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Codes and Standards

The following codes are used for the design, construction and inspection of piping systems in North America.

ASME B31 Piping Codes

Piping codes developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers: B31.1 Power Piping Piping typically found in electric power generating stations, in industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating systems and central and district heating and cooling plants. B31.3 Process Piping Piping typically found in petroleum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, per, semiconductor and cryogenic plants and related processing plants and terminals. B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids Piping transporting products which are predominately quid between plants and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulating, and metering stations. B31.5 Refrigeration Piping Piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants. B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems Piping transporting products which are predominately gas between sources and terminals including compressor, regulating and metering stations, gas gathering pipelines. B31.9 Building Services Piping Piping typically found in industrial, institutional, commercial and public buildings and in multi-unit residences which does not require the range of sizes, pressures and temperatures covered in B311.1 B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems

Piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and terminals within terminals, pumping and regulating stations. The following codes are used to specify the geometric, material and strength of piping and components:

ASME B16 Dimensional Codes

The ASME B16 Piping Component Standards Piping component standard developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300 B16.4 Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings B16.9 Factory Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings B16.10 Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded B16.12 Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings B16.14 Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads B16.15 Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings Class 125 and 250 B16.18 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings B16.20 Ring Joint Gaskets and Grooves for Steel Pipe Flanges B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges B16.22 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings B16.23 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV B16.24 Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 150, 300, 400,600, 900, 1500 and 2500

B16.25 Butt welding Ends B16.26 Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes B16.28 Wrought Steel Butt welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns B16.29 Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV B16.32 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Fittings for Sovent Drainage Systems B16.33 Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping systems Up to 125 psig (sizes through 2) B16.34 Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End B16.36 Orifice Flanges B16.37 Hydrostatic Testing of Control Valves B16.38 Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution (Manually Operated, NPS 2 to 12, 125 psig maximum) B16.39 Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Classes 1150, 250 and 300 B16.40 Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gs Shutoffs and Valves in Gas Distribution Systems B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Class 150 and 300 B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60)

ASME B36 Piping Component Standards

Piping standards developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers / American National Standards Institute: B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe Other ASME or ANSI B73.1 Horizontal, End Suction Centrifugal Pumps

B73.2 Vertical In-line Centrifugal Pumps B133.2 Basic Gas Turbine

NEPA Codes
National Electrical Protection Association Piping covering fire protection systems using water, carbon dioxide, halon, foam, dry chemical and wet chemicals. NFC - NFPA Codes National Fire Code / National Fire Protection Association NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Piping for medical and laboratory gas systems.

CSA Standards
Canadian Standards Association CSA Z662 - 94 Oil & Gas Pipeline Systems This standard supercedes these standards: CAN/CSA Z183 Oil Pipeline Systems CAN/CSA Z184 Gas Pipeline Systems CAN/CSA Z187 Offshore Pipelines Other CSA Piping and Component Codes: B 51 Boilers and Pressure Vessels B 53 Identification of Piping Systems B 52 Mechanical Refrigeration Code B 63 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipes

B 137.3 Rigid Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe B 137.4 Polyethylene Piping Systems for Gas Service W 48.1 Mild Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes W 48.3 Low-Alloy Steel Arc-Welding Electrodes Z 245.1 Steel Line Pipe Z 245.11 Steel Fittings Z 245.12 Steel Flanges Z 245.15 Steel Valves Z 245.20 External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe Z 245.21 External Polyethylene Coating for Pipe Z 276 LNG - Production, Storage and Handling

Standard Practices
Piping and related component standards developed by the Manufacturers Standardization Society. The MSS standards are directed at general industrial applications. The pipeline industry makes extensive use of these piping component and quality acceptance standards. SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces Pipe Flanges and Connecting End Flanges of Valves and Fittings SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Union SP-44 Steel Pipeline Flanges SP-53 Quality Standards for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Magnetic Particle SP-54 Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Radiographic SP-55 Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Visual

SP-58 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Material, Design and manufacture SP-61 Pressure Testing of Steel Valves SP-69 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application SP-75 High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings SP-82 Valve Pressure Testing Methods SP-89 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Fabrication and Installation Practices

American Petroleum Institute The API standards are focused on oil production, refinery and product distribution services. Equipment specified to these standards are typically more robust than general industrial applications. Spec. 5L Line Pipe Spec. 6D Pipeline Valves Spec. 6FA Fire Test for Valves Spec. 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids Spec. 12F Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids Spec. 12J Oil and Gas Separators Spec. 12K Indirect Type Oil Field Heaters Std. 594 Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves Std. 598 Valve Inspection and Testing Std. 599 Metal Plug Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends Std. 600 Steel Gate Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends

Std. 602 Compact Steel Gate Valves-Flanged Threaded, Welding, and Extended-Body Ends Std. 603 Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate Valves Std. 607 Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves Std. 608 Metal Ball Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends Std. 609 Lug-and Wafer-Type Butterfly Valves Std. 610 Centrifugal Pumps For Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services Std. 611 General Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services Std. 612 Special Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services Std. 613 Special Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services Std. 614 Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing and Control Oil Systems for Special Purpose Application Std. 615 Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment for Refinery Services Std. 616 Gas Turbines for Refinery Services Std. 617 Centrifugal Compressors for General Refinery Services Std. 618 Reciprocating Compressors for General Refinery Services Std. 619 Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services Std. 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks Std. 630 Tube and Header Dimensions for Fired Heaters for Refinery Service Std. 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage Std. 660 Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service Std. 661 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

Std. 670 Vibrations, Axial Position, and Bearing-Temperature Monitoring Systems Std. 671 Special Purpose Couplings for Refinery Service Std. 674 Positive Displacement Pumps-Reciprocating Std. 675 Positive Displacement Pumps-Controlled Volume Std. 676 Positive Displacement Pumps-Rotary Std. 677 General Purpose Gear Units for Refineries Services Std. 678 Accelerometer-Base Vibration Monitoring System Std. 1104 Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities Std. 2000 Venting Atmospheric and low-Pressure Storage Tanks - NonRefrigerated and Refrigerated RP 530 Calculation for Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries RP 560 Fired Heater for General Refinery Services RP 682 Shaft Sealing System for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps RP 1110 Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines Publ. 941 Steel for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperature and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants Publ. 2009 Safe Welding and Cutting Practices in Refineries Publ. 2015 Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks

There are numerous American Society for Testing and Materials designations cover the specification of wrought materials, forgings and castings used for plate, fittings, pipe and valves. The ASTM standards are directed to dimensional standards, materials and strength considerations. Some of the more material standards referenced are:

A 36 Specification for Structural Steel A 53 Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot Dipped, Zinc Coated Welded and Seamless A 105 Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components A 106 Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service A 181 Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel for General Purpose Piping A 182 Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High Temperature Service A 193 Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature Service A 194 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure and High Temperature Service A 234 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperatures A 333 Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service A 350 Specification for Forgings, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components A 352 Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic for Pressure Containing Parts Suitable for Low Temperature Service A 420 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service A 694 Specification for Forgings, carbon and Alloy Steel for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves and Parts for High Pressure Transmission Service A 707 Specifications for Flanges, Forged, Carbon and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service


WHY IT IS REQUIRED Selection of proper material aSd detail out the material specification. Standardization can and does reduce cost, inconvenience and confusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable difference in systems. One of main objective of each code is to ensure public and industrial safety.

DEFINITIONS Industry standard are published by professional societies, committees and trade organizations. It can be broadly classified into the following categories...... CODE STANDARDS RECOMMENDED PRACTICES

CODE A group of general rules r systematic procedures for design, fabrication, installation and inspection prepared in such a manner that it can be adopted by legal jurisdiction and made into law.

STANDARDS Documents prepared by a professional group or committee which are believed to be good and proper engineering practices and which contain mandatory requirements.

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES Documents prepared by a professional group or committee indicating good engineering practices but which are optional. STANDARDS FOR PIPING DESIGN ASMEB31.1: Powerpiping ASME B31.2: Fuel Gas piping. ASME B31.3: Process piping. ASME B31.4: Pipeline Transportation system for liquid Hydrocarbon and other liquids ASMEB31.5: Refrigeration piping. ASME B31.8: Gas Transmission and Distribution piping.

Joint design and selection can have a major impact on the initial installed cost, the long-range operating and maintenance cost, and the performance of the piping system. Factors that must be considered in the joint selection phase of the project design include material cost, installation labor cost, degree of leakage integrity required, periodic maintenance requirements, and specific performance requirements.

In addition, since codes do impose some limitations on joint applications, joint selection must meet the applicable code requirements. In the paragraphs that follow, the above-mentioned considerations will be briefly discussed for a number of common pipe joint configurations.

Butt-welded Joints

Butt-welding is the most common method of joining piping used in large commercial, institutional, and industrial piping systems. Material costs are low, but labor costs are moderate to high due to the need for specialized welders and fitters. Long term leakage integrity is extremely good, as is structural and mechanical strength. The interior surface of a butt-welded piping system is smooth and continuous which results in low pressure drop. The system can be assembled with internal weld backing rings to reduce fit-up and welding costs, but backing rings create internal crevices, which can trap corrosion products. In the case of nuclear piping systems, these crevices can cause a concentration of radioactive solids at the joints, which can lead to operating and maintenance problems. Backing rings can also lead to stress concentration effects, which may promote fatigue cracks under vibratory or other cyclic loading conditions. Butt-welded joints made up without backing rings are more expensive to construct, but the absence of interior crevices will effectively minimize crud buildup and will also enhance the piping systems resistance to fatigue failures. Most butt-welded piping installations are limited to NPS 21 (DN 65) or larger. There is no practical upper size limit in butt-welded construction. Butt-welding fittings and pipe system accessories are available down to NPS 1 (DN 15). However, economic penalties associated with pipe end preparation and fit-up, and special weld procedure qualifications normally preclude the use of butt-welded construction in sizes NPS 2 (DN 50) and under, except for those special cases where interior surface smoothness and the elimination of internal crevices are of paramount importance. Smooth external surfaces give butt-welded construction high aesthetic appeal.

Socket-welded Joints
Socket-welded construction is a good choice wherever the benefits of high leakage integrity and great structural strength are important design considerations. Construction costs are somewhat lower than with butt-welded joints due to the lack of exacting fit-up requirements and elimination of special machining for butt weld end preparation. The internal crevices left in socket-welded systems make them less suitable for corrosive or radioactive applications where solids buildup at the joints

may cause operating or maintenance problems. Fatigue resistance is lower than that in butt-welded construction due to the use of fillet welds and abrupt fitting geometry, but it is still better than that of most mechanical joining methods. Aesthetic appeal is good.

Brazed and Soldered Joints

Brazing and soldering are most often used to join copper and copper-alloy piping systems, although brazing of steel and aluminum pipe and tubing is possible. Brazing and soldering both involve the addition of molten filler metal to a close-fitting annular joint. The molten metal is drawn into the joint by capillary action and solidifies to fuse the parts together. The parent metal does not melt in brazed or soldered construction. The advantages of these joining methods are high leakage integrity and installation productivity. Brazed and soldered joints can be made up with a minimum of internal deposits. Pipe and tubing used for brazed and soldered construction can be purchased with the interior surfaces cleaned and the ends capped, making this joining method popular for medical gases and high-purity pneumatic control installations. Soldered joints are normally limited to near-ambient temperature systems and domestic water supply. Brazed joints can be used at moderately elevated temperatures. Most brazed and soldered installations are constructed using light-wall tubing; consequently the mechanical strength of these systems is low.

Threaded or Screwed Joints

Threaded or screwed piping is commonly used in low-cost, noncritical applications such as domestic water, fire protection, and industrial cooling water systems. Installation productivity is moderately high, and specialized installation skill requirements are not extensive. Leakage integrity is good for low-pressure, low-temperature installations where vibration is not encountered. Rapid temperature changes may lead to leaks due to differential thermal expansion between the pipe and fittings. Vibration can result in fatigue failures of screwed pipe joints due to the high stress intensification effects caused by the sharp notches at the base of the threads. Screwed fittings are normally made of cast gray or malleable iron, cast brass or bronze, or forged alloy and carbon steel. Screwed construction is commonly used with galvanized pipe and fittings for domestic water and drainage applications. While certain types of screwed fittings are available in up to NPS 12 (DN300), economic considerations normally limit industrial applications to NPS 3 (DN 80). Screwed piping

systems are useful where disassembly and reassembly are necessary to accommodate maintenance needs or process changes. Threaded or screwed joints must be used within the limitations imposed by the rules and requirements of the applicable code.

Grooved Joints
The main advantages of the grooved joints are their ease of assembly, which results in low labor cost, and generally good leakage integrity. They allow a moderate amount of axial movement due to thermal expansion, and they can accommodate some axial misalignment. The grooved construction prevents the joint from separating under pressure. Among their disadvantages are the use of an elastomer seal, which limits their high-temperature service, and their lack of resistance to torsional loading. While typical applications involve machining the groove in standard wall pipe, light wall pipe with rolled-in grooves may also be used. Grooved joints are used extensively for fire protection, ambient temperature service water, and low pressure drainage applications such as floor and equipment drain systems and roof drainage conductors. They are a good choice where the piping system must be disassembled and reassembled frequently for maintenance or process changes.

Flanged Joints

Flanged connections are used extensively in modern piping systems due to their ease of assembly and disassembly; however, they are costly. Contributing to the high cost are the material costs of the flanges themselves and the labor costs for attaching the flanges to the pipe and then bolting the flanges to each other. Flanges are normally attached to the pipe by threading or welding, although in some special cases a flange-type joint known as a lap joint may be made by forging and machining the pipe end. Flanged joints are prone to leakage in services that experience rapid temperature fluctuations. These fluctuations cause high-temperature differentials between the flange body and bolting, which eventually causes the bolt stress to relax, allowing the joint to open up. Leakage is also a concern in high-temperature installations where bolt stress relaxation due to creep is experienced. Periodic retorquing of the bolted connections to reestablish the required seating pressure on the gasket face can minimize these problems. Creep-damaged bolts in hightemperature installations must be periodically replaced to reestablish the required gasket seating pressure. Flanged joints are commonly used to join dissimilar materials, e.g., steel pipe to cast-iron valves and in systems that require frequent maintenance disassembly and reassembly. Flanged construction is also used extensively in lined piping systems.

Compression Joints

Compression sleeve-type joints are used to join plain end pipe without special end preparations. These joints require very little installation labor and as such result in an economical overall installation. Advantages include the ability to absorb a limited amount of thermal expansion and angular misalignment and the ability to join dissimilar piping materials, even if their outside diameters are slightly different. Disadvantages include the use of rubber or other elastomer seals, which limits their high-temperature application, and the need for a separate external thrust-resisting system at all turns and dead ends to keep the line from separating under pressure. Compression joints are frequently used for temporary piping systems or systems that must be dismantled frequently for maintenance. When equipped with the proper gaskets and seals, they may be used for piping systems containing air, other gases, water, and oil; in both aboveground and underground service. Small-diameter compression fittings with all-metal sleeves may be used at elevated temperatures and pressures, when permitted by the rules and requirements of the applicable code. They are common in instrument and control tubing installations and other applications where high seal integrity and easy assembly and disassembly are desirable attributes.


Vents are needed to let gas (usually air) in and out of systems. When a line or vessel cools, the pressure drops and creates a partial vacuum which can cause siphoning or prevent draining. When pressure rises in storage tanks due to an increase in temperature, it is necessary to release excess pressure. Air must also be released from tanks to allow filling and admitted to permit draining or pumping out liquids. Unless air is removed from fuel lines to burners, flame fading can result. In steam lines, air reduces heating efficiency.

After piping is erected, it is often necessary to subject the system to a hydrostatic test to see if there is any leakage. In compliance with the applicable code, this consists of filling the lines

with water or other liquid, closing the line, applying test pressure and observing how well pressure is maintained for a specified time, while searching for leaks. As the test pressure is greater than the operating pressure of the system, it is necessary to protect equipment and instruments by closing all relevant valves. Vessels and equipment usually are supplied with a certificate of code compliance. After testing, the valved drains are opened and the vent plugs temporarily removed to allow air into the piping for complete draining.

Positions of the required vent and drain points are established on the piping drawings. PIDS shows only process vents such as vacuum breakers and process drains.

Quick opening vents of ample size are needed for gases. Safety and safety-relief valves are the usual means. Gases which offer no serious hazard after some dilution with air ma be vented to atmosphere by means ensuring that no direct inhalation can occur. If a combustible gas is toxic or has a bad odor, it may be piped to an incinerator or flarestack, and destroyed by burning. DRAINING COMPRESSED AIR LINES Air has a moisture content which partially carried thru the compressing and cooling stages. It is this moisture that tends to separate, together with any oil, which

may have been picked up by the air in passing thru the compressor. If air for distribution has not been dried, distribution lines should be sloped toward points of use and drains : Lines carrying dried air need not be sloped. If the compressed air supply is not dried, provide:1. Traps at all drains from equipment forming or collecting liquid such as intercooler, aftercooler, separator, receiver. 2. Driplegs with traps on distribution headers (at low points before rises) and traps or manual drains at the ends of distribution headers.)

STANDARDS FOR PIPING COMPONENTS PIPES: 1. B36.10M: Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipes 2. B36.19M: Stainless Steel Pipes

Flanges: 1. B16.5: Steel Pipe flanges and flanged fittings 2. B16.47: Large diameter steel flanges 3. B16.48: Steel Line Blanks 4. API 5L: Line Pipe.

FITTINGS: 1) B 16.9: Factory Made Wrought Steel Butt- Welding Fitting 2) B 16.11: Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding & Threaded VALVES: 1) API 594: Wafer And Wafer Lug And Double Flanged Check Valve 2) API 599: Metal Plug Valves-Tanged & Welding Ends 3) API 600: Steel Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt Welding Ends, Bolted and Pressure Seal Bonnet 4) API 6D: Pipe line valves, End closures,Counselors end swivels 5) API 593:Ductile Iron Plug Valves- Flanged ends. 6) API 600: Steel gate valves. 7) BS 1414: Steel Wedge Gate Valves flanged Cud Butt Welding Ends) 8) BS 1868: Steel Check Valves) flanged & Butt Welding Ends) 9) BS 1873: Steel Globe, Globe stop cud Check Valves )Flanged & butt welding ends. 10)BS 5351: Steel Ball Valves 11)BS/EN 593: Specification for Butterfly valves 12)BS 5352:Steel Wedge Gate, Globe and Check Valves 50mm and Smaller 13)BS 5353:Steel Plug Valves 14)Bd 6364:Valves For Cryogenic Services GASKETS: 1)B 16.53:Metallic Gaskets for Steel pipe flanges, ring joint, Spirel-Wound, and gasketed. IPING ISOMETRIC CHECK LIST

North arrow orientation.

Line continuation - Iso index.

Matching isometrics and elevation.

Equipment location to grid.

Equipment terminal details.

Location to grid/equipment.

Structural penetrations.

Locations of item .

Line content.

Flow arrow.

Pipeline number and elevations.

Fabrication type.

Dimensional completion.

Valve orientation.

Fabrication limits.

Field weld locations.

Make-up weld locations.

Cut to fit dimensions.

Spool number sequence.

Pipe support locations.

Hydrotest requirements.

Flushing requirements.

Insulation limits.

Heat tracing limits.

Piping bills of materials completeness.

Piping insulation materials completeness.

Specials list completeness.

Assemblies list completeness.

Tagged item list completeness.

Fabrication requirements completeness.

Pipe Support Design Guidelines

A piping system shall be adequately supported and restrained to prevent line overstress, equipment nozzle overload, excessive bending of flange joints, excessive pipe sagging, high vibration, excessive deflection / movement, etc.


The purpose of this guideline is to simplify and standardise the approach to pipe support design and selection for common support applications with the aim to improve quality, efficiency and productivity. The document shall be read in conjunction with the office standard pipe support drawings and the office piping stress analysis guide.

Pipe Support Identification Tagging:

Each pipe support standard detail drawing contains a legend for support identification tagging applicable to the supports in the drawing.

Normally all the supports, covers under Standard Piping supports will be STD Pipe Supports. If the supports needs modification or above the STD pipe support range (e.g. max length, height, pipe range) then it should be considered as Special Pipe Support (SPS).

All SPS as designed and checked by Civil discipline.

Pipe Support Register:

Standard pipe supports, project specific pipe supports and temporary pipe supports will be listed in the project pipe support index drawing. Special pipe supports and temporary support frames are part of the Structural design and will be listed in the Structural discipline project deliverables.

Piping Fabrication Isometrics:

The Material section of the piping fabrication isometric will call up all standard pipe supports. The following information will be included:

Pipe support identification tag and description / nominal pipe size / quantity Pipe support components that are welded to pipe, such as welded shoes and Trunnions, will be shown under Fabrication Materials. Pipe support components that are field fitted, such as U-bolts, guides, line stops, will be shown under Erection Materials. The Drawing section of the fabrication piping isometric will show all the above pipe supports and will also reference structural SPecial Supports (SPS).

Pipe support position will be dimensioned on the isometric drawing. This position corresponds to the location point indicated on the pipe support detail drawing.

Also shown in the Drawing section of the isometric will be clarification notes, such as no gaps, nonstandard gaps and support orientation if required.

Other Supports:

Use of spring hangers, snubbers and other such devices shall be specified by Stress Engineer. The project pipe support register will contain all design information required for procurement of these items.

Supports for extreme conditions, such as for very low operating temperature or acoustic vibration, shall be engineered, designed and procured from a reliable supplier. These supports shall be designed for and installed in accordance with the Suppliers instructions.

Small Bore Brace:

Small bore brace is typically used to protect a small size branch from damage.

Branch lines in sizes 2 and below are considered small bore and prone to fatigue failures in vibrating piping systems. They are also prone to mechanical damaged by an external force. The failure is usually at the branch weld to the main line or weldolet. Small bore branches are normally braced for that reason. Bracing shall be to the branch flange in preference to the branch pipe. Nipoflanges shall be used in preference to weldolets.

Small bore brace will not be required on small branches when: The branch is continuous and supported and there is no valve within the first span; Standard tees are used; The piping is used for utility services.


For carbon and stainless steel piping welded shoes shall be used instead of clamped shoes where the temperature limit for clamped shoes has been exceed or where specified / approved by Stress Engineer for strength purposes.

Welded shoes shall not be used on lined piping, piping in expensive material, piping PWHT before shoe installation and piping galvanized before shoe welding.

Long length shoes shall be used where specified by Stress Engineer, a line stop is required or there is an excessive support movement in longitudinal direction.

On insulated lines the standard shoe height of 100mm can be increased to up to 150mm where the insulation thickness is greater than 75mm. If required, shoes higher than 150mm will be designed by the stress engineer.

Pipe shoes shall be installed centrally on the support steel unless noted otherwise on the piping fabrication isometric.

When the design requires a continuously sloping line, this shall be achieved with the use of variable height shoes in combinations with adjustments of supporting steelwork. Lines having a design temperature above 120C shall be supported on shoes because of the temperature limitations of PTFE isolation pads used with uninsulated lines.

Lines having a design temperature below minus 29C shall be supported on shoes to avoid cold temperature embritellment of the supporting structural steel.


Use of trunnion supports will be minimised and approved by Stress Engineer.

Trunnion supports on elbows will be avoided, particularly when a reinforcing pad is required. The use of the trunnion on an elbow with a reinforcing pad shall be approved by the Lead Piping Engineer.

Guides and Line Stops:

Guides and line stops will be installed with the installation tolerance gap of maximum 3mm on each side of the support unless noted otherwise on the isometric.

Hold down guides shall only be used when specified by Stress Engineer. Using these guides for guiding vertical pipes is not preferred. Alternative line stops of high load capacity shall only be used when approved by Stress Engineer.



A U-bolt shall be installed in such a way that the dead weight of the piping is supported by the structure and not the U-bolt itself.

U-bolts can be used on both horizontal and vertical lines.

Isolation Pads:

Isolation pad (PD-01) made of PTFE is used to support the line and reduce the risk of fretting corrosion to the underside of the pipe. Isolation pads shall be bonded directly to the structural steel. Bonding / fixing of the isolation pad to the structural steel shall be suitable for the required service life of the support.

Pipe shoes shall be used instead of isolation pads if the temperature limit of the pad bonding

adhesive or material has been exceeded.

Isolation pads are not required under shoes, trunnions, reinforcing pads and on the facings of guides and line stops.

Reinforcing Pads:

Reinforcing pads are typically used to reduce stress level in the pipe wall from welded attachment or high bearing load. They can also be used to protect pipe wall from external corrosion.

Support Span:

Piping will be subject to internal and external loads during topside transportation and installation, environmental loads and operating and transient process loads. Piping movement shall be restrained on all three orthogonal directions allowing sufficient flexibility for thermal expansion and other imposed deflections, such as bridge and wellhead movements.

Small size piping in 2 and below shall be restrained with U-bolts wherever possible. Larger piping shall use guides and line stops with guides installed on every second support on a straight run.

Welded Attachments:

Non-pressure retaining pipe attachments that are enclosed, such as reinforcing pads and trunnions, shall have a vent/test hole to release the gas build up during welding and to provide an inspection point for any pipe leak. The hole shall be tapped with an NPT thread to allow low pressure pneumatic testing after welding.

Special Applications:

Control valve sets will typically be anchored with a line stop and hold-down guide on one side and guided on the other side.

Pig traps will typically be anchored with a line stop and hold-down guide at the pipeline end and guided at the closure end.

Manifolds will typically have guides at each end and a centrally located line stop. Drain systems with rodding points shall be supported in such a way to withstand rodding loads. The free pipe ends on Utility Stations shall be securely fixed. That may be accomplished with U-bolts either as guides or anchors.

For piping supported from a pressure vessel the pipe support details and loads will be issued to the Mechanical discipline for incorporation in the pressure vessel design by the vessel supplier.


Material for pipe supports can be generally divided into three categories: 1. Welded attachments to piping. The attachments shall be of the same material grade as the run pipe.

2. Pipe supports or pipe support parts not welded to piping. ASTM A36 or equivalent material can be used unless noted otherwise.

3. Structural pipe supports. Frames fabricated from ASTM A36 or equivalent structural steel sections and plates.

Hydrostatic test vents and drains Guidelines This post provides guidance for designing test vents and drains for piping systems subject to hydrostatic testing. Pneumatically tested systems do not require venting and draining for testing.

Test vents and drains are required only when the high and low points in the section of the line to be tested are not free venting and draining. The number of test vents and drains shall be minimized. They are to be provided only if there is no other means of venting and draining the line, such as process vents and drains or appropriate instrument connections. Test vents are not required for lines 1 and smaller. Test drains are required on all lines. Valves are normally not required. Test vents and drains shall be installed at the piping high and low points respectively. The branch shall be as short as possible. The branch shall be braced if bracing is called in standard support drawing. Vents and drains shall be closed with a blind flange or a threaded cap/plug as provided in the relevant piping class. Normally size of test vents and drains shall be: for line size up to 14 1 for line size 16 and larger. But it will be vary depends on the fluid, project and client. Drain point location shall allow sufficient space underneath for temporary installation of draining facility to discharge testing liquid. This guide states the minimum requirements to be met when developing piping design.

Piping Engineer Interview Questions What is preferred location for drain? What are functions of valves? What is wire drawing? What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel? What is a diverting valve? What are blow off valve? What is a BIBB Valve? What is a safety valve?

What is straight through valve? What is regular pattern plug valve? What pressure tests are carried out on valves? What are wetted parts of valve? What are isolating valves? What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel? What are globe valve port types? What materials are used for construction of valves? What are drum internals? How to close a gate valve? What is pressure balanced plug valve? What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum? Why are ball valves normally flanged? Where is stop check valve used? What is Root Valve? What is the dimensional standard for plug valves? What are butterfly valve types? What are short pattern plug valves? What are types of flush bottom valves? What are port types for gate valves? What are types of compressor drives?

How do Centrifugal compressors work? What is trim? What are inverted plug design valves? How is piping calculation done? What is lantern ring? What are drum elevation requirements? What are two types of ball valve? What are the types of compressors? What is Hose Valve? What are Teflon sleeved plug valves? What is Breather Valve? What are special valves? What are eccentric plug valve? What are the uses of three-way valve? What is metal seated lubricated plug valve?
Is This Answer Correct ?

11 Yes

2 No

0 Prathamesh Tawde Re: i want piping routing interview questions ? Answer #2

what are function of valves gate valves global valve check valves


PIPING Engineer


1-1/2 Hours.

Interviewed by: Note:


1. Answer any 20 questions.

1. Sketch the Pump piping arrangement details with clearance dimensions?

Briefly explain the considerations to be followed? explain the philosophy to be followed?

2. Sketch the Tank form piping arrangement details with dimensions? Briefly 3. Sketch the Pipe rack piping sectional arrangement details with clearance
dimensions? Briefly explain the concept to be followed? explain the considerations to be followed? explain the philosophy to be considered?

4. Sketch the Exchanger Piping arrangements including support location? Briefly 5. Sketch the Column Piping arrangements including support location? Briefly 6. Sketch the Reactor Piping arrangement details? Briefly explain about it? 7. Sketch the Heater Piping arrangement details? Briefly explain about it? 8. Sketch the Compressor Piping arrangement details? Briefly explain about it? 9. Write about the Piping flexibility arrangements and Expansion calculation

10. Describe about the Single, double and triple axis arresting of Piping support

details for Hot Insulation pipe, Cold Insulation pipe, and bare pipe and Slope pipe? for purchase? - Pipe, 90Elbow, con. red, equal tee, unequal tee, Plate, equal angle etc. Give examples.

11. How will you indicate the following Piping accessories in Material description

12. When will you recommend the following faces of Flanges?

Raised face : Flat face : Tongue and Groove : Ring Joint Type :

13. List the following piping material?



14. List the tube Material? 15. Write the equivalent material for ASTM A53, ASTM A 312TP304, ASTM A 333,
ASTM A 335?

16. When will be the NACE standard used? 17. When will you select an Inner ring for Spiral wound Gaskets? 18. What are all the By-products of Crude Oil? 19. Abbreviate any 10 Items?


20. Sketch the following items?

Drip ring Steam Tracing Fig 8 Spacer blind flange Steam trap Plug valve

21. What are the different thicknesses of gasket available?

Flat ring for RF compressed asbestos Full face for Flat face Flange Spiral Wound flat ring for RF -

22. What are the acceptable tolerances for fabrication of piping system?

Face to face ,Centre to face is ________ Lateral translation is _______________ Max. rotation is ___________________ Face out of alignment is ____________ Flattering measured as difference between the max and min OD at any cross section ____________________ Flattering measured as difference between the max and min OD at any cross section ___________________

23. Sketch the standard practice of vent and drains on line 11/2 and below and
2 and above?

24. Mention the Following Clearances to be commonly provided?

25. What is the Guide Spacing to be followed for Pipe Supporting?

Vertical Spacing Horizontal spacing Up to 2 - From 3 to 8 - From 10 to 18 - -

Note: Each answer will appear to be wrong to some readers and right to others. Some questions will have what seems to be an absolute right answer. Others will not. So if you have got any good answer for below questions, leave us a comment. Find more details see at the end of article. PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What are the steps in selection of valve? Ans : What to handle, liquid, gas or powder, fluid nature, function, construction material, disc type, stem type, how to operate, bonnet type, body ends, delivery time, cost, warranty. 2. What are functions of valves? Ans : Isolation, regulation, non-return and special purposes. 3. What are isolating valves? Ans : Gate, ball, plug, piston, diaphragm, butterfly, pinch. 4. What are regulation valves? Ans : Globe, needle, butterfly, diaphragm, piston, pinch. 5. What are non-return valves? Ans : check valve, 6. What are special valves? Ans : multi-port, flush bottom, float, foot, pressure relief, breather. 7. What materials are used for construction of valves? Ans : Cast iron, bronze, gun metal, carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy carbon steel, polypropylene and other plastics, special alloys. 8. What is trim? Ans : Trim is composed of stem, seat surfaces, back seat bushing and other small internal parts that normally contact the surface fluid. 9. Which standard specifies trim numbers for valve ? Ans : API 600. 10. What are wetted parts of valve? Ans : All parts that come in contact with surface fluid are called wetted parts. 11. What is wire drawing? Ans : This term is used to indicate the premature erosion of the valve seat caused by excessive velocity between seat and seat disc, when valve

is not closed tightly. 12. What is straight through valve? Ans : Valve in which the closing operation of valve is achieved by 90degrees turn of the closing element. 13. What pressure tests are carried out on valves? Ans : Shell-hydrostatic, seat-hydrostatic, seat-pneumatic 14. What are available valve operators? Ans : Handlever, handwheel, chain operator, gear operator, powered operator likes electric motor, solenoid, pneumatic and hydraulic operators, Quick acting operators for non-rotary valves (handle lift). 15. What are two types of ball valve? Ans : Full port design and regular port design, according to type of seat, soft seat and metal seat. 16. What are ball valve body types? Ans : Single piece, double piece, three piece, the short pattern, long pattern, sandwitch and flush bottom design. 17. Why ball valves are normally flanged? Ans : Because of soft seat PTFE which can damage during welding. 18. What are butterfly valve types? Ans : Double flange type, wafer lug type and wafer type. 19. What are types of check valve? Ans : Lift check valves and swing check valves. 20. What are non-slam check valves? Ans : Swing check valve, conventional check valve, wafer check valve, tilting disc check valve, piston check valve, stop check valve, ball check valve. 21. Where stop check valve is used ? Ans : In stem generation by multiple boilers, where a valve is inserted between each boiler and the main steam header. It can be optionally closed automatically or normally. 22. Where diaphragm valves are used ? Ans : Used for low pressure corrosive services as shut off valves. 23. What is Barstock Valve? Ans: Any valve having a body machined from solid metal (barstock). Usually needle or globe type. 24. What is BIBB Valve? Ans: A small valve with turned down end, like a faucet. 25. What is Bleed Valve? Ans: Small valve provided for drawing off liquid. 26. What is BlowDown Valve? Ans Refers to a plug type disc globe valve used for removing sludge and sedimentary matter from the bottom of boiler drums, vessels, driplegs etc. 27. What is Breather Valve? Ans: A special self acting valve installed on storage tanks etc. to release vapor or gas on slight increase of internal pressure ( in the region of to 3 ounces per square inch).

28. What is Drip Valve? Ans: A drain valve fitted to the bottom of a driplet to permit blowdown. 29. What is Flap Valve? Ans: A non return valve having a hinged disc or rubber or leather flap used for low pressure lines. 30. What is Hose Valve? Ans: A gate or globe valve having one of its ends externally threaded to one of the hose thread standards in use in the USA. These valves are used for vehicular and firewater connections. 31. What is Paper-Stock Valve? Ans: A single disc single seat gate valve (Slide gate) with knife edged or notched disc used to regulate flow of paper slurry or other fibrous slurry. 32. What is Root Valve? Ans: A valve used to isolate a pressure element or instrument from a line or vessel, or a valve placed at the beginning of a branch form the header. 33. What is Slurry valve? Ans: A knife edge valve used to control flow of non-abrasive slurries. 34. What is Spiral sock valve? Ans: A valve used to control flow of powders by means of a twistable fabric tube or sock. 35. What is Throttling valve? Ans: Any valve used to closely regulate flow in the just-open position. 36. What is Vacuum breaker? Ans: A special self-acting valve or nay valve suitable for vacuum service, operated manually or automatically, installed to admit gas (usually atmospheric air) into a vacuum or low-pressure space. Such valves are installed on high points of piping or vessels to permit draining and sometimes to prevent siphoning. 37. What is Quick acting valve ? Ans: Any on/off valve rapidly operable, either by manual lever, spring or by piston, solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing a weight which in falling operates the valve. Quick acting valves are desirable in lines conveying flammable liquids. Unsuitable for water or for liquid service in general without a cushioning device to protect piping from shock. 38. What is diverting valve ? Ans : This valve switch flow from one main line to two different outlets. WYE type and pneumatic control type with no moving part. 39. What is sampling valve? Ans : Usually of needle or globe pattern, placed in branch line for the purpose of drawing all samples of process material thru the branch. 40. What are blow off valve? Ans : It is a variety of globe valve confirming with boiler code requirements and specially designed for boiler blowoff service. WYE pattern and angle type, used to remove air and other gases from boilers etc.

41. What is relief valve? Ans : Valve to relieve excess pressure in liquids in situations where full flow discharge is not required, when release of small volume of liquid would rapidly lower pressure. 42. What is safety valve? Ans : Rapid opening(popping action) full flow valve for air and other gases. 43. What is foot valve? Ans : Valve used to maintain a head of water on the suction side of sump pump, basically a lift check valve with integrated strainer. 44. What is float valve? Ans : Used to control liquid level in tanks, operated by float, which rises with liquid level and opens the valve to control water level. It can also remove air from system, in which case, air flows out of system in valve open condition, but when water reaches valve, float inside valve raises to close the valve and stop flow of water. Used in drip legs. 45. What are flush bottom valves? Ans : Special type of valves used to drain out the piping, reactors and vessels, attached on pad type nozzles. 46. What are types of flush bottom valves? Ans : Valves with discs opening into the tank and valves with disks into the valve. 47. What are the uses of three-way valve? Ans : Alternate connection of the two supply lines to a common delivery vise versa, isolating one safety valve, division of flow with isolation facility. 48. What are uses of four way valve? Ans : Reversal of pump suction and delivery, By pass of strainer or meter, reversal of flow through filter, heat exchanger or dryer. 49. What is metal seated lubricated plug valve? Ans : A plug valve with no plastic material, where grease is applied to contacting surfaces for easy operation. 50. What are three patterns of plug valve design? Ans : Regular pattern, short pattern and ventury pattern. 51. What is regular pattern plug valve? Ans : Rectangular port, area almost equal to pipe bore, smooth transition from round body to rectangular port, for minimum pressure loss. 52. What are short pattern plug valve? Ans : Valves with face to face dimension of gate valve, as a alternative to gate valve. 53. What are ventury pattern plug valve? Ans : Change of section through the body throat so graded to have ventury effect, minimum pressure loss. 54. What are inverted plug design valve? Ans : Plug valve with taper portion up of plug. For 8 and higher size.

55. What is pressure balanced plug valve? Ans : With holes in port top and bottom connecting two chambers on top and bottom of plug, to reduce turning effort. 56. What are Teflon sleeved plug valve? Ans : PTFE sleeve between plug and body of valve, low turning effort, minimum friction, temperature limitation, anti static design possible. 57. What are permasil plug valve? Ans : Plug valves with Teflon seat instead of sleeves, for on off applications, can handle clean viscous and corrosive liqiuids, Graphite seat for high temperature applications. Drip tight shut off not possible. 58. What are eccentric plug valve? Ans : Off center plug, corrosive and abrasive service, on off action, moves into and away from seat eliminating abrasive wear. 59. What is dimensional standard for plug valve? Ans : API 599. 60. What is pinch valve? Ans : Similar to diaphragm valve, with sleeves of rubber or PTFE, which get sqeezed to control or stop the flow, Cast iron body, for very low service pressures like isolation of hose connections, manufacture standard. 61. What is needle valve? Ans :Full pyramid disc, same design as globe valve, smaller sizes, sw or threaded, flow control, disc can be integral with stem, inside screw, borged or barstock body and bonnet, manufacturers standard. 62. How to install a globe valve ? Ans : Globe valve should be installed such that the flow is from the underside of the disk, Usually flow direction is marked on the globe valve. 63. What are globe valve port types? Ans : Full port: More than 85% of bore size, Reducer port: One size less than the connected pipe. 64. What are globe valve disk types? Ans :Flat faced type for positive shutoff, loose plug type for plug renewal or needle type for finer control. 65. What are characteristics of globe valve stem? Ans : Always rising design, with disk nut at the lower end and handwheel at upper end. 66. What are types of globe valve? Ans : Angle globe valve, plug type disc globe valve, wye-body globe valve, composite disc globe valve, double disc globe valve. 67. What is angle globe valve? Ans : Ends at 90 degree to save elbow, higher pressure drop. 68. Where plug type disc globe valve is used? Ans : For severe regulating service with gritty liquids such as boiler feedwater and for blow off service. 69. Where WYE body globe valve is used ? Ans : In line ports with stem emerging at 45 degree, for erosive fluids

due to smoother flow pattern. 70. What is double disc globe valve ? Ans : Has two discs bearing on separate seats spaced apart, on a single shaft, for low torque, used for control valves. 71. What are port types for gate valves? Ans : Full port and reduced port. Default is reduced bore. Full port has to be specified in bom. 72. How to close a gate valve ? Ans :Turn the handwheel in clockwise direction. 73. What is lantern ring? Ans : Its a collection point to drain off any hazardous seepages or as a point where lubricant can be injected, it is in the middle of packing rings. 74. What are types of gate valves? Ans : Solid plane wedge, solid flexible wedge, split wedge, double disc paralles seats, double disc wedge, single disc single seat gate or slide, single disc parallel seats, plug gate valve. 75. What are the types of bonnets? Ans : Bolted bonnet, bellow sealed bonnet, screwed on bonnet, union bonnets, A U-bolt and clamp type bonnet, breechlock bonnet, pressure seal bonnet.

Preparation for Piping Testing

All joints in a test section shall be accessible during tests and shall not be painted, insulated, backfilled or otherwise covered until satisfactory completion of testing in accordance with this specification. All vents and other connections which can serve as vents shall be open during filling so that all air is vented prior to applying test pressure to the system.Test vents shall be installed at high points. Equipment which is not to be subjected to pressure test shall be either disconnected from the piping or blocked off during the test.Safety valve sand control valves shall not be included in site pressure testing. Temporary spades and blanks installed for testing purposes shall be designed to withstand the test pressure without distortion.Presence of spades shall be clearly visible during testing. All control valves shall be removed or replaced with temporary spools or blinded off during pressure testing.

Check valves shall have the flap or piston removed for testing, where pressure can not be located on the upstream side of the valve.The locking device of the flap pivot pin shall be reinstated together with the flap and anew cover gasket shall be installed after completion of the test. Spring supports shall be restrained or removed and expansion bellows removed during hydrostatic testing. Drain points for fluid disposal after testing, shall be provided. Care shall be taken to avoid overloading any parts of the supporting structures during hydrostatic testing. Piping which is spring or counterweight supported shall be blocked up temporarily to a degree sufficient to sustain the weight of the test medium.Holding pins shall not be removed from spring supports until testing is completed and the system is drained. Pressure in the system shall be introduced gradually until the pressure is the lesser of one-half of the test pressure or 170 kPa gauge.Maintain pressure for 10 minutes and then gradually increase pressure in steps of one tenth of the test pressure until the test pressure is attained.

1. Can you explain in detail three or more major differences between code ANSI B31.1 and code ANSI B31.3? Answer: There is only one major difference between the two, B31.1 is for Power Piping and B31.3 is for Refinery/Chemical Plant Piping. 2. There is a power plant inside a Process refinery. Where exactly the ANSI B31.1 & ANSI B31.3 scope break occurs? Answer: Based on my experience there were two cases. Case #1, B31.1 stopped at the Power Plant Unit block valves. Thus all piping inside the Power Plant was B31.1. Case #2, B31.1 stopped at the equipment (Boiler) isolation block valves and then all other piping was B31.3. This is normally the choice of the owner/operator/client. 3. Which of the following piping system is more health hazardous. A) Fuel oil piping b) Process piping with Caustic c) process piping with HF acid d) Sulphuric acid piping. Answer: c) process piping with HF acid 4. There is a steam piping with low pocket but without steam trap. What will be worst consequence of this layout?

Answer: There will be a build up of condensate to the point that a slug will be pushed by the steam flow. This slug of condensate will cause water hammer and could rip the piping apart. 5. In what circumstance, the reducer of a pump suction piping will be in bottom flat position. Explain why the reducer should be so. Answer: Still Needs a Proper Explanation for the this answer. 6. A P&ID shows a spec break (at Flange) between carbon steel & stainless steel specification. What additional arrangements you have to make for that dissimilar material flange joint? Answer: Use the Gasket and bolts from the SS spec. 7. A stainless steel piping specification mentions Galvanized carbons steel bolts. What is your first reaction ti this and how do you rectify it? Answer: If that is what the Spec call for then that is what I am supposed to use. But, I would ask the Piping Material Engineer (PME) why he/she specified galvanized bolts. 8. How many types of piping specialty items do you know? Why it is called a piping special? Why not we include them in standard piping specification. Answer: I could possibly count 50 or more depending on the PME and how the piping material specs were developed. They are called them SP items because they are NOT written into the normal Piping Material (Line Class) Specifications. They are not included because they are normally of limited use, purchased from a limited product line vendor and are often after thoughts. 9. Draw a typical steam trap station layout and explain why the existence of a by-pass line around the trap is not a good idea, when the condensate is returning to a condensate header? Answer: (No drawing) It is not advisable to have a bypass around a steam trap because the block valve could be left open and defeat the purpose of the trap. 10. Explain what is a Double block & Bleed valve? Why we need a bleed valve? When do we use this? Answer: The primary purpose of a Double Block & Bleed is Safety. However it is not fail safe. The next better Safety set-up would be Double Block Valve with a Spec Blind between the valves. The higher level of safety would be double block valves with a removable spool for absolute isolation. 11. In a typical tie-in where should the spectacle blind be inserted? a) after block valve and towards existing plant b) before block valve and towards new plant. Explain why.

Answer: The Spec Blind shall be placed on the Unit side of the Unit Block valves. This placement allows for the closing of the Unit isolation block valve, the unit side is depressured and drained. Then the spec blind can be installed for isolation of the unit. 12. Stress intensification factor (SIF) Where do we use this? Explain this term. How many types of these SIFs exist? Answer: Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) is a multiplier on nominal stress for typically bend and intersection components so that the effect of geometry and welding can be considered in a beam analysis. Stress Intensification Factors form the basis of most stress analysis of piping systems. As for the quantity, ask a Stress Engineer. 13. When all design parameters are same, whose thermal expansion is higher among the following? A) Carbon steel b) Stainless steel c) Duplex steel d) Cast Iron e) Galvanized Carbon steel. Answer: b) Stainless steel 14. In a hose station the hose couplings used for water, air & steam should be different type. Do you agree? Explain your view. Answer: I agree. If they are all the same then the hoses can be connected to the wrong services and could result in the injury of an operator (i.e.: thinking the hose is connected to water when it is connected to steam). 15. What is your view on the usage of Metallic expansion joints? When they become necessary and when they could be avoided? Answer: I do everything I can as a piping designer to avoid the use of all types of expansion joints. Expansion joints are always the weakest point in any system where they are used. 16. A water cooler heat exchanger, located on a 20 m high structural platform. Water header is located u/g. What precaution do you take, in case of Pressure loss in cooling water header? Answer: I do not understand this question it does not appear to be a piping issue. I would assume that the cooling water system has a (loss of) pressure sensor and the plant shut-down alarms and sequence would be activated. 17. In what order do you arrange the pipes in the Pipe rack and why? How much % of area should be reserved for Future expansion? Specify a range. Answer: The largest hottest lines on the outside edge of the pipe rack working in with cooler lines in towards the middle of the rack. This allows the longer loop legs as you lay the loops back over the other lines to the other side of the rack and back. The lower temperature loops would be nested inside the larger, hotter loops.

Future rack space is normally at the direction of the Client. It may be anything from 0% to as much as 25%. 18. When a utility line (like condensate or water etc) is connected permanently to a process piping what precaution we have to take to avoid cross contamination? Answer: Option #1, double block valve with a drop-out spool. Option #2, Double block valve with a spec blind. Option #3, double block valves with a bleed valve. 19. A air fin cooler (2 air coolers with each having 2 inlet nozzles) needs a Typical piping arrangement. How many types of piping arrangement is possible. Answer: There are a number of ways to pipe a Fin-Fan cooler depending on what the P&ID call for? Thanks to (for the answers) Mahathir Che Ap Piping Designer SBMOffshore Still some answers are not so much satisfactory with total explanation, so if any of you does not agree with any of the above answers, give me feedback by leaving comments on this article or mail me the answers at When i would receive the answers from any source, i would publish it here & would update the article accordingly. PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What factors to consider for site selection? Ans : District classification, Transportation facilities, Manpower availability, industrial infrastructure, community infrastructure, availability of raw water, effluent disposal, availability of power, availability of industrial gas, site size and nature, ecology and pollution. 2. What are different standards? Ans : Most commonly use standards are as follows: Sr. Standard Description 1. ANSI B18.2 Square and hexagola head bolts and nuts 2. ANSI B16.3 Malleable iron threaded fittings 3. ANSI B16.4 Cast iron threaded fittings. 4. ANSI B16.9 Steel buttwelding fittings 5. ANSI B16.11 Forged steel socketwelding and threaded fittings 6. ANSI B16.25 Buttwelding ends

7. ANSI B16.28 Short elbow radius and returns 8. MSS-SP-43 Stainless steel buttweld fittings 9. MSS-SP-83 Pipe Unions 10. API 605 Large diameter carbon steel flanges 11. ANSI B16.1 Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings 12. ANSI B16.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings 13. ANSI B16.47 Large diameter steel pipe flanges and flanged fitts. 14. ANSI B16.20 Ring joint gaskets and grooves for pipe flanges 15. ANSI B16.21 Non metallic gaskets for pipe flanges 16. API 601 Metallic gasket for refinery piping. 17. API 5L Specification for line pipe. 18. ANSI B16.10 Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes 19. ANSI B36.19 Welded and seamless austenitic stainless steel pipe 20. ANSI B16.10 Face to face and end to end dimensions of valves 21. ANSI B16.34 Steel valves, flanged and buttwelding ends. 3. What are various temporary closures for lines? Ans : Line blind valve, line blind, spectacle plate, double block and bleed, blind flanges replacing a removable spool. 4. Where jacked screwed flange is used ? Ans : For spectacle discs, one flange is jacked screw flange. This flange has two jacked screws 180 degree apart which are used to create sufficient space between flange for easy removal and placement of line blind or spectacle blind. 5. What is double block and bleed? Ans : Two valves with bleed ring in between with a bleed valve connected to the hole of bleed ring. 6. Where blind flange is used ? Ans : It is used with view to future expansion of the piping system, or for cleaning, inspection etc.

TOWERS 7. What are crude oil ranges? Ans : Crude oil BP Range: 100F-1400F, lightest material: Butene below 100F, Heavier materials- upto 800F, Residue above 800F. 8. What is batch shell process? Ans : feed, heat,condense,heat more,condense, low quality. 9. What are types of towers? Ans : Stripper, Vacuum tower, trayed, packed towers.

10. What is chimney tray? Ans : Its a solid plate with central chimney section, used at drawoff sections of the tower. 11. What factors to consider while setting tower elevation? Ans : NPSH, Operator access, Maintenance access, Minimum clearance, reboiler type , common area, type of support, Tower dimensions, type of head, bottom outlet size, foundation details, minimum clearances. 12. How to located tower maintenance access nozzles ? Ans : At bottom, top and intermediate sections of tower, must not be at the downcomer section of tower and in front of internal piping. 13. How to located feed nozzle ? Ans : Must be oriented in specific area of tray by means of internal piping. 14. How to located temperature and pressure instruments ? Ans : Temperature in liquid space, at downcomer side and pressure in vapor space, in area except downcomer sector.

PIPE SCHEDULES ANSI PIPE SCHEDULES (WALL/WPFT) SIZE 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 O.D. .405 .540 .675 .840 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 3.375 2.875 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.563 .109 6.349 .134 7.770 .258 14.62 5 .035 .1383 .049 .2570 .049 .3276 .065 .5383 .065 .6838 .065 .8678 .065 1.107 .065 1.274 .065 1.604 .083 2.475 .083 3.029 .083 3.472 .083 3.915 10 .049 .1863 .065 .3297 .065 .4235 .083 .6710 .083 .8572 .109 1.404 .109 1.806 .109 2.085 .109 2.638 .120 3.531 .120 4.332 .120 4.973 .120 5.613 20 30 40 .068 .2447 .088 .4248 .091 .5676 .109 .8510 .113 1.131 .133 1.679 .140 2.273 .145 2.718 .154 3.653 .203 5.793 .216 7.576 .226 9.109 .237 10.79 STD .068 .2447 .088 .4248 .091 .5676 .109 .8510 .113 1.131 .133 1.679 .140 2.273 .145 2.718 .154 3.653 ..203 5.793 .216 7.576 .226 9.109 .237 10.79 .247 12.53 .258 14.62 .375 20.78 .281 12.66 60 80 .095 .3145 .119 .5351 .126 .7388 .147 1.088 .154 1.474 .179 2.172 .191 2.997 .200 3.631 .218 5.022 .276 7.661 .300 10.25 .318 12.51 .337 14.98 XH .095 .3145 .119 .5351 .126 .7388 .147 1.088 .154 1.474 .179 2.172 .191 2.997 .200 3.631 .218 5.022 .276 7.661 .300 10.25 .318 12.51 .337 14.98 .355 17.61 .375 20.78 .500 27.04 .625 32.96 .437 19.01 .531 22.51 .187 1.304 .218 1.937 .250 2.844 .250 3.765 .281 4.859 .343 7.444 .375 10.01 .437 14.32 .294 1.714 .308 2.441 .358 3.659 .382 5.214 .400 6.408 .436 9.029 .552 13.70 .600 18.58 .636 22.85 .674 27.54 .710 32.53 .750 38.55 100 120 140 160 XXH

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 48

6.625 7.625 8.625 9.625 10.75 11.75 12.75 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 42.0 48.0

.109 7.585

.134 9.289

.280 18.97

.280 18.97 .301 23.57

.432 28.57

.432 28.57 .500 38.05

.562 36.39

.718 45.30

.864 53.16 .875 63.08

.109 9.914

.148 13.40

.250 22.36

.277 24.70

.322 28.55

.322 28.55 .342 33.90

.406 35.64

.500 43.39

.500 43.39 .500 48.72

.593 50.87

718 60.63

.812 67.76

.906 74.69

.875 72.42

.134 15.19

.165 18.70

.250 28.04

.307 34.24

.365 40.48

.365 40.48 .375 45.55

.500 54.74

.593 64.33

.500 54.74 .500 60.07

.718 76.93

.843 89.20

1.000 104.1

1.125 115.7

.165 22.18

.180 24.20 .250 36.71 .250 42.05 .250 47.39 .250 52.73 .250 58.07 .250 63.41 .312 85.60 .312 92.26 .312 98.93 .312 105.6 .344 123.7 .312 118.9

.250 33.38 .312 45.68 .312 52.36 .312 59.03 .375 78.60 .375 86.61 .375 94.62 .500 136.2 .500 146.8 .500 157.5 .500 168.2 .500 178.9 .500 189.6

.330 43.77 .375 54.57 .375 62.58 .437 82.06 .500 104.1 .500 114.8 .562 140.8

.406 53.53 .437 63.37 .500 82.77 .562 104.8 .593 122.9

.375 49.56 .375 54.57 .375 62.58 .375 70.59 .375 78.60 .375 86.61

.562 73.16 .593 84.91 .656 107.5 .750 138.2 .812 166.4 .875 197.4 .968 238.1

.687 88.51 .750 106.1 .843 136.5 .937 170.8 1.031 208.9 1.125 250.8 1.218 296.4

.500 65.42 .500 72.09 .500 82.77 .500 93.45 .500 104.1 .500 114.8 .500 125.5 .500 136.2 .500 146.8 .500 157.5 .500 168.2 .500 178.9 .500 189.6 .500 221.6 .500 253.6

.843 107.2 .937 130.7 1.031 164.8 1.156 208.0 1.280 256.1 1.375 277.0 1.531 367.4

1.000 125.5 1.093 150.5 1.218 192.3 1.375 244.1 1.500 296.4 1.625 353.6 1.812 429.4

1.125 139.7 1.250 170.2 1.437 223.5 1.562 274.2 1.750 341.1 1.875 403.0 2.062 483.1

1.312 160.3 1.406 189.1 1.593 245.1 1.781 308.5 1.968 379.0 2.125 451.1 2.343 541.9

.687 171.2

.375 94.62 .375 102.6

.625 182.7 .625 196.1 .625 209.4 .625 222.8 .625 236.1 .688 230.1 .688 244.8 .750 282.3

.375 110.6 .375 118.6 .375 126.7 .375 134.7 .375 142.7 .375 166.7 .375 190.7