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Seismic Connections Seminar

Detailing High Seismic Projects

Introduction Background
Ductility Seismic Design

AISC Seismic Provisions


Seismic Load Resisting System (SLRS) Structural Requirements Drawing Requirements

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility The ability of a material to deform without fracture Dependent on:


Material Properties Geometry Temperature Constraint Etc

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility
Toughness: resistance to unstable crack propagation in the presence of a notch Charpy V-Notch (CVN) test measures toughness

Ductility Charpy V-Notch (CVN) test


Impact test performed on a notched specimen according to ASTM A370 Specimen is machined from member to be tested

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility Charpy V-Notch (CVN) test


Specimen is struck and broken in a single blow in a specially designed testing machine

Ductility Charpy V-Notch (CVN) test


Energy absorbed in breaking the specimen is measured Results given in ft-lbs at a certain temperature Example: Welds shall use filler metal with a minimum CVN toughness of 20 ft-lbs at 0o F

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility Unrestrained necking down of the material

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility Potential for cracking can increase if the material is constrained in a way that keeps the material from necking down

Free to yield

Restrained

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility Ductile:
Yielding Bearing deformation at bolt holes

Ductility

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility Less desirable


Tension or shear rupture Bolt shear Block shear

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Ductility

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ductility

Seismic Design

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design

Why are there special seismic requirements? System Ductility

Seismic Design System Ductility is the Ability of a System to Maintain Stability After Yielding/Overload of Some Elements
Ability of Yielding/Overloaded Elements to Deform Ability of Non-yielding Elements to Withstand Forces Redistributed by Yielding Ability of Non-yielding Elements to Withstand Deformations Caused by Yielding

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design Conventional Building Code Philosophy Objective: Prevent collapse in extreme earthquakes Objectives are not necessarily to:
limit damage maintain function provide for easy repair

Seismic Design
V

Ductility = Inelastic Deformation Earthquake Load, V

Failure (rupture or instability) Deformation,

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design
As required elastic strength reduces (i.e. larger Rfactor) required inelastic deformation increases
Completely elastic response
Velastic 0.75Velastic 0. 5Velastic 0.25Velastic

Earthquake Load, V

As elastic design load decreases, required inelastic deformation increases

yield

Deformation,

max

Seismic Design

Table 12.2-1 ASCE 7-05

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Response Modification Factor, R


Elastic Response of Structure VElastic

Lateral Seismic Force, V

VYield

Fully Yielded Strength

Yielding VDesign Design Force Level

Cd xe x e

Lateral Deflection,

Seismic Design

How does seismic design provide ductility?

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design
Choose frame elements ("fuses") that will yield in an earthquake Fuses must be ductile

Seismic Design

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design
Designed for the expected flexural yield strength of the beam, qualify through testing

Ensure beams can rotate inelastically to expected strength

Fuse: flexural yielding of beam ends

Seismic Design

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design
Designed for the expected tensile and compressive strengths of the brace Ensure braces can deform inelastically to expected strength of brace

Fuse: tension yielding of braces

Seismic Design

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design
Link

Ensure links can deform inelastically to expected shear strength

Fuse: Shear yielding of links

Seismic Design

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Design

Fuse: Web Element

Seismic Design

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC 341, Part I:


General 1: Scope 2: Referenced Standards 3: General Seismic Design 4: Loads, Load Combinations, Strengths 5: Contract Documents 6: Materials 7: Connections 8: Members 9-17: Structural Systems 18: Quality Assurance Plan (App. Q) Appendices P, R, S, T, W, X

All Frame Members Each system type All Projects Special information and procedures

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions Scope


Design Fabrication Erection Structural Steel Members in the SLRS Connections in the SLRS All Column Splices R>3

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions

Seismic Load Resisting Systems (SLRS)

Seismic Load Resisting Systems (SLRS) Assembly of structural elements in the building that resists seismic loads.

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Seismic Load Resisting Systems (SLRS) Moment Frames Special Moment Frames (SMF) Intermediate Moment Frames (IMF) Ordinary Moment Frames (OMF) Special Truss Moment Frames (STMF)

Seismic Load Resisting Systems (SLRS) Braced Frames Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF) Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames (OCBF) Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF) Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF) Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Part 4 Moment Frames


Special Moment Frames (SMF) Intermediate Moment Frames (IMF) Ordinary Moment Frames (OMF)

Special Moment Frames (SMF)

Expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations (R = 8)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Intermediate Moment Frames (IMF) Expected to withstand limited inelastic deformations (R = 4.5) Requirements are less stringent than SMF

Ordinary Moment Frames (OMF)

Expected to withstand minimal inelastic deformations (R = 3.5)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Part 3 Braced Frames Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frame Systems (OCBF) Special Concentrically Braced Frame Systems (SCBF) Eccentrically Braced Frame Systems (EBF)

Concentric Braced Frames

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames (OCBF)

Expected to withstand limited inelastic deformation (R = 3.25)

Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

Expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations (R = 6)

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF)

>2t

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)

Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)

Part 5 Other Systems


Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF) Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW) Special Truss Moment Frames (STMF)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)

Expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations (R = 7 to 8)

Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)


Encasing Encasing mortar mortar

Unbonded Brace Type

Yielding steel Yielding steel core core

Decoupling

Debonding material Debonding material between steel core and between steel core and mortar mortar

Buckling Restraint

Steel tube Steel tube

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)

Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)

Courtesy of STAR Seismic

Courtesy of K.C. Tsai

Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)

Expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations (R = 7)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)

Horizontal and Vertical Boundary Elements: Ensure web can deform inelastically to expected shear strength of webs

Fuse: Web Element


Connections designed for the expected shear strength of the web

Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)


Steel plate Horizontal boundary element (HBE) Vertical boundary element (HBE)

Special Truss Moment Frames (STMF)

Expected to withstand significant inelastic deformations (R = 7)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions

Structural Requirements

AISC Seismic Provisions Demand Critical Welds Protected Zones Gusset Plate Details (SCBF only) Weld Access Holes (OMF only) Prequalified Connections (SMF and IMF only) k-area Continuity Plates

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions Backing Bars Weld Tabs Column Splices Bolted Joints

Demand Critical Welds

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Demand Critical Welds Demand Critical Weld: Weld so designated by the Seismic Provisions Special CVN requirements for enhanced ductility

Demand Critical Welds All welds in members and connections within SLRS shall use filler metal with minimum CVN of 20 ft-lbs at 0o F

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Demand Critical Welds

CVN requirements for filler metal-Demand Critical Welds


20 ft-lbs at -20o F at 70o F
Where frame is normally at 50o F or higher, 40 ft-lbs

Where frame is normally less than 50o F, qualification temperature shall be 20o F above lowest anticipated service temperature (LAST)

Demand Critical Welds Although demand critical welds are identified in the Seismic Provisions, there may be other welds that warrant this designation by the designer.
Consider inelastic demand Consequence of failure CJP groove welds between columns and base plates

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Demand Critical Welds Examples of demand critical welds in SMF and IMF include the following CJP groove welds:
Welds of beam flanges to columns Welds of single plate shear connections to columns Welds of beam webs to columns Columns splice welds, including column bases and tapered transitions
Example demand critical welds

Demand Critical Welds Examples of demand critical welds in OMF include the following CJP groove welds:
Welds of beam flanges to columns Welds of single plate shear connections to columns Welds of beam webs to columns
Example of demand critical welds

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Demand Critical Welds Examples of demand critical welds in EBF include the following welds:
CJP groove of between link beams and columns Welds joining web plate and flange plates in built-up EBF link beams Column splice welds if made with CJP groove welds
(Designed as a fixed connection when link is between brace and column)

Example of demand critical welds

Protected Zone

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Protected Zone Protected Zone: Area of members in which limitations apply to fabrication and attachments. Areas of Expected Yielding Fabrication Discontinuities Repaired Detrimental Attachments Not Permitted No welding or other attachments

Protected Zone

Fracture

Shear Stud weld

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Protected Zone

db

db/2

Protected Zone

Gussets
L/ 4
L

Braces at expected hinge locations

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Protected Zone

Link Length e

Protected Zone In protected zone, tack welds for attaching backing and weld tabs shall be placed where they will be incorporated into final weld

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Gusset Plate Details

Gusset Plate Details Special details required for SCBF Option 1: Connection is strong enough to restrain buckling Option 2: Connection is ductile enough to allow the brace to buckle. Gusset plates are detailed to accommodate inelastic rotation

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Gusset Plate Details-Option 1

Gusset Plate Details-Option 1

(Courtesy of Fred Niemeier and Gary Broccard of J. S. Alberici Construction Co., Inc.)

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Gusset Plate Details-Option 1

Gusset Plate Details-Option 2

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Gusset Plate Details-Option 2

Gusset Plate Details-Option 2

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Gusset Plate Details-Option 2

>2t

Gusset Plate Details-Option 2

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Gusset Plate Details-Option 2

Weld Access Holes

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Weld Access Holes


Allows for access for welding or backing OMF only See contract documents for IMF and SMF

Weld Access Holes


Special weld access hole geometry for OMF

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Weld Access Holes Surface roughness


Not to exceed 500 micro in. AWS C41-77 Comparator: Sample 4

Prequalified Connections

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Prequalified Connections Prequalified Connection: Connection that complies with the requirements of Appendix P or ANSI/AISC 358

Prequalified Connections

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

k-area

k-area k-area: The region of the web that extends from the k dimension a distance of 1 in. into the web beyond the k dimension.

(1.5)

Toe of fillet

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

k-area
Rotary straightening of W-shapes creates zone of higher yield and tensile strength but lowers notch toughness and ductility Welding or thermal cutting in k-area can lead to cracking

k-area
Try to avoid welding or cutting in this area If welding or cutting is performed in k-area, NDT should be performed to confirm that cracking has not occurred
(1 to 1.5)

Toe of fillet

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

k-area Welding doubler plates to flanges with fillet welds and use of generous continuity plate corner clips may reduce cracking potential
Doubler plate

Generous continuity plate corner clips

Continuity Plates

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Continuity Plates Corners shall be clipped


Curved clips shall have a minimum radius of 0.5 in.

Continuity Plates
Along web, clip extends a distance of at least 1.5 in. beyond published k detail dimension Along flange, clip shall not exceed 0.5 in. beyond published k1 detail dimension

Not more than (k1 + 0.5)

Clip in continuity plate to avoid column fillet

Not less than (k + 1.5) to avoid welding in k-region

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Continuity Plates SMF and IMF Continuity plates shall be consistent with Prequalified Connection Standard (ANSI/AISC 358) or testing per Seismic Provisions Appendix P or S
Continuity plate

Backing Bars

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Backing Bars Steel backing can create stress concentrations

Potential point of brittle fracture initiation Tension force in flange

Unfused Backing

Backing Bars At bottom flange, backing shall be removed Following removal, reinforce with a 5/16 in. fillet weld

Backing removed and reinforced with fillet weld

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Backing Bars At top flange only: Backing may remain in place if it is attached with 5/16 in. fillet weld
Backing may remain Backing need not be removed, but if it is not, attach backing to column flange with reinforcing fillet

Backing Bars

Root opening and land Bevel of bottom flange Backing Bottom flange weld preparation note bevel of bottom flange, backing (back-up bar), land and root opening for first weld pass

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Backing Bars

Weld tab Backing (back-up bar)

Weld tab and backing at top flange

Weld tab and backing at bottom flange

First pass (root pass) of weld

Weld completed but prior to removal of weld tab and backing

Backing Bars
Backing fillet weld to column flange at beam top flange

Reinforcing fillet weld

Bottom flange of beam showing removal of backing and weld tab. A reinforcing fillet has been added where the backing has been removed.

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Weld Tabs

Weld tabs

Weld Tabs

Weld tabs (runoff tabs) are extensions of the parts being welded that allow the weld to be started and stopped outside of the joint Provide for similar geometry as the preparation Generally required to be removed after welding

Weld tab and backing

Weld tab and backing at frame girder bottom flange

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Weld Tabs Not the same as end dams (which should not be used)

Weld dam improperly substituted for weld tab

Weld Tabs

Weld tab

The function of the weld tab can be seen clearly in the photograph. The weld can stop and start outside of the joint.

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Weld Tabs

Bottom flange backing and weld tabs to be removed

Top flange backing left in place with reinforcing fillet Weld tabs removed and weld ground to smooth transition

Column Splices

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Column Splices
Splices in SLRS made with fillet or PJP welds

4 ft or more from connection or at column midheight

Column splice

Column Splices Beveled transitions at CJP groove welds Structural design drawings must show when they are required

1 2.5

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Column Splices Beveled transitions at PJP groove welds Seismic Provisions specifically indicate that column splices made with PJP groove welds do not require beveled transitions

1 2.5

Column Splices Non-SLRS Splices

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Column Splices Column splices in columns not in SLRS:

4 ft or more from connection or at column midheight

Column splice

Bolted Joints

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Bolted Joints Bolts in SLRS shall be pretensioned high-strength ASTM A325 or A490 bolts Twist-off type tension control bolt assemblies of equivalent mechanical properties may be substituted for A325 or A490 fastener assemblies

Bolted Joints

Faying surfaces shall be prepared as slipcritical with a Class A surface Bearing strength shall be provided using either standard holes or short-slotted holes with slot perpendicular to line of force

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

Bolted Joints For brace diagonals, oversized holes are permitted if connection is designed as slip-critical and oversized hole is in one ply Alternative hole type is permitted if designated in Connection Prequalification Standard or justified by testing (Appendix P or T)

Bolted Joints Bolts and welds shall not be designed to share force in a joint or same force component in a connection
Bolts
Line of action of vertical force

Vertical force from brace and beam shear (and possibly the horizontal force) is resisted by bolts and welds, but designed so that either welds or bolts take total load

Welds

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions

Drawing Requirements

AISC Seismic Provisions Structural Design Drawings


Designation of the SLRS Designation of the members and connections that are part of the SLRS Connection configurations Connection material and sizes Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature (LAST) if < 50o F

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions Structural Design Drawings


Location of demand critical welds Locations and dimensions of protected zones Locations where gusset plates are to be detailed to accommodate inelastic rotation

AISC Seismic Provisions Structural Design Drawings


Welding requirements as specified in Appendix W, Section W2.1 Locations where backup bars are removed Locations where supplemental fillet welds are required when backing is permitted to remain Locations where fillet welds are used to reinforce groove welds

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions Structural Design Drawings


Welding requirements as specified in Appendix W, Section W2.1 Locations where weld tabs are removed Splice locations where tapered transitions are required Shape of the weld access hole if a special shape is required

AISC Seismic Provisions Shop Drawings


Designation of the members and connections that are part of the SLRS Connection material specifications Location of demand critical shop welds Locations and dimensions of protected zones Gusset plates drawn to scale when they are detailed to accommodate inelastic rotation

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions Shop Drawings


Welding requirements as specified in Appendix W, Section W2.2 Access hole dimensions, surface profile and finish requirements Locations where backup bars are removed Locations where weld tabs are removed NDT to be performed by the fabricator, if any (See Appendix Q)

AISC Seismic Provisions Erection Drawings


Designation of the members and connections that are part of the SLRS Field connection material specifications and sizes Location of demand critical field welds Locations and dimensions of protected zones Locations of pretensioned bolts

American Institute of Steel Construction

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Seismic Connections Seminar

AISC Seismic Provisions Erection Drawings


Welding requirements as specified in Appendix W, Section W2.3 Locations where backup bars are removed Locations where supplemental fillet welds are required when backing is permitted to remain Locations where weld tabs are removed

Questions?

American Institute of Steel Construction

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