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LAPORAN PRAKTIKUM

KONSERVASI SUMBERDAYA PERIKANAN


ACARA I
KONSERVASI MANGROVE

Disusun Oleh:
Brifnita Karlina R.
11517

JURUSAN PERIKANAN
FAKULTAS PERTANIAN
UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA
YOGYAKARTA
2011

PENDAHULUAN
Latar Belakang
Pesisir merupakan wilayah perbatasan antara daratan dan laut, oleh karena itu wilayah ini
dipengaruhi oleh proses-proses yang ada di darat maupun yang ada di laut. Wilayah demikian
disebut sebagai ekoton, yaitu daerah transisi yang sangat tajam antara dua atau lebih komunitas
(Odum, 1983 dalam Kaswadji, 2001). Sebagai daerah transisi, ekoton dihuni oleh organisme
yang berasal dari kedua komunitas tersebut, yang secara berangsur-angsur menghilang dan

diganti oleh spesies lain yang merupakan ciri ekoton, dimana seringkali kelimpahannya lebih
besar dari dari komunitas yang mengapitnya.
Sebagai salah satu ekosistem pesisir, hutan mangrove merupakan ekosistem yang unik dan
rawan. Ekosistem ini mempunyai fungsi ekologis dan ekonomis. Fungsi ekologis hutan
mangrove antara lain pelindung garis pantai, mencegah intrusi air laut, habitat (tempat tinggal),
tempat mencari makan (feeding ground), tempat asuhan dan pembesaran (nursery ground),
tempat pemijahan (spawning ground) bagi aneka biota perairan, serta sebagai pengatur iklim
mikro. Sedangkan fungsi ekonominya antara lain penghasil keperluan rumah tangga, penghasil
keperluan industri, dan penghasil bibit.
Sebagian manusia dalam memenuhi keperluan hidupnya dengan mengintervensi
ekosistem mangrove. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari adanya alih fungsi lahan (mangrove) menjadi
tambak, pemukiman, industri, dan sebagainya maupun penebangan oleh masyarakat untuk
berbagai keperluan. Dampak ekologis akibat berkurang dan rusaknya ekosistem mangrove
adalah hilangnya berbagai spesies flora dan fauna yang berasosiasi dengan ekosistem
mangrove, yang dalam jangka panjang akan mengganggu keseimbangan ekosistem mangrove
khususnya dan ekosistem pesisir umumnya. Beberapa kegiatan yang berkaitan dengan
kelestarian mangrove perlu digalangkan untuk mencapai perikanan yang berkelanjutan.
.
Tujuan
Memberikan pemahaman tentang vegetasi yang ada di ekosistem mangrove
Mengetahui karakteristik hutan mangrove di Tahuna,Bali
Manfaat
Melatih mahasiswa agar mampu memberikan gambaran mengenai pengaruh atau peranan
suatu jenis tumbuhan mangrove dalam komunitas mangrove.
D. Waktu dan Tempat
Praktikum Konservasi Sumberdaya Perikanan Acara Konservasi Mangrove dilaksanakan
pada:
Praktikum Lapangan
Hari / tanggal : Minggu, 17 April 2011

Jam
Tempat

: 09.00 WITA selesai


: Kawasan Wisata Hutan Mangrove , Tahura, Ngurah Rai Bali

Pengamatan, Pengukuran pH dan Salinitas


Hari / tanggal : Kamis, 21 April 2011
Jam
Tempat

: 13.30 selesai
: Laboratorium Manajemen Sumberdaya perikanan, Jurusan

perikanan,
Fakultas pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
Taman Wisata Alam Prapat Benoa ditetapkan sebagai TAHURA Ngurah Rai berdasarkan
Keputusan Menteri Kehutanan No. 544/Kpts-II/1993 tanggal 25 September 1993 dengan luas
1.373,50 Ha. TAHURA Ngurah Rai secara administrasi pemerintahan terletak di Kecamatan
Kuta Kabupaten Badung dan Kecamatan Denpasar Kotamadya Denpasar Propinsi Bali,
sedangkan secara geografis TAHURA Ngurah Rai terletak pada 1159-11514 Bujur Timur dan
849 Lintang Selatan. Pengelolaan kawasan berada pada Sub Seksi KSDA Badung, Sub Balai
Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Bali, Kanwil Departemen Kehutanan Propinsi Bali. Sedangkan
secara keseluruhan memiliki konfigurasi lapangan dimana darat dipengaruhi oleh pasang surut

air laut dan lereng menurun ke arah timur, dengan ketinggian antara 0-3 m di atas permukaan
laut (Anonim,2011).
Hutan mangrove merupakan hutan yang terdapat di daerah pantai yang selalu atau secara
teratur tergenang air laut dan terpengaruh oleh pasang surut air laut tetapi tidak terpengaruh
oleh iklim. Sedangkan daerah pantai adalah daratan yang terletak di bagian hilir Daerah Aliran
Sungai (DAS) yang berbatasan dengan laut dan masih dipengaruhi oleh pasang surut, dengan
kelerengan kurang dari 8% (Departemen Kehutanan, 1994 dalam Santoso, 2000).
Menurut Nybakken (1992), hutan mangrove adalah sebutan umum yang digunakan untuk
menggambarkan suatu varietas komunitas pantai tropik yang didominasi oleh beberapa spesies
pohon-pohon yang khas atau semak-semak yang mempunyai kemampuan untuk tumbuh dalam
perairan asin. Hutan mangrove meliputi pohon-pohon dan semak yang tergolong ke dalam 8
famili, dan terdiri atas 12 genera tumbuhan berbunga: Avicennie, Sonneratia, Rhyzophora,
Bruguiera, Ceriops, Xylocarpus, Lummitzera, Laguncularia, Aegiceras, Aegiatilis, Snaeda, dan
Conocarpus (Bengen,2000).
Kata mangrove mempunyai dua arti, pertama sebagai komunitas, yaitu komunitas atau
masyarakat tumbuhan atau hutan yang tahan terhadap kadar garam/salinitas (pasang surut air
laut); dan kedua sebagai individu spesies (Macnae, 1968 dalam Supriharyono, 2000). Supaya
tidak rancu, Macnae menggunakan istilah mangal apabila berkaitan dengan komunitas hutan
dan mangrove untuk individu tumbuhan. Hutan mangrove oleh masyarakat sering disebut
pula dengan hutan bakau atau hutan payau. Namun menurut Khazali (1998), penyebutan
mangrove sebagai bakau nampaknya kurang tepat karena bakau merupakan salah satu nama
kelompok jenis tumbuhan yang ada di mangrove.
Ekosistem mangrove adalah suatu sistem di alam tempat berlangsungnya kehidupan yang
mencerminkan hubungan timbal balik antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya dan
diantara makhluk hidup itu sendiri, terdapat pada wilayah pesisir, terpengaruh pasang surut air
laut, dan didominasi oleh spesies pohon atau semak yang khas dan mampu tumbuh dalam
perairan asin/payau (Santoso, 2000).
Dalam suatu paparan mangrove di suatu daerah tidak harus terdapat semua jenis spesies
mangrove (Hutching and Saenger, 1987 dalam Idawaty, 1999). Formasi hutan mangrove
dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor seperti kekeringan, energi gelombang, kondisi pasang surut,

sedimentasi, mineralogi, efek neotektonik (Jenning and Bird, 1967 dalam Idawaty, 1999).
Sedangkan IUCN (1993), menyebutkan bahwa komposisi spesies dan karakteristik hutan
mangrove tergantung pada faktor-faktor cuaca, bentuk lahan pesisir, jarak antar pasang surut air
laut, ketersediaan air tawar, dan tipe tanah.
Hutan mangrove juga dapat dibagi menjadi zonasi-zonasi berdasarkan jenis vegetasi yang
dominan, mulai dari arah laut ke darat sebagai berikut:
Zona Avicennia, terletak paling luar dari hutan yang berhadapan langsung dengan laut.
Zona ini umumnya memiliki substrat lumpur lembek dan kadar salinitas tinggi. Zona ini
merupakan zona pioner karena jenis tumbuhan yang ada memilliki perakaran yang kuat
untuk menahan pukulan gelombang, serta mampu membantu dalam proses penimbunan
sedimen.
Zona Rhizophora, terletak di belakang zona Avicennia. Substratnya masih berupa lumpur
lunak, namun kadar salinitasnya agak rendah. Mangrove pada zona ini masih tergenang
pada saat air pasang.
Zona Bruguiera, terletak di balakang zona Rhizophora dan memiliki substrat tanah
berlumpur keras. Zona ini hanya terendam pada saat air pasang tertinggi atau 2 kali
dalam sebulan.
Zona Nypa, merupakan zona yang paling belakang dan berbatasan dengan daratan
(Pramudji, 2000)
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3030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030
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3030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030
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3030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030
3030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030303030
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030303030303030303030
Gambar 1: Contoh zonasi mangrove
Menurut Saenger (1963) dalam Dahuri (1996), ada 70 macam kegunaan tumbuhan
mangrove bagi kepentingan manusia, baik produk langsung seperti bahan bakar, bahan
bangunan, alat perangkap ikan, pupuk pertanian, bahan baku kertas, makanan, obat-obatan,
minuman, dan tekstil, maupun produk tidak langsung, seperti tempat-tempat rekreasi dan
bahan makanan dan produk yang dihasilkan sebagian besar telah dimanfaatkan oleh
masyarakat.
Nilai pakai lain yang penting dari ekosistem adalah berbagai organisme akuatik
yang beberapa diantaranya memiliki nilai komersial memilih habitat mangrove sebagai
tempat hidupnya. Daun-daun berjatuhan dan berakumulasi pada sedimen mangrove sebagai
leaf litter (lapisan sisa-sisa daun) yang mendukung komunitas organisme detritus yang
besar jumlahnya. Organisme ini bertindak sebagai pengurai daun-daun dan mengubahnya

menjadi energi yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh sejumlah spesies, baik yang mempunyai nilai
ekonomi maupun yang subsistem, termasuk udang-udang dari famili Penaeidae dan famili
Sergestidae, kepiting mangrove, Crustaceae lainnya, berbagai spesies ikan, tiram-tiram dan
Molusca lainnya, reptilia laut, juga mamalia burung-burung (Dahuri, 1996).

METODOLOGI
Alat dan Bahan
Termometer

Data Sheets

pH meter

Buku tulis

Kompas

Alat tulis

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Camera

Tali transek yang dibuat dari tali nylon

Data isian

dengan ukuran 40 meter

Plastik

Meteran plastik ukuran 100 cm

Botol film

Cara Kerja
Praktikum

ini

dilakukan

di

Tahura,

Ngurah

Rai,Bali.

Untuk

mengetahui

keanekaragaman tumbuhan mangrove digunakan metode eksplorasi yang bersifat deskriptif


(De Vogel, 1987). Kemudian di identifikasi dengan menggunakan buku Identifikasi
Mngrove dan Tumbuhan Berbiji.
Untuk mengetahui zonasi vegetasi mangove dilakukan dengan menarik garis transek
tegak lurus garis pantai (Begen, 2002). Sedangkan untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas

vegetasi mangrove dilakukan dengan membuat petak kuadrat berukuran 10x10m pada
setiap stasiun praktikum, dan dilakukan analisis vegetasi dengan menghitung jumlah jenis,
jumlah individu, diameter basal area (DBA) (Begen, 2002). Pada setiap plot dicatat tipe
substrat. Pada setiap stasiun pengamatan dicatat dampak dari kegiatan manusia terhadap
kondisi ekosistem mangrove. Selanjutnya data dianalisis untuk mengetahui kerapatan jenis
(Di),Kerapatan relatif jenis (Fi), Frekuensi relatif jenis(Rfi), Penutupan jenis (Rci), dan nilai
penting jenis (INPi). Selain itu diakukan deskripsi kondisi masing-masing stasiun dengan
pengamatan fisik seperti suhu air, suhu udara , dan salinitas.

HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN


Hasil
(Terlampir)
B.Pembahasan
Plot I
Tahura merupakan kawasan mangrove di daerah Ngurah Rai, Bali. Di stasiun
1 plot 1 terletak pada titik ordinat 0804351 S dan 11501142E. Jenis mangrove yang
mendominasi di titik plot 1 ini adalah Rhizopora mucronata Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan
pada plot 1 diperoleh pH 7,4 dengan salinitas 270/00 dan suhu udara,suhu airnya yaitu 300,
27,50C. Nilai ini cukup

mendukung bagi kehidupan mangrove sehingga dapat tumbuh

dengan baik karena masih masuk dalam batas nilai yang masih dapat ditolerir oleh hutan
mangrove. Suhu udara dipengaruhi oleh luasan penutupan mangrove atau kerapatan
mangrove. Semakin luas penutupan mangrove maka semakin rapat dan semakin rendah suhu
udaranya karena sinar matahari akan terhalang oleh mangrove,. Pengukuran suhu air di
kawasan hutan bakau dilakukan pada genangan air yang berada di dalam kawasan mangrove
stasiun pengamatan. Semakin banyak genangan air yang terkena sinar matahari secara
langsung maka suhu air akan tinggi, begitu pula sebaliknya apabila genangan air berada
dalam rimbunnya mangrove maka suhu air akan lebih rendah.
Plot 1 stasiun 1 terdapat semaian sebanyak 9 pohon dan indukan 1 pohon yaitu

Rhizophor mucornata. Jenis substrat yang mendominasi berupa pasir dengan sedikit lumpur.
hal tersebut dikarenakan letaknya yang relatif dekat dengan bibir pantai sehingga lapisan
tanahnya berpasir selain itu dari banyaknya pasir yang terambil sebagai sampel substrat
dibandingkan lumpur .Hal ini cukup berlawanan dengan teori yang dinyatakan oleh
Begen(2002) yaitu jenis substrat yang cocok bagi pertumbuhan mangrove jenis Rhizopora
adalah jenis lumpur. Jika teor ini sesuai di lapangan maka bisa juga di tanah lapisan bawah
lebih banyak lumpurnya dibandingkan tanah di atas yang justru banyak pairnya. Atau diduga
praktikan mengambil substrat di sekitar area yang berpasir mengingat di mangrove pada saat
itu debit air yang masuk tinggi sehingga sulitnya praktikan untuk menjangkau dasar perairan.
Sedangkan biota yang kami temui pada ekosiste mangrove ini adalah kepiting.
Ci merupakan luas penutupan mangrove suatu jenis tertentu terhadap area. Penutupan
relatif jenis (RCi) merupakan perbandingan antara luas area penutupan jenis (Ci) dan luas
total area penutupan untuk seluruh jenis (C). Nilai penutupan jenis relatif indukan
mangrove menunjukkan berapa besarnya jenis tersebut menutupi suatu area atau berapa
besar jenis tersebut mendominasi suatu area tertentu. Dari data yang kami perolehyaitu 3,9.
Mengingat di plot 2 kami hanya menemukan Sonneratia alba sehingga kami tidak dapat
membandingkan tanaman yang berbeda di tempat yang berbeda. Nilai penutupan jenis
relative (RCi) diperoleh bahwa sebanyak 100% daerah plot 1 didominasi oleh mangrove
jenis Rhizopora mucronata.yang berarti jenis mangrove jelas banyak ditemukan di stasiun 1.
Fi merupakan frekuensi jenis maksudnya jumlah besarnya peluang ditemukannya
mangrove jenis tertentu disuatu tempat. Pada plot 1 ini terdapat 1 jenis mangrove saja
dengan nilai RFi-nya adalah. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa sebaran mangrove di plot 1 paling
banyak.
Nilai penting memiliki arti bahwa suatu jenis mangrove memiliki peranan yang
penting di dalam ekosistemnya. Nilai penting yang tinggi berarti bahwa jenis tersebut sangat
mempengaruhi kestabilan ekosistem. Data yang ada jelas menunjukkan Rhizophora memiliki
nili penting sebesar 300. Vegetasi ini peran penting dalam membantu memecah gelombang
tinggi sehingga gelombang yang sampai ke daratan dapat dikurangi frekuensinya sehingga
kerusakan yang diakibatkan tidak terlalu tinggi. Disamping itu mangrove baik Rhizophus
mucronata maupun Sonneratia alba berfungsi sebagai penambat mayat maupun puing-puing
baja.

Serasah atau detritus meliputi semua bahan tumbuhan yang sudah mati dan melalui
beberapa tahapan dekomposisi dapat menghasilkan energi potensial bagi kehidupan
konsumen. Perbedaan produksi serasah dapat dipengaruhi oleh struktur vegetasi, umur
tegakan, kondisi geografis (kemiringan) dan perubahan iklim musiman. Apabila vegetasi
memiliki kerapatan yang tinggi serta diameter batang yang besar maka akan menghasilkan
produksi serasah yang rendah. Kandungan serasah mangrove dapat diketahui dari daun
vegetasi mangrove yang berguguran. Daun atau serasah yang ditemukan berupa serasah
Sonneratia alba yang diperkirakan terbawa arus sehingga berada di area plot 1 yang tanaman
mangrovenya tidak terdapat di plot ini.
Stasiun 1 plot 2 terletak pada titik ordinat 0804351 S dan 11501142E Jenis Mangrove
yang terdapat di stasiun 1 plot 2 adalah Sonneratia alba. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan pada
plot 2 diperoleh pH 6,9 dengan salinitas 300/00 dan suhu udara,suhu airnya yaitu 300, 280C
Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan pada plot 2 diperoleh jenis indukan terdapat 1 pohon dengan
jenis semaian sebanyak 5 semaian dan 3 anakan.
Ci merupakan luas penutupan mangrove suatu jenis tertentu terhadap area.
Penutupan relatif jenis (RCi) merupakan perbandingan antara luas area penutupan (Ci) dan
luas total area penutupan untuk seluruh jenis (C). Nilai penutupan jenis relatif indukan
mangrove menunjukkan berapa besarnya jenis tersebut menutupi suatu area atau berapa
besar jenis tersebut mendominasi suatu area tertentu. Dari data yang kami peroleh yaitu
16,47. Mengingat di plot 2 kami hanya menemukan Sonneratia alba sehingga kami tidak
dapat membandingkan tanaman yang berbeda di tempat yang berbeda. Nilai penutupan jenis
relative (RCi) diperoleh bahwa sebanyak 100% di daerah plot 2 didominasi oleh mangrove
jenis Rhizopora mucronata.yang berarti jenis mangrove jelas banyak ditemukan di stasiun 2.
Fi merupakan frekuensi jenis maksudnya jumlah besarnya peluang ditemukannya
mangrove jenis tertentu disuatu tempat. Pada plot 2 ini terdapat 1 jenis mangrove saja
dengan nilai RFi-nya adalah 100. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa sebaran mangrove di plot 1
paling banyak.
Nilai penting memiliki arti bahwa suatu jenis mangrove memiliki peranan yang
penting di dalam ekosistemnya. Nilai penting yang tinggi berarti bahwa jenis tersebut sangat
mempengaruhi kestabilan ekosistem. Data yang ada jelas menunjukkan Sonneratia alba
memiliki nilai penting sebesar 300. Vegetasi Sonneratia alba memiliki nilai penting bagi

ekosistem mangrove sebagai nursery ground dan feeding ground yang artinya bahwa
Sonneratia alba memiliki peran yang lebih penting di dalam ekosistemnya, seperti sebagai
pemecah gelombang tinggi, tempat memijah, memelihara anak, mencari makan dan
perlindungan berbagai macam ikan atau organisme yang hidup di sekitarnya.. Disamping itu
mangrove baik Rhizophus mucronata maupun Sonneratia alba berfungsi sebagai penambat
mayat maupun puing-puing baja.
Serasah atau detritus meliputi semua bahan tumbuhan yang sudah mati dan melalui
beberapa tahapan dekomposisi dapat menghasilkan energi potensial bagi kehidupan
konsumen. Perbedaan produksi serasah dapat dipengaruhi oleh struktur vegetasi, umur
tegakan, kondisi geografis (kemiringan) dan perubahan iklim musiman. Apabila vegetasi
memiliki kerapatan yang tinggi serta diameter batang yang besar maka akan menghasilkan
produksi serasah yang rendah. Kandungan serasah mangrove dapat diketahui dari daun
vegetasi mangrove yang berguguran.
Fi merupakan frekuensi jenis artinya besarnya peluang ditemukannya mangrove
jenis tertentu disuatu tempat. Pada plot II terdapat 2 jenis mangrove dengan nilai RFi
Sonneratia alba sebesar 100%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa sebaran jenis mangrove yang
ada dominan dominan Sonneratia alba.
Nilai penting memiliki arti bahwa suatu jenis mangrove memiliki peranan yang
penting di dalam ekosistemnya. Nilai penting yang tinggi berarti bahwa jenis tersebut sangat
mempengaruhi kestabilan ekosistem. Berdasarkan data hasil pengamatan jenis mangrove
Sonneratia alba memiliki nilai penting yang paling tinggi yaitu sebesar 161.7 dan nilai
penting untuk Rhizopora apiculata adalah sebesar 118.3. Vegetasi Rhizopora apiculata
mempunyai peranan penting dalam membantu memecah gelombang tinggi sehingga
gelombang yang sampai ke daratan dapat dikurangi frekuensinya sehingga kerusakan yang
diakibatkan tidak terlalu tinggi. Sonneratia alba memiliki nilai penting bagi ekosistem
mangrove sebagai nursery ground dan feeding ground yang artinya bahwa Sonneratia alba
memiliki peran yang lebih penting di dalam ekosistemnya, seperti sebagai pemecah
gelombang tinggi, tempat memijah, memelihara anak, mencari makan dan perlindungan
berbagai macam ikan atau organisme yang hidup di sekitarnya.
Mangrove merupakan salah satu sumberdaya perikanan yang memiliki arti penting

di dalam ekosistemnya. Adanya upaya pemanfaatan yang dilakukan secara terus-menerus


tanpa adanya keseimbangan untuk menjaga kelestariannya dapat berkibat pada rusak atau
punahnya sumberdaya tersebut. Kerusakan satu jenis sumberdaya akan memberikan dampak
pada ketidakseimbangan ekosistem yang lainnya. Guna menghindari adanya kerusakan atau
kepunahan hutan mangrove maka pemanfaatan yang dilakukan harus bersifat bertanggung
jawab.

V. KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN


A. Kesimpulan
Balai Pengawasan Hutan Mangrove Ngurah rai, Denpasar, Bali didominasi oleh mangrove
jenis mangrove Rhizopora mucronata dan Sonneratia alba.
Kawasan hutan mangrove yang berada di Ngurah rai, Denpasar, Bali sistem
pengelolaannya baik karena merupakan kawasan yang dilindungi dan dijaga dengan
baik.
Perbandingan hasil pengamatan plot 1 dan 2 cukup berbeda karena dari kedua plot yang
ada jenis tumbuhan yang didapatkan berbeda dan tingkat diversitasnya rendah.
Kawasan pengelolaan mangrove yang diamati tercemar oleh sampah dan minyak sebagai
dampak kegiatan manusia.
B. Saran
Hendaknya dilakukan susur pantai untuk membersihkan plastik yang ada di sekitar
mangrove dan membuat instalasi untuk penanggulangan minyak dari kegiatan manusia.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Anonim.2011.

Tahura.

http://www.dephut.go.id/informasi/twa/tahura/ngurah.htm.

diakses

tanggal 23 April 2011.


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