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PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 19, 057103 2007

A new breakup regime of liquid drops identied in a continuous and uniform air jet ow
Xian-Kui Cao, Zhi-Gang Sun, Wei-Feng Li, Hai-Feng Liu,a and Zun-Hong Yu
Key Laboratory of Coal Gasication, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 272, Shanghai 200237, Peoples Republic of China

Received 18 July 2006; accepted 8 March 2007; published online 7 May 2007 A new breakup regime of liquid drops, named the dual-bag breakup regime, in a continuous and uniform air jet ow is identied at We ranging from 28 to 41 at the present investigation. The dual-bag breakup regime is characterized by two successive bag breakup processes; the rst one is suffered by the initial main drop, and the second one is suffered by the core drop produced in the rst bag breakup process. Shadowgraph and high-speed cameras were used to record the temporal properties of liquid drops in the dual-bag breakup regime. Parameters including breakup time, drop deformation rate, and volume fraction of core drop, are measured and given as a function of Weber numbers in the dual-bag breakup regime. 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2723154
I. INTRODUCTION

We = The atomization process is essentially one in which bulk liquid is converted into small drops.1 It has widespread practical applications, ranging from fuel injectors in gas turbines and jet engines,2 to two-phase ow chemical reactors, chemical separators, spray drying, and food processing.3,4 The process has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally by Reitz and Bracco,5 Lin and Lian,6 Farago and Chigier,7 Lin and Reitz,8 Marmottant and Villermaux,9 and Liu et al.10,11 Generally, the atomization process is subdivided into primary atomization and secondary atomization. Many of the larger drops produced in the initial disintegration process are unstable and undergo further disruption into smaller drops. In spray combustion and other industrial processes, secondary atomization of liquid drops plays an important role in the increase of surface area and the enhancement of heat and mass transfer between the fuel and the ambient gas. Studies on the breakup mechanism of a single liquid drop have become more and more important. Numerous different experimental facilities have been used to investigate the breakup of liquid drops, including free falling experiments, horizontal wind tunnel, horizontal shock tubes, and convergent nozzles. Shock tubes supply an experimental situation where a liquid drop is accelerated and disintegrated by a shock wave. This type of disturbance causing liquid drop breakup has been widely employed by Krzeczkowski,12 Wierzba,13 Hsiang and Faeth,14 Hirabara and Kawahashi,15 Gelfand,16 Chou and Faeth,17 Dai and Faeth18, and many other investigators. In drop breakup studies, the Weber number, We, and the Ohnesorge number, Oh, have been considered as two crucial parameters. The Weber number represents the ratio of disruptive hydrodynamic forces to the stabilizing surface tension force,
a

V 2D

Here, is the density of the ow eld, V is the initial relative velocity between the ow eld and the liquid drop, D is the initial diameter of liquid drop, and is surface tension. Viscous effects are correlated with the Ohnesorge number, Oh, Oh =
d dD 0.5 .

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Telephone: 64252974. Electronic mail: hiu@ecust.edu.cn

86-21-

Here, d is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid drop and d is the density of the liquid drop. Generally speaking, viscosity of the continuous uid is quite small compared with that of the liquid drop. Some criteria for drop breakup regime transitions in steady high-speed gas ows have been presented based on We and Oh. Pilch and Erdman19 gave ve distinct mechanisms of drop breakup as determined by the initial We: 1 vibrational breakup, We 12; 2 bag breakup, 12 We 50; 3 bag-stamen breakup, 50 We 100; 4 sheet stripping, 100 We 350; 5 wave crest stripping followed by catastrophic breakup, We 350. Krzeczkowski12 performed an investigation on drop disintegration and presented four typical cases of liquid drop breakup with increasing Weber numbers: 1 no breakup, We 10; 2 bag mechanism, 10 We 18; 3 bag-jet mechanism, 18 We 30; 4 transition mechanism, 30 We 63. Hsiang and Faeth14 proposed a detailed regime map on liquid drop deformation and breakup. The various breakup regimes are presented in the parameter space of We and the Oh. A comparison with the data from Krzeczkowski12 has been made and the agreement is quit stratifying. The breakup of liquid drops at moderate We was studied by Dai and Faeth.18 They introduced a multimode breakup regime, and concluded that the multimode breakup regime can be subdivided into a bag/plume breakup regime for We= 18 40 and a plume/shear breakup regime for We= 40 80.
2007 American Institute of Physics

1070-6631/2007/19 5 /057103/7/$23.00

19, 057103-1

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Phys. Fluids 19, 057103 2007

FIG. 2. Experimental nozzle conguration mm , Dexit = 34 mm.

FIG. 1. Schematic diagram of experimental arrangement.

So far, numerous studies on liquid drop breakup have been conducted in wind tunnel or shock tube at low and moderate Weber numbers. At low Weber numbers, bag-stamen,19 bag-jet12 and bag/plume14 actually have much in common on the We range and breakup process. Stamen, jet, and plume are actually the same thing named by different investigators. At moderate Weber numbers, transition mechanism and multimode breakup regime have been proposed by Krzeczkowski12 and Hsiang and Faeth,14 respectively. At high Weber numbers, there is still much uncertainty on the breakup mechanism of liquid drops. However, with the increasing Weber numbers, the disintegration process is becoming much more chaotic and complicated Here, we have investigated another type of disturbance causing drop breakup, unlike impulsive acceleration. Experiments were performed on the distortion and breakup of liquid drops by a high-speed air jet ow at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Our experimental apparatus is similar to that used in Liu and Reitzs20 experiment. The tested liquids were water and ethanol, and the initial drop diameters, d0, ranged from about 2 to 6 mm; the jet velocities varied from 12 to 90 m / s, and the range of Weber numbers is from 10 to 100. The main objective of the present work is to depict a new breakup process of liquid drops, named as dual-bag breakup regime at the present investigation. Dual-bag breakup regime is identied in a continuous and uniform air jet ow, and so far, no similar breakup regime has been reported in the shock tube or wind tunnel situation. Therefore, the dual-bag breakup regime is particular to the liquid drops in a continuous and uniform air jet ow.
II. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND METHODOLOGY

converging section in order to make the velocity prole at the nozzle exit is at and uniform, minimizing the boundary layer effects. The boundary layer effect decreases as the distance between the falling drop stream and the nozzle exit are decreased. In the present experiments the distance of 15 mm is selected. Velocity prole near the nozzle exit is obtained by Dantec Streamline hot-wire anemometry. A typical velocity prole at a distance of 25 mm from the nozzle exit is shown in Fig. 3. And the average turbulence intensity in the present tested velocity range is about 2.2%. As it is shown in Fig. 4, the entire breakup process in the dual-bag breakup regime is fully nished within the uniform region of the air jet at the tested range of the drop diameter. Detailed breakup process is shown in Figs. 5 and 6. The height from the falling drops to the upper edge of the tested nozzle is xed as 50 mm, which means that drops are falling into the air jet with a velocity of 1 m / s around. The falling velocity is negligible compared with the ow speed of the air jet. Consequently, parameters such as Weber number are determined based on the air velocity. The drop diameters range from about 2 to 6 mm. During the falling process, larger drop corresponds to a stronger oscillation due to the aerodynamic action, while the oscillation intensity nearly has no affect on the We range of the dual-bag breakup regime and the breakup process in the dual-bag breakup regime can be perfectly repeated. The effect of viscosity on the We range of the breakup regime have been investigated by Krzeczkowski12 and Hirabara and Kawahashi et al.,15 and is beyond the scope of this article. In the present investigation, the test liquids are water and ethanol, the viscosity is quite small Oh 0.01 , and has

The experimental arrangement at present investigation is shown schematically in Fig. 1. A horizontal circular nozzle combined with a Roots blower is used to form a continuous and uniform air jet ow. The airow rate is adjusted using a high accuracy rotameter. A drop generator, which includes a cylinder liquid chamber, produces a vertical continual stream of uniform liquid drops and an exchangeable small-diameter tube is xed at the bottom of the water chamber. The drop generator and the circular nozzle are arranged in a cross ow pattern. Liquid drops drip from the tip of the tube under the action of gravity, and fall into the air jet ow. A sketch of the circular nozzle is also shown in Fig. 2. The nozzle is modied with a

FIG. 3. A typical velocity prole at a distance of 25 mm from the experimental nozzle exit.

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A new breakup regime of liquid drops identied

Phys. Fluids 19, 057103 2007

FIG. 4. A full view of a water drop with We= 29 breakup in the dual-bag breakup regime. a Starting stage; b interim stage; c nishing stage.

nearly no effect on the We range of this breakup regime. Therefore, the inuence of Weber numbers is dominant in the dual-bag breakup regime in the present investigation. To record the entire breakup process, a high-speed digital camera Fastcam, Photron limited, up to 5000 images per second with full resolution 1024 1024 pixels is used combined with a continuous 2000 W halogen spot. The falling drops are made visible by backward illumination through a diffusive screen. Since the high-speed camera records a fragment of the continuous process, it is not necessary to synchronize the process of photographs taken with the production of drops. The obtained digital images are analyzed and measured with the NIH Image freeware. The condition of the experiments is shown in Table I.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

sition mechanism and multimode breakup regime, respectively. At the present investigation, a new breakup process of liquid drops, here called the dual-bag breakup regime, is identied in the range of We from 28 to 41. This regime is characterized by two typical bag breakup processes successively, the rst one experienced by the initial main drop, and the second one suffered by the smaller core drop, which is produced from the rst bag breakup. Figure 5 shows typical pictures of the dual-bag breakup regime, for a water drop with We= 29, and Fig. 6 is the 45 side view of the dual-bag breakup regime, which can give us a detailed and dramatic insight on the dual-bag breakup regime. The airow direction is from the right-hand side to the left-hand side. The time t = 0 is the moment when liquid drops are falling into the air jet ow and the evident deformation of the liquid drop has begun. A detailed description is given in the following text.
A. Breakup stages

At moderate Weber numbers, ranging from 30 to 80, the breakup mechanism is much more complicated. Krzeczkowski9 and Hsiang and Faeth11 have proposed a tran-

In the present work, the total breakup process is subdivided into four stages: rst bag formation, rst bag breakup core drop formation , core drop deformation, and secondary bag breakup. At the earliest stage, the process is similar to that in a typical bag breakup regime. The drop is deformed as a convex surface to the ow of air, as shown in Fig. 5 t = 7 ms,

FIG. 5. A serial of normal views of the dual-bag breakup regime at We = 29, the air ow direction is from the right-hand side to the left-hand side.

FIG. 6. 45 side views of the dual-bag breakup regime at We= 34. The airow direction is from the right-hand side to the left-hand side.

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Cao et al. TABLE I. Summary of experimental conditions and parameters. Diameter mm 2.26.1 4.24.4 Viscosity 103 kg/ ms 1.1 1.3 Surface tension 103 N / m 70.8 24 Density kg/ m3 997 800

Phys. Fluids 19, 057103 2007

Drop liquid Water Ethanol

We 1088 10100

Oh 0.0015 0.003

11 ms, 13.7 ms , and the edge of the saucer-shaped drop is drawn out into a thin sheet or bag by aerodynamic dragging forces, with a thinner rim outside and a core drop inside, which is shown in Fig. 5 t = 16.3 ms, 20 ms . This stage is called the rst bag formation stage. First bag formation stage can be clearly observed in Fig. 6 t = 0, 6.7 ms, 11 ms , too. The drop then proceeds to the next stage, the rst bag breakup stage. The sheet or bag is blown to a certain extent and breaks up into small drops due to the aerodynamic action. At the same time, a core drop is forming, as shown in Fig. 5 t = 16.3 ms, 20 ms, 24.3 ms . The core drop is connected with a few ribs or ligaments, which are produced from thin sheet disintegration in the earlier stage. In Fig. 6 t = 13.7 ms, 15.3 ms , a side view of this stage is given. The above two stages are almost the same as the bag-jet or bag/plume breakup regime described by Krzeczkowski,12 Hsiang and Faeth,14 Pilch and Erdman.19 However, in the dual-bag breakup regime, the transition product, core drop, is still large enough to undergo another bag breakup, because of the continuous action of air jet ow. As shown in Fig. 5 t = 24.3 ms, 29.3 ms, 33 ms , the core drop is further attened and blown out into a thin bag. The second bag breakup process suffered by the core drop is a signicant feature distinguishing dual-bag breakup regime from bag-jet and bag/plume breakup regime proposed by Krzeczkowski,13 Hsiang and Faeth,14 respectively. Krzeckowski12 described his regime as a hollow sphere with a jet. Hsiang and Faeth14 reported that the core drop undergoes Rayleigh breakup at the bag/plume breakup. Rayleigh breakup results from a hydrodynamic instability caused by surface tension and occurs at a relatively low jet velocity. In Rayleigh breakup, aerodynamic pressure imposed on the drop surface is negligible compared with surface tension. It is consistent with the conditions at the end of the bag jet or bag/plume breakup regime, while in the dualbag breakup regime, the continuous air jet ow makes the Weber number of the core drop, which is produced from the rst bag breakup process, large enough to undergo another bag breakup process. Therefore, the continuous body force imposed on the liquid drop, different from impulsive acceleration provided by shock tube or wind tunnel, should be responsible for the dual-bag breakup regime. Here, in the present investigation, we subdivide the second bag breakup process suffered by the core drop into two stages: core drop deformation, and secondary bag breakup, and these two stages can be clearly shown in Fig. 5 t = 35.6 ms, 37.7 ms, 42 ms . In addition, when Weber numbers are under the lower limit of the dual-bag breakup regime, a typical bag breakup regime and bag-stamen jet, plume breakup regime are rep-

resented with the increasing Weber numbers. Since the breakup of the core drop is substantially a bag breakup regime, the Weber number of the core drop is still in the range of the typical bag breakup regime. When the Weber number is higher than the upper limit of the dual-bag breakup regime, a more chaotic breakup regime, similar to the shear or explosive breakup regime, has been shown in the present investigation.
B. Breakup times

Another aspect of secondary breakup that has been studied is the breakup time required to nish breakup. Breakup times could be made dimensionless divided by a characteristic shear breakup time from Ranger and Nicholls,21 T, dened as follows: T = d0/U0
L/ G 1/2

where d0 and U0 are the initial drop diameter and relative velocity, denotes density, and the subscripts L and G denote liquid and gas properties, respectively. Ranger and Nicholls21 concluded that the dimensionless breakup time does not vary greatly over the large range of Weber numbers in both shear and catastrophic breakup regimes. Such times are comparable to ow residence times within the dense spray region where secondary breakup is a dominant process.22,23 Chou and Faeth17 reported that the bag breakup regime nished roughly at t / T = 5 in their investigation. While in the present investigation, we nd that the dimensionless total breakup time decreases a little as the Weber numbers increases, as shown in Fig. 7, and the total

FIG. 7. Breakup time distribution at different stages in the dual-bag breakup regime.

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A new breakup regime of liquid drops identied

Phys. Fluids 19, 057103 2007

FIG. 8. A typical stages subdivision for water drop breakup in the dual-bag breakup regime at We= 29. FIG. 9. Dimensionless diameters of the main drop at the rst bag formation and rst bag breakup stage.

breakup time could be expressed reasonably well according to the following equation in present test Weber numbers range: t/T = 19.71 We0.41, 28 We 41. 4

is approximately 1.9d0, and it could be expressed reasonably well as a function of t / T by the following equation: dm/d0 = 1, 0 t/T 0.3, 5 dm/d0 = 0.59 + 1.34t/T, 0.3 t/T 0.99. While at rst bag breakup stage for 0.99 t / T 1.8, the evolutions of dm / d0 largely depend on We in addition to t / T as shown in Fig. 9, and higher Weber numbers correspond to steeper slopes. The rst bag breakup is a relatively complicated stage; it is not quite identical to an independent bag breakup regime, but has much in common with the bag-jet or bag/plume breakup process. During the rst bag breakup stage, the core drop is formed and ribs or ligaments, which connect the core drop and the bag together, are produced. Figure 5 t = 20 ms, t = 24.3 ms and Fig. 6 t = 13.7 ms, 15.3 ms, 18 ms show the detailed rst bag breakup stage. Figure 10 shows the temporal evolution of dc / dc0 during the latter two stages for water and ethanol drops with We of 2841. During the core drop deformation stage, higher Weber numbers result in steeper slopes, as shown in Fig. 10.

Figure 7 shows that, at the earlier two stages, the dimensionless time does not vary greatly as the Weber numbers increase. The required times to nish rst bag formation and rst bag breakup are around 0.99T and 0.95T, respectively. As shown in Fig. 7, with the increasing We, more time is taken to nish the core drop deformation stage. The required time for secondary bag breakup almost does not vary with the increasing We at the present We range. It is approximately 1.5 T on average. Therefore, the major breakup time difference resulted from that consumed at the core drop deformation stage.
C. Drop deformation properties of the breakup

During the entire breakup process, the initial main drop and the following produced core drop are strongly deformed by the air jet ow before breakup. Figure 8 shows a typical deformation of drops during the four stages we proposed above. At the rst two stages, the deformation rate is expressed by dm / d0, d0 is diameter of the initial drop, dm is the cross-stream diameter of the deforming drop. At the last two stages, we focus on deformation of the core drop, and the deformation rate is indicated by dc / dc0; here, dc0 is the initial cross-stream diameter of the core drop at the beginning of core drop deformation stage, and dc is the cross-stream diameter of the deforming core drop during the core drop deformation stage. These diameters can be measured from the pictures. The broken lines in Fig. 8 correspond to the boundaries of four successive stages we proposed above. It is clearly shown in Fig. 8 that the deformation rates at different breakup stages have different evolution with dimensionless breakup time, and the turning points on the curves agree well with the broken line boundaries. Figure 9 shows the temporal evolution of dm / d0 during the earlier two stages for liquid drops with We of 2841. During the period, t / T = 0 0.99, the rst bag formation stage takes place, dm / d0 is independent of We, the maximum of dm

FIG. 10. Dimensionless diameters of the core drop in the core drop deformation and secondary bag breakup stage.

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FIG. 11. Dimensionless core drop diameters dc0 / d0 vs We.

During secondary bag breakup stage, the We nearly have no inuence on the slopes of dc / dc0 curves, as shown from the solid lines in Fig. 10.
D. Volume fraction of core drops

In the present investigation, it is difcult to give the detailed size characteristics after the rst bag breakup, secondary bag breakup, and the entire breakup. However, we introduce a parameter called dimensionless core drop diameter, which is dened as dc0 / d0. It can qualitatively reect the volume of the core drop that breaks up during the secondary bag breakup stage. Figure 11 shows the dc0 / d0 versus We curves. As We increases, dc0 / d0 increases gradually, which means an increment on the volume fraction of the core drop and more liquid volume of the initial liquid drop breaks up during the secondary bag breakup stage.
IV. CONCLUSION

the rst bag formation, rst bag breakup core drop formation , core drop deformation, and secondary bag breakup. The transition product, core drop, links the two characteristic successive bag breakups. The time cost at the rst bag formation, rst bag breakup, and secondary bag breakup stage are approximately 0.99 T, 0.95 T, and 1.5 T, respectively. The time spent on the core drop deformation stage decreases a little as the We increases. Consequently, the total dimensionless breakup time, t / T, decreases a little as the We increases in the dual-bag breakup regime. 3 The dimensionless deforming rates are denoted by dm / d0 and dc / dc0. At the rst bag formation stage, dm / d0 is independent of We, and it could be expressed reasonably well as a function of t / T in Eq. 5 . At the rst bag breakup stage and core drop deformation stage, the evolutions of dm / d0 and dc / dc0 largely depend on We in addition to t / T, and higher Weber numbers correspond to steeper slopes. While during secondary bag breakup stage, the We nearly have no inuence on the slopes of dc / dc0 curves. The boundaries of the four stages subdivided based on breakup times agree reasonably well with the turning points of the evolution curves of dm / d0 and dc / dc0. The volume fraction of the core drops represented by dc0 / d0 increases as We increases, which means more volume of liquid drop breaks up during secondary bag breakup stage. 4 When We is under the lower limit of the dual-bag breakup regime, bag and bag-stamen breakup regime will display as we expected. When the Weber number is higher than the upper limit of the dual-bag breakup regime, a more chaotic breakup regime, similar to the shear or explosive breakup regime, has been shown in the present investigation.

In the present investigation, experiments were performed on the breakup of liquid drops in a continuous and uniform air jet ow. The test liquids are water and ethanol. A new breakup process of liquid drops, named as the dual-bag breakup regime in the present investigation, is depicted and identied. Based on analyses and measurements on the digital pictures using high-speed camera and NIH image freeware, the following conclusions are given: 1 A new breakup regime of liquid drops, named the dualbag regime, in a continuous and uniform air jet ow is identied at We ranging from 28 to 41. Dual-bag breakup regime is characterized by two successive bag breakup processes; the rst bag breakup is suffered by the initial main drop, and the second one by the core drop. It is different from the bag-stamen, bag-jet or bag/ plume breakup regime at the similar We range in the situation of impulsive disturbance supplied by shock tubes. The existence of dual-bag breakup regime is due to the different types of disturbance causing the liquid drop breakup. 2 The dual-bag regime consists of four stages, which are

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The work was nancially supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China Contract No. 2004CB217703 and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University PCSIRT .
1 2

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