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Karla Miranda

Chapter 18 Study guide


18.1:

Kingdom Animalia

1. What are the characteristics and distinctive features of an animal? They are multi cellular heterotrophic that obtain nutrients by ingestion. Animal cells lack cells walls and are held together by extracellular structural proteins and by unique types of intercellular junctions. Most have muscle cells for movement and nerve cells for conducting impulse. 2. Define the following terms: Blastula, gastrula, endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. Blastula: An early embryonic stage; usually a hallow ball of cells. Gastrula: When one side of blastula folds inward Endoderm: The cell layer that aligns the internal sac formed by gastrula that becomes the digestive track. Ectoderm: An outer cell layer that gives rise to the outer covering of the animal and in the central nervous system. Mesoderm: The 3rd embryonic layer that forms the muscle in most internal organs. 3. How are all animal genetically similar? They share a unique homobox containing family of genes that play important roles in the development of animal embryos. 18.2: 4. The ancestors of animals were probably Modern chanoflagellates, colonial protist that are closest living relatives of animals. 5. What was the Cambrian explosion? About 542 million years ago, fossils records mark a dramatic increase in animal diversity. Many animals new body plans and phyla appeared in a span of 45 million years ago. 6. Animals are classified into how many phyla? 35. How many of the phyla are invertebrates?

18.3 7. What is the difference between radial and bilateral symmetry? In radial symmetry body part radiate from center and the animal has a top and a bottom but no right or left sides. Bilateral symmetry has mirror image in right and left side. A distinct head=anterior end, a tail= proterious end, a back = indorsal surface and a bottom= ventral surface. 8. What is a hydrostatic skeleton? A skeleton in soft body animals that provides a rigid structure, in which muscles contract against, moving the animal. 9. What is body cavity? How does the body cavity of a pseudocoelomate and true coelom differ? A fluid filled space between the digestive tract and body wall cushions the internal organs, and enable them to grow more independently. Pseudocoelomate is not completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm while the true coelom is. 10. What is the main difference between a protostome and a deuterostome? In protostome the opening formed during gastrulation that leads to the developing digestive tract that becomes the mouth. In deuterostome it becomes the anus and mouth forms from second opening. 18.4 What is a phylogenetic tree and why are they considered hypotheses? It is considered a hypothesis because the fossil record is incomplete. A tree is composed of the best available data and will be revised based on new research and molecular comparison. Its a morphology, based phylogenetic tree of major phyla of animal kingdom. Phylum Prorifera Basic description Stationary/sessile Mostly marine Lack symmetry No true tissue Suspension/ filter feeders Carnivores Radial symmetry Key adaption + description Central cavity: The pores into which water is drawn through Choanocytes: inner layer of flagellated cells, help sweep water through the sponges body. Polyp/medusa: Example organisms Sponges

Cnidarians

Sea anenomes Jelly fish

Two tissue layers Outer epidermis and inner cell layer that lines digestive cavity Flukes Tapeworms Trichinella C. elegans Snail Slugs Oysters Clams Octopuses Earthworm Sandworm Leeches Crayfish Lobster Crabs Barnacles Spider Inscects Sea stars Sand dollars Sea urains