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Triangle Area = bh b = base h = vertical height Rectangle Area = bh b = breadth h = height Trapezoid (US) Trapezium (UK) Area = (a+b)h

h = vertical height

Square Area = a2 a = length of side

Parallelogram Area = bh b = breadth h = height Circle Area = r2 Circumference=2r r = radius Sector Area = r2 r = radius = angle in radians

Ellipse Area = ab

Area of Plane Shapes

Area Calculation Tool

Circumference of a Circle

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A circle is a shape with all points the same distance from the center. It is named by the center. The circle to the left is called circle A since the center is at point A. If you measure the distance around a circle and divide it by the distance across the circle through the center, you will always come close to a particular value, depending upon the accuracy of your measurement. This value is approximately 3.14159265358979323846... We use the Greek letter (pronounced Pi) to represent this value. The number goes on forever. However, using computers, has been calculated to over 1 trillion digits past the decimal point.

The distance around a circle is called the circumference. The distance across a circle through the center is called the diameter. is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter. Thus, for any circle, if you divide the circumference by the diameter, you get a value close to . This relationship is expressed in the following formula:

where is circumference and is diameter. You can test this formula at home with a round dinner plate. If you measure the circumference and the diameter of the plate and then divide by , your quotient should come close to . Another way to write this formula is: where means multiply. This second formula is commonly used in problems where the diameter is given and the circumference is not known (see the examples below).

The radius of a circle is the distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle. If you place two radii end-to-end in a circle, you would have the same length as one diameter. Thus, the diameter of a circle is twice as long as the radius. This relationship is expressed in the following formula: , where is the diameter and is the radius. Circumference, diameter and radii are measured in linear units, such as inches and centimeters. A circle has many different radii and many different diameters, each passing through the center. A real-life example of a radius is the spoke of a bicycle wheel. A 9inch pizza is an example of a diameter: when one makes the first cut to slice a round pizza pie in half, this cut is the diameter of the pizza. So a 9-inch pizza has a 9-inch diameter. Let's look at some examples of finding the circumference of a circle. In these examples, we will use = 3.14 to simplify our calculations.

Example 1: Solution:

The radius of a circle is 2 inches. What is the diameter? = 2 (2 in) = 4 in

Example 2: The diameter of a circle is 3 centimeters. What is the circumference? Solution: = 3.14 (3 cm) = 9.42 cm Example 3: Solution: = 2 (2 in) = 4 in = 3.14 (4 in) = 12.56 in Example 4: Solution: 15.7 cm = 3.14 15.7 cm 3.14 = = 15.7 cm 3.14 = 5 cm Summary: The number is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter. The value of is approximately 3.14159265358979323846...The diameter of a circle is twice the radius. Given the diameter or radius of a circle, we can find the circumference. We can also find the diameter (and radius) of a circle given the circumference. The formulas for diameter and circumference of a circle are listed below. We round to 3.14 in order to simplify our calculations. The circumference of a circle is 15.7 centimeters. What is the diameter? The radius of a circle is 2 inches. What is the circumference?

Circle Formulas

Circumference =

2 radius diameter

Circle Area =

d *************************** Sphere Formulas


Sphere Surface Area

4 r

Sphere Volume =


d 4/3 r

Click here or here for partially-filled sphere calculators.

*************************** Cylinder Formulas

Surface Area =
Where (2 (2

(2 r) + (2 r height)

r) is the surface area of the "ends" and

r height) is the lateral area (the area of the "side").

Volume =

r height