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Introduction a. Very Brief Overview of the Evolution of Heraldry in Combat b. Device/Arms, Badge, Achievement, Livery Colors, Motto, Household Badge and Kingdom Badge i. Device vs. Badge ii. Elements of an Achievement, including Livery Colors & Mottos iii. Household Badges iv. Kingdom Arms vs. Kingdom Badge and/or Populace Flag Pre-Heraldry Fighters: Vikings, Saxons and Normans The First Crusade a. The Arabs b. The Crusaders The Thirteenth Century a. The cyclas and tabard The Fourteenth Century a. Jupon b. Cote-armure c. Rene dAnjou Tabard d. Armorial Equestre Tabard The Fifteenth Century a. Houppeland-Style Surcoats b. Tabards c. White Armour The Sixteenth Century a. Tabards b. Doublet & Bases c. Mundane garments worn as armor or over armor Additional forms of Heraldic Display for Fighters a. Banners, Pennons, Pinsils, Gonfalons and Standards i. Flags and Banners for pre-heraldic eras b. Personal Heralds Methods of creating Heraldic Display i. Paint ii. Embroidery iii. Appliqu iv. Stencils v. Silk Painting

A Very Brief Overview of the Evolution of Heraldry in Combat


The use of standards of various types as personal, tribal or military ensigns can be traced back to the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians and even the ancient Jews. 1 1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying 2 Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of their father's house: far off about the tabernacle of the congregation shall they pitch. (Pilgrim Edition, Num. 2:1,2)buy The standard bearers are common elements in ancient Egyptian art and they are documented as a vital part of the Egyptian army. Two professional soldiers, Didu and Neb-amen, are documented as having been appointed as standard bearers and later rewarded for their service by the Pharaoh by being made commanders of police forces over regions of the kingdom. The ancient Assyrians, noted as the first true military state, included standard bearers and priests at the head of their marching army.2 The Ancient Romans, famed for their military conquests, included standard bearers in their formal military ranks. The signiferi were specific ranks of standard bearers: the imaginifer carried the standard bearing the image of the Emperor; the draconarius bore the draco, or calvary standard; the Vexillarius carried the Vexillium which bore the name and emblem of the Legion; and the aquilifer was a senior signifer who carried the aquila, or eagle standard. The Romans also carried standards made up of an animal figure associated with particular units on top of a bare pole. Many types of Roman standards were adopted by the cultures that had contact with the Romans, including the Gallic and British Celts, the Franks, the Spaniards and the Byzantines. 3 A number of Middle Eastern cultures also used battle standards in styles unique to them, including the Sassanids (Persians), Dacians and Blemye (Sudanese). Early Germans and Saxons seem to have had wind-sock style standards in the shape of a dragon or large fish-type creature on top of a long pole. Some of these had solid heads of silver or carved wood, while others appear to have been made entirely of cloth. The Saxons made standards of this style that contained reeds or some other device in the open mouth so that the standard whistled as it moved in the wind.4 The Norse seem to have used a distinct style of standard that may have been adopted by some of the cultures they came in contact with. The standard is shaped much like the prow ornaments found on the famous dragon ships the standard is triangular with a rounded outer edge, supported on the two straight sides by a bar attached to a spear. More formal standards may have had an animal figure in place of the spearhead. Norse and Norman standards seem to have had streamers attached to the curved edge, while versions found in northern Spain and Byzantium seem to have had a plain edge. Some French versions feature dagging along the curved edge. 56 While none of these early examples is truly heraldry, they certainly show that the desire to distinguish oneself or ones fighting unit from others was not a new idea. While the actual origins of heraldry are unclear, the practice took root very quickly. The Normans and Saxons depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry did not use heraldry but 100 years later, shields with coats of arms were being presented during knighting ceremonies; and, seals with heraldic designs incorporated into them were being used by French and English aristocrats.7 It didnt take long for heraldry to move from the fighting field to use on other objects. It appears that, at first, the right to bear arms was inherited, but the sons were free to choose any arms they desired. By the reign of Henry III, in 1216, coats of arms began to be inherited. This happened at about the same time all over Europe.8

Once coats of arms became inherited, the display of armory became more significant and coats of arms began to be incorporated into more civilian uses. Inheritance of arms brought about the practice of cadency, which is the process of differentiating one sons coat of arms from another. Daughters of noblemen also began to use arms at this time, leading to the practices of marshalling to display two or more inherited coats of arms. Despite all of the techniques employed to make arms unique, disputes over the right to use coats of arms began to spring up and by 1317 heraldry in England began to be regulated by the King.9 The creation of heraldic jurisprudence (heraldic law) and heraldic officers to review and enforce such law was not far behind. The first treatise of heraldic law, De Insigniis et Armiis was written in the 1350s by Bartolo of Sasso Ferrato, a professor of law at the University of Padua.10 Heraldic jurisprudence quickly spread from Italy to France and from France to England and the remainder of Europe. Edward III (ruled 1327-1377) established a permanent heraldic court in England to deal with cases brought before the College of Arms. This court, which has gone by a number of names through various reigns, still exists and heard a case of involving a heraldic lawsuit in the 1950s.11 The first criminal law in heraldic law was proclaimed by Henry V in 1417 when he outlawed the practice of assuming coats of arms.12 Over the course of approximately 300 years, heraldry evolved from the simple colors and patterns used distinguish between knights in battle to a complex practice requiring its own branch of law, officers and courts.

Device/Arms, Badge, Achievement, Livery Colors, Motto, Household Badge and Kingdom Badge Device vs. Badge: The Device is the design you usually see on a fighters shield. It is the unique
design that represents you as you and/or indicates your presence. Anyone in the SCA can register a device. Once you receive an Award of Arms your Device becomes your Arms. Many people also register a Badge. A Badge is used to identify things as belonging to you. A Badge can also identify you as a member of a particular group, such as a kingdom, local group, household, Order or as a holder of a particular award. The difference between a Device and a Badge is that the Device represents YOU and the Badge identifies things that BELONG to you (or that you belong to). This definition is a generality though lots of items in period were decorated with devices rather than badges. On the lyste field, you would use your Device on your shield, your surcoat, your banner and your heralds tabard, if you have one. You could use your Badge on your pavilion, your chair, your mug and your armor bag or box.

Elements of an Achievement, including Livery Colors & Mottos Livery Colors: Livery Colors are colors that you have chosen to be part of your heraldic presentation.
They are usually the dominant colors of your Device, but this isnt a requirement. Your Livery Colors can be any pair of colors from your device, or even unrelated colors if you choose. These are the colors you dress your retainers in for a formal procession or presentation, display your badges against and decorate your pavilion and chair with. Everyone can have livery colors. Early period personas will probably find it simplest to use the dominant colors of their heraldry. There are no restrictions in the SCA on who may have or use Livery Colors.

Motto: A Motto is a short expression that is meaningful to you. Traditionally mottos were guiding
principles, but SCA mottos can be serious or humorous guiding principles, statements of faith or wise advice. Mottos seem to have become popular in the 14th century. Before that time there were battle cries

or slogans. These could be battle commands, religious invocations, rallying cries, family or group (household) names, or cries intended to scare or insult the enemy. Mottos can be adopted, changed or relinquished at will and do not need to be unique. Multiple people can use the same motto or mottos. There are no restrictions in the SCA on who may use a motto or how many mottos you may use.

Achievement of Arms: When you depict your Device with a variety of added elements, such as a
helm, mantling, crest, motto, and possibly supporters, all the extra elements accorded to you by your rank in the SCA, it becomes an Achievement of Arms. Sometimes this is also referred to as a Coat of Arms. The rank of the owner determines the elements that can be used in the Achievements. Some elements are prescribed by Trimaris Kingdom Law, others are guided by SCA tradition. An Achievement always contains a shield shape, called an escutcheon, displaying the Device as the central portion of the design and the motto displayed on a ribbon below it. This is the standard display for someone without an Award of Arms in the SCA. By tradition, someone with an award of arms would add a steel helm (depicted as dark gray with black details) sitting on the top of the escutcheon. The helm can be any style the desired by the bearer. The helm is topped with a torse, or band of twisted fabric circling the top of the helm, and mantling, both in the livery colors. Mantling is the decorative swirl of fabric that creates a backdrop for the escutcheon and depicts the decorative cloth covering knights wore on their helms. Mantling can take a variety of shapes, from simple and minimal to extremely ornate. There are no rules in the SCA regarding the style of mantling you can choose. Sitting on top of the helm is a Crest. Crests can take the shape of nearly anything animals, fish, birds, human figures (usually from the waist up), parts of the body (a hand, a birds wing, a lions head, etc), mythical creatures, even plants, bunches of plumed feathers and symbolic shapes like stars or fleur de lis. The Crest can repeat an element or elements from the Device or be completely unrelated. The SCA has no rules regarding the choice of crest, although some kingdoms do restrict the use of certain crests. Depictions of crests go all the way back to the 12th century.13 The earliest crests were simple fans or combs and depicted the bearers arms or primary charge. Some early crests were also made up of feathers, often peacock feathers, shaped into a cone.14 When the flat topped barrel helm replaced the pointed Norman helm, crests began to take the shape of independent statuettes.15 Usually these crests used the primary charge from the Arms, but many crests had no relation to the arms at all. Crests began to take on traditional styles in different areas. Germans started flanking the primary crest with the horns of European bison (think of the traditional Viking helmet!). These horns gradually became elongated and developed an S-curve. Sometimes they could have something come out of the ends, like flowers or feathers.16 In Tudor England, the crest was sometimes flanked by sprigs of greenery.17 In Trimaris, local groups and those individuals bearing a Grant of Arms or Bestowed Peerage may add another element to their Achievement a single Supporter. Supporters are figures placed on either side of the escutcheon and are shown holding it up. A single Supporter supports the escutcheon on one side only. The Device can be depicted vertically or at an angle. Supporters, like the crest, can be nearly anything human figures and real or mythical animals are common, but some supporters take the form of plants or even inanimate objects. Animal supporters are depicted as close to rampant as possible. The SCA does not have any rules regarding the choice of supporters, though some kingdoms restrict the use of

specific supporters and some kingdoms register supporters. Once supporters are added, it is common to also add a compartment. The compartment is the ground upon which the supporters stand. Compartments are often grassy hills, sometimes with flowers, but can be a watery ford (for fish, mermaid or sea monster supporters), or any other appropriate landscape such as a carved stone platform, desert plain, mountain range or even a beach. Court Barons may replace the torse with a pearled coronet. By tradition, Bestowed Peers depict their helms as steel (gray) trimmed with silver. They can add the emblems of their Orders to the Achievement in a variety of ways. Knights can surround the escutcheon with a gold chain, or have their supporter wear the chain. Laurels can surround the escutcheon with a laurel wreath, replace the torse with a laurel wreath, use the wreath as a crest, or place it around the neck of the supporter (called gorging). Alternately they can place the wreath on a medallion hung on a ribbon around the escutcheon or the necks of the crest and/or supporter. Pelicans can use a pelican in its piety (with or without chicks) as a crest, place the pelican on a medallion worn around the neck of the crest and/or supporter, or replace the torse with a red chapeau trimmed with white feathers, each with a drop of blood on it. In Trimaris Royal Peers and those individuals bearing an Augmentation of Arms may add a second supporter to their Achievement. The two supporters can be mirror images of each other, or they may be entirely different. In addition, it is tradition that they depict their helms as silver trimmed in silver or black. They can add the coronet corresponding to their rank as a replacement for the torse on the helm, gorging the neck of the crest or supporters, or on the head of the crest or supporters. Members of the Order of the Rose can surround the escutcheon with a wreath of roses, replace the torse with a wreath of roses, or gorge the crest or support with a wreath of roses. They can also suspend a medallion bearing a rose from a ribbon around the escutcheon or the necks of the crest and/or supporters.

Using the elements of the Achievement in your heraldic display:


The most obvious use is to make things with your Achievement on them, like a banner Dress your retainers in your livery colors (or your consorts livery colors, or both!) Early period personas can WEAR their livery colors instead of heraldic surcoats. Paint your motto around the edge of your shield, around your pavilion, on a standard or banner, around the hem of your tabard or surcoat, or (for ladies) around the hem of your gown (off the field, of course!). Any element from your achievement, including your crest, supporters and badges of rank can be used as decorative elements: use them on your pavilion, cushions for your chair, wall hangings, tablecloths, painted floor-cloths or anyplace else you can think of.

Household Badges
Household badges can be incorporated into your heraldic display. Many fighters like to include their household badge on their tabard or surcoat. The easiest way to do this is to put it on your sleeve, if you have one. Some households restrict the use of a banner bearing the household badge to the head of the household. Make sure that you are aware of any restrictions before you use the badge, however a household badge can be used in the same way as any other badge or heraldic element that you are entitled to use.

Kingdom Arms vs. Kingdom Badge and/or Populace Flag


Just as your personal Device/Arms says This is me, the Kingdom Arms also say This is me! Since that me can only be one person, the King, it is inappropriate for anyone other than the king (and his

herald and champion) to wear or display those arms. The same holds true for the Queens arms. Like most kingdoms, Trimaris has both a badge and a Populace Flag that you can use freely. The badge is a triskele that can be in any color (blue, red, purple, black, green). This allows you to use the triskele in colors that coordinate with your livery colors, if you desire. Do not place a triskele on top of your Device, which signifies an Augmentation of Arms, but feel free to use it as you would any other badge you are entitled to use. The populace flag is Argent, a fess wavy between three triskelions arrondi one and two azure. You can make this as a flag and fly it, or you can use it as the flag portion of your standard.

Pre-Heraldry Fighters: Greeks, Romans, Franks, Celts, Vikings, Saxons and Normans
It isnt easy to be a pre-heraldry era fighter in the heraldry conscious SCA. There are ways that you can add touches of heraldic display to your tournament appearance. Use your livery colors throughout your fighting clothing, the clothing of your retainers, your pavilion and any decorative items. Badges and heraldic charges can be used in a variety of ways as well. Banner styles will be dealt with in a later section, but remember to use period appropriate banners to add to your persona appropriate display. VIKINGS: The Norse seem to have had color preferences that were used, to some degree, as personal, group or even regional identifiers.18 Grave finds in various regions show higher ratios of certain colors, such as purple in Dublin, red in Jorvik and blues or greens in Scandinavia.19 While there is no evidence that members of a group would dress identically, it seems reasonable that they might wear the same colors or predominantly the same colors. Rather than having all your retainers wearing matching outfits, consider letting them create their own Norse garb in your livery colors. This creates a more historically accurate appearance while adding to your heraldic display. Viking armor seems to have consisted of a helmet, mail shirt and possibly greaves.20 Few helmets from the Viking Age survive and most are not SCA legal, though decorative nose and/or eye guards can be added to a round or conical helm for a more period appearance. Only a few illustrations show Norse warriors wearing mail shirts and none have been found in grave finds, so it is assumed that few warriors actually wore them.21 Greaves do not appear to have been common either. Like mail shirts, no extant greaves have been found and illustrations of them are rare.22 12th century laws regulating what weapons and gear an adult male should own provide a reflection of the lack of protective gear in preceding centuries. Swedish men were required to own a shield, iron hat, and mail coat or protective jerkin and Danish men were required to own a shield and iron cap but no mail. Norwegian men needed only a shield.23 To emulate the look of Norse warriors, consider hiding all of your body armor, with the possible exception of a mail shirt and simple greaves, under Norse style garb in your livery colors. Use heraldic charges, badges, or even your crest as embroidered, appliqued or even painted on trim. The Norse loved bright colors and embellished their clothing with embroidery and contrasting borders. Everyday clothes consisted of either slim fitting pants hanging to the ankle or wide, baggy trousers ending at the knee with the lower leg covered by wickelbander (legwrappings) worn with a long sleeved tunic/shirt under a long or short sleeved thigh to knee-length tunic. The tunics often had gores in the skirt for greater ease of movement. In cold weather or for extra protection the Norse might wear a caftan like belted coat over the tunic. For some added flair, consider wearing a mantle over your shoulders. Norse mantles were rectangles of wool (though you can use cotton or trigger for combat) fastened with a brooch over the right

shoulder. These can be constructed so that the folds that keep it out of the way are permanently secured and the fastening can be tied to the garment or armor beneath it. Most of the extant painted shields are painted a single color, but an extant leather-covered shield is painted in a repeating motif of dots between narrow stripes in black and red over white.24 While this may have been a ceremonial shield, it does provide evidence that shields could be painted with simple geometric designs. Consider using a center-boss round shield painted in your livery colors. SAXONS: There doesnt appear to be the same kind of color preferences among the Saxons that may have existed among the Norse, however it is not unreasonable to think that families or social groups may have preferred one color or combination of colors over others. Consider letting your retainers create their own outfits using your livery colors. Only professional soldiers and high ranking lords appear to have worn armor among the Saxons. The remainder of the army appears to have worn their regular clothing, perhaps with the addition of a leather jerkin over it.25 Mail shirts arent mentioned until the end of the 7th century and remained extremely expensive through the Norman conquest. They seem to have been rare and rather fragile, needing regular repair. They were made of fine mesh, waist length with short sleeves and vandyked (zig-zagged) edges. A manuscript from c.1050 shows the king wearing a longer shirt (about mid-thigh length) that is split in front and back for riding and some shirts with longer sleeves.26 Helmets were worn, but dont seem to have been common until the 10th century. It is thought that only kings and high ranking warriors would have worn them early on, and with professional soldiers wearing them in the 10th century.27 A more common type of headgear was the Phrygian Cap, which appears to have been made of cloth or leather and may have been worn over a close fitting steel cap. One such metal cap has been found and it is close fitting and could have been worn under another, decorative, cap.28 To emulate the look of the Saxon soldier, consider hiding your armor under garb made in your livery colors. Saxon clothing consisted primarily of long, slim fitting pants and loose fitting long tunics belted and bloused up to be knee length. The tunics were long sleeved, with extra length in the slim fitting forearm so that the sleeve lies in folds above the wrist. The Saxons sometimes wore wickelbanding over

the pants on the lower leg. As with the Norse, badges or heraldic charges can be incorporated into trim, though the Saxons seem to have used less ornamentation than the Norse. A visible mail shirt should be waist length and short sleeved with the characteristic vandyked edges. The rectangular cloak favored by the Norse was also worn by the Saxons. Also consider making a Phrygian Cap to wear over your helm. The early Saxons used round, center-boss shields very much like those use by the Norse. These too seem to have been simply painted or covered with ox hide, though wealthier Saxons appear to have edged their shields with metal and had decorative metal plates on the face of the shield.29 The kite shield was adopted by the Saxons about 1000 AD, though the round shield continued in use among the lower classes.30 Consider using a center-boss round shield or kite shield painted in simple patterns in your livery colors. NORMANS: As with the Norse and Saxons, consider allowing your retainers to create their own garb using your livery colors. The Normans learned to be cavalrymen from the Franks.31 This shift from primarily infantrymen to cavalrymen is reflected in their armor. By the 11th century the mail shirt of the Normans had been extended to the knee or calves to protect the legs and split from hem to crotch in front and behind to enable the wearer to ride a horse. Though many mail shirts still had short sleeves, many nobles now wore long sleeves.32 Some Normans also wore mail chauses (leggings) to protect their feet and legs while others wore knee-high boots or wickelbanding. Helms were spangenhelms or framework construction, both with the characteristic nasal.33 Helms were usually worn over a mail hood that was constructed as part of the hauberk. A mail ventail could be tied on to protect the lower face and throat.34 To emulate the look of the Normans, consider wearing a long mail shirt as your outermost layer. Under the mail, Norman soldiers wore a long sleeved, padded tunic-like gambeson, or aketon, over a long sleeved tunic both split front and back for riding. Construct these garments in your livery colors and have them layered so that the tunic is longer than the gambeson which is longer than the mail hauberk. Consider building your armor into the gambeson layer. Wear slim fitting pants with wickelbanding, sections of mail or knee-high boots. Add a decorative nasal to your helm and consider a mail hood or aventail and possibly even a ventail. The characteristic Norman kite shield is depicted in both the Bayeux Tapestry and a 12th century Scandinavian tapestry as being painted with geometric designs in 2 or more colors.

With the advent of heraldry in the late 11th or early 12th century the problem of creating a period appropriate appearance on the field while contributing the pomp and pageantry of heraldic display is greatly simplified. Surcoats and tabards allow you to hide a multitude of sins beneath flowing layers of color. The First Crusade: The Arabs vs. The Crusaders
The surcoats and tabards of Europe are believed to have been borrowed from the Saracens. Crusader knights fighting in the deserts of the Middle East quickly discovered that their heavy mail hauberks and metal helms absorbed the heat of the sun and became unbearable. They saw that the Saracens wore flowing white garments over their armor to protect it from the sun and imitated the practice.35 The first surcoats appear to have been plain linen, which would be a grayish-tan color, though continual exposure to the sun might have bleached it to white. Although it is suggested that colored linens were also used, this seems unlikely. Linen is a very difficult fabric to dye due the nature of its fibers. The same properties that make linen an ideal fabric for hot climates mean that many natural dyes do not affect linen at all and those that do fade quickly in sunlight. It is unlikely that a brightly colored linen surcoat or tabard would remain brightly colored for long. Silk would have been available in the Middle East, and takes dye more easily, but silk is a comparatively fragile fiber and is prone to fading and weakening in the sun. Silk surcoats are certainly possible, but again, would not have lasted long. If, indeed, some surcoats were brightly colored, it would be probable that they were made of wool. Wool takes dye easily, is less subject to sun damage than linen and silk, and can be woven in a variety of weights, from heavy coat or blanket wools to gauze so sheer you can see through it. Cotton is also a possibility as it dyes easily, is not as easily damaged by sunlight and has been grown in Egypt since the time of the Pharoahs. Grayish-tan, white or brightly colored, the first surcoats were probably plain. They seem to have existed in a variety of styles. Some had long flowing sleeves while others had no sleeves at all. Long or short, they all seem to have been split front and back for riding. There is very little concrete information about these first surcoats. It is known that the knights brought their surcoats home with them when they returned from the Crusades and that the style quickly became adapted to civilian dress. Crusaders from the first Crusade, launched in 1095, wore armor very much like that worn by the Normans. Saracens often wore leather lamellar over mail although they also had metal lamellar as well. The Crusaders primarily used kite shields while the Saracens primarily used round shields, though they had kite shields and some other specialty shapes as well.36 Saracens and Crusaders alike probably wore plain colored, predominantly white, surcoats.

The 13th Century:

The cyclas and tabard


It didnt take long for the surcoat to begin to be embellished. Changes in armor included the development of closed face helms which, while providing better protection to the face, render the wearer anonymous in battle. The surcoat and shield provided a perfect blank slate for embellishment with the newly developed art of heraldry and so the heraldic surcoat was born. Heraldic fighting garments of the 13th century are found to be primarily of two styles the cyclas and the tabard. Both garments were often decorated with the arms of the wearer, as were the shields they carried. The tabard is the basic kind of surcoat. Made of a length cloth approximately the width of the shoulders with a hole for the head in the middle, the sides were left open and the garment was held together by ties and/or belted to the body. Sometimes the tabard could be split in the front and back for greater freedom of movement. The tabard was primarily a utilitarian garment. The Cyclas takes its name from the civilian garment worn by both men and women of the period which had, itself, been adapted from the surcoats brought to Europe by returning Crusaders. The cyclas is fancier version of the tabard. Like the tabard, it is sleeveless, but the sides are sewn together rather than being left open. The cyclas flared from the shoulders rather than being cut as a straight length of cloth, and the front and back are split from the hem to the crotch for riding. The cyclas (for male civilian or martial wear) is usually longer in the back than in the front. The cyclas was often made of fine fabrics and could be richly embellished. It was not uncommon for the hem of the cyclas to be dagged. It was during this time that the Pope gave the fighting members of the Orders of the Hospitallers and Templars permission to wear surcoats over their armor in battle instead of monastic robes. The Pope then defined that the Knights of the Orders should be set apart from the common-born sergeant brothers of the Orders by virtue of their surcoats Red with a white cross for the Hospitallers; and white with a red cross for the Templars. The sergeant brothers of the Hospitallers wore black with white crosses, while those of the Templars wore brown or black with a red cross.37

The 14th Century: Cote-armure, Jupon, Rene dAnjou Tabard, Armorial Equestre Tabard
The 14th century saw a shift from mail to plate armor in response to the widespread use of powerful missile weapons, such as the longbow and crossbow, and percussive weapons, such as the sword and mace, during the Hundred Years War.38 Knights continued to wear a padded and quilted gambeson beneath their armor, but the armor itself went through a series of rapid developments during this period. By the 1320s the coat of plates, called coat-armure or pairs of plates in England and curie or paires de cuiraces in France, was common. These were made up of horn, whalebone, leather or iron plates riveted to leather or sewn between layers of fabric.39 Some coats of plates appear to have been worn under tabards and cyclases, such as the coat of plates visible under the surcoat from the effigy of an unidentified knight found in Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire.40 Others appear to have been intended to

be the visible layer, incorporating decorative rivet heads and other embellishments. Emetreus, King of India in Chaucers The Knights Tale is described as wearing highly decorated cote-armure: The grete Emetreus, the kyng of Inde, Upon a steede bay, trapped in steel, Covered in clooth of gold dyapred weel, Cam ridynge lyk the god of armes, Mars. His cote-armure was of clooth of Tars, Couched with perles white and rounde and grete.41 By the middle of the 14th century the term cote-armure could mean either the coat of plates, or a surcoat worn over the armor. Elsewhere in The Knights Tale Chaucer makes this distinction in describing the costume of Lygurge, King of Trace: In stede of cote-armure, over his harnays With nayles yelewe and brighte as any gold He hadde a beres skyn, col-blak, for old;42 In The Tale of Sir Thopas he again makes a distinction between the armor and the cote-armure, or surcoat: A breech, and eek a sherte, And next his sherte an aketoun, And over that an haubergeoun, For percynge of his herte. And over that a fyn hawberk, Was al ywroght of Jewes werk, Ful strong it was of plate. And over that his cote-armour As whit as is a lilye flour, In which he wol debate.43 Even in the 14th century there seems to have been some confusion over what, precisely, various clothing and armor terms mean. As a result, researchers and re-enactors are forced to make educated guesses and often will not agree with each other as to the definition of the a particular term. For the sake of clarity, in this

handout the cote-armure surcoat, called cote du sur in France, will refer to the snug fitting, armless surcoat. Pictorial evidence suggests that the cote-armure was mid-calf to knee-length at first, but gradually shortened to mid-thigh or shorter by the end of the century. Longer versions were split front and back for ease of movement. Period artwork shows both the front and back of the surcoat as a single, un-interrupted expanse of decorated cloth, so it seems likely that the tabard was laced closed on one or both sides. This style of surcoat will need to be made to fit the armor very closely. Another confusing term from this period is the jupon. The term jupon appears to refer to several garments of similar shape and design, some of which also go by other names. A jupon can refer to a padded and quilted, usually long-sleeved garment, that could be worn AS armor, especially by middle and lower class soldiers. In this form it is also referred to at times as jack, arming doublet, aketon, gambeson or even occasionally as cote-armure. The jupon could be a padded and quilted, long-sleeved garment worn UNDER the breastplate, also referred to as a pourpoint, gambeson or doublet. Some sources will also refer to this garment as coat armor as well. The jupon could also refer to a padded and quilted, usually long-sleeved garment worn OVER mail or plate armor. This last is the version that would be most useful in terms of heraldic display as the outer surface was often richly embellished. The jupon is noted for its distinctive large, round sleeve-heads, called grand assiettes. The jupon is close fitting in the chest and waist, flaring out below the waist to form an upper-thigh to crotchlength skirt. The sleeves are fully around the upper arm but fitted around the forearm. Both the lower sleeves and the entire front of the garment are closed with buttons. The padded and quilting of the jupon make it a rather impractical garment for Trimaris in its true form unless it is worn as a gambeson, under the armor. For use as a surcoat, it is recommended that the padding be omitted and the outer fabric and lining be stitched together in imitation of the parallel lines of quilting. The tabard made famous by the illustrations in King Rene DAnjous Tournament Book, Le Livre des tournois (c.1460), first appeared in the second half of the 14th century as a development of the 13th century tabard.44 As hemlines on male garments rose during the 14th century, so did the length of the surcoats they wore over their armor. Initially the 14th century tabard was simply a shorter version of the old one straight sides with an opening for the head. By the middle of the 15th century the King Rene Tabard (to borrow the term coined by Earl Michael de Lacy) had acquired the distinctive flared shape and rounded flap sleeves that it retains today in the traditional heralds tabard.45 While it is impossible to tell exactly when the tabard gained its final form, a late 14th century fighter would be safe in making an above-the-knee or mid-thigh length tabard with a slight flare from shoulder to hem and either no sleeves or wide, slightly rounded sleeves.

Another style of surcoat that reaches its zenith in the early 15th century is the so-called Armorial Equestre Tabard (the term, again, coined by Earl Michael de Lacy). This tabard is named after the Armorial questre de la Toison d'Or c.1433-1435 although the style appears in several other armorials and sources as well.46 It is included in the late 14th century in this handout because the style appears to be a direct derivation of the jupon and cote-armure. Like the Jupon, this surcoat has long, full sleeves though these sleeves appear to be full through the forearm, tapering abruptly to the wrist. The body of the surcoat appears to be very much like the tabard-type garment worn by Italian men in the late 14th and early 15th century. This tabard is often shown belted close to the body in front and worn loose and flowing behind. Close examination of the illuminations shows that the cape is not actually a cape at all but the back portion of the surcoat flowing out behind the knight. Contrary to popular thought, the front of the surcoat does not appear to wrap around to the sides of the body at all, nor is there a seam between the smooth upper portion of the front and the full lower portion. This effect, and the flowing cape at the back, is achieved by flaring the tabard out from the shoulders and belting it tightly in front. The sleeves are probably rather large at the arm opening, to accommodate the armor, and may even be cut away somewhat under the arm to allow more room there.

The Fifteenth Century: Houppeland-Style Surcoats, Tabards & White Armour


As already mentioned, the Armorial Equestre Tabard appears to have reached the height of its popularity in the first half of the 15th century, coinciding with the popularity of the civilian garments it appears to be closely related to. Another style of surcoat, also related to civilian garments, appeared on the tournament scene during the late 14th and early 15th centuries the Houppeland-Style Surcoat. Like the garment it resembles, this surcoat features very full sleeves lined in a contrasting color. In some cases the sleeves are long and dagged, but usually they are approximately elbow-length and may be dagged or straight. In illuminations it can often be difficult to distinguish between a short-sleeved houppelande-style surcoat and a King Rene Tabard. Careful examination shows that the tabard is open at the sides and belted to the body (possibly reinforced by ties) while the houppelande-style surcoat is a complete garment with sewn sides. Fighters generally wont want a surcoat that is as full in the body as the civilian houppelande and the illuminations do not show folds of fabric over the chest (which would interfere with the heraldry displayed there). This style of surcoat can either be made as a flared tunic made large enough to slip on over the head while in armor (make sure the arm openings are large enough!), or for a tighter fit across the body it can be made to lace up the sides.

The King Rene Tabard discussed earlier reached its traditional form by the mid-century and was worn throughout, although the popularity of wearing a tabard or surcoat of any kind was waning. The term White Armor appears during the mid to th late 15 century. There is some debate about the exact meaning of the term. Some sources suggest it refers to the very high glossy white polish put on plate armor to protect it from the elements and prevent rust. Other sources claim that it refers to the fact that the armor was worn without a surcoat. Either way, white armor meant full body steel plate and it was usually worn without any surcoat or covering. Unfortunately for SCA fighters, there is no easy or inexpensive way to recreate this look.

The Sixteenth Century: Tabards, Doublet & Bases, Mundane garments worn as armor or over armor
In the 16th century the wealthy continued to wear full body plate armor that was frequently engraved, etched, embossed with high-relief decoration and even silvered and/or gilded.47 Instead of having separate sets of armor for combat or tournament use as they had done in the 15th century, the wealthy had multi-use suits of armor made, with extra pieces that could be swapped out for combat, tournament or parade use.48 The King Rene-style tabard was still in use, however such tabards were primarily worn by the heralds accompanying the combatants and not by the combatants themselves. Henry VII (ruled 14851509) is believed to have been the last English king to wear a tabard. Such gorgeous suits of armor were not intended to be covered by surcoats. The less wealthy also continued to wear armor. In spite of the increased use of firearms, the primary threat to footsoldiers and cavalry remained blade weapons, such as swords and pikes. As a result, the common soldiers continued to wear at least partial harness although the armor was less noticeable due to the increased tendency to wear clothing that drew attention away from the armor or hid it completely.49 The military dress of the common soldiers influenced the armor of the wealthy in the 16th century. The puffed and slashed fashions of the Swiss and German infantry in the first decades of the 16th century, for example, was mimicked in the extraordinary puffed and slashed parade armors made for German nobles, such as that made for Wilhelm von Roggendorf in c. 1520.50

Another military fashion, the knee-length, cartridge pleated skirts called bases which could be worn alone or attached to a supportive doublet or jerkin were also imitated in armor. Bases began as part of the leg covering worn by the Italian cavalry and soon spread to France and the rest of Europe. Bases quickly became a standard part of the male court dress and it comes as no surprise that the style was imitated in armor. Henry VIII had two different kinds of armored bases made one style, called a tonlet featured a full, knee-length skirt and was used in foot combat tournaments (he had one such set made for the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520); the other style was made with detachable sections to facilitate riding a horse.51 By the reign of Elizabeth I, tournaments had become primarily ceremonial occasions where noblemen vied with each other for an opportunity to impress their monarchs with their martial prowess. The armor worn on these occasions continued to follow the shape of court fashions, but the armored bases and puff and slash armors of the earlier Tudor parade and tournament disappeared. This does not indicate a return to simplicity however if anything the late 16th century suits of armor were more heavily etched, engraved, embossed, silvered and gilded than before. Over the course of Elizabeths reign, jousts became more and more like elaborate pageants or masques than tournaments of the old tradition. The jousters employed elaborate disguises and began wearing elaborate surcoats over their armor as part of the spectacle. In addition to written descriptions of the jousts and the costumes worn, we are left with a good visual impression of what the knights must have looked like thanks to those who had their portraits painted in their armor and jousting attire. Nicholas Hilliards miniature of George, 3rd Earl of Cumberland is a good example. He is attired in blued armor studded with gilded stars and wears a blue satin surcoat with large pinked and slashed sleeves lined in white silk patterned with olive branches, caducei (the insignia used by medical professionals, modeled on the staff of Hermes) and armillary spheres. The outer surface of the surcoat is trimmed at all edges in cloth of gold and is trimmed with pearls, jewels and large jeweled settings. His plumed helmet lies on the ground near his feet and he holds his lance, white trimmed in gold, in his hand. 52 For SCA tournament purposes, it would appear that surcoats of similar cut to those worn for the

Elizabethan jousts would be quite practical, though on a rather lesser scale than those worn in period. Other options include wearing a jerkin or doublet and bases over armor for an early 16th century English, French or Italian persona; or Landskenecht style puff and slash for a Swiss or German persona.

Additional forms of Heraldic Display for Fighters


See the additional handouts on Banner Types and Styles Personal Heralds
Before the introduction of heraldy, there were proto-heralds. In the Illiad, for example, the ancient Greeks and Trojans had people who were assigned to come and go between two armies, delivering challenges and calling truces. Most modern translators simply use the term heralds for these people.53 The Romans had three offices that could be seen as proto-heralds: praecones town criers; fetiales priests who decided upon declarations of war and peace treaties; and caduceatores messengers who delivered ultimatums, declarations of war, truces, requests for negotiations, etc.54 The Norse had skalds who acted as ambassadors to hostile tribes, delivered messages and accompanied their lord on raids, into battle and in the feasthall. Among their duties was the creation of poems and songs relating the brave deeds of their lord and increasing his reknown. In the 11th century minstrels specializing in chansons de geste (songs of heroic deeds) may have been the immediate ancestors of true heralds.55 These minstrels were hired to accompany armies on military campaigns, singing songs like the Song of Roland to keep up the spirits of the troops. When tournaments appeared in northern France in the 12th century, these minstrels were hired to entertain there as well.56 The minstrels not only sang songs of heroes long dead, they wrote new songs about the new heroes of the tournament and battlefield. Knights, eager to enhance their reputations, began paying these minstrels to create songs about them and to sing them to the crowd at tournaments.57 Heralds seem to have appeared on the scene at roughly the same time as heraldry. The earliest known mention of heralds is in the poem Le Chevalier de la Charette (Knight of the Cart) by Chrestien de Troyed, written c. 1164-1174.58 The herald, having pawned some of his clothing to pay off a tavern debt, comes upon a shield he doesnt recognize hanging in front of the tavern. The shield belongs to Sir Lancelot, who is attending the tournament in disguise. The herald goes into the tavern to pay his debt and recognizes Lancelot. Lancelot asks him to keep his presence at the tournament a secret and the herald agrees. Then the herald goes out and announces widely that a great knight is in town for the tournament, but refuses to give his name.59 This poem suggests that by this date heralds were already expected to know the arms of knights of the land and may have already been keeping records of them. Certainly it was important to note that the herald could not identify the disguised coat of arms. In addition, the heralds subsequent behavior suggests that heralds were not highly regarded. By the early 15th century heralds hadnt increased much in social standing. Heralds were ranked in the same class as beggars, harlots, jugglers, public buffoons and executioners.60 Minstrels depict heralds in their songs and poems as pompous, expensive and useless. In the late 14th century poem Dit des Hyraus written by Henri de Laon, the author complains about the sad state of tournaments. He further complains that every knight has to maintain three or four heralds and cannot get rid of them So, one must be

very enterprising and it is [the authors] wish to become a herald; for there is no profession more convenient for an idle, greedy man, nor any in which one may talk so much and do so little.61 In the 12th and 13th centuries heralds were a sub-class of minstrels. They were free-lancers who specialized in the running and scoring of tournaments.62 Heralds may have also acted as judges of the tournaments, deciding who acted in the most knightly fashion.63 Like minstrels, they were itinerant, traveling from tournament to tournament looking for work. They also seem to have shared the minstrels unsavory reputation and period romances refer to heralds as lazy.64 Heralds appear to have been paid for their services with the bits of broken armor left on the field which they could sell as scrap or spare parts. Whole pieces of armor could be sold back to the knights who dropped them. In some cases the heralds may have even been awarded the horses of knight who had been dismounted. The knights would then pay a set price for the return of the horse and its equipage.65 As part of their job in running tournaments, heralds became experts at identifying knights by their coats of arms and it is likely that they began to record arms in the 13th century. Although the first rolls of arms firmly attributed to heralds date from the second half of the 14th century, the earliest rolls date from the late 13th century.66 By that time ranking heralds has also become permanently attached to a sovereign and played ceremonial roles during court functions. These ranking heralds began to be known by various heraldic titles, such as king of arms.67 By the end of the 13th century the majority of heralds were no longer itinerant, but were employed by individuals. The prestige and usefulness of hiring a personal herald caused the custom to spread from the kings and dukes all the way down to common mercenary captains.68 The use of heralds as messengers first appears in England in the 1330s, in connection with the Hundred Years War.69 High ranking heralds, who were granted diplomatic immunity, were employed to deliver letters to sovereigns, act as ambassadors, issue declarations of war or surrender and negotiate ransoms for prisoners. Personal heralds, who also enjoyed diplomatic immunity, might be called upon to deliver personal correspondence or items, transmit challenges, identify friend from foe and assist with identifying the dead after the battle.70 Personal heralds also performed many functions on the tournament field. They announced their lords presence at the tournament by hanging shields and banners bearing their lords arms outside his lodgings and arranging any other heraldic display desired by the lord, for which they were paid a traditional fee called clouage (nailing fee).71 They added to the lords prestige by announcing his name, titles and boasts as he entered the field and delivered challenges throughout the tournament.72 They cheered for their lord and made (loud!) positive comments about his prowess and chivalry during the tournament and afterwards, perhaps even composing songs about his bravery. In return, the lord was expected to show largesse to his heraldic entourage. The cheering needed to be the legitimate opinion of the herald however, as an accusation that a fighter paid a herald to cheer was unpleasant and reflected poorly on the lord. Payment for services during a tournament generally took the form of tangible objects, rather than money.73 It became fashionable for lords to have their heralds wear the lords coat of arms on a surcoat on such occasions, and sometimes the heralds were given a title derived from the lords titles, badges or mottos.74 By the 15th century the surcoat had been replaced by the heraldic tabard, with the lords arms on front, back and both sleeves, for both knights and heralds, but by the 16th century the tabard was out of fashion for knights.75 Heralds, however, retained the tabard and continue to wear it as their uniform to this day. In some places in the 15th and 16th centuries (especially England and France) it was the practice for Pursuivants (junior or probationary heralds) to wear their tabards sideways with the short sleeves on the

chest and back and the front and back panels over the arms like large sleeves. A Pursuivant could be fined for presuming to wear his tabard as a herald.76 Another ceremonial item was also introduced in the 15th century the heralds staff of office. It began as a plain white staff, but gradually become more elaborate over the years, often painted in his lords livery colors and sometimes displaying the coat of arms, crest or other heraldic element.77 Heralds were also required to be unarmed (except for pointless swords) and unarmored.78 Heralds were sometimes given small escutcheons of their lords arms to wear on informal occasions or while traveling. These escutcheons were like engraved or enameled metal brooches, worn on the shoulder or breast. Similar shields were sometimes given by a lord to the herald of another lord as a reward for an outstanding act or a mark of esteem.

Incorporating Personal Heralds Into Your Tournament Presence


Try to use a personal herald or proto-herald (for early period personas) for tournaments as much as possible. Consider establishing a long-term relationship with someone as your personal herald. Your herald need not be an expert in heraldry, nor do they need to hold a heraldic office within the SCA although such a relationship could be an excellent opportunity to practice their field heraldry skills. All your herald needs is a flair for the dramatic! Have your herald announce your entrance to the lyste field for each fight Have your herald deliver personal challenges to other fighters and/or act as your negotiator in choosing weapons styles Have your herald entertain the ladies gallery with songs or poems about heroic deeds or battles (especially yours!) Have your herald cheer for you during your fights Have a surcoat, tabard or other appropriate garment made for your herald to wear. Early period personas might use a cloak or mantle in their livery colors. 12th, 13th and early 14th century personas should use a surcoat in the same or similar style to the one they wear on the field. 15th and 16th century personas should use a heraldic tabard. Heralds who have not passed the appropriate heraldic tests in the SCA might consider wearing the tabard sideways. Your herald can also use a staff of office striped in your livery colors and topped with ribbons in your livery colors, a small version of your crest, a shield bearing your arms or any other appropriate item. Consider making a patch, brooch, baldric or other item with your arms for your herald to wear off the tourney field. Consider making patches, brooches, pendants or similar items (or have them made for you) bearing an element of your heraldry to give to other peoples heralds as a reward for exceptional service.

Methods of creating Heraldic Display


Textiles: wall hangings, bed curtains, bunk curtains (for those in kingdoms that frequently use cabins at events), cushions,
covers for mundane chairs, decorated seats and backs for directors chairs, tablecloths, towels, ground cloths, napkins, and of course, banners of all kinds!

Stencil, stamp or paint large wall hangings and/or bed/bunk curtains with elements of your arms. Twin sized flat
sheets, sold individual for $5-6 each at Walmart and KMart come in a variety of colors and are the perfect size for multiple uses. Twin flat sheets have a average finished measurement of 66 X 96 (56 X 8) [1.83 yds. x 2.66 yds.] Stencil, stamp, paint or embroider a set of towels for using at camping events, a set of tablecloth and napkins for using at feasts Decorate your chair, or even better, make a cover to put over your chair to make it look and feel more period. Paint a groundcloth to put under your chair at outdoor events you will add to the atmosphere and help keep bugs away. Paint, embroider or embellish pillows and cushions, especially a couple big floor pillows and use them on top of your ground cloth for comfortable and PERIOD seating.

Embroidery
hand embroidery:
http://stores.yahoo.com/thebellwether/ - REAL gold and silver wrapped threads, real gold and silver spangles (period sequins), silk, linen and wool threads, wide variety of linen and silk fabrics for needlework and much more!!!!

Machine Embroidery Resources:


http://www.embroidery.com/ - my favorite machine embroidery site. Use the search function to search for specific items or broad categories. A search under heraldry will bring up 220 designs ranging from blank shield shapes to detailed heraldic charges such as rampant lions. Also available are a variety of fleurs, celtic knotwork patterns, etc. Most patterns are in the $10-15 range. Downloadable into any of 9 standard formats read by the commercially available home use embroidery machines. http://www.cadvision.com/elegantdetails/ - Elizabethan blackwork patterns charted for machine embroidery!!!! This site also has patterns for creating cutwork lace and drawn work both are period (hand) techniques for the 16th century! This vendor is located in Alberta, Canada but prices are listed in US $. Patterns are mostly sold in sets, with a sets ranging from $10-30 (more for composites of multiple sets). These are NOT downloadable you can order via the internet and a disk will be sent to you.

Appliqu (Instructions):
http://ttsw.com/HowTo/AppliqueHowTOPage.html - a good resource with instructions for a variety of techniques http://www.patchworkstudio.com/applique.htm - has basic instructions for both hand and machine appliqu. http://www.lyonslpgas.com/sewscape/ssembroidery.html - a good resource on machine satin stitch embroidery and
appliqu embellishment techniques

Applique Hint: Instead of using Wonder Under or other fusible web products, consider using one one of the
spray on/wash away temporary fabric adhesives for your appliqu work. The pieces stick nicely, but are moveable, so you can put a piece in place, try it on or hang it up, and readjust it several times until you get the placement just right (especially important for placing heraldic charges on the upper portion of womens garments!!!). There are not bubbles or disturbance of the surface fabric texture that you can sometimes get with fusible webs. The adhesive washes away, so the resulting garment is not noticeably stiffer in the appliqud areas as it is with fusibles the fabric/garment moves much more naturally. The disadvantage is that you cannot rely on the fusible web to hold the pieces in place during wearing or to keep the edges of the appliqu fabric from fraying as some people do. If your appliqu fabric tends to fray badly, you will want to consider cutting your pieces slightly larger than desired and folding the raw edges under before sewing the pieces down.

Painting:
Stenciling: http://www.mfgraffix.com/hird/faoilt/stencil.html - basic instructions on how to stencil and how to make your own
stencils.

http://interiordec.about.com/msubstencil.htm?once=true& - mundane site with lots of stenciling links Stamping with paint:
http://www.thomasin.com/stamping.html - basic fabric stamping instructions http://www.rubberstampsclub.com/tips/fabric-stamping.html - a mundane site with lots of good tips

Stamping on velvet:
http://www.hotpotatoes.com/Stamping_On_Velvet.htm

Silk Painting:
www.rencentral.com/GSS/Heraldic-silkpainting.pdf - instructions on how to paint on silk, which is actually a process of using resists and dyes.

Resources:

http://www.jacquardproducts.com/main.htm - My personal preference is for Jaquard Textile Paint. I cant stand those squeezy paints sold in most fabric and craft stores the paint will crack and peel off with heat or under stress. I have had some success with regular craft paint mixed with textile medium, but the best results are with the Jaquard paints. The paints are the consistency of regular craft paint, so they lend themselves well to stenciling, stamping and free hand painting. They can be mixed and blended. When properly heat set they are waterproof and machine wash and dryable.

http://www.dharmatrading.com/ - Excellent supplier of all textile related supplies, including Jaquard Textile Paint. You can also find dyes for all fabric types, bulk fabrics (including hemp and silk!) for dying or

painting, and all kinds of premade items ready for dying and/or painting including clothing, banners, floor cloths, wall hangings, pillows, etc. EXCELLENT prices and service.

http://www.barjaveldesign.com/index.htm - fabrics, especially good prices on raw silk (silk noil) which makes a good visual substitute for wool http://www.classactfabrics.com/index.html - fabrics of all types from a fabulous SCA merchant. http://www.fabric.com variety of fabrics at reasonable prices http://www.fabric-store.com - Excellent prices for 100% linen http://www.fancifulsinc.com/ - brass stampings at low prices in a huge variety of shapes

Incidental Tidbits:
Sheets: cotton bed sheets are incredibly versatile and are a great value for the money. I use them all the time for making a
variety of SCA items. KMart, Walmart and some other stores sell them individually buy the single FLAT sheets in the appropriate sizes for your needs. A flat sheet for a twin size bed will cost between $2-10 depending on the quality and fiber content of the fabric. A King sized flat sheet will cost between $20 40. The average finished sizes of flat sheets are: Twin 66 X 96 (56 X 8) [1.83 yds. x 2.66 yds.] Full 81 X 96 (68 X 8) [2.25 yds. x 2.66 yds.] Queen 90 X 102 (76 X 86) [2.5 yds. x 2.83 yds.] King 108 X 102 (9 X 86) [3 yds. x 2.83 yds.] Sheets make great pre-hemmed wall hangings, sheet walls for encampments, bed curtains and bunk curtains, table cloths, giant banners, etc.

Design Hint #1: Craft carbon paper, such as MonaLisa brand available at Michaels, is made of a dusting of carbon - its
not sticky like regular carbon paper. Its perfect for transferring detailed, accurate images onto surfaces that would otherwise require free hand drawing or complicated tracing/stencils, such as wood, china, glass, etc. For fabrics that you cannot see through, Sulky makes iron on transfer pencils for transferring designs to fabrics. Simply trace over the BACK of the pattern or design, place on the surface of the fabric, iron and your pattern is transferred perfectly.

Design Hint #2: If you can, I highly recommend getting access to a copy of some sort of CAD program, or paying off your
friend who can do this for you. I use TurboCad. When working with any type of motif, but especially heraldry, using a CAD program can be an ENORMOUS time saver as well as tremendous boost in your flexibility. With most CAD programs you can either free draw your elements, import your heraldic elements using files or even cut & paste, and/or create your heraldic artwork using a combination of both approaches. Common heraldic elements can be directly imported and dropped into the appropriate space, while more unique elements can be drawn. Imported elements may need to be cleaned before they can be used though save the element into your preferred paint/drawing program, magnify as necessary and clean up the artwork, much as you would clean up a pencil sketch. Once you have your arms, badge, and or heraldic achievement input into the CAD program and saved, you can use your CAD program to help you with all your heraldic projects. Using CAD you can not only reproduce your entire badge or arms in a variety of sizes, but you can also pick and choose elements of them, remove them from the confines of the arms/badge and reproduce them in a any size, orientation or configuration. CAD programs allow you to work in real world space if you draw a picture on your computer screen that is 12 x 12, it will print out at 12 x 12. CAD programs allow you to size up or down limitlessly, change orientation, direction, add or remove details, combine elements or remove elements, etc. When you have what you want for your project, you can print it out on your regular printer. The pages will be tiled, so you just assemble them with some scotch tape and, viola, you have your pattern for your project. Save all your work to a folder and you will be able to reproduce what you have done in minutes.

CAD programs can also be used to design patterns for elaborate dags for your houpeland sleeves, the bottom of your hood, are any place else you have in mind. An added bonus is that CAD drawing can be cut & pasted into Word Documents, allowing you to add a little heraldic touch anywhere! For color versions of your arms, cut & paste into your favorite paint program , color it in, save into your preferred image format, and drop it into your documents. If you dont have the ability or access to do this for yourself and decide to have someone else do it for your, PLEASE compensate them in some way for their time. Drawing elements by hand, cleaning artwork for importing, and resizing/altering the pieces to combine them into the final design are time intensive processes. Each element can take upwards of an hour to prepare for insertion into the final design, creating the design, or taking elements apart for a new design/project can also take several hours. Large printouts can take 20-50 sheets of paper thats a lot of ink and a lot of paper. It can easily take 4-8 hours or more to translate your arms into the initial CAD design, and an hour or two for each new project after that. Thats a heavy investment of time and energy for someone to put into someone elses project, so be sure to show your appreciation.

Tho atte laste aspyed I That pursevauntes and heraudes, That cryen riche folkes laudes, Hit weren alle; and every man Of hem, as I yow tellen can, Had on him throwen a vesture, Which that men clepe a cote-armure, Enbrowded wonderliche riche, Al-though they nere nought y-liche. Geoffrey Chaucer The House of Fame, Book III The Dream Lines 1320-1328

Sources
As much as possible, I tried to find and/or use sources that should be available to most people via the Internet, SCA publications or commonly available (and owned) books. The intent was to help those interested find more information on their own. Anonymous (no author cited). Early Banner Types. Early Period: Issue #2 Imbolc, anno societus XXI. 22 Dec 2003. Early Period. June 7, 2007. http://www.housebarra.com/EP/ep02/01banner.html Barber, Richard and Juliet Barker. Tournaments: Jousts, Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge, UK: The Boydell Press, 1989. Barreto, Rey (writing as Hon. Lord Damian Nihthauk). Flags, Banners and Heraldic Displays. Tournaments Illuminated, Issue #148, Fall 2003 - AS XXXVIII: 14-18. Bennett, Elizabeth. King Rens Tournament Book A Modern English Translation. Princeton University Elizabeth Bennett Elizabeth Bennett 1997. Illustrations Will McLean 1997. 4 Sept 1998. Princeton University Elizabeth Bennett. June 5, 2007. http://www.princeton.edu/~ezb/rene/renehome.html#book Blowney, Linda M. (writing as Baroness Mairi ni Raghaillaigh). The Chlamys: A Soldiers Cloak of the Early Byzantine Period. Tournaments Illuminated, Issue #140, Fall 2001 AS XXXVI: 8-9. Boucher, Elise C. Heraldic Arts and Sciences: Beyond the Banner and Shield Part 1: Some of the Basic Concepts. Elise C. Boucher asheraldry. 1997-2004 Elise C. Boucher. 27 Jan 2007. Elise C. Boucher. June 5, 2007. http://www.merouda.com/asheraldry/index.htm Boucher, Elise C. Heraldic Arts and Sciences: Beyond the Banner and Shield Part 2: Stencils: Make Them, Use Them, Love Them! Elise C. Boucher asheraldry. 1997-2004 Elise C. Boucher. 27 Jan 2007. Elise C. Boucher. June 5, 2007. http://www.merouda.com/asheraldry/index.htm Boucher, Elise C. Heraldic Arts and Sciences: Beyond the Banner and Shield Part 14: A Banner Wrap Up. Elise C. Boucher asheraldry. 1997-2004 Elise C. Boucher. 27 Jan 2007. Elise C. Boucher. June 5, 2007. http://www.merouda.com/asheraldry/index.htm Chaucery, Geoffrey. Edited by Sinan Kkbugur. The Canterbury Tales. Librarius Presents: The Canterbury Tales and Other Works by Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400). 1997 Librarius. June 5, 2007. http://www.librarius.com/cantales/knigttl3.htm Dollingre, Andr. The Ancient Egyptian Armed Forces. An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt. Andr Dollinger 2000. Oct. 2006. An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt. June 5, 2007. http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/army.htm Embleton, Gerry. Europa Militaria Special No. 8: Medieval Military Costume Recreated in Colour Photographs. Ramsbury, UK: The Crowood Press Ltd., 2000. Funcken, Liliane and Fred. The Age of Chivalry Part 2: Castle, Forts and artillery, 8th to 15th century; Armour, 12th to 15th century; Infantry of the Renaissance; Cavalry of the Renaissance; The Slavs and Orientals to the end of the Renaissance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981.

The Holy Bible, Pilgrim Edition. Editor-in-Chief: E. Schuyler English, LITT.D. New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. Jensen, Peter S. (writing as Lord Malcolm mac Lochlainn). Towards Less Vexing Vexillology. The Shire of Cuil Choluim - Heraldry. Copyright 2001, 2002 Black Gryphon Productions. 18 November 2003. Shire of Cuil Choluim, Kingdom of the Middle, SCA. June 5, 2007. http://cuilcholuim.home.att.net/flags.htm Knight, Ron (writing as Baron Modar Neznanich). Mottoes. Modars Heraldry Articles Page. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Baron Modar Neznanich, CLM, CSH, CT, CCC (Ron Knight). 20 Aug 1998. Modars Heraldry Articles Page. June 18, 2007. http://www.byzantios.net/modar/motto.htm De Lacy, Michael (KSCA). Building Your Own Armor Part 6: Tournament Cosume. West Dragonshire Articles. 25 April 2005. Shire of West Dragonshire, Kingdom of Drachenwald, SCA. 12 June 2007. http://www.westdragonshire.org/ArtsOfWarPart6.htm. Levin, Craig. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. Craig Levin My Articles and Interests. June 5, 2007. http://pages.ripco.net/~clevin/lexarm.html Levin, Craig. The Mediaeval Herald. Craig Levin My Articles and Interests. June 5, 2007. http://pages.ripco.net/~clevin/hduties.html Levin, Craig. The Stuff Around the Shield: Crests and Supporters. Craig Levin My Articles and Interests. June 5, 2007. http://pages.ripco.net/~clevin/froofroo.html Mayhew, A. L. and William Walter Skeat. A Concise Dictionary of Middle English From A.D. 1150 to 1580. Project Gutenberg Library Archive Foundation. Web site copyright 2003-2006 Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation All Rights Reserved. The Dictionary is NOT copyrighted. 01 Jan 2004. Project Gutenberg. June 11, 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10625 Mckay, Ian. About Heraldry. The Heraldry and Genealogy Society of Canberra Inc. Copyright 2001-2004, The Heraldry & Genealogy Society of Canberra Inc. 24 March 2003. The Heraldry and Genealogy Society of Canberra Inc. June 12, 2007. http://www.hagsoc.org.au/main/index.php? page=about_heraldry Neitz, John. Heralds and Heraldry in Elizabethan England: Origins and Development of Armory and the Office of the Herald. Renaissance: the Elizabethan World. 9 January 2000. Renaissance: the Elizabethan World. June 7, 2007. http://elizabethan.org/heraldry/heralds.html Nicolle, David. Osprey Men-At-Arms Series #171: The Moors The Islamic West, 7th to 15th Centuries AD. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2001. Nicolle, David. Osprey Men-At-Arms Series #348: Saladin and the Saracens Armies of the Middle East 1100-1300. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1986. Priest-Dorman, Carolyn. Personal Display for Viking Age Personae: A Primer for Use in the SCA. Viking Resources for the Re-enactor. 1994, 1997, 2000 Carolyn Priest-Dorman. 12 Feb 2003. Viking Resources for the Re-enactor. June 7, 2007. http://www.cs.vassar.edu/~capriest/display.html

Schweitzer, Leslie A. (writing as Dame Zenobia Naphtali, OL OP). Heralds in History in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. SCA College of Arms, Laurel Sovereign of Arms, Education Articles. Leslie A. Schweitzer, July 2002. 01 Oct 2005. SCA, Heraldry, Laurel Sovereign of Arms, Education Articles. June 7, 2007. http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/heralds_history.html Shapiro, Sarahann (writing as Viscountess Kiriana Michaelson, OP). The Complete Anachronist #132 Summer 2006: The Templars and The Hospitallers: Fighting for God, Praying for War. Milpitas, CA: The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., 2006. Strong, Roy. The Cult of Elizabeth: Elizabethan Portraiture and Pageantry. London: Pimlico, 1999. Originally published by Thames and Hudson, 1977. La Tour Landry, Geoffroy de. The booke of thenseygnementes and techynge that the Knyght of the Towre made to his doughters. Originally written c. 1371-2. Modern edition published - London: G. Newnes, 1902. Made available via the Internet by McMaster Universitys Scriptorum McMaster University, 2000. June 5, 2007. http://mw.mcmaster.ca/scriptorium/azindex.html Velde, Franois. Heralds. Heraldica. 01 Sept 2000. Heraldica. June 15, 2007. http://www.heraldica.org/ Wendelken, David (writing as Sir Andras Salamandra, KSCA). On Early Period Persona: The Colour of Fighting. Early Period: Issue #6 Imbolc, anno societus XXII. 22 Dec 2003. Early Period. June 7, 2007. http://housebarra.com/EP/ep06/12epp.html Wise, Terence. Men-At-Arms Series #85: Saxon, Viking and Norman. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1979. Woosnam-Savage, Robert C. and Anthony Hall. Brasseys Book of Body Armor. Dulles, VA: Brasseys, 2000. Wroth, Mark B. (writing as Eirkr Mjoksiglandi Sigurdharson). What Did Heralds Wear? A Review of the Historical Regalia of Officers of Arms. SCA College of Arms, Laurel Sovereign of Arms, Education Articles. Copyright 1995 - 2007 Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc. "The copyright of certain portions of www.sca.org are retained by the original contributors." 1 Oct 2005. SCA College of Arms. June 12, 2007. http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/Heralds_wear.html

BONUS RESOURCE Warlick, David & The Landmark Project. Landmarks Son of Citation Machine. Citation Machine. 2006 by David Warlick & The Landmark Project. April 2006. The Landmark Projects Citation Machine. June 25, 2007. http://www.citationmachine.net/ (For those who are confused about how to list references in a bibliography or format parenthetical references, this web site provides a machine that will do it for you. Select your citation style MLA is the most common style used for SCA works; then select the type of source, fill in the blanks and click submit and the machine will show you the proper citation for that source. EASY!)

Jensen, Peter S. (writing as Lord Malcolm mac Lochlainn). Towards Less Vexing Vexillology. The Shire of Cuil Choluim - Heraldry. Copyright 2001, 2002 Black Gryphon Productions. 18 November 2003. Shire of Cuil Choluim, Kingdom of the Middle, SCA. June 5, 2007. http://cuilcholuim.home.att.net/flags.htm 2 Dollingre, Andr. The Ancient Egyptian Armed Forces. An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt. Andr Dollinger 2000. Oct. 2006. An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt. June 5, 2007. http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/army.htm 3 Anonymous (no author cited). Early Banner Types. Early Period: Issue #2 Imbolc, anno societus XXI. 22 Dec 2003. Early Period. June 7, 2007. http://www.housebarra.com/EP/ep02/01banner.html 4 Anonymous. 5 Anonymous. 6 Priest-Dorman, Carolyn. Personal Display for Viking Age Personae: A Primer for Use in the SCA. Viking Resources for the Re-enactor. 1994, 1997, 2000 Carolyn Priest-Dorman. 12 Feb 2003. Viking Resources for the Re-enactor. June 7, 2007. http://www.cs.vassar.edu/~capriest/display.html 7 Levin, Craig. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. Craig Levin My Articles and Interests. June 5, 2007. http://pages.ripco.net/~clevin/lexarm.html 8 Levin. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. 9 Levin. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. 10 Levin. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. 11 Levin. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. 12 Levin. The Law of Arms in Mediaeval England. 13 Levin, Craig. The Stuff Around the Shield: Crests and Supporters. Craig Levin My Articles and Interests. June 5, 2007. http://pages.ripco.net/~clevin/froofroo.html 14 Levin. The Stuff Around the Shield: Crests and Supporters. 15 Levin. The Stuff Around the Shield: Crests and Supporters. 16 Levin. The Stuff Around the Shield: Crests and Supporters. 17 Levin. The Stuff Around the Shield: Crests and Supporters. 18 Priest-Dorman. 19 Priest-Dorman. 20 Wise, Terence. Men-At-Arms Series #85: Saxon, Viking and Norman. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1979, pp. 28-30 . 21 Wise, p. 30. 22 Wise, p. 30. 23 Wise, p. 26. 24 Priest-Dorman. 25 Wise, p. 15. 26 Wise, pp. 15-16. 27 Wise, p. 16. 28 Wise, p. 16. 29 Wise, p. 11. 30 Wise, p. 12. 31 Wise, p. 34. 32 Wise, p. 36. 33 Wise, p. 37. 34 Embleton, Gerry. Europa Militaria Special No. 8: Medieval Military Costume Recreated in Colour Photographs. Ramsbury, UK: The Crowood Press Ltd., 2000, pp. 7-8.. 35 Woosnam-Savage, Robert C. and Anthony Hall. Brasseys Book of Body Armor. Dulles, VA: Brasseys, 2000, p. 46. 36 Nicolle, David. Osprey Men-At-Arms Series #348: Saladin and the Saracens Armies of the Middle East 1100-1300. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1986, pp. 41-42. 37 Shapiro, Sarahann (writing as Viscountess Kiriana Michaelson, OP). The Complete Anachronist #132 Summer 2006: The Templars and The Hospitallers: Fighting for God, Praying for War. Milpitas, CA: The Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., 2006. 38 Woosnam-Savage, p. 52. 39 Embleton, p. 10. 40 Embleton, pp. 10-11.

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Chaucery, Geoffrey. Edited by Sinan Kkbugur. The Canterbury Tales. Librarius Presents: The Canterbury Tales and Other Works by Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400). 1997 Librarius. June 5, 2007. http://www.librarius.com/cantales/knigttl3.htm, lines 1298 1303. 42 Chaucer, The Knights Tale, lines 1282-1284. 43 Chaucer, The Tale of Sir Thopas, lines 169-178. 44 DeLacy. 45 DeLacy. 46 DeLacy. 47 Embleton, p. 90. 48 Woosnam-Savage, p. 76. 49 Embleton, p. 90. 50 Woosnam-Savage, p. 84. 51 Woosnam-Savage, pp. 82-85. 52 Strong, Roy. The Cult of Elizabeth: Elizabethan Portraiture and Pageantry. London: Pimlico, 1999. Originally published by Thames and Hudson, 1977, pp. 156-7. 53 Levin, Craig. The Mediaeval Herald. Craig Levin My Articles and Interests. June 5, 2007. http://pages.ripco.net/~clevin/hduties.html 54 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 55 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 56 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 57 Levin, Craig. The Mediaeval Herald. 58 Schweitzer, Leslie A. (writing as Dame Zenobia Naphtali, OL OP). Heralds in History in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. SCA College of Arms, Laurel Sovereign of Arms, Education Articles. Leslie A. Schweitzer, July 2002. 01 Oct 2005. SCA, Heraldry, Laurel Sovereign of Arms, Education Articles. June 7, 2007. http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/heralds_history.html 59 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 60 Schweitzer. 61 Schweitzer. 62 Neitz, John. Heralds and Heraldry in Elizabethan England: Origins and Development of Armory and the Office of the Herald. Renaissance: the Elizabethan World. 9 January 2000. Renaissance: the Elizabethan World. June 7, 2007. http://elizabethan.org/heraldry/heralds.html 63 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 64 Neitz. 65 Schweitzer. 66 Levin. Heralds. 67 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 68 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 69 Levin. Heralds. 70 Velde, Franois. Heralds. Heraldica. 01 Sept 2000. Heraldica. June 15, 2007. http://www.heraldica.org/ 71 Neitz. 72 Neitz. 73 Schweitzer. 74 Schweitzer. 75 Neitz. 76 Neitz. 77 Levin. The Mediaeval Herald. 78 Schweitzer.