hawser. Of course if a winch is still working a Steel Hawser is more resistant to chafing but is less flexible which shouldn`t be a problem if an ETV is used. ETV`s are commonly equipped with towing winches which monitor and adapt the load on the towing hawser. If no power is available on the casualty, diesel powered ship cranes or fork lifts can be used. As an additional option the tug can pull a strong (Dyneema) Messenger Line back by its own winch so that the main hawser can be heaved up to the casualty. The main hawser can be a strong Dyneema Line or a Steel Wire if circumstances and time allows it.

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The second option is to lower a messenger line which can be already connected to a stronger mooring line with a marker buoy at the end. This option requires a much closer distance between Tug and Casualty. Depending on the weather conditions the messenger lines can float very close to the disabled casualty which can lead to an accident (MV Hope Bay and ETV Oceanic). Throwing (max=40m) From Tug to Casualty Heaving; Shooting (max=100m) Small boat,.. Helicopter (not covered) Throwing (max=40m) Heaving; From Casualty to Tug Shooting (max=100m) Small boat,.. Lowering 1. Tug picks up an arranged combination of messenger line and hawser marked with a buoy ETS (own chapter) Figure 8: initiating a towing connection 1. Heaving Line 2. Messenger Line 3. Dyneema 4. Steel if possible 1. Heaving Line 2. Messenger Line 3. Dyneema 4. Steel if possible

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2.4.2. Examples of Towing Patterns 2.4.2.1. No Winch Power on Casualty

If the winches on the casualty aren`t working properly then with good luck, patience and very good planning at least a temporary connection can be achieved. However the lack of electricity means that work at night is limited and other useful equipment can`t be used. Any diesel driven forklifts or cranes can be considered in heaving heavy messenger lines or steel wire on board.

Method One: Step 1: Heaving Line (green) 1 Messener Line (lila)

Step 2: Messenger Line (lila) First Dyneema Messenger (red)

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Step3: Messenger Line (lila) on other Chock to haul in 2nd Dyneema Messenger (red)

Step 4: Dyneema Messenger (red) used to haul in Towing gear (brown)

Step 5: Tow gear made fast on Anchor winch or 2 set of Bitts

Figure 9: Drawings of different towing patterns Note: if there`s not enough time then the Dyneema line can be used as temporary towing gear. Later if more time is available or protected by island, etc. the Dyneema Line has to be changed for a towing gear. Therefore the sequence is: Step 1, Step 4 (Dyneema as Towing Gear), Step 5;

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Method two: Step 1: Heaving Line (green) 1 Messener Line (lila)

Step 2: Messenger line (lila) is used to haul around the Dyneema towing line (red) Step 3: After the Dyneema Line is pulled around, restrain stoppers can be rigged on casualty

Step 4: The tug crew will shackle up the Dyneema Line to a tow pennant

Figure 10: Drawings of towing patterns

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2.4.2.2. Winches on Casualty are working

Step 1:

Heaving Line (green) and

Messenger Line (lila)

Messenger Line (lila) and then

Dyneema as towing gear or even stronger with

Towing gear (brown)

Figure 11: Drawings of towing patterns

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2.4.2.3. Rigged Solutions

Chafing Chain or Fore leader Pennant secured around foundation of anchor winch Figure 12: Drawing of Rigging Solution for Forward

Fore Leader Pennant secured on mooring bitts (each bollard one round), then Chafing Chain or Fore leader Pennant secured around foundation of anchor winch Figure 13: Drawing of very secure Rigging Solution for Forward Station

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Chafing Chain or Fore leader Pennant secured around Bitts; if possible mooring winch foundation can be used as well Figure 14: Drawing of Rigging Solution on Aft Station

Fore Leader Pennant secured on mooring bitts (each bollard one round), then Chafing Chain or Fore leader Pennant secured around foundation of anchor winch Figure 15: Drawing of very secure Rigging Solution on Aft Station

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2.4.3. Important Equipment Involved:

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Figure 16: Overview of Towing Components on Casualty

The three main parts of equipment that involves action of the casualty are: Main Towing Hawser Chafing Gear Point of Attachment Anchor and Anchor Chain

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Navy Towing Manual, Revised 3

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Main towing hawser

Figure 17: 11main towing hawser The main towing 12hawser is a nautical term for a tick cable or wire rope used in towing a ship or object. It is passed through the hawsehole or cat hole and located on the hawse. Hawsers can be made of an inelastic material and to be combined with a spring system. Since the shift of manila ropes to heavy wire ropes or wire chains a catenary got very popular in taking the dynamic peak loads of the system. Of course the main hawser can although be made of more elastic ropes so that they act both as a tension element as well as a natural spring.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ars52_towing_ssbn624.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawser

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Chafing Gear:

Figure 18: 13chafing during towing on bitts

Figure 19: 14Typical outboard chafing end

Chafing is one of the biggest problems that occur during emergency towing with synthetic Lines. A chain is more resistant against chafing but usually the ships fairleads aren`t made to withstand forces that occur during ocean/emergency towing if a steel made chafing pendant is used.

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http://fjordinc.com/index.php/chafe-pro/why-you-should-use-chafe-pro http://www.veristar.com/bvrules/B_10_s4_4_8.htm

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Chocks and Fairleads:

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Figure 20: Chock as part of an ETS

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Figure 21: towing fairlead

Chocks mark points where the towing line crosses the deck of both tug and towed vessel. Robust and wide chocks are critical for protecting the hawser and the ships deck. Long passage towing usually involves the fitting of additional chocks or fairleads cause mooring chocks are smaller and designed to withstand only forced that might occur during mooring operations. In case of an emergency chafing boards and grease can be used to ease friction on the hawser. Instead of a chafing board a steel chain can be used. Fairleads which can be fitted with additional rollers guide ropes around obstacles on deck and lead them tidy to their winch or point of Fairleads are used to lead mooring lines to their attachment point.

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http://img.nauticexpo.com/images_ne/press/press-g/emergency-towing-arrangements-eta-P196937.jpg http://www.tugboats.de/bilder_fuer_bericht_claus/towing%20fairlead_at_the_bow.jpg

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Point of Attachment: Bitts, Padeyes, Smit Bracket, Towing Hooks, Towing Winches and Towing Machines

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Figure 22: lead of

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Figure 23: 2 pairs of Bitts used to secure lines

hawser through H-Bitt towards winch

A 19bitt is vertical post and strong point, usually one of a pair, set on the deck of a ship and used to secure hawsers, ropes and cables on the towed ship. On tugs H-Bitts made of heavy steel are used to lead the main hawser to the working winch or towing machine. They`re located close to the pivot point of the tug and prevent angular forces and strains to the winch.

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http://www.vht-online.de/vht2008/pdf/Bollard-Pull.pdf - page 2 Navy Towing Manual http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bitt

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Mooring bitts or even a set of 2 bitts in line are commonly used for emergency towing. Especially if time is critical mooring bitts are a very good choice as they`re easy to reach even if no power is available and the crew of the casualty is used in securing lines on the mooring bitts. Before using bitts as strong point, strength criteria need to be checked. If time is enough and the bitts are in line, then a double set of bitts should be used for safety reasons. For one turn on the first set of bitts only 25-50% will be distributed to the second set. However if two turn are made on the first set, then only 6-12% of the load will be absorbed by the second pair of bitts. Therefore one turn on the first set of bitts is the best solution. In severe weather conditions the anchor winch or other major foundations on deck can be used to secure the main hawser or chafing pendant.

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Towing Winches and Towing Machines:

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Figure 24: single drum towing winch

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Figure 25: towing machine

A winch is now a standard equipment for towing and apart from the engine a tugs most powerful equipment on-board even if they`re essentially the same since their introduction. Today winches can be fitted with many different devices which increase safety of the tow. The ideal winch for emergency towing has the following specifications: Prevents uncontrolled movements of the hawser Emergency quick release Easy and fast paying out and heaving in of hawser Monitors hawser condition Controls tension of the hawser cActs as an attachment point

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http://img.nauticexpo.com/images_ne/photo-m2/towing-winch-electric-drive-single-drum-195975.jpg http://tugster.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/aawn.jpg?w=500&h=375

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Padeyes and Brackets:

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Figure 26: vertical free standing padeye

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Figure 27: 85 t SWL towing bracket

A 24padeye is a fitting having one or more eyes integral with a plate or base to provide ample means of securing and to distribute the strain over a wide area. The eyes may be either "worked" or "shackle."The popular device can be found with either horizontal or vertical eyes and as a towing bracket. Compared to the horizontal padeye the vertical free standing padeye is less resistant against lateral loads owed to its design that hinders horizontal movements.The fact that for towing free rotation to all sides is vital and that the horizontal padeye can be constructed with a lower profile makes the horizontal padeye the most popular choicewhen it comes to towing. Although chain stoppers are be used with care due to their lower breaking strength.

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http://www.tpub.com/content/boats/TB-55-1900-232-10/TB-55-1900-232-100054.htm http://www.towage-salvage.com/files/tow1_020.jpg http://en.mimi.hu/boating/pad_eye.html

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Smit Bracket

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Figure 28: 120ton smit

towing bracket for dia

64mm, dia 76mm anchor chain

The smit towing bracket is very similar to a free standing padey but equipped with an lock which is easily and safely released even under tight circumstances cause no shackles are used.

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http://www.exportdeck.com/144660/product-5867812/photo-7606683/smit-bracket.shtml

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Anchor and Anchor Chain for Towing:

Figure 29: 26AHTS is handling a special lightweight oil rig anchor

Since the Pallas Incident the possibility of using the anchor chain for emergency towing is a common thinking amongst seafarers. In the offshore business Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessels (AHTS) are used to handle anchors for oil rigs and serve in case of an emergency as ETV.

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http://www.seabedassist.nl/anchor_handling+.JPG

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But if the Crew of an ETV is not trained and the ETV not equipped to handling the J-Hook (250SWL and about 4tons) which is used to retrieve the anchor then it might be quiet difficult to use the anchor or anchor chain for towing. Of course different anchors which are marked with buoys are used to facilitate the hauling in. If the anchor is still in the hawse then there are two options left. First the anchor can be lowered so that the ETV picks it up with a chaser to pull it on the deck with a strong winch. However due to the small distance this manoeuver is very dangerous in bad weather conditions. But failure due to chasing is very unlikely. The second option is to use the anchor chain without the anchor. Therefore the anchor chain will be cut by acetylene and then shackled to the main hawser. The anchor chain will then act as a chafing gear. Care must be taken that the anchor chain doesnt fall back into the chain locker. Depending on the size of the ship`s anchor gear power on the winch might be required.

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3. Implementation of Emergency Towing Procedures

Since humans began to navigate, the captain or pilot commanded his ship solely. In 1609 the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius defined in his book 27Mare Liberum the Sea as being, like the air, limitless and therefore common to all people. This understanding worked well until the increased sea traffic along with bigger ships led to an increase of maritime disasters. Hence the maritime society with ship owners, maritime insurance companies and coastal states started to question the good old concept of Freedom of the Seas along with the belief that a captain of a ship is free to navigate however he wants. In the past and now major accidents are the driving source for improving safety at sea. For example after the titanic accident the SOLAS convention was introduced to establish a common international standard for ships safety. After the sinking of tanker ship Erika in 1999, the European Union started to widen out common safety measures to enhance the safety of ships and European coastlines. After the tragic stranding of wooden freighter MV Pallas off the German coast close to the isle of Amrum causing expansive damage to our environment

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mare_Liberum

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In the past years design features have changed considerably and the speed of the vessels has increased which lead to a reduced time to react in case of an emergency. For example, stopping distances are measured from supertankers in miles rather than meters. Effective safety margins for ships found in restricted waters have been reduced because of the increased size and limited maneuverability of modern cargo ships.

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3.1. German History and the Pallas Incident

Already after the Amoco Cadiz Incident in March 1978 caused the German authorities to assess how prepared they were to conquer a similar situation. It was very fast clear that Germany had very little resources to fight pollution incident and apart from unsuitable harbour tugs no emergency towing capability was provided. The assessment and years of lobbying works from environmentalist finally convinced the German government to act. Even if Germany has such a short coastline, it is highly vulnerable to pollution as the later Pallas incident showed clearly. Dense traffic coming from Ems, Weser and Elbe is surrounded with precious sensitive unique Wadden Sea which needs a good protection plan. The initial German System was based upon pollution control that has already occurred. Starting in 1979 with the purchase of several second-hand vessels Germany quickly achieved an inventory of 22 vessels. Costs were sheared by the government and the coastal state. In 1984 with the first government owned multipurpose vessel Mellum Germany started a very own strategy amongst other European countries. With Mellum, Germany followed a multipurpose strategy in contrary to for example Great Britain. All German ETVs were and are equipped for pollution control and emergency towing equipment. Apart of the own ETV Germany established in 1982 the Emergency Towing Agreement with salvage companies which was renewed in 1994. According to the agreement information about tugs is exchanged on a 24h basis and joint exercises are conducted. In case of an Emergency the German government can use all tugs that are

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included in the pool. The Agreement was a voluntary establishment as under federal law the government already has the right to enforce a commercial tug owner to provide whatever service is needed. Later in November 1994, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea came into force. With a 12nm extended Exclusive Zone Germany needed to extend its emergency towing capabilities. Therefore the salvage tug Oceanic was hired from beginning of March 1996. Apart from the two ETV which are although fitted with antipollution equipment there were a total of 23 oil recovery crafts stationed in the port of the North Sea and Baltic sea. On the 25th October 1998 the wooden cargo of MV Pallas who was on a voyage from Sweden to Casablanca caught fire. Due to the stormy weather the Danish MRCC advised the freighter not to approach a port. After several attempts to extinguish the fire, the captain sent a distress message. Hence the crew was rescued with SAR helicopters. The German multipurpose ETV Mellum was able to send a boarding team by helicopter to rig an emergency towing connection with double polypropylene wires. A heavier hawser couldn`t be installed due to lack of winch power and because of the heavy weather it was impossible for another tug to take over. After 16,5 hours the emergency towing connection failed. Any further attempts to hinder the ship from grounding on the 29th October 1998 didn`t succeed. The stranding of MV Pallas because of major management errors and the environmental disaster alerted German society. Under the pressure of media and a more ecology minded society the disaster was taken serious by politicians and government.

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3.2. Grobecker Report

On 10 February 1999 the Federal Department of Transport assigned an independent commission of experts (Grobecker Commission) to draw up an evaluation of the current emergency concept and to develop improvements for the protection of the German. The report was submitted to the Federal Transport Minister on 16.02.2000.

The Grobecker Commission headed by Dr. Claus Grobecker recommended that the proposal for 28ETS on tanker above 20,000 tdw shall be supported and extended to other ships. The Grobecker commission explained in detail, that the initiating phase constitutes a major problem in emergency towing. To rig durable towing connections without the support of machinery is even for smaller ships very difficult or impossible. But if ships are equipped with an Emergency Towing System then those difficulties are to overcome . Later Germany supported successfully the implementation of Emergency Towing Systems on tankers above 20.000. On 2926 November 2003 Germany proposed the implementation of mandatory Emergency Towing Systems on all Ships >300GT, except tug boats and fishing vessels but couldn`t convince other parties in the SubCommittee on ships design.

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Bericht der unabhngigen Expertenkonferenz Pallas (Grobecker Bericht), Empfehlung 16 DE 47/24/1, Mandatory emergency towing systems (ETS) in ships other than tankers greater than 20,000 dwt

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3.3. IMO History on ETS and ETP

As shipping is an international affair it`s affects reach not only one country but all nations in the UN. This clearly means that safety is defined as a common standard on which most countries agree upon. What a single country wants to accomplish can only be achieved through proposals in committees and sub-committees controlled by the IMO.

After the oil spill of VLCC Amoco Cadiz in 1978 the IMO Resolution A.535(13) Recommendation on Emergency Towing Arrangements for Tankers was adopted in 1983 which applied to all new tanker ships with a deadweight of 50,000tdw and more. Then after several more accidents it took 11 years until the IMO-Resolution MSC.35(63) went into force in 1994. The new regulation now applied to tanker ships above 20,000tdw. From then on Emergency Towing Systems had to be officially approved with an adequate working strength for the applicable ship and working load. On forward station an ETS must be ready within one hour. The aft ETS must be ready within 15 minutes.

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3.4.Emergency Towing Procedures Booklet 3.4.1. Purpose and body30

In May 2008, the Maritime Safety Comitee approved MSC.1/Circ.1255 Guidelines for owners/operators on preparing emergency towing procedures. These new amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 include the amendments to chapter II-2, regulation 3-4.

According to the Circular procedures are to be carried onboard for use in emergency situations and shall be based on existing arrangements and equipment available on board the ship. The procedure, which need only to be verified as being onboard (not be approved) by the Administration, is to include emergency towing arrangement drawings, an inventory of equipment on board that can be used for emergency towing, means and methods of communication; and sample procedures to facilitate preparation for and conduct of emergency towing operations.

The adopted amendments will apply as follows (the dates are tentative): all passenger ships not later than 1 January 2010; all cargo ships constructed on or after 1 January 2010; and

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GUIDELINES FOR OWNERS/OPERATORS ON PREPARING EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES, MSC 1255

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all cargo ships constructed before 1 January 2010 not later than 1 January 2012

The procedures are meant to support the crew in establishing the safest and most efficient course of action to be taken when confronted with an emergency that requires towing.

The Emergency Towing Procedures Booklet is separated into five parts. Usually after a summary of relevant ships data a quick decision matrix with corresponding patterns are provided. Then in an additional chapter organizational matters and explained sample procedures are shown. Normally in an appendix you can find sample contact forms for ETVs, officials, etc.

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3.4.2. Implementation of Guidelines31

Observations 2.1 Owners, operators and crews should take into consideration that the nature of an emergency does not allow time for deliberation. Accordingly, the procedures should be practiced beforehand. Implementation: Implementation into ISM Line Handling and Blackout Problems can`t be practiced What can be practiced that is helpful in an emergency?

2.2 The towing procedures should be maintained on board the ship for ready use by the ships crew in preparing their ship for towage in an emergency. Implementation: 3 copies of booklet aboard ready for use by ship`s crew: o Bridge o Forecastle Space o Ships office or cargo control room o owners/operators one copy + one copy electronic format

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IMO Circular GUIDELINES FOR OWNERSOPERATORS ON PREPARING MSC_Circ1255

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2.3 The crew should have good knowledge of equipment stowage location and accessibility . Any identified improvements to stowage arrangements should be implemented. Implementation: knowledge of equipment stowage location and accessibility will be part of ships familiarization proved with signature

2.4 Crew dealing with an emergency situation should be aware of power availability required for winches and tools, as well as for deck lighting (for bad/low visibility and night time situations). Implementation: Knowledge of power available to be checked by Chief Engineer Handheld Flashlights can be used

2.5 It is recognized that not all ships will have the same degree of shipboard equipment, so that there may be limits to possible towing procedures. Nevertheless, the intention is to predetermine what can be accomplished, and provide this information to the ships crew in a ready-to-use format (booklet, plans, poster, etc.). Implementation: Equipment for emergency towing to be identified and in case of an emergency and prepared for ready-use Plans included in booklet so that one comprehensive format is available

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Ship Evaluation 3.1 The owner/operator should ensure that the ship is inspected and its capability to be towed under emergency situations is evaluated. Both equipment on board and available procedures should be reviewed. Items that need to be inspected are described in the following paragraphs. Implementation: Review of General Plans Master Circular Target for next Inspection

3.2 The ability of the ship to be towed from bow and stern should be evaluated, and the following items should be reviewed: .1 line handling procedures (passing and receiving messenger lines, towlines, bridles); and Implementation: Sketch possibilities with strong points Contact Specialist Read Offshore Towing Books and implement to own ship

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.2 layout, structural adequacy and safe working loads of connection points (fairleads chocks, winches, bitts, bollards), etc. Implementation: Identify Strong Points SWL of Bitts, Fairleads, Pannama Chocks, King Roller, Anchor or Mooring Winch Fundament SWL 3.3 The on-board tools and equipment available for assembling the towing gear and their locations should be identified. These should include but not be limited to: .1 chains; .2 cables; .3 shackles; .4 stoppers; .5 tools; and .6 line throwing apparatus Implementation: Identify useful equipment for emergency towing Sent Master Circular with Checklist to fill out and send back Compare to wish list and order necessary missing tools

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3.4 The availability and characteristics of radio equipment on board should be identified, in order to enable communication between deck crew, bridge and the towing/salvage ship. Implementation: Sent Master Circular with Checklist to fill out and send back Identify useful communication equipment for emergency towing and compare with own list

3.5 Unless the safe working loads of connection points are known, these loads should be determined by an engineering analysis reflecting the on-board conditions of the ship. The Guidance on shipboard towing and mooring equipment (MSC/Circ.1175) may be used for guidance. Implementation: Read MSC/Circ. 1175 In Case invite GL for determination

3.6 The evaluation should be performed by persons knowledgeable in towing equipment and operations Implementation: Check if own personal is capable of implementing ETPB into ISM or external company will be contacted.

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EMERGENCY TOWING BOOKLET 4.1 The Emergency Towing Booklet (ETB) should be ship specific and be presented in a clear, concise and ready-to-use format (booklet, plan, poster, etc.). Implementation: Each ship must be evaluate solely: Strong Points Arrangement and design of Aft station and Forward Station Ships data Communication Equipment Equipment checked Ship individual training

4.2 Ship-specific data should include but not be limited to: .1 ships name; .2 call sign; .3 IMO number; .4 anchor details (shackle, connection details, weight, type, etc.); .5 cable and chain details (lengths, connection details, proof load, etc.); .6 height of mooring deck(s) above base; .7 draft range; and .8 displacement range. Implementation: Copy from General Plan and other Ship certificates

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4.3 All procedures developed in accordance with section 5 should be presented in a clear and easy to understand format, which will aid their smooth and swift application in an emergency situation Implementation: Implementation into a booklet Brief, logical comprehensive introduction with important knowledge

4.4 Comprehensive diagrams and sketches should be available and include the following: .1 assembly and rigging diagrams; .2 towing equipment and strong point locations; and .3 equipment and strong point capacities and SWLs. Implementation: - Copy from Ships Drawings and Simplify as much as possible

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4.5 A copy should be kept at hand by the owners/operators in order to facilitate the passing on of information to the towage company as early as possible in the emergency. A copy should also be kept in a common electronic file format, which will allow faster distribution to the concerned parties. Implementation: 1 paper copy for Designated Person 1 copy on computer of Designated Person

4.6 A minimum of three copies should be kept on board and located in: .1 the bridge; .2 a forecastle space; and .3 the ships office or cargo control room. Implementation: Include into Master Circular Check during ISM Inspection

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DEVELOPING PROCEDURES 5.1 Ship-specific procedures should be identified during the ships evaluation and entered accordingly in the ETB. The procedures should include, as a minimum, the following: .1 a quick-reference decision matrix that summarizes options under various emergency scenarios, such as weather conditions (mild, severe), availability of shipboard power (propulsion, on-deck power), imminent danger of grounding, etc.; Implementation: Decision upon which criteria matrix should be: Weather Conditions? Time? Power for Winches?

.2 organization of deck crew (personnel distribution, equipment distribution, including radios, safety equipment, etc.); Implementation: Draw simple diagram of duties which considers emergency duties according Muster List

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.3 organization of tasks (what needs to be done, how it should be done, what is needed for each task, etc.); Implementation: Identify Important Points for a Checklist Keep it simple cause Master of ETV will take decisions and explain each step anyway

.4 diagrams for assembling and rigging bridles, tow lines, etc., showing possible emergency towing arrangements for both fore and aft. Rigged lines should be lead such that they avoid sharp corners, edges and other points of stress concentration; Implementation: With prior collected information and ship inspection several simplified drawing need to be implemented

.5 power shortages and dead ship situations, which must be taken into account, especially for the heaving across of heavy towing lines; Implementation: Consider Power Shortages into Towing Pattern Decision Matrix

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6 a communications plan for contacting the salvage/towing ship . This plan lists all information that the ships master needs to communicate to the salvage/towing ship. This list should include but not be limited to: .1 damage or seaworthiness; .2 status of ship steering; .3 propulsion; .4 on deck power systems; .5 on-board towing equipment; .6 existing emergency rapid disconnection system; .7 forward and aft towing point locations; .8 equipment, connection points, strong points and safe working loads (SWL); .9 towing equipment dimensions and capacities; and .10 ship particulars; Implementation: Checklist to be filled out and sent to ETV, owner, agent, etc.

.7 evaluation of existing equipment, tools and arrangements on board the ship for possible use in rigging a towing bridle and securing a towline; Implementation: Make a List of Possible Equipment and tools that can be used and send to Master of MV to evaluate and complete.

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.8 identification of any minor tools or equipment providing significant improvements to the towability of the ship; Implementation: Sent Checklist to Master to fill out on: Shackles, Hammers, Chains, Towing Wire, welding torch, etc.

.9 inventory and location of equipment on board that can be used during an emergency towing situation; Implementation: Locate and note chafing material, stoppers, chains, axe, welding torch, etc.

.10 other preparations (locking rudder and propeller shaft, ballast and trim, etc.); and Implementation: During next inspection check rudder and propeller plans and manuals and copy procedures into booklet

.11 other relevant information (limiting sea states, towing speeds, etc.). Implementation: Evaluation upon ETV On scene manager

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3.4.3. Controlling Authorities

Under the Paris memorandum (MoU) of 1982 all countries are entitled to control any ship on IMO-Regulations and their implementation. IMO Resolution A. 787(19) was therefore provides the legal base with the goal to reduce sub-standard vessels flagged on third world countries. The MoU obligates to control minimum 25% of all seagoing vessels. Under the MoU although the proper implementation of Emergency Towing Procedures must be checked.

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According to classification societies, German See-BG and U.S. Port State Control Commanding Officer the following points will be checked:

Point to be checked: copies on board List of on-board Equipment prepared

Comment/Critic according to MSC 1255; ok Equipment available for use? Equipment useful for towing? Condition of equipment? Very important aspect for

Safe Working Loads integrated

emergency towing Procedure for Anchor Chain According MSC 1255 Not applicable on every ship Very seldom used for emergency towing Only applicable in best weather and best sea conditions Safety Exercises Figure 30: Port State Controll Overview What can be exercised? Proof of Knowledge? Regular base According MSC 1255

The MSC Circular 1255 is meant to be considered as part of the emergency

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preparedness required by element 8 of the ISM-Code.

The guidelines clearly point out the following points to be considered: Relevant equipment to be inspected on a regular base Crew questionnaire to be filled out correctly Safety meeting with dedicated crew on a regular base Engine department / Electrician to be aware of power failure problems Three copies available and readily available Any identified improvements should be sent to the company and re-implemented into the procedures

It can be summarized that all three major societies which are responsible for controlling the proper implementation of MSC Circular 1255 aren`t ready to check reasonably how ship owners and ships crew implement the new standard. Additionally it needs to be said that a proper checking would exceed the short time of a port state control.

3.5. Emergency Towing Systems

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After grounding of tanker Amoco Cadiz in 1974 32Emergency Towing Systems (ETS) were introduced by IMO with resolution A.535(13) in 1983 for tankers greater than 50,000 tdw with recommendatory guidelines for their technical layout. Then because of the grounding of tanker Braer in 1993 the amendments were expanded to tanker ships above 20,000 tdw. Now SOLAS requires since 1 January 1999 according regulations 34 that all tankers above 20,000 tdw must be equipped with an ETS for bow and aft.

3.5.1. Emergency Towing System for Helicopter and Salvage Tug


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SUB-COMMITTEE ON SHIP DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT 47th session Agenda item 24 DE 47/INF.3

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Figure 31: 33ETS for helicopter transfer prepared in port

The main parts of a helicopter or tug ETS are: Line Gun 1 or 2 Buoys to mark the messenger line Messenger Line Main Towing Hawser Chafing Pendant or chafing End from Main Hawser Shackles Box or Net for Transportation Additionally can be used: Sea Anchor, Equipment for Communication, Manuals, etc Helicopter transfer example: From Casualty to Tug

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http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/perp/ets/

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Phase

Description Helicopter transports open cargo net with rope/heavy tools Maybe Second and Third Lift with fore leader pennant, chafing chain and already connected heavy messengers to enable fast rigging

ETS will be rigged similar to mooring lines in a way practical to send out

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The messenger line with the messenger buoy and pick-up buoy will be retrieved by the tug manually or with an Orville Hook Retrieval System

The messenger line will be heaved on board of the tug and secured to the own towing hawser which is connected to the towing winch or towing machine

The tug starts towing the casualty

Figure 32: 34ETS Helicopter drill by Alaska Emergency Towing Systems Project

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http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/perp/ets/

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From Tug to Casualty Phase Description The Messenger Line is delivered to the casualty by shooting or throwing

- Crew on Casualty or Boarding team transfer the messenger line through the most durable (SWL) chock or Fairlead

- Depending on the weight of the main hawser own winch power is needed - If no winch power is available then two chocks can be used to heave the hawser with the winches from the tug - If no own securing material can be used, bitts have highest swl for securing - If possible a second bitt should be used or - an additional chain can turned around the anchor winch or mooring winch Figure 33: 35ETS Tug to Ship drill by Alaska Emergency Towing Systems Project

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http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/perp/ets/

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3.5.2. On-board Emergency Towing System

According to IMO-Resolution MSC 35.(63) every tanker ship above 20,000dtw is obligated to have an Emergency Towing System Installed since 1.1.1999 on both forward station and aft station. Once the installation of an ETS is completed no further costs are rising. The system must be readily available. Some therefore can be activated by radio. The system can be activated even if the manoeuvre station is under fire or the ship is unmanned. In case of an emergency it makes it easier to initiate a durable connection. Even during bad weather conditions the ETV can heave up the eye of the ETS with a J-Hook or a similar device. An ETS doesn`t require experts or a lot of time. Therefore it is the best choice for an ordinary seaman which is usually not trained for such an emergency or already dealing with other problems like fire, flooding, etc. It`s usability is although proved by the IMO cause of its obligation for tanker ships. Modern cargo ships can now store more oil than small tanker ships. Therefore an oil caused by a non-tanker ship can be as dangerous as any other tanker ship accident, especially if an accident happens in eco-sensitive area like the Wadden sea.

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Figure 34 : Example for Installation of ETS 100/200 D AF made by Aker Pusnes AS

The design and installation of Emergency Towing Systems on tankers above 20,000dtw is now compulsory under the following legislations: - IMO resolution MSC.35 (63) - SOLAS V/15-1(b) - LOOP regulations - OPA 90

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The system offers huge advantages cause it eases the problems that can occur: during initiating the connection caused by chaffing transferring lines during other accidents like fire, etc.

Figure 35. Forward and Aft Design of Pusnes AS

Figure 36. Forward Design of Pusnes AS

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The main components of an Emergency Towing System used on tankers are: Strong Point: Smit bracket, Chain Stopper or included in the storage drum Chafing pendant: chafing chain, wire,.. Dedicated Fairlead, Chock, .. Messenger rope, floating Buoy(s) to mark and pick up the messenger line

The ETS can be stored on the roller in a closed box on deck or under deck similar to the anchor chain. The messenger part can be stored together or separated in another closed box on deck.

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ETS Retrieval by Orville Hook

Figure 37: 36Orville Hook used for retrieval lost towing line or ETS

In bad weather conditions or if the messenger line is nearby the casualty it might be very difficult to retrieve the pick-up buoy. Orville hooks are used during ocean towing to recover lost wire hawsers and therefore are only suitable to recover towing wires or towing chains. The retrieval of synthetic wires is although possible but difficult cause constant tension must be kept so that the retrieval systems doesn`t come off. An Orville Hook System consists of a very good floating buoy a so called trailing buoy which is connected to a chain and the Orville Hook. The tug then needs to circle around the lost tow so that the hook will lock the lost tow.

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Navy Towing Manual, Revised 3

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4. Overall Conclusion
In case of an emergency it is absolutely vital to react timely, effective and with competence. In the last twenty years we`ve seen a lot of accidents causing devastating harm. Every year around 100000 ships are crossing the German bight. International shipping routes like the Kadetrinne with partly only 18m depth and about 4 big tanker ships crossing daily are extreme vulnerable and therefore need special protection. In the last 15 years Germany has done a lot to improve safety by providing an emergency contingency plan with modern ETV`s and regular safety drills as well as partnerships with neighbour countries like Denmark and Netherlands. After the Pallas incident Germany tried to implement the Grobecker recommendation Nr. 16 but only achieved a compromise, the MSC.1/Circ.1255 Guidelines for Owner /Operators on Preparing Emergency Towing Procedures. The Circular intends to assist ISM personnel in the implementation of an Emergency Towing Response Plan as part of the emergency preparedness. The Guidelines require a listing of relevant information together with a review of possible emergency towing patterns and an equipment inventory suitable for emergency towing. Several analyses of unsuccessful emergency towing incidents showed clearly that the most dangerous and complicated part is the rigging of a durable towing connection. In my thesis I repeatedly pointed out that in case of an emergency timely action by

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experienced personnel and organization37 are the key to success. The IMO Guideline requires a list of material that can be used for emergency towing, but substitution of materials can be dangerous as well as detrimental to the tow 38. For example the softening point of polypropylene mooring lines is around 150C, the melting point at ca. 170C. The Guidelines for Owner /Operators on Preparing Emergency Towing Procedures are implemented by ISM dedicated personnel without any special qualification on emergency towing. Most of the people I talked to are as well as authorities still convinced that an anchor or anchor chain can be used for emergency towing. Emergency towing with an anchor is a very dangerous operation for which you need a boarding team of specialists and very good weather condition that you have a chance of success. Until now three sample forms of Emergency Towing Procedures exist. All three are similar and made as complete as possible. Fear of responsibility in case of an emergency leaves ISM personnel only one option to cover everything that might be of interest. Information which you can find on the wheelhouse poster and in nearly every other safety documentation is repeated again and again. The goal to achieve a higher standard of safety wasn`t achieved at all. But another proof of responsibility was created to show the world that somebody is responsible once again the owner and master of a ship take a little more responsibility.

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Charles Claden, Responding to a major marine casualty Unites States Navy Towing Manual, 2002

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So is it possible to be prepared for the next disaster? It doesn`t matter what measures will be taken cause the next major emergency will come. Even the best emergency contingency plan will show us the limits of controlling an emergency. Why? Because it is the nature of an emergency to be uncontrollable. But prevention is better than reducing damage. What we need in the future is a dedicated and strong crew working with good seamanship. Fatigue and poor education as part of the human factor are the cause of 60-70% of all accidents. As emergency towing is necessary as a result of previous failures it is therefore logical that the best way to improve safety is by reducing the risks of collisions, fire, navigational errors and fatigue. So I hope that in the future the IMO will widen up the existing regulations for Emergency Towing Systems once again to at least all ships above 20,000dtw. All ships should share the same safety standard that already works well on tanker ships above 20,000dtw. Especially high dense traffic zones with small deep see lines would benefit from the new safety standard.

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Sources:
Internet Sources:

Definition Emergency http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/emergency.html

Definition Emergency Towing http://www.envir.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=preview/id=831438/The+German+Emergen cy+Towing+Strategy.pdf

UK ETV Anglian Princess during an emergency towing exercise http://www.maritimejournal.com/__data/assets/image/0009/168048/Anglian_Princss.JP G

Towing Hawser http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ars52_towing_ssbn624.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawser

Chafing during towing on bitts http://fjordinc.com/index.php/chafe-pro/why-you-should-use-chafe-pro

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Typical outboard chafing end http://www.veristar.com/bvrules/B_10_s4_4_8.htm

Figure 14: Chock as part of an ETS http://img.nauticexpo.com/images_ne/press/press-g/emergency-towing-arrangementseta-P196937.jpg

Figure 15: Towing fairlead http://www.tugboats.de/bilder_fuer_bericht_claus/towing%20fairlead_at_the_bow.jpg

Figure 16: lead of hawser through H-Bitt towards winch http://www.vht-online.de/vht2008/pdf/Bollard-Pull.pdf - page 2

Definition of Bitt http://www.thefreedictionary.com/bitt

Figure 18: single drum towing winch http://img.nauticexpo.com/images_ne/photo-m2/towing-winch-electric-drive-single-drum195975.jpg

Figure 19: towing machine http://tugster.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/aawn.jpg?w=500&h=375

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Padeye Definition http://en.mimi.hu/boating/pad_eye.html

Book: Mare Liberum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mare_Liberum

Frequently used http://www.towage-salvage.com

Alaska Emergency Towing Systems Project, http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/perp/ets/

Padeye http://www.tpub.com/content/boats/TB-55-1900-232-10/TB-55-1900-232-100054.htm

Towing bracket http://www.towage-salvage.com/files/tow1_020.jpg

Figure 22: 120ton smit towing bracket for dia 64mm, dia 76mm anchor chain http://www.exportdeck.com/144660/product-5867812/photo-7606683/smit-bracket.shtml

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Figure 23: AHTS is handling a special lightweight oil rig anchor http://www.seabedassist.nl/anchor_handling+.JPG Figure 24: ETS for helicopter transfer prepared in port http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/perp/ets/

Manuals from Aker Pusnes AS http://www.akersolutions.com/en/

Figure 28: ETS Helicopter drill by Alaska Emergency Towing Systems Project http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/perp/ets/

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Written Sources:

ECHNICAL POLICY BOARD GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS 0030/ND

Helmepa / Tsavliris Salvage: A Guide for the Emergency Towing Arrangements, 1998

U.S. Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular 1992, Subject: Guidelines for wire rope towing hawsers

Manuals of Aker Pusnes AS, Service Box 732, NO-4808 Arendal, Norway, E-mail: pusnes@akersolutions.com, www.akersolutions.com/pusnes, Tel: +47 37 08 73 00, Fax: +47 37 08 65 50

Noble Denton, TECHNICAL POLICY BOARD GUIDELINES FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATIONS, 0030/ND REV 3

Noble Denton TECHNICAL POLICY BOARD GUIDELINES FOR THE APPROVAL OF TOWING VESSELS, 0021/ND REV 7

The Practice of Ocean Rescue by R.E. Sanders, Revised 1977, Glasgow, Brown, Son & Ferguson, Ltd. , Nautical Publishers,

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U.S. ARMY TOWING MANUAL, 30 SEPTEMBER 1991

U.S. NAVY TOWING MANUAL, 1 JULY 2002, REVISION 3

Bericht der unabhngigen Expertenkomission Havarie Pallas Grobecker Bericht vom 16.2.2000

Aleutian Islands Emergency Towing System (ETS), ADEC Exercise Report, September 21, 2007

Aleutian Islands Alaska Emergency Towing Systems, AIRA Advisory Panel Meeting, September 1, 2009

Rescue towing by Michael Hancox, Volume One, Oifield Seamanship

Formal Safety Assessment on Emergency Towing Systems for other ships than tankers 20,000 tdw as amended in October 2003 Funded by: German Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing Project No.: 1011 Prepared by: Captain Christian Bahlke, Captain Ute Hannemann, Prof. Capt. Hermann Kaps,December 2001

IMO Mandatory emergency towing systems (ETS) in ships other than tankers greater than 20,000 dwt,SUB-COMMITTEE ON SHIP DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT, 47th session, Agenda item 24, DE 47/INF.3, 26 November 2003

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IMO GUIDELINES FOR OWNERS/OPERATORS ON PREPARING EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES, Ref.: T4/3.01 MSC.1/Circ.1255, 27 May 2008

Responding to a major Marine Casualty, Charles Claden, Captain of the ETV Ebeille Bourbon, Senior Salvage Master

Focus on Emergency Towing from Ecologys Spill Prevention, Preparedness, and Response Program, U.S.A.

Protection of the Wadden Sea from ship accidents through the establishment of a PSSA Wadden Sea,WWF

THE STRANDING OF MV PALLAS OFF THE GERMAN COAST CLOSE TO THE ISLE OF AMRUM,y Capt. Klaus Schroh, Federal Marine Pollution Control Unit of Germany, Am Alfen Hafen 2 - D . 2747 CUXHAVEN Tel: 04721 56 74 80 - Fax: 04721 56 74 90 . E-mail: schroh.sbm@gmw.de

Proceedings of the symposium on the behaviour of disabled large tankers, held jointly by the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, the Royal Institute of Navigation and the Nautical Institute at the Cunard International Hotel, Hammersmith, London, June 9 and 10, 1981

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Disabled tankers : report of studies on ship drift and towage by Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF)

Tugs and towing: A worldwide survey of the vessels, techniques and development of the towage business Deep-sea towage, salvage and heavy lift markets by Drewry Shipping Consultants

OCIMF recommendations on equipment for the towing of disabled tankers by Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) Modern towing by Blank, John S .

A guide for the emergency towing arrangements by Hellenic Marine Environment Protection Association (HELMEPA) ; Tsavliris Salvage (International)

Towing Gear, Bollard Pull, Action to be taken when the ship is aground and statistics from Verein Hanseatischer Transportversicherer

REPORT ON THE SELENDANG AYU INCIDENT, Prepared by Parker Associates Inc. For Alaska Oceans Program, 3724 Campbell Airstrip Road Anchorage, Alaska 99504, Phone: (907) 333-5189, Fax: (907) 333-5153, wbparker@gci.net, lakosh@gci.net, June 6, 2005

COMDTINST M16672.2A, COLREGS, United States Department of Transportation USCG Navigation Rules-International and Inland, 23 December 1983

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Knight's Modern Seamanship, John V. Noel, Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 16th edition, 1977. 4. NSTM 631, Preservation of Ships in Service (Surface Preparation and Painting), 1 April 1981.

ATP-43 (NAVY), Ship-to-Ship Towing, Change 1, May 1987.

Recommendations on Emergency Towing Requirements for Tankers, International Maritime Organization,Resolution A-535 (13), 17 November 1983.

Peril at Sea and Salvage: A Guide for Masters, The International Chamber of Shipping, Oil Companies International, Marine Forum (OCIMF), 2nd Edition, September 1982

OCIMF Standards for Equipment Employed in the Mooring of Ships at Single Point Moorings, Oil Companies International Marine Forum, London, 1978.

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Annex Content of Annexes Annex 1: Annex 2: Annex 3: Annex 4: Annex 5: Annex 6: Key Point Matrix IMO MSC: Emergency towing arrangements on tankers IMO MSC: Mandatory Emergency Towing Systems in Ships other than Tankers of not less than 20,000 DWT IMO MSC Mandatory emergency towing systems (ETS) Grobecker Committee Advice Nr. 16: IMO MSC.1/Circ.1255 27 May 2008 82 83 90 94 102 107 109

Annex 1: Key Points Matrix39

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U.S. NAVY TOWING MANUAL, SL740-AA-MAN-010, Revision 3, Appendix H

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The following table provides some valuable key aspects for towing. Then the points are evaluated for an Emergency Towing Situation . Yes Depends on Situation (Nature of Accident, Good Seamanship, etc.) Not certain Not possible for whatever reason

Ship

To Check for Ocean Towing General Plan Actual Stability (GM, KG, Roll period) Ballast Onboard Search for Cracks History of hull repairs? Any previous damages Type of Steering Equipment Plans of Steering Equipment Dry-dock Records available Inspection of hull and equipment Strongpoints fit for towing

ET Note How to transmit? Accident? New KG? Accident? Cargo? Insufficient time Actual Condition? Reliable? Rely upon ChEng Management? Reliable Records Insufficient time Checked?

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Equipment on board for towing Backup Equipment for towing Communication Equipment Checked

Proof of SWL? Sufficient?

ISM working?

Inspection of Safety Equipment Location and Inspection of Sea Valves, Hatches, Ventilations, Doors,.. Ventilations sealed Condition of bilges

ISM working? Regular serviced?

Watertight? Pumps working? Electricity available?

Inspection of all compartments

Time? Too dangerous?

All equipment on deck secured

Secured with wire or rope? What equipment on deck?

All Alarms tested

ISM? Any damage?

Type or Rudder used Plans, Instruction about Rudder How are Rudder(s) Locked

Damage in ECR? Tidy bookkeeping? Crew able to look rudder?

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Propeller free rotating Inspection of Stern tube How to access ship

How to disconnect? Any leaks? Crew able prepare access points? Weather Condition?

Prepare points of access

Ship heeling? Lower ladders (pilot, gangway, etc) if possible

Flooding alarms checked

ISM? Any damage?

Condition of batteries

ISM? Any damage?

Appropriate Navigational lights

Good Seamanship

Sensors working

ISM? Any damage?

Ship prepared for bad weather Fire pumps

Good Seamanship? Generators working? Any damages?

Bilge pumps

Generators working? Any damages?

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Auxiliary generator Quantities of fuel Fire fighting equipment Enough crew for emergency duties Navigational equipment checked Route checking: ice, shallow water Cargo Dangerous Goods

Any Problems or damage? Leaks? Good Seamanship Crew injured? ISM

Unknown! Substances can mix with each other!! Manufacturer only gives advice for mixing with water/sea water.

Tug Towing gear check Attachement points checked

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Connection points checked Winch tested Hawser checked and certified Towing certificate

Towline Weak points Inspection of tow Tow maintenance (Chafing?) Backup plan How to disconnect (emergency) Insufficient info! Too dangerous? Boarding Team? Unpredictable Depends fully on tug master

Anchor Emergency anchor Chain stoppers in use? Water depth?

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What emergency anchor Heavy weather Quick release Anchor winch Power supply for winch

Starboard or Port Anchor High Risk? Working? Electricity Working? Any Problems now? Future?

Crew Nationality How many crew members available Experience of the crew Communication Any injured persons? Communication? Explaining every step in detail!

Working Crew works as a team Knowledge of each crew members

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qualities After command no explanation needed Commander can rely upon crews judgment Condition of towline connection Calculable Variables

Annex 2: Emergency towing arrangements on tankers


MSC 84/24/Add.1 ANNEX 2

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ANNEX AMENDMENTS TO THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA, 1974, AS AMENDED CHAPTER II-1 CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE, SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY, MACHINERY AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Regulation 3-4 Emergency towing arrangements on tankers 1 The existing regulation 3-4 is replaced by the following: Regulation 3-4 Emergency towing arrangements and procedures 1 Emergency towing arrangements on tankers

1.1 Emergency towing arrangements shall be fitted at both ends on board every tanker of not less than 20,000 tonnes deadweight.

1.2

For tankers constructed on or after 1 July 2002:

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.1 the arrangements shall, at all times, be capable of rapid deployment in the absence of main power on the ship to be towed and easy connection to the towing ship. At least one of the emergency towing arrangements shall be pre-rigged ready for rapid deployment; and .2 emergency towing arrangements at both ends shall be of adequate strength taking into account the size and deadweight of the ship, and the expected forces during bad weather conditions. The design and construction and prototype testing of emergency towing arrangements shall be approved by the Administration, based on the Guidelines developed by the Organization*. 1.3 For tankers constructed before 1 July 2002, the design and construction of emergency towing arrangements shall be approved by the Administration, based on the Guidelines developed by the Organization*. 2 2.1 Emergency towing procedures on ships This paragraph applies to: .1 all passenger ships, not later than 1 January 2010; .2 cargo ships constructed on or after 1 January 2010; and .3 cargo ships constructed before 1 January 2010, not later than 1 January 2012.

2.2 Ships shall be provided with a ship-specific emergency towing procedure. Such a procedure shall be carried aboard the ship for use in emergency situations and shall be based on existing arrangements and equipment available on board the ship.

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2.3

The procedure** shall include: .1 drawings of fore and aft deck showing possible emergency towing arrangements; .2 .3 inventory of equipment on board that can be used for emergency towing; means and methods of communication; and

.4 sample procedures to facilitate the preparation for and conducting of emergency towing operations. ________ * Refer to the Guidelines on emergency towing arrangements for tankers, adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee by resolution MSC.35(63), as amended.
**

Refer to the Guidelines for owners/operators on preparing emergency towing procedures (MSC.1/Circ.1255).

The following new regulation 3-9 is added after the existing regulation 3-8:

Regulation 3-9 Means of embarkation on and disembarkation from ships

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1 Ships constructed on or after 1 January 2010 shall be provided with means of embarkation on and disembarkation from ships for use in port and in port related operations, such as gangways and accommodation ladders, in accordance with paragraph 2, unless the Administration deems that compliance with a particular provision is unreasonable or impractical*. 2 The means of embarkation and disembarkation required in paragraph 1 shall be constructed and installed based on the guidelines developed by the Organization**. 3 For all ships the means of embarkation and disembarkation shall be inspected and maintained** in suitable condition for their intended purpose, taking into account any restrictions related to safe loading. All wires used to support the means of embarkation and disembarkation shall be maintained as specified in regulation III/20.4. _____________ * Circumstances where compliance may be deemed unreasonable or impractical may include where the ship: .1 has small freeboards and is provided with boarding ramps; or .2 is engaged in voyages between designated ports where appropriate shore accommodation/embarkation ladders (platforms) are provided.
**

Refer to the Guidelines for construction, installation, maintenance and inspection/survey of accommodation ladders and gangways, to be developed by the Organization.

Annex 3: MANDATORY EMERGENCY TOWING SYSTEMS IN SHIPS OTHER THAN TANKERS OF NOT LESS THAN 20,000 DWT

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INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION

IMO SUB-COMMITTEE ON SHIP DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT 49th session Agenda item 7 DE 49/WP.5 22 February 2006 Original: ENGLISH

MANDATORY EMERGENCY TOWING SYSTEMS IN SHIPS OTHER THAN TANKERS OF NOT LESS THAN 20,000 DWT Report of the drafting group

GENERAL

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1 The Drafting Group on Mandatory Emergency Towing Systems in Ships other than Tankers of not less than 20,000 dwt met from 21 to 22 February 2006 under the chairmanship of Mr. S. Assheuer (Germany) and was attended by representatives from the following Member Governments: CHINA GERMANY ISRAEL ITALY JAPAN MARSHALL ISLANDS NETHERLANDS NORWAY REPUBLIC OF KOREA SPAIN UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES

and observers from the following non-governmental organizations in consultative status: INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF SHIPPING (ICS) INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF CRUISE LINES (ICCL) THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS (RINA)

TERMS OF REFERENCE

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2 The group was instructed, taking into account the comments and decisions made in plenary, to: .1 further develop the draft amendments to SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4 on Emergency towing arrangements on tankers, on the basis of the report of the correspondence group (annex 1 of document DE 49/7); develop guidelines for owners/operators on the development of emergency towing procedures that will provide information to the master on how to prepare the ship to be taken under tow [from the bow] for foreseeable scenarios, bearing in mind that: .1 such a document will be carried aboard the ship and available in emergency situations; it will be based on an expert evaluation of existing arrangements and equipment available on board the ship; it will furnish appropriate information on how that equipment should be assembled; and it will include advice on other preparations that should be made for towing;

.2

.2

.3

.4 .3

advise the Sub-Committee whether a correspondence group should be established and if so, prepare draft terms of reference for consideration by the Sub-Committee; and submit a report to plenary on Thursday, 23 February 2006.

.4

3 The group was also instructed by the Sub-Committee to take into consideration the following:

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.1

the draft amendments should be applicable to new and existing ships (other than tankers subject to existing SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4), with an assumed entry-into-force date of 1 July 2008; the emergency towing procedures should be verified by the ships flag administration; and the emergency towing procedures should be added to the list of documents to be carried aboard all ships (FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151).

.2

.3

AMENDMENTS TO SOLAS REGULATION II-1/3-4

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4 As instructed by the Sub-Committee, the group reviewed the draft amendments to SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4 on Emergency towing arrangements on tankers, on the basis of the report of the correspondence group (DE 49/7, annex 1). However, taking into consideration the comments made in plenary to focus the SOLAS amendments on functional requirements for procedures rather than requiring additional equipment the group considered it necessary to redraft annex 1 of document DE 49/7. Eventually, the group unanimously agreed to the revised draft SOLAS amendments as set out in the annex to this report. 5 In the context of the possible application of a proposed draft SOLAS amendment and in view of the decision made in plenary to apply the proposed amendment to cargo ships above 500 gross tonnage and all passenger ships, the group discussed possible difficulties regarding the application to existing ships. The group noted that in existing ships, certain information may not always be available, e.g. capacity of bollards. However, the group agreed that the proposed draft SOLAS amendment should apply to existing ships and the above mentioned difficulties could be taken into account when developing the guidelines for procedures. Bearing in mind that one date of coming into force for all ships, both new and existing, could lead to a bottleneck in developing the required procedures, the group agreed to split the date of entry into force in two phases: one date for new ships, existing cargo ships above 20,000 dwt, and existing passenger ships; and another date for existing cargo ships below 20,000 dwt two years later. 6 Noting that SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4 requires emergency towing arrangements on tankers of not less than 20,000 dwt the group discussed the application of emergency towing procedures also to such tankers. Noting further that the existing SOLAS requirements as well as the guidelines on emergency towing arrangements for tankers adopted by resolution MSC.35(63) do not explicitly contain requirements for procedures, but on the other hand most of those ships are provided with respective procedures anyway, the group agreed to apply the new procedures also to tankers of not less than 20,000 dwt. 7 The group noted the comments made during previous meetings and in the correspondence group and discussed the exemption of ships fitted with redundant propulsion systems. Some delegations were of the opinion that having a redundant propulsion would significantly reduce the likelihood of a ship facing such emergency situations and consequently such additional investments in the ships safety should be encouraged by exemptions, while other delegations felt that emergency towing procedures would be beneficial also for ships having redundant propulsion. However, after further discussion, the group agreed not to provide for exemption of ships having redundant propulsion systems. In case of, for example, offshore supply vessels, it was mentioned that in particular such ships could be used for towing and subsequently it could be of additional value to reflect this different view in their onboard procedures.

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8 In paragraph 2.2 of the terms of references the question was implied whether to limit the procedures to towing over the bow only or not. Aside from possible misinterpretations in case of, for example, double ended ferries, the group was of the opinion that there would be no benefits in such a limitation, in particular as the additional burden to extend the considerations for establishment of emergency towing procedures to towing over the aft would be minor. Subsequently no such limitation to one end of a ship was included in the draft. 9 In the course of drafting the proposed SOLAS amendments a certain affinity to the ISM requirements was noted and it was discussed whether the proposed text would thus be more suitable as part of SOLAS chapter IX. However, having in mind the different concept in ship management requirements, it was agreed that detailed requirements closely related to technical equipment should better remain in chapter II-1 of SOLAS and to refer to implications regarding ISM Code matters with a clear reference in the guidelines to be developed. Certificates and documents required to be carried on board ships 10 The group discussed the term verified (see paragraph 3.2 above) and concluded this should be considered as a verification that such procedures are available on board, rather than an approval or verification of the content. The group concluded that such availability on board could sufficiently be granted by inclusion of the emergency towing procedures in FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151. 11 In line with paragraph 3.3 above, the group agreed that the emergency towing procedures should be added to the list of documents to be carried on board ships and that circular FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 should be amended accordingly and invited the Sub-Committee to concur with this decision and take appropriate action.

Other ship types

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12 The group noted the special characteristics and operational environment of high-speed craft and did not believe that it was in a position to assess the need for emergency towing procedures for such craft. Subsequently the group proposes to the Sub-Committee to consider the need of such procedures for high-speed craft. 13 Furthermore the group noted possible implications on navigational issues and thus propose to request the Committee to inform the NAV Sub-Committee about the on-going work about emergency towing procedures at the DE Sub-Committee. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INTERSESSIONAL CORRESPONDENCE GROUP 14 The group further recognized that they could not finalize the guidelines referred to in the terms of reference. Therefore, the group considered that the guidelines will require further substantive consideration and recommended that the Sub-Committee should re-establish the correspondence group with the following terms of reference: .1 further develop the guidelines for owners/operators on the development of emergency towing procedures, on the basis of the report of the drafting group (DE 49/WP.5); and to submit a report to DE 50. ACTION REQUESTED OF THE SUB-COMMITTEE 15 The Sub-Committee is invited to approve the report in general and, in particular, to: .1 approve the proposed draft amendment to SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4 on emergency towing procedures (paragraphs 4 to 9 and annex); consider the question of application of emergency towing procedures to high-speed craft and take action as appropriate (paragraph 12);

.2

.2

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.3

inform the NAV Sub-Committee about the draft SOLAS amendment on emergency towing procedures (paragraph 13); concur with the opinion of the group that the correspondence group should be re-established with the proposed terms of reference (paragraph 14); and recommend to the Committee an extension of the target completion date for the item to 2007.

.4

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***

Annex 4: MSC Mandatory emergency towing systems (ETS)

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INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION

IMO SUB-COMMITTEE ON SHIP DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT 47th session Agenda item 24 DE 47/24/3 11 December 2003 Original: ENGLISH

ANY OTHER BUSINESS Mandatory emergency towing systems (ETS): Problems relating to offshore support vessels Submitted by the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA)

SUMMARY

Executive summary:

This document refers to a proposal made at MSC 76 to include a new agenda item in the DE Sub-Committee work programme regarding the mandatory introduction of emergency towing systems to ships other than the present scope of application.

Action to be taken:

Paragraph 7

Related documents:

SOLAS chapter II-1/3-4; resolution MSC.35(63); MSC 76/20/3

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1 At the seventy-sixth session of the Maritime Safety Committee, there was a submission by Germany, in document MSC 76/20/3, regarding Emergency Towing Systems (ETS). 2 The recommendation is in essence, to expand the mandatory equipment with ETS to all merchant ships of 300 GT and above. There is a proposal to include an agenda item in the work programme of the DE Sub-Committee to reconsider the present limitation of approved (ETS) and to expand the application to all merchant ships. 3 The Marine Division Management Committee of the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) has considered MSC 76/20/3. It considers that the implementation of requirements based on proposals set out in that paper could prove extremely difficult, if not impossible, for many offshore support vessels, particularly those involved in construction operations. Such vessels are, for example, pipe layers, trenching vessels and all vessels which operate with complex equipment deployed from the stern. For the sake of simplicity, this paper refers to all types as offshore support vessels. 4 In addition to the physical difficulties envisaged, the particular nature of work in this environment requires a strong focus on safety-related matters and, whilst the idea of having ETS available seems in keeping with that, the practical effect could be to create extra hazards. 5 The following points highlight the issues identified so far. .1 Stern ETS is nearly impossible on pipe laying vessels, trenching vessels and similar vessels which are operating with equipment deployed from the stern, such as a stinger and the stinger handling mechanism on a pipe layer; equipment on trencher deployment cranes, construction and other vessels with A-frames and/or other equipment on the stern. With regard to paragraph 3.2 of MSC 76/20/3, offshore support vessels are not normally subject to the safety problems implicit in low manning.

.2

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.3

With regard to the lack of power availability referred to in paragraph 3.2 of MSC 76/20/3, a large number of offshore support vessels are classed for dynamic positioning (DP) operations and have redundant engine capacity in addition to emergency auxiliary power. This means that a total black-out is extremely unlikely and that even in the case of a total black-out, or with a fire in one of the engine rooms, power can be available again in a short period of time. With regard to paragraph 3.3 of MSC 76/20/3 most offshore support vessels are more likely to carry marine diesel oil and/or gas oil as opposed to heavy fuel oil. If ETS is to be accessible on board as required, pre-rigged and available within the time frame envisaged by the requirements of MSC.35(63)* (that is (aft) for deployment by one man with absence of ship's power in 15 minutes (in harbour conditions) and forward in one hour), then it is certain to be necessary to stow the tackle on deck. Even if it were possible to stow off-deck, a problem would arise from the restricted amount of suitable storage space below or off-deck on most offshore support vessels, especially any space that would be appropriate for rapid deployment. The equipment required, such as chafing chain and a towing pennant, if permanently deployed on the decks, will constitute a safety hazard on most of the diverse types of offshore support vessels. These vessels have a restricted amount of available deck space. The space that does exist is needed by the crew for operations, these being more complex than are usual on conventional cargo vessels. The complex nature of the deck work in operational conditions on most of the various types of offshore support vessels is such that the addition of extra hazards would not be welcome.

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.8

Offshore support vessels often work in poor environmental conditions and if such equipment is permanently on deck it will be subject to greater deterioration than

Note: MSC.35(63) is referred to in SOLAS AMENDMENTS 2000 chapter II-I as a note under regulation 3-4.

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on most other types of vessel. If it is heavily protected then that will be likely to affect speed and ease of deployment. .9 Offshore support vessels are usually working in areas where suitable assistance can often be obtained relatively quickly from other vessels in that area, such as anchor handlers and supply vessels, which are usually very suitable for salvage assistance and usually have crews who are used to towing operations. Their suitability is acknowledged in the annex to MSC 76/20/3. It is understood that the requirement to fit emergency towing systems (ETS) to the stern derives from the dangers of sending crew forward from the accommodation block in the adverse conditions likely to be prevalent when ETS is required. Many offshore support vessels, for example those designed for supply and anchor handling, have their accommodation situated forward and any requirement to send crew aft, with the possibility of green seas breaking over the deck, is considered to be incompatible with a Masters duty of care to his crew. By design, these latter types of offshore support vessel have a reduced freeboard at the stern. It is considered that should such a vessel be towed from the stern there is the likelihood that the aft deck will become awash and that the vessel would then suffer a consequent decrease in stability and control, which could be fatal to the vessel. In these circumstances it is not considered possible for a tow to be carried out safely.

.10

.11

6 For these reasons, IMCA believes that if the requirement for ETS is extended further then there should be exceptions for offshore support vessels. IMCA would welcome being of assistance in any technical investigations that the Committee considers should be undertaken.

Action requested of the Sub-Committee

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7 The Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment is invited to take note of the above information and take action as appropriate.

__________

Annex 5: Grobecker Committee Advice Nr. 16:

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Annex 6: IMO MSC.1/Circ.1255 27 May 2008

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION 4 ALBERT EMBANKMENT LONDON SE1 7SR

E
Telephone: 020 7735 7611 Fax: 020 7587 3210

IMO

Ref.: T4/3.01 MSC.1/Circ.1255 27 May 2008

GUIDELINES FOR OWNERS/OPERATORS ON PREPARING EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES 1 The Maritime Safety Committee, at its eighty-fourth session (7 to 16 May 2008), following a recommendation of the fiftieth session of the Sub-Committee on Ship Design and Equipment, approved Guidelines for owners/operators on preparing emergency towing procedures, set out in the annex, aimed at assisting owners/operators in preparing shipspecific emergency towing procedures for ships subject to SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4.

2 The Guidelines are intended to help owners/operators to carry out the necessary steps in establishing emergency towing procedures, provide information on the scope of the emergency towing booklet and give guidance towards creating procedures for towage. 3 The procedures developed by means of these Guidelines aim at supporting the crew in establishing the safest and most efficient course of action to be taken when confronted with an emergency that requires towing.

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4 Member Governments are invited to bring the annexed Guidelines to the attention of all parties concerned for application in conjunction with SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4 (Emergency towing arrangements and procedures).

***

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MSC.1/Circ.1255 ANNEX GUIDELINES FOR OWNERS/OPERATORS ON PREPARING EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES

1 PURPOSE The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist owners/operators in preparing ship-specific emergency towing procedures for ships subject to SOLAS regulation II-1/3-4. The procedures should be considered as part of the emergency preparedness required by paragraph 8 of part A of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code. 2 OBSERVATIONS 2.1 Owners, operators and crews should take into consideration that the nature of an emergency does not allow time for deliberation. Accordingly, the procedures should be practiced beforehand. 2.2 The towing procedures should be maintained on board the ship for ready use by the ships crew in preparing their ship for towage in an emergency. 2.3 The crew should have good knowledge of equipment stowage location and accessibility . Any identified improvements to stowage arrangements should be implemented. 2.4 Crew dealing with an emergency situation should be aware of power availability required for winches and tools, as well as for deck lighting (for bad/low visibility and night time situations). 2.5 It is recognized that not all ships will have the same degree of shipboard equipment, so that there may be limits to possible towing procedures. Nevertheless, the intention is to predetermine what can be accomplished, and provide this information to the ships crew in a ready-to-use format (booklet, plans, poster, etc.). 3 SHIP EVALUATION 3.1 The owner/operator should ensure that the ship is inspected and its capability to be towed under emergency situations is evaluated. Both equipment on board and available procedures should be reviewed. Items that need to be inspected are described in the

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following paragraphs. 3.2 The ability of the ship to be towed from bow and stern should be evaluated, and the following items should be reviewed: .1 line handling procedures (passing and receiving messenger lines, towlines, bridles); and .2 layout, structural adequacy and safe working loads of connection points (fairleads chocks, winches, bitts, bollards), etc.

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MSC.1/Circ.1255 ANNEX Page 2

3.3 The on-board tools and equipment available for assembling the towing gear and their locations should be identified. These should include but not be limited to: .1 chains; .2 cables; .3 shackles; .4 stoppers; .5 tools; and .6 line throwing apparatus. 3.4 The availability and characteristics of radio equipment on board should be identified, in order to enable communication between deck crew, bridge and the towing/salvage ship. 3.5 Unless the safe working loads of connection points are known, these loads should be determined by an engineering analysis reflecting the on-board conditions of the ship. The Guidance on shipboard towing and mooring equipment (MSC/Circ.1175) may be used for guidance. 3.6 The evaluation should be performed by persons knowledgeable in towing equipment and operations. 4 EMERGENCY TOWING BOOKLET 4.1 The Emergency Towing Booklet (ETB) should be ship specific and be presented in a clear, concise and ready-to-use format (booklet, plan, poster, etc.). 4.2 Ship-specific data should include but not be limited to: .1 ships name; .2 call sign; .3 IMO number; .4 anchor details (shackle, connection details, weight, type, etc.); .5 cable and chain details (lengths, connection details, proof load, etc.); .6 height of mooring deck(s) above base; .7 draft range; and .8 displacement range.

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MSC.1/Circ.1255 ANNEX Page 3

4.3 All procedures developed in accordance with section 5 should be presented in a clear and easy to understand format, which will aid their smooth and swift application in an emergency situation. 4.4 Comprehensive diagrams and sketches should be available and include the following: .1 assembly and rigging diagrams; .2 towing equipment and strong point locations; and .3 equipment and strong point capacities and safe working loads (SWLs). 4.5 A copy should be kept at hand by the owners/operators in order to facilitate the passing on of information to the towage company as early as possible in the emergency. A copy should also be kept in a common electronic file format, which will allow faster distribution to the concerned parties. 4.6 A minimum of three copies should be kept on board and located in: .1 the bridge; .2 a forecastle space; and .3 the ships office or cargo control room. 5 DEVELOPING PROCEDURES 5.1 Ship-specific procedures should be identified during the ships evaluation and entered accordingly in the ETB. The procedures should include, as a minimum, the following: .1 a quick-reference decision matrix that summarizes options under various emergency scenarios, such as weather conditions (mild, severe), availability of shipboard power (propulsion, on-deck power), imminent danger of grounding, etc.; .2 organization of deck crew (personnel distribution, equipment distribution, including radios, safety equipment, etc.); .3 organization of tasks (what needs to be done, how it should be done, what is needed for each task, etc.); .4 diagrams for assembling and rigging bridles, tow lines, etc., showing possible emergency towing arrangements for both fore and aft. Rigged lines should be lead such that they avoid sharp corners, edges and other points of stress concentration;

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.6 a communications plan for contacting the salvage/towing ship . This plan should list all information that the ships master needs to communicate to the salvage/towing ship. This list should include but not be limited to: .1 damage or seaworthiness; .2 status of ship steering; .3 propulsion; .4 on deck power systems; .5 on-board towing equipment; .6 existing emergency rapid disconnection system; .7 forward and aft towing point locations; .8 equipment, connection points, strong points and safe working loads (SWL); .9 towing equipment dimensions and capacities; and .10 ship particulars; .7 evaluation of existing equipment, tools and arrangements on board the ship for possible use in rigging a towing bridle and securing a towline; .8 identification of any minor tools or equipment providing significant improvements to the towability of the ship; .9 inventory and location of equipment on board that can be used during an emergency towing situation; .10 other preparations (locking rudder and propeller shaft, ballast and trim, etc.); and .11 other relevant information (limiting sea states, towing speeds, etc.). ____________

.5 power shortages and dead ship situations, which must be taken into account, especially for the heaving across of heavy towing lines; MSC.1/Circ.1255 ANNEX Page 4