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T 7.2.1.

3
Amplitude
Modulation
by Klaus Breidenbach
New Edition, November 2002
LEYBOLD DIDACTIC GMBH
.
Leyboldstrasse 1
.
D-50354 Hrth
.
Phone (02233) 604-0
.
Fax (02233) 604-222
.
e-mail: info@leybold-didactic.de

by Leybold Didactic GmbH Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany
Technical alterations reserved
The sensitive electronics of the equipment contained in the present experiment literature
can be impaired due to the discharge of static electricity. Consequently, electrostatic build
up should be avoided (particularly by utilizing appropriate rooms) or eliminated by dis-
charging (e.g. at the panel frames or similar).
3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Contents
Note on EMC
European stipulations pertaining to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) oblige the
manufacturer of electronic training and educational equipment to draw the operator's
attention to the following possible sources of interference. The types of interference
listed below could arise but by no means have to. As the case arises it may prove neces-
sary to implement one of the measures recommended for the appropriate case.
Note regarding the interference immunity of the equipment and
experiment set-ups
The sensitive electronics used in the equipment can be interfered with by strong elec-
tromagnetic fields arising from large-scale experiment arrangements. This can occur in
such a manner that the equipment operates insufficiently, in particular field effects can
cause digital displays to fail.
Precautionary and corrective measures:
Make sure that no RF generating equipment (e.g. cellular phones) which does not be-
long to the experiment set-up is operating in the classroom or in its proximity and that
connecting leads which can act as potential antennas are kept as short as possible.
Note regarding protection against electrostatic discharge (ESD)
The sensitive electronic components in the equipment can be impaired or even dama-
ged by the discharge of static electricity.
Precautionary measures:
Select work areas where electrostatic energy cannot be built up by the user and/or
equipment (eliminate carpeting and similar items, ensure equipotential bonding).
Note regarding protection from line-bound, high-frequency voltage
bursts
Switching operations involving large loads can occassionally bring about line-bound
high-frequency voltage bursts which can lead to the temporary impairment of sensitive
electronic components which could cause equipment operating failure (e.g. data losses
or to changes in the mode of operation).
Corrective measures:
In order to avoid this malfunction, the mains line can be specially filtered. Furthermore,
making occasional data back-ups is recommended. Any interference which might arise
can be eliminated simply by switching the device off and back on again.
4
TPS 7.2.1.3
Contents
Note: The oscillographs in the experiment results were recorded with a HP 54600 A
oscilloscope (100 MHz) and further processed with the bench link
HP 34810 A software.
The oscilloscope recommended in the equipment set is a low-cost version,
with limited operation and display comfort (30 MHz display), but in principle
delivers the same results.
The experiment results given here are just examples. Therefore, the curves
and results specified in the solutions section should only be taken as guideli-
nes.
The calculation and representation of the spectra was carried out with EXCEL
5.0.
5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Contents
Contents
Equipment overview.............................................................................................................. 7
Symbols and abbreviations .................................................................................................... 8
Schrifttum .............................................................................................................................. 8
1 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 9
Signals9
Time and spectral domain...................................................................................................... 10
Modulation ............................................................................................................................ 10
The communications system according to Shannon.............................................................. 12
2 Measuring instruments ..................................................................................................... 13
2.1 Oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer .......................................................................... 13
2.2 Equipment descriptions .............................................................................................. 16
726 94 Spectrum analyzer .......................................................................................... 16
726 961 Function generator 200kHz .......................................................................... 17
726 99 Frequency counter 0..10 MHz ...................................................................... 18
736 201 CF transmitter 20 kHz .................................................................................. 18
736 221 CF receiver 20 kHz ...................................................................................... 19
2.3 A measurement example ........................................................................................... 20
3 Review of amplitude modulation (AM) .......................................................................... 23
The spectrum of amplitude modulation ................................................................................. 24
Representing amplitude modulation with a vector diagram................................................... 24
AM demodulation .................................................................................................................. 25
Questions ............................................................................................................................... 26
4 Required equipment and accessories ............................................................................. 28
Training objectives: ................................................................................................................ 28
5 Double Sideband-AM........................................................................................................ 29
The DSB
SC
. ............................................................................................................................ 29
5.1 Investigations on the dynamic characteristic of the DSB.......................................... 30
5.1.1 DSB............................................................................................................................ 30
5.1.2 DSB
SC
................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31
5.2 Spectrum of the DSB................................................................................................. 31
5.2.1 DSB............................................................................................................................ 31
5.2.2 DSB
SC
................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33
5.2.3 The AM spectrum for modulation with a square-wave signal .................................. 33
5.3 AM demodulation (synchronous demodulation) ........................................................ 34
5.3.1 DSB............................................................................................................................ 34
5.3.2 Carrier recovery ........................................................................................................ 35
5.3.3 DSB
SC
Demodulation ................................................................................................. 37
5.4 Beats .......................................................................................................................... 37
6
TPS 7.2.1.3
Contents
6 The Single Sideband AM (SSB) ....................................................................................... 41
6.1 Investigations on the dynamic characteristic of the SSB........................................... 42
6.1.1 SSB
RC
......................................................................................................................... 42
6.1.2 SSB
SC
.......................................................................................................................... 42
6.2 Spectrum of the SSB.................................................................................................. 43
6.2.1 SSB
RC
......................................................................................................................... 43
6.2.2 SSB
SC
.......................................................................................................................... 43
6.3 SSB demodulation ...................................................................................................... 44
7 The Ring Modulator .......................................................................................................... 47
7.1 Dynamic response of the ring modulator ................................................................... 49
7.2 Spectrum at the output of the ring modulator ............................................................ 50
Solutions ................................................................................................................................. 51
Keywords .............................................................................................................................. 65
7
TPS 7.2.1.3
Contents
Equipment overview
DC power supply 15 V, 3 A 726 86 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Function generator 0...200 kHz 726 961 1 1 1 1* 1 1 1 1 1 1
Spectrum analyzer 726 94 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ _ 1
Frequency counter 0-10 MHz 726 99 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ _ 1
CF transmitter 20 kHz 736 201 _ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
CF receiver 20 kHz 736 211 _ _ _ 1 _ _ _ 1 _ _
Analog multimeter C.A. 406 531 16 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ 1 _ _ 1
Digital storage oscilloscope 305 575 292 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Probes 100 MHz, 1:1/10:1 575 231 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Sets of 10 bridging plugs, black 501 511 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2
Cable pair, black, 100 cm 501 461 2 _ 1 _ 2 _ 1 _ _ 2
2
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Equipment
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Note:
Instead of the 20 kHz CF system you can also use the 16 kHz system (cat. no. 736 211 and 736 231).
This does not have any significant impact on the experiment results. In particular the spectra are shifted
by 4 kHz into the lower frequency range. However, their general structures remain unaffected.
* Optional: 2nd function generator recommended
8
TPS 7.2.1.3
Contents
Symbols and abbreviations
A : Amplitude
A
C
: Amplitude deviation
A
C
: Carrier amplitude
A
M
: Amplitude of the modulating signal
A
D
: Amplitude of the demodulated signal
A(f) : Transmission factor
AM : Amplitude modulation
A
R
: Square-wave amplitude
DSB
SC
: Double sideband AM with suppressed carrier
BP : Bandpass
b : Bandwidth
d : Attenuation
SSB : Single sideband AM
f : Frequency
f
M
: Frequency of the modulating signal
m : Modulation index
USL : Upper sideline
R : Frequency resolution
s(t) : Signal function in the time domain, general
s
D
(t) : Demodulated signal
s
M
(t) : Information signal, modulating signal
s
C
(t) : Carrier signal
S(n) : Amplitude spectrum, general
S
AM
(n) : Spectrum of the AM signal
s
AM
(t) : Dynamic characteristic of the AM signal
S
R
(n) : Spectrum of the square-wave signal
T : Period duration
LP : Lowpass filter
LSL : Lower sideline
: Efficiency
DSB : Double sideband AM
Bibliography
E. Stadler Modulationsverfahren
Vogel Buchverlag, Wrzburg
3rd edition 1983
Herter, Rcker,Lrcher Nachrichtentechnik, bertragung, Vermittlung, Verarbeitung
Hanser, Mnchen, Wien
3rd edition 1984
G. Kennedy Electronic Communication Systems,
McGraw Hill Book Company, Singapore,
3rd edition 1985
D.G. Fink D. Christiansen Electronic Engineers Handbook
McGraw Hill Book Company
2nd edition 1982
D. Roddy, J. Coolen Electronic Communications
Prentice Hall International, Reston Verginia,
3rd edition 1984
Hewlett Packard Measurement, Computation, Systems, catalog 1986,
Palo Alto California
Dipl. Ing. Klaus Breidenbach
Hrth, February 1997
9
TPS 7.2.1.3
Introduction
1 Introduction
Signals
In electrical telecommunications engineering,
messages are usually in the form of time-depend-
ent electrical quantities, for example, voltage u(t)
or current i(t). These kinds of quantities which are
described by time functions are called signals. In
order to transmit messages a parameter of the
electrical signal must be suitably influenced. In
cases where a signal defined as a time function is
known and the signal value can be determined
exactly at any given point in time, then the signal
is called deterministic. Examples of determinis-
tic signals are:
1. Harmonic oscillation
u(t) = A sin (2 ft + ) (1.1)
2. Symmetrical square wave
u(t) = u(t + nT) n = 1, 2, 3... (1.2)
u t
A t T
T t T
( ) =

0 < < / 2
0 / 2 < < .
for
for
Deterministic telecommunications is useless from
the point of view of information theory. Only un-
known, i.e. unpredictable messages are important
for the message receiver. Nevertheless, when dis-
cussing modulation methods it is standard proce-
dure to work with harmonic signals. The results
which can be obtained are then clearer and more
straightforward. If the signal value for any given
point in time cannot be given because the signal
curve appears totally erratic, then the signal is
called stochastic. An example for a stochastic sig-
nal is noise. Stochastic signals can be described
using methods of probability mathematics, but
they will not be taken into consideration here. Sig-
nals are distinguished according to the character-
istic curves of their time and signal coordinates. If
the signal function s(t) produces a signal value at
any random point in time, the signal function is
called time-continuous (continuous w.r.t. time).
In contrast, if the signal values differ from 0 only
at definite, countable points in time, i.e. its time
characteristic shows gaps, then this is referred
to as time-discrete (discrete w.r.t. time). What is
true for the time coordinate, can also be applied to
the signal coordinates. Accordingly, a signal is
called level-continuous, if it can assume any
given value within the system limits. It is called
value-discrete or n-level, if only a finite number
Fig 1-1: Classification of signals
(a) time- and level-continuous
(b) time-discrete (sampled), level-continuous
(c) time-continuous, level-discrete (quantized)
(d) time- and level-discrete
1 0
TPS 7.2.1.3
Introduction
of signal values are permitted. Two important sig-
nal classes can be defined using these 4 terms:
Analog signals
A signal is called analog if it is both time as well
as value-continuous.
Digital signals
A signal is called digital, if it is both time as well
as value-discrete.
Fig. 1-1 shows the various kinds of signals.
Time and spectral domain
In the technical sciences there exists, in addition
to the time domain, signal representation in the
frequency or spectral domain. The equiva-
lence of the two types of representation can be
seen in the depictions in Fig. 1-2.
If you first consider the harmonic function as
specified in (1.1), then a display on the oscillo-
scope results in the familiar, dynamic (time) char-
acteristic according to Fig. 1-2-A. The sinusoidal
time function is described by the amplitude A and
the period duration T. However, a totally equiva-
lent representation of this function is reproduced
when the variables A and f = 1/T are used instead
of the parameters A and T. If the amplitude is dis-
played on the frequency axis, then this form of
representation is called the amplitude spectrum.
Thus, a single line can depict a harmonic function.
Now, after Fourier, every non-harmonic, peri-
odic function can be represented as the superim-
position of harmonic oscillations with fixed
amplitudes S(n). As an example Fig. 1-2-B
presents a symmetrical square-wave signal with
the amplitude A
R
and the period of oscillation T
R
.
We can see from the corresponding amplitude
spectrum S
R
(n) in Fig. 1-2-D that the square-
wave function is produced from the superposition
of many (an infinite number of) harmonic oscilla-
tions. Their frequencies are odd numbered multi-
ples of
f = 1/T
R
and their amplitudes decrease as a func-
tion of the ordinal number n, see Table on pg. 11.
Note: Any precise and comprehensive discus-
sion of the spectra not only takes the am-
plitude spectrum S(n) into consideration
but also the phase spectrum (n). Howev-
er, in many practical exercises it suffices
to determine the amplitude spectrum.
Modulation
When speaking of modulation, one generally re-
fers to the conversion of a modulation signal s
M
(t)
into a time function with altered characteristics
using a carrier signal. The message signal influ-
ences a parameter of the carrier in a suitable fash-
Fig. 1-2: Time and spectral representation
(A) Harmonic function, time representation (C) Harmonic function, spectral representation
(B) Symmetrical square-wave oscillation, (D) Symmetrical square-wave oscillation,
time representation spectral representation
Time domain Spectral domain
(A) (C)
(B) (D)
1 1
TPS 7.2.1.3
Introduction
ulating signal is shifted from the baseband (AF
range, original frequency band), into an RF fre-
quency band. It no longer appears in the spectrum
of the modulated oscillation. A modulation al-
ways requires that the carrier and the modulation
signal interact. Both of these signals are fed into a
modulator. The original signal s
M
(t) is recovered
from the modulated signal through demodulation.
Consequently, modulation and demodulation are
mutually related, inverse processes. The complex-
ities involved in modulation and demodulation are
considerable. The following reasons explain why
modulation is worthwhile:
1. Modulation enables the matching of the
modulating signal to the characteristics of the
transmission channel. (radio links e.g. are
only possible above a certain frequency.)
2. Existing transmission channels can be multi-
ply exploited using modulation, (frequency
or time division multiplex systems).
3. Improved signal-to-noise ratios can be ob-
tained using modulation.
The communications system according to Shan-
non
Electrical communications engineering is divided
into three classical subfunctions:
1. Transmission of the message
2. Processing of the message
3. Relaying the message (telephone technol-
ogy)
If only a single transmission channel is examined,
(i.e. no telephone technology), then we can con-
centrate on the remaining functions illustrated by
the scheme in Fig. 1-3.
Harmonic Frequency Amplitude
1
2
3
4
n
3 f
R
5 f
R
7 f
R
(2 n 1) f
R
f
R
= 1/T
R
S A
R R
(1) =
4

S
R
(1)
3
S
R
(1)
5
S
R
(1)
7
S
n
R
(1)
2 1
Fig. 1-3: The telecommunications system
(A) The telecommunications system
(B) Message transmission
(C) Message processing
1 Message source
(human being, measurment sensor etc.)
2 Converter (microphone,
television camera,
strain gauges, thermo sensor etc.)
3 Transmitter
4 Transmission channel (radio link,
transmission cable, data storage system)
5 Receiver
6 Converter
7 Message recipient
8 Interference source
Amplitude spectrum of a symmetrical square-
wave signal n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
ion. Either harmonic oscillations or pulse trains
are used as carrier signals. If, for example, a har-
monic carrier is used with the form:
s
C
(t) = A
C
cos (2 f
C
t + ), (1.3)
then the message signal s
M
(t) can have an effect
either on the amplitude A
C
, the carrier frequency
f
C
or the zero phase angle . These effects result in
the analog modulation methods:
Amplitude modulations (AM)
Frequency modulation (FM)
Phase modulation (PM).
In the case of analog modulation methods, the
modulation process means a continuous conver-
sion of the modulating signal s
M
(t) into a higher
frequency band (frequency conversion). The mod-
1 2
TPS 7.2.1.3
Introduction
The telecommunication system (A) consists of
equipment used for message transmission (B) and
message processing (C). The message source (1)
generates the information, which is to be made
available to the message recipient (7). The signals
generated are of the most varied physical nature,
e.g. sound, light, pressure, temperature, etc. It is
the function of the converter (2) to convert the
non-electrical signal of the source into an electri-
cal one. The transmitter (3) converts the converter
signal into one better suited for transmission via
the channel. Thus the modulation process takes
place in (3). The transmission channel (4) serves
either to bridge a spatial distance, or to overcome
a period of time. The modulated signal, generally
distorted by the interference source (8), reaches
the receiver (5), where it is then reconverted into
its original electrical signal there (demodulation).
Finally, the converter (6) transforms the electrical
signal back into the physical signal required by
the message recipient (7). The message recipient
can take the form of the human being with eyes
and ears or a machine in a process control loop.
1 3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
2 Measuring instruments
2.1 Oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer
The oscilloscope
The oscilloscope is amongst the most important
measuring instruments used in electrical engineer-
ing. It is used to graphically display signal
voltages u(t) in the time domain. It can also be
regarded as a two dimensional voltmeter. The sig-
nal is displayed in the form of Cartesian coordi-
nates. The abcissa (x-axis) shows the time scale,
(e.g. ms/Div) and the y-axis shows the voltage
scale (e.g. V/Div). The oscilloscope provides im-
mediate information on the signal shape and is
therefore superior to moving coil instruments or
digital voltmeters. The prerequisite for all forms
of pointer instruments and multimeters is that the
time characteristic or curve of the electrical sig-
nals is known. As a rule only DC voltages or har-
monic AC voltages can be measured using these
kinds of instruments. The oscilloscope is used for
the voltage measurement of signals with un-
known, random time characteristics. Here a dis-
tinction is drawn between two different cases:
1. The voltage signal is non-sinusoidal, but peri-
odic with higher frequency.
The oscilloscope is operated in repeating real time
mode. This operating mode is the most frequently
one used. A sawtooth generator is started each
time the signal to be measured has exceeded an
adjustable level (trigger level). This produces a
time-linear voltage used for the horizontal deflec-
tion of the cathode ray tube. The sawtooth genera-
tor is part of the time base. The vertical deflection
is controlled by the measurement signal itself. The
result is a standing image of the voltage signal on
the screen. In real time operation the oscilloscope
has a slow-motion function. Thus, processes
which are too fast for the human eye can be made
visible.
2. The voltage signal to be measured is non-peri-
odic, or has a very long period duration.
The signal to be measured is digitalized and input
into a storage system. The contents of the storage
unit can then be output periodically. Processes
which are too long can be displayed in the storage
mode.
The oscilloscope masks out the amplitude and
time windows from the signal characteristic, see
Fig. 2.1-1.
The spectrum analyzer
Spectrum analyzers are used to display signals in
the spectral domain. These analyzers operate
either digitally with the aid of mathematical algo-
rithms (Fast Fourier Transformation) or in analog
mode as a filter bank i.e. according to the princi-
ple of frequency conversion. The latter principle
is implemented in the spectrum analyzer 726 94
training panel. For that reason we shall study this
in more detail with the aid of Fig. 2.1-2.
The harmonic signal supplied by the VCO is fed
into the mixer with the input signal. Depending on
its spectral quality and the oscillator frequency, an
AC voltage signal appears at the mixer output
which lies in the passband of the bandpass filter.
The IF signal at the output of the bandpass filter is
produced for the individual spectral components
of the input signal for correspondingly different
VCO frequencies. If its frequency is linearly de-
pendent on its control voltage, then this can be
used for the X-deflection of a display unit. Thus
the X-axis also achieves linear frequency scaling.
The rectified, amplified output voltage of the IF
filter is used for Y-deflection. Consequently each
spectral amplitude of the input signal can be meas-
ured by adjusting the VCO. The spectrum
analyzer thus constitutes an application of the su-
perheterodyne principle used in radio technolo-
gy, whereby the bandfilter can be regarded as a
spectral window. The position of this window in
the frequency domain is determined by the VCO
Fig. 2.1-1:Functioning of the oscilloscope
(A) Amplitude window
(T) Time window
1 4
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
1. (Periods of the sawtooth generator (SCAN
TIME)
2. Absolute frequency domain passed through
by the VCO (SPAN).
frequency. The width of the window is determined
by the selected bandwidth of the bandpass filter,
see Fig. 2.1-3.
The time law of electrical telecommunications
engineering
The use of analyzers according to the
superhetrodyne principle requires that the time
law of electrical telecommunications be observed.
According to this law, the pulse response of a
lowpass system becomes longer, the smaller its
bandwidth b is, see Fig. 2.1-4.
This statement can also be applied to the
bandpasses present in the spectrum analyzer. The
time law is similar to the uncertainty relation in
nuclear physics. It states that it is impossible to
decrease both the duration T as well as the band-
width b of a signal. When tuning the VCO, the
slower it takes for the VCO frequency to change,
the longer the mixer output signal is in the
passband of the downstream bandpass (BP). The
frequency change with respect to the time unit
depends on:
Fig. 2.1-2: Design of a spectrum analyzer according to the superheterodyne principle
(A) Signal path
1 Input amplfier/ attenuator V
1
2 Mixer
3 Bandpass (BP)
4 Rectifier
5 Output amplifier V
2
(B) Oscillator
6 VCO
7 Sawtooth generator
(C) Display unit
Fig. 2.1-3:The functioning principle of a spectrum
analyzer
1 Bandpass with bandwidth b
(spectral window)
2 Signal spectrum
1 5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
Fig. 2.1-4:The time law of electrical telecommunications engineering
(A): Input signals: pulses with equal amplitude A and period T
(B): Lowpasses with critical frequencies f
c1
and f
c2
; f
c1
< f
c2
(C): Output signals: pulse of varying period and amplitude
If, for example, a spectrum analysis has to be per-
formed over a wide frequency domain, and, in
addition, a very short sawtooth period is selected,
then the result of this is a very large change in fre-
quency per unit time. The mixer output signal
passes through the mid-frequencies of the BPF
with corresponding speed. According to the time
law the selected bandwidth of the BPF now has to
be sufficiently large if the BPF is to attain the
input amplitude. However, at greater bandwidth
of the bandpass filter the analyzer's spectral reso-
lution capacity drops. For that reason, work with
the spectrum analyzer always involves the com-
promise between spectral RESOLUTION and
fault-free reproduction of the amplitude. For the
relationship between the SCAN TIME T, band-
width b and frequency window SPAN the follow-
ing approximately applies:
b
T
f f =
20
( )
max min (2.1)
Where:
f
max
: maximum frequency
f
min
: minimum frequency
b : bandwidth of the filter
T : sawtooth period SCAN TIME.
The difference f
max
f
min
is called frequency
window = SPAN.
1 6
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
2.2 Equipment descriptions
726 94 Spectrum analyzer
The spectrum analyzer is depicted in Fig. 2.2-1.
A. Setting the signal path
Always set the gain settings V
1
and V
2
as high as
possible to increase the sensitivity of the signal
path. However, overdrive - recognizable by the
lighting up of the OVER-LEDs, must be avoided
(overdrive falsifies the measurement results).
B. Setting the oscillator component
Frequency tuning is performed with the aid of a
sawtooth-controlled VCO. The sawtooth genera-
tor is set with the controllers SCAN TIME and
SCAN MODE. The selection of the SCAN TIME
depends on the time law of electrical telecommu-
nications engineering (2.1).
1. Setting the upper limit of the frequency: This
is carried out in SCAN MODE f
max
using the
corresponding controller.
2. Setting the lower frequency limit: This is car-
ried out in SCAN MODE f
min
using the corre-
sponding controller.
The frequencies can be read off directly at the
connected COUNTER (TTL). In SCAN MODE
RUN the VCO runs through the set frequency
range once (important when using the XY re-
corder). An LED indicates when the upper fre-
quency limit is reached.
Only in the SCAN MODE STOP is the locking
mechanism of the RESET function disabled. In
this setting manual operation using a toggle
switch is possible. The setting UP of the toggle
switch enables the VCO to run in the f
max
direc-
tion, while the setting DOWN causes a corre-
sponding reduction in frequency.
Attention:For the run through time T = 1/25 s the
set frequency window is passed through
in RUN auto-repeat mode. This ena-
bles us to also use the spectrum
analyzer as a sweep generator.
C. Connection of the display unit
The following external measuring instruments can
be used as display units:
Analog voltmeter
Storage oscilloscope
XY recorder.
Note: The analyzer operates in manual mode as
a frequency-selective voltmeter. This op-
erating mode is particularly suitable for
quantitative evaluations. Due to the beat
effects in the analyzer the output signal
can start oscillating particularly when
working with V
2
= 10. To obtain as accu-
rate a reading of the output voltage S(n) as
possible, a slight frequency adjustment is
recommended if this should occur.
Fig. 2.2-1:The spectrum analyzer
1 7
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
726 961 Function generator 200kHz
1. Safety instruction:
Read the instruction sheet provided with the de-
vice!
The function generator is illustrated in Fig. 2-1.
Where:
1 Mains switch
2 FUNCTION: selection of the output signal
3 MODE: selection of the signal parameter ad-
justable using the control knob
4 Control knob for the selected signal param-
eters
5 TTL output
6 Output (50 )
7 Toggle switch for output attenuator
8 Multifunction display in LCD technology
8 Power bus lines and ground
Multifunction display in LCD technology with:
- Function symbols and signs
- Numerical display with decimal points
- Signal parameter
Putting the system into operation
Connect the mains plug into the socket. Actuate
mains switch 1 . When the device is on the mains
switch lights up. The desired output signal is set
by actuating the FUNCTION button. By
repeatedly pressing the FUNCTION button you
shuttle cyclically through the sequence of output
signals available, sinussoidal, triangular, square-
wave, DC. With the MODE pushbutton the
following signal parameters are selected:
Frequency
Amplitude (peak-to-peak value)
DC offset
Duty cycle (only for square-wave)
You can shuttle cyclically through the program
menus by pressing the MODE pushbutton repeat-
edly. After the desired signal parameter has been
set its magnitude can be varied by turning the con-
trol knob. The maximum output voltage of the de-
vice lies at approx. 12 V.
Fig. 2.2-2: The function generator and the multifunction
display
726 961
FUNKTIONSGENERATOR 200 kHz
FUNCTION GENERATOR 200 kHz
OUT
0
20
40
TTL
FUNCTION
MODE
ATT
dB
%
=
pp
V
kHz
DC
Storing the last setting
After switch off all of the settings are retained.
They are at your disposal unchanged after you
switch the unit back on.
Calling up the base setting
If you simultaneously press either the MODE or
FUNCTION buttons with the device switched on,
the function generator supplies a sinusoidal signal
with 1 kHz and 10 V
PP
, DC = 0 V. The base set-
ting for the duty cycle (for square-wave signal) is
50%.
1 8
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
726 99 Frequency counter 0..10 MHz
1 8-digit 7-segment display
2 TTL inputs (Channel A), f
max
= 10 MHz.
3 Analog input (Channel A), f
max
= 10 MHz.
4 TTL input (Channel B), f
max
= 2 MHz.
5 Toggle switch for switchover between TTL
and analog input of channel A
6 Function switch
FREQ.A : Frequency measurement of chan-
nel A, display in kHz.
PERIOD A : Period duration channel A,
display s. The last respective
measurement value is stored
f
max
= 2 MHz.
RATIO A/B : Frequency ratio f
A
/f
B
. Signal
B with TTL level! f
max
= 2 MHz.
TIME A-B : Time interval between a nega-
tive edge of signal A and the
next negative edge of the sig-
nal B, f
max
= 2 MHz.
COUNT A : Event counting in channel A
from 0 - 10.000.000.
7 Gate : Gate time (meas. duration)
0.01s/0.10s/1.00s/10.0s
Note:
The analog input is coupled with AC power. Due
to an unfavorable set up (long connecting leads)
of the experiment and despite shielding, a display
might appear even without an input signal, if a sig-
nal is applied in TTL channel A. This crosstalk
can be attributed to the high sensitivity of the ana-
log input and the spatial proximity of the input
sockets. For that reason always connect the ana-
log input to a signal source using a short connec-
tion cable after switching to ANALOG.
736 201 CF transmitter 20 kHz
The training panel contains the following compo-
nents:
1. Input filter
The input filter sets the upper critical frequency
limit of the modulating signal to f
c
= 3.4 kHz. Gain
in the bandpass: +1.
2. Modulator M2
Product modulator with 2 freely accessible inputs:
Input for the modulating signal (LF-input)
Fig. 2.2-3: The frequency counter Fig. 2.2-4: The CF transmitter 20 kHz
TTL - IN(B)
TTL - IN(A) TTL - IN(A)
ANALOG (A)
RATIO A/B
PERIOD A
FREQ A
FUNCTION
GATE
0,1s
0,01s
TIME A-B
COUNT A
CHECK
1s
10s
726 99
FREQUENZZAEHLER 0-10MHz
FREQUENCY COUNTER 0-10MHz
1 9
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
Input for the carrier oscillation (RF input)
In addition, the carrier in the output signal of the
modulator can be enabled or disabled using a tog-
gle switch. (CARRIER, ON-OFF)
3. Channel filter CH2
The channel filter is needed for the generation of
SSB-AM. It suppresses the lower sideband. The
passband range of approx. 20 kHz...30 kHz ex-
tends beyond the upper sideband.
Gain in the passband: +1.
Both filters (1 and 3) are equipped with freely ac-
cessible inputs and outputs, which permits the re-
cording of amplitude frequency responses.
4. Output summer
The output summer (4) has two inputs with the
gain levels +1. The component is used to linearly
superimpose signal components of the AM signal.
At the output of the summing unit you have at
your disposal the complete AM signal, i.e.
including any existing pilot tone or, in the case of
FMUX operation, the multiplex signal for
transmission via the transmission channel.
Subassembly for carrier generation
(CARRIER)
Frequency division f
0
/8 (5) is used to generate the
carrier frequency of 20 kHz out of the pilot tone.
The unipolar TTL signal is converted into a bipo-
lar square-wave signal with 4 V
PP
in the TTL/
square-wave converter (6). Conversion into a bi-
polar sine oscillation also with 4 V
PP
is performed
in the square-wave/sine converter (7). The adjust-
able phase-shifter (8) = 0
0
...150
0
introduces a
defined phase-shift between the carrier on the
modulator side (M2) and the auxiliary carrier on
the demodulator side. The phase-shifter permits
the features of coharent demodulation to be exam-
ined. Furthermore, together with the CF transmit-
ter 16 kHz (736 211), it is able to generate
quadrature modulation.
Subassembly pilot tone generation
(PILOT TONE)
The quartz oscillator (9) generates the primary
master clock pulse, symmetrical square-wave,
TTL with a frequency of 160 kHz. The converter
(10) and the attenuator (11) connected in series
form an attenuated unipolar square-wave signal
of approx. 200 mV
pp
out of the TTL signal, which
is transmitted to the CF receiver to recover the
carrier signal.
736 221 CF receiver 20 kHz
The training panel is used for the demodulation of
amplitude-modulated signals. The auxiliary car-
rier required for synchronous demodulation can
be forwarded either directly via an external source
e.g. to the corresponding CF transmitter or
internally from the subassembly carrier
recovery.
Design:
The device contains the following components:
1. Channel filter CH2
Bandpass filter for the filtering out of the wanted
SSB signals. The passband from approx.
20...30 kHz extends beyond the upper sideband.
Gain in the passband: +1. For the demodulation of
single sideband-AM (SSB) a bridging plug is
needed between the output of the channel filter
CH2 (1) and the input of the demodulator D2 (2).
Should the CF receiver demodulate the double
sideband-AM (DSB), then the SSB-signal has to
Fig. 2.2-5: The CF receiver 20 kHz
2 0
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
Fig. 2.3-1: Experiment setup for learning to handle the spectrum analyzer
be fed directly into the input of the demodulator
D2 after the bridging plug has been removed.
2. Synchronous demodulator D2
A multiplier IC takes over the function of the syn-
chronous demodulator. The AM signal (DSB or
SSB) and an auxiliary carrier are supplied to the
demodulator. In addition to the wanted LF signal,
higher frequency signal components also appear
in its output signal.
3. Lowpass filter
Synchronous demodulation requires a subsequent
filtering for the suppression of the higher fre-
quency signal components. The filter (3) used
here has an upper critical limit f
c
= 3.4 kHz and a
gain of +1.
Subassembly "carrier recovery"
Carrier recovery is performed using a PLL circuit
with subsequent frequency division. The synchro-
nization of the PLL circuit is performed by a pilot
tone of 160 Hz sent by the CF transmitter, which
is processed in the receiver by a bandpass filter (4)
and an amplitude limiter (5). The PLL circuit con-
sists of the phase comparator (6), the loop filter
(7) and the VCO (8). In standard operation the
output of the loop filter is connected directly to
the input of the VCO using a bridging plug.
However, the VCO can also be tuned using an
external DC voltage 0...+5 V. After locking into
the pilot tone a recovered auxiliary oscillation f
0
=
160 kHz is available at the output of the PLL. This
signal is then divided down to the required carrier
frequency f
T
= 20 kHz in a frequency divider (9).
2.3 A measurement example
Required equipment and material
1 Spectrum analyzer 726 94
1 Frequency counter 0...10 MHz 726 99
1 Analog multimeter C. A 406 531 16
Additionally required:
1 Function generator 0...200 kHz 726 961
1 DC power supply 15 V, 3 A 726 86
1 Digital storage oscilloscope 305 575 292
2 Probes 100 MHz, 1:1/10:1 575 231
1 Set of 10 bridging plugs, black 501 511
2 Cable pairs, black 100 cm 501 461
Additionally recommended:
1 XY recorder e.g. 575 663
Preliminary remark
The measurement station described here consists
of a spectrum analyzer, oscilloscope and fre-
quency counter. Using this measurement station
signals can be measured in the time and spectral
OUT
0
20
40
TTL
FUNCTION
MODE
ATT
dB
%
=
pp
V
kHz
DC
+15V
0V
(+5V)
M1
U
U
I >
I >
2 1
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
domain. This will be used a lot in the following
experiments.
Experiment procedure
Set up the experiment as specified in Fig. 2.3-1.
Set a square-wave signal with A
R
= 5 V and
f
R
= 2 kHz on the function generator. The TTL in-
put A of the frequency counter remains perma-
nently connected to the analyzer via bridging
plugs. In order to test the signal frequency f
R
plug
a connecting lead into the analog input and actu-
ate the toggle switch.
Record the spectrum of the square-wave signal in
the frequency range of approx. 1.5 kHz....20 kHz.
1. Manual operation with the analog voltmeter.
Connect an analog voltmeter 10 V DC to the
analyzer output.
Analyzer settings
SPAN/kHz: 0.5...20
When V
1
= 2, 5, 10 the input stage is over-
driven, the OVER LED lights up and the
measurement results are falsified.
Now record the spectrum of the square-wave
signal by starting the VCO in SCAN MODE
RUN. In the spectral energy range the output
signal demonstrates a brief increase. Then
stop the VCO and manually adjust it around
the frequency of the spectral line using the
pushbutton up/down. Read off the spectral
amplitude S(n) on the voltmeter. In this man-
ner enter all the amplitudes S(n), the index n
and the corresponding frequencies f into the
Table 2.3-1. Also the analyzer settings are to
be noted down there. Plot the spectrum in a
graph in Diagram 2.3-1.
Discuss your results.
2. Automatic operation with the XY recorder
or the storage oscilloscope.
In automatic operation the scanning process
is performed without interruption. Also the
gain settings V
1
, V
2
remain unchanged.
Tabelle 2.3-1: Spectrum square wave signal
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
V
1
:
b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
T : s
A
R
: V
/T
P
:
f
R
: kHz
f
kHz
V
2
S (n)
R
V
S (n)
R
V
S(n)
V
Diagram 2.3-1: Spectrum of the square-wave signal
A
R
= 5 V,

T
P
= 0.5
T/s: 20
f
r

/ kHz: 20 b/Hz: 500
V
1
: 1
V
2
: 5, 10
2.1 Using an XY recorder
Connect the X+ input of the recorder to the X
socket of the analyzer. Connect the Y+ input
of the recorder to the analyzer output; X,
Y to earth. Both recorder axes have to be
calibrated. The X-axis is set to f
max
. The Y-
axis is aligned to the highest spectral ampli-
tude (test it out!). The analyzer cycle is
2 2
TPS 7.2.1.3
Measuring instruments
triggered by switching to SCAN MODE
RUN.
2.2 Using the storage oscilloscope
The simplest operation is the recording of
spectra with the storage oscilloscope in the
ROLL mode. Then all of the problems in-
volving triggering are avoided. The holding
time base is set so that its period is greater
than the SCAN TIME set on the analyzer.
The analyzer output is connected to a Y-input
of the oscilloscope. By selecting a suitable Y-
gain setting the screen surface is optimally
exploited for the spectral display. Once the
spectrum is completely reproduced on the
screen, the ROLL modus can be disabled by
pressing the SINGLE pushbutton. The screen
contents are then frozen. When in SINGLE
storage mode you have to trigger externally
on the falling edge of the sawtooth signal
(socket X). Try out the most effective trigger
filter.
Repeat the recording of the spectra one after
the other for the bandwidths b = 100 Hz,
b = 50 Hz, b = 10 Hz, b = 5 Hz. What do you
observe?
2 3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Review
3 Review of amplitude modulation
In amplitude modulation (AM) the momentary
value of the message signal s
M
(t) has an
immediate effect on the amplitude of the carrier
oscillation s
C
(t). This takes place in a modulator,
see Fig.3-1.
Here it would be:
s
C
(t) = A
C
cos (2 f
C
t) (3-1)
for the high-frequency carrier and:
1. s
M
(t) = A
M
cos (2 f
M
t) (3-2)
for the low frequency message signal. The com-
bining of the carrier and message signal in the
modulator then provides the following modulation
product:
s
AM
(t) = [A
C
+

s
M
(t)] cos (2 f
C
t) (3-3)
= [A
C
+ A
M
cos (2 f
M
t)]
cos (2 f
C
t).
Where stands for the modulator constant, which
expresses the affect of the message signal s
M
(t)
on the amplitude A
C
of the carrier. Normally (3-3)
is described in more general terms. For this you
need the following definitions:
A
C
= A
M
Amplitude deviation (3-4)
m
A
A

C
C
Modulation index (3-5)
Amplitude deviation A
C
describes the maximum
change away from the original value A
C
in the car-
rier amplitude. The modulation index m reproduces
the ratio of the amplitude deviation to the carrier
Fig. 3-1: Generation of amplitude modulation
Fig. 3-2: The amplitude modulated signal
A
C
s
AM
T
C
Envelope
Envelope T
M
A
C
A
C
Fig. 3-3: Limiting cases for the modulation factor
m = 100%
m > 100%
m = 0%
amplitude. Thus it is possible to convert (3-3) as
follows:
s t A
A
A
f t f t
A m f t f t
AM C
C
C
M C
C M C
( ) cos cos
cos cos
+ ( )

1
]
1
1
( )
+ ( )
[ ]
( )
1 2 2
1 2 2



(3-6)
Fig. 3-2 shows the amplitude modulated signal ac-
cording to (3-6). The modulating signal s
M
(t) can
be recognized in the envelope curve.
Normally the following holds true: 0 < m < 1.
The following limiting cases for m are interesting:
m = 0 : no modulation effect
m = 1 : full modulation, the envelopes bordering
the modulating signal just touch at their
minimum values
m > 1 : overmodulation, the envelopes permeate
each other, modulation distortion arises.
2 4
TPS 7.2.1.3
Review
Special cases are depicted in Fig. 3-3.
The spectrum of amplitude modulation
The expression in the brackets of (3-6) describes
the envelope of amplitude modulation. If you
multiply the dynamic (time) characteristic of the
carrier oscillation in this expression, you obtain:
s
AM
(t) = A
C
[cos (2 f
C
t)
+ m cos (2 f
T
t) cos (2 f
M
t)] (3-7)
The application of the addition theorem:
cos cos cos cos x y x y x y ( ) + + ( )
[ ]
1
2
provides:
s t A f t
m
f f t
m
f f t
AM C C
C M
C M
( ) cos
cos
cos

( )
+
( )
[ ]
+ +
( )
[ ]
2
2
2
2
2

(3-8)
From (3-8) you can see the spectral composition of
amplitude modulation, see Fig. 3-4.
From the spectrum we can see that besides the
carrier oscillation with the frequency f
C
, there are
also 2 side oscillations with the frequencies f
C
+ f
M
and f
C
f
M
contained in s
AM
(t). According to (3-8)
the amplitudes of the equal side oscillations depend
on the modulation index. The oscillation with the
lower frequency f
C
f
M
is called the lower sideline,
the one with the higher frequency is the upper
sideline f
C
+ f
M
. The lower sideline (LSL) slips fur-
ther into the range of lower frequencies as the
signal frequency f
M
increases. This frequency re-
sponse of the LSL is referred to as inverted posi-
tion. The upper sideline (USL) shifts into the
higher range of frequencies with increasing signal
frequency. It lies in the normal position. In Fig. 3-
5 the terms are in standard representation for the
transmission of an information band, which ex-
tends from a lower frequency limit f
u
up to the
upper frequency limit f
o
.
The representation according to Fig. 3-5 is stand-
ard particularly in carrier frequency technology.
The bandwidth requirement of AM equals twice
the maximum message frequency f
Mmax
:
b = 2 f
Mmax
(3-9)
Representing amplitude modulation with a
vector diagram
The vector diagram constitutes an important tool in
the representation of modulation methods. It fre-
quently permits the immediate assessment of inter-
ference effects or manipulations during modula-
tion. For example, asymmetrical attenuation of the
sideband oscillations in AM can lead to the
formation of parasitic angular modulation.
From Fig. 3-6 the following features of amplitude
modulation can be read off directly:
An AM signal can be represented by 3 complex
vectors ( 2 sideband vectors and a vector for the
carrier). The 3 vectors are displayed in a joint dia-
gram for any given point in time, see Fig. 3-6.
Fig. 3-4: The spectrum of amplitude modulation Fig. 3-5: Normal and inverted position
s
M
f
u
f
o
s
AM
f
C
f
o
f
C
f
C
+ f
o f
f
1
S
AM
A
C
m/2
f
M
f
C
(f)
1
S
AM
A
C
m/2
f
C
+ f
M f
C
f
M
(f) f
C
2 5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Review
1. The carrier oscillation is depicted with a con-
stant direction (normally perpendicular up-
wards), although in absolute terms it rotates in
counterclockwise rotation with 2 f
C
.
2. The length of the carrier vector remains con-
stant.
3. The sideband vectors are symmetrical with
respect to the carrier. The vector of the USL
rotates counterclockwise around the tip of the
carrier vector. The vector of the LSL rotates
in clockwise rotation.
4. The vector for the amplitude modulated oscil-
lation is obtained through vector addition, i.e.
construction of the vector parallelogram,
made up of the vector of the carrier and the
side oscillations. The resulting vector always
has the direction of the carrier vector.
As you can see from Fig. 3-7, the tips of the result-
ing vectors, if you draw them as a function of time,
again produce the envelope of the amplitude
modulated oscillation.
AM demodulation
Envelopes and synchronous demodulation
1st envelope demodulation
First the AM signal is rectified, see Fig. 3-8.
The dynamic characteristic of the current passing
through the recifier can be subjected to Fourier
series expansion. It can be shown that a rectified
AM signal contains the following signal compo-
nents:
1. A DC voltage component
2. The original signal with the frequency f
M
.
3. Components with higher frequencies f
C
,
f
C
+ f
M
, 2 f
C
+ f
M
, etc.
Fourier expansion shows that rectification of the
AM signal produces many new spectral compo-
nents which are not present at the input of the rec-
tifier. A suitable filter is used to suppress these
unwanted spectral components. Envelope de-
modulation belongs to the so-called incoherent
demodulation methods, as neither the carrier phase
nor the carrier frequency are of any importance.
Fig. 3-9 reproduces the possible circuit configura-
tion of an envelope demodulator.
USL
t = t
1
s
AM
s
C
Fig. 3-6: Amplitude modulation in a vector diagram Fig. 3-7: Relationship between envelope and vector
representation
LSL
t = t
2
USL
s
C
s
AM
LSL
Fig. 3-8: Envelope curve demodulation
2 6
TPS 7.2.1.3
Review
Envelope demodulation always requires the car-
rier. After rectification this produces a DC voltage,
which establishes the working point of the diode. In
practice envelope demodulation is frequently used
in AM radio communications due to its simple
circuitry.
2. Synchronous demodulation
In principle synchronous demodulation is simply
another modulation process. To carry it out, you
need an auxiliary oscillation in the receiver, which
in terms of frequency and phase corresponds ex-
actly to the carrier oscillation in the modulator. The
auxiliary carrier s
Aux
(t) and the modulated signal
s
AM
(t) are supplied to a circuit with multiplying ca-
pabilities, see. Fig. 3-10:
Three cases can be distinguished DSB, DSB
sc
and
SSB:
1. Demodulation of DSB
s t A f t
m
f f t
m
f f t
s t f t
AM C C C M
C M
Aux Aux
( ) cos cos
cos
cos ( )
( )+ ( )
[ ]

'

+ + ( )
[ ]

( ) + ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2 3 10


The amplitude of the auxiliary oscillation is negligi-
ble, furthermore it is true that f
C
= f
Aux
(i.e. fre-
quency equality prevails between carrier and
auxiliary carrier). After lowpass filtering we obtain
the demodulated signal:
s t A
A m
f t
D C
C
M
( ) cos cos cos + ( )
2
2 (3-11)
s
AM
(t) C
1
R
1
s
D
(t)
Fig. 3-9: The envelope demodulator Fig. 3-10: Synchronous demodulation
2. Demodulation of DSB
sc
.
The constant DC voltage component A
C
cos is
omitted:
s t
A m
f t
D
( ) cos cos ( )
C
M
2
2
(3-12)
3. Demodulation of SSB
SC
.
s t
A m
f
D
( ) cos t ( )
C
M
4
2
(3-13)
In the synchronous demodulation of DSB a phase
error reduces the amplitude of the demodulated
signal by the factor cos . In the case of SSB, the
phase error leads to a shift in the demodulated sig-
nal. In both cases the phase between the carrier
and the auxiliary carrier has a noticeable effect on
the demodulation process. Due to this phase sensi-
tivity synchronous demodulation is also called co-
herent demodulation.
Questions
3.1 What is meant by modulation? Mixing?
3.2 Name the reasons for performing modula-
tion!
3.3 In DSB the carrier's peak values are affect-
ed by the instantaneous value of the mes-
sage signal, but the spectrum shows that the
carrier amplitude remains constant! How do
you explain the apparent contradiction?
3.4 Which are the characteristic features of a
beat?
3.5 Define amplitude deviation and the modula-
tion index.
3.6 Which methods of AM demodulation are
you familiar with and how do they differ?
S
AM
(t) S
D
(t)
S
H
(t)
2 7
TPS 7.2.1.3
Review
3.7 In radio links the carrier is normally attenuat-
ed to 5%...10%. What advantages does this
have compared to transmission with 100%
carrier amplitude? Why isn't the carrier
completely suppressed?
3.8 How high is the maximum efficiency in
DSB? How can the efficiency be increased?
3.9 Which methods of carrier suppression are
there?
3.10 Which demodulation method is used for AM
with supressed carrier?
2 8
TPS 7.2.1.3
Review
4 Required equipment and accessories
1 CF transmitter 20 kHz 736 201
1 CF receiver 20 kHz 736 211
Additionally required
1 Spectrum analyzer 726 94
1 Function generator 0...200 kHz 726 961
1 Frequency counter 0-10 MHz 726 99
1 DC power supply 15 V, 3 A 726 86
1 Digital storage oscilloscope 305 575 292
2 Probes 100 MHz, 1:1/10:1 575 231
1 Analog multimeter C.A. 406 531 16
2 Sets of 10 bridging plugs, black 501 511
1 Cable pair, black, 100 cm 501 461
Additionally recommended
1 XY-Yt recorder e.g. 575 663
Training objectives:
Distinguish between modulation and linear
superpositioning.
The investigation of line spectra in AM.
The AM as linear modulation (normal position and
inverted position of sidebands)
The bandwidth requirement for AM
Amplitude deviation and modulation index are de-
termined.
The residual carrier can be measured out.
Synchronous demodulation is investigated.
Problems regarding carrier recovery in synchro-
nous demodulation are looked at in detail.
The dynamic characteristic of the output signal at
the ring modulator is investigated.
The frequency-periodic structure of the output
spectra at a ring modulator can be recognized.
2 9
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
5 Double Sideband AM
OSL USL
s
AM
s
C
1
m/2
f
C
f
C
+ f
M
f
C
f
M
(f)
Fig. 5-1: Representation of DSB
The DSB
SC
consists of the superimposition of 2
harmonic oscillations, whose frequencies f
C
+ f
M
,
resp. f
C
f
M
are in direct proximity due to the fact
that f
C
>> f
M
. Therefore, the dynamic characteris-
tic of the DSB
sc
is a beat. Here the side oscillations
arise on account of the frequency conversion
from f
M
to f
C
f
M
resp. f
C
+ f
M
. Since there is no
carrier, the modulation depth m cannot be defined.
Overmodulation is not possible. The amplitude of
the modulation product s
DSBSC
(t) is directly propor-
tional to the instantaneous value of the modulating
signal s
M
(t). The upper and lower envelope curves
have the abcissa as a joint reference line, instead
of the positive or negative carrier amplitude. The
features of the DSB
SC
are summarized in Fig. 5-2.
Clear to be seen in the dynamic characteristic is
the abrupt phase change of 180 at the zero
crossover of the envelope curve.
The envelope curve contains sinusoidal halfwaves
of double the signal frequency.
Demodulation methods : Synchronous
demodulation
Bandwidth : b = 2 f
Mmax
(5-4)
Application : Radio transmission
The features of the DSB are summarized in Fig. 5-
1.
s
DSB
(t) = [A
C
+ s
M
(t)] cos (2 f
C
t) (5-1)
Demodulation methods : Envelope
demodulation
: Synchronous
demodulation
Bandwidth : b = 2 f
Mmax
(5-2)
Application : Radio technology
The DSB
SC
.
If in (5-1) the constant component A
C
inside the
brackets is suppressed, then we obtain:
s s t f t
A f t f t
A
f f t
A
f f t
DSBSC M C
M M C
M
C M
M
C M
= ( ) ( )
= ( ) ( )
=
( )
[ ]
+ +
( )
[ ]

cos
cos cos
cos
cos
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
(5-3)
USL LSL
s
AM
s
C
1
m/2
f
C
f
C
+ f
M
f
C
f
M
(f)
Fig. 5-2: Representation of the DSB
SC
.
3 0
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Experiment procedure
Assemble the experiment as specified in Fig. 5-3.
Switch on the carrier. Connect the output of the
function generator directly to the modulator input.
Set the function generator to: sine, A
M
= 2 V and
f
M
= 2 kHz.
5.1 Investigations on the dynamic
characteristic of the DSB
5.1.1 DSB
Set toggle switch to CARRIER ON setting. Dis-
play the output signal of the modulator M2 on the
oscilloscope (this signal is called the modulation
product) and the modulating signal s
M
(t) of the
function generator and sketch them. (Modulation
product on channel 2, modulating signal on channel
1 of the oscilloscope). Use Diagram 5.1.1-1.
Diagram 5.1.1-1: Dynamic (time) characteristic of the DSB
signal
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at the output M2
Shift the AF signal to the upper or lower envelope
curve of the AM signal. Vary the frequency f
M
and the amplitude A
M
of the modulating signal.
What do you observe?
Settings on the Oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 2V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger
Trigger to the modulating signal s
M
(t). Reduce the
A
M
signal to approx. 1 V. Determine the modula-
tion depth m. The following applies for the modula-
tion depth m:
m
A
A
D d
D d
= =

+

C
C
(5.1.1-1)
O
U
T
0
2
0
4
0
T
T
L
F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
M
O
D
E
A
T
T
d
B
+
1
5
V
0
V
(
+
5
V
)
M
1
U U
I

>
I

>
T
T
L

-

I
N
(
B
)
T
T
L
-
IN
(
A
)
T
T
L
-
IN
(
A
)
A
N
A
L
O
G
(
A
)
R
A
T
IO
A
/B
P
E
R
IO
D
A
F
R
E
Q
A
F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
G
A
T
E
0
,1
s
0
,0
1
s
T
IM
E
A
-B
C
O
U
N
T
A
C
H
E
C
K
1
s
1
0
s
%
= p
p
V k
H
z
D
C
Fig. 5-3: Experiment set-up for DSB
s
M
(t)
3 1
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Where:
D: Peak-to-peak value of the maximum of the
AM signal
d: Peak-to-peak value of the minimum of the
AM

signal.
Use Diagram 5.1.1-1 to determine m. Distortion
can only be detected with difficulty when deter-
mining the modulation depth directly from the mod-
ulated signal. A better approach is to determine m
from the modulation trapezoid. For this the oscillo-
scope is operated in XY modus and the message
signal s
M
(t) is used for horizontal deflection. The
result obtained on the screen is a trapezoid which
opens to the left. Sketch the modulation trapezoid
in Diagram 5.1.1-2.
Explain how the modulation trapezoid is generated.
5.1.2 DSB
SC
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. Set the
oscilloscope as specified in the Table.
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 2V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger / external mod. signal
Proceed as described under point 5.1.1. Use Dia-
gram 5.1.2-1. What is this kind of signal called?
What characteristics does it have? Display the
modulation trapezoid im Diagram 5.1.2-2, assess
the modulation distortion. Repeat the experiment.
This time feed the modulating signal s
M
(t) via the
LP filter in modulator M2. Vary f
M
. What do you
observe?
Diagram 5.1.1-2: The modulation trapezoid Diagram 5.1.2-1: Dynamic characteristic of the DSB
SC
signal
5.2 Spectrum of the DSB
5.2.1 DSB
Set the toggle switch to the CARRIER ON posi-
tion. Set the spectrum analyzer as shown in the
Table.
Analyzer settings
SPAN/kHz:1.5 ... 20
Connect its input to the output of the modulator
M2. Use a sinusoidal signal with A
M
= 2 V and
f
M
= 2 kHz as the modulating signal s
M
(t). Feed
the modulating signal into the input filter of the CF
transmitter. Measure the AM spectrum in the
range from approx. 15 kHz up to 25 kHz. Enter the
measurement values S(n) from the output of the
analyzer with the corresponding frequencies in
Diagram 5.1.2-2: The modulation trapezoid
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at the output M2
V
1
:1
V
2
:10
f
r
/kHz: 50 b/Hz: 100
T/s:40
3 2
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Table 5.2.1-1. The amplitude values of the desired
spectral components are obtained from:
S (n)
S(n)
V V
AM
1 2
==

Calculate the spectral components S


AM
(n) with the
aid of (3-8). Also enter the calculated values for
S
AM
(n) into Table 5.2.1-1. Plot the curve of the
AM spectrum in a graph. Mark the lower and up-
per sidelines appropriately with LSL and USL.
Table 5.2.1-1: DSB spectrum
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.2.1-1: DSB spectrum
Repeat the experiment for s
M
(t): Sinusoidal, A
M
=
1 V and f
M
= 3 kHz. Feed the modulating signal
s
M
(t) directly into the modulator M2 (why?). Keep
the analyzer settings unchanged. Use Table 5.2.1-
2 and Diagram 5.2.1-2.
Table 5.2.1-2: DSB spectrum
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.2.1-2: DSB spectrum
3 3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Compare the results. How does the USL respond
as a function of the signal frequency f
M
? What
about the LSL? What is the frequency response of
the LSL and USL? Determine the transmission
bandwidth of the AM signal based on the measure-
ments. Generalize your results for a randomly tak-
en modulating signal. Determine the modulation
depth m from the various spectra.
5.2.2 DSB
SC
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. Use a
sinusoidal signal with A
M
= 2 V and f
M
= 2 kHz as
a modulating signal. Measure the spectrum as in
point 5.2.1. Enter all your results in Table 5.2.2-1
and Diagram 5.2.2-1.
5.2.3 The AM spectrum for modulation with
a square-wave signal
The AM spectrum is linear. For that reason we
can draw direct conclusions as to the AM spec-
trum based on our knowledge of the spectrum of
the input signal. Now let us assume that the input
signal s(t) consists of a frequency mix, whose
spectrum S(f) is shown in Fig. 5.2-1. What should
the corresponding AM spectrum look like?
Repeat the recording of the spectrum for a modu-
lating square-wave signal with A
M
= 2 V and
f
M
= 2.0 kHz. Feed the square-wave signal di-
rectly into the modulator M2. Use Table 5.2.3-1.
Display the spectrum in Diagram 5.2.3-1. Eluci-
date your findings.
Analyzer settings
SPAN/kHz: 1 ... 25
Table 5.2.2-1: DSB
SC
Spectrum
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.2.2-1: DSB
SC
spectrum
s
AM
f
g
f
C
f
g
f
C
+ f
g
f
C
f
Fig. 5.2-1: AM for randomly taken spectrum of the
modulating signal.
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
V
1
:2
V
2
:1
f
r
/kHz: 50 b/Hz: 100
T/s:40
3 4
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
5.3 AM demodulation (synchronous
demodulation)
5.3.1 DSB
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 1 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 1 V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger / external
Start with the settings from point 5.1. Set the phase
controller on the CF transmitter to far left limit.
Feed the DSB signal from the output of the
modulator M2 directly into the demodulator D2
(do not use channel filter CH2!) Using a connect-
ing lead feed the carrier signal (f
C
= 20 kHz) of the
CF transmitter into the auxiliary carrier input of the
demodulator D2. What have you achieved by this?
Display the modulating signal s
M
(t) on the oscillo-
scope as well as the demodulated signal s
D
(t) at the
output of the LP filter of the CF receiver. Sketch
the curve of the modulating signal and the demod-
ulated signal in Diagram 5.3.1-1.
Tap the auxiliary carrier for the demodulator D2 in
front of the phase shifter of the CF transmitter.
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
V
2
f
KHz
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measuerements Theory
Name
Table 5.2.3-1: AM spectrum for
square-wave modulation
s
M
(t)
Diagram 5.2.3-1: AM spectrum for square-wave modula-
tion
Diagram 5.3.1-1: Modulating and demodulated signal for
the DSB, fixed phase relation
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
3 5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Using the oscilloscope set the phase-shifts be-
tween the carrier of the transmitter and the carrier
of the receiver as entered in Table 5.3.1-1. Meas-
ure the amplitude A
D
of the demodulated signal as
a function of the phase . Complete Table 5.3.1-1.
Plot the curve of A
D
/A
Dmax
in Diagram 5.3.1-1.
5.3.2 Carrier recovery
Carrier recovery is performed in the CF receiver
using a PLL circuit. The PLL circuit is a control
loop whose function is to match the frequency and
phase of an oscillator to the reference oscillation.
Fig. 5.3.2-1 illustrates the structure of a PLL cir-
cuit.
Let's assume that the input signal s
1
(t) is supplied
with the frequency f
1
to the phase detector. You
can be fairly certain that the VCO is not going to
be so friendly as to oscillate precisely at the same
frequency. So its frequency f
2
will initially differ
from f
1
. At the output of the phase detector an AC
voltage is generated whose frequency is equal to
the difference f
2
f
1
. This AC voltage is now sup-
plied to the input of the VCO via the loop filter.
The VCO will respond to an AC voltage at its in-
put with a corresponding change in frequency. In
turn the VCO's changing frequency is detected by
the phase detector. With a little luck the PLL locks
into the frequency of the input signal. The PLL
corrects the VCO until the input frequency and the
VCO frequency coincide. A voltage U

arises
behind the PD based on the phase shift. This is
supplied to the VCO free of interfering AC com-
ponents (U
F
) through the loop filter. The following
relationship prevails between the control voltage
U
F
and the frequency f
VCO
of the VCO:
f
VCO
= k
F
U
F
(5.3.2-1)
The control characteristic of the VCO (CF
receiver)
Remove the bridging plug between the loop filter
and VCO input at the PLL. Feed a variable DC
voltage U
1
from the function generator into the
VCO input. Use this variable DC voltage to control
the frequency of the VCO. Note down your meas-
urement results in Table 5.3.2-1. Sketch the results
in Diagram 5.3.2-1.
Attention: 0 V< U
F
< 5 V
W
S
1
(t)
X
U

U
F
Fig. 5.3.2-1: Design of a PLL
1 Phase detector PD
2 Loop filter LF
3 VCO
0
18
36
54
72
90
108
Table 5.3.1-1: Phase response of the DSB

degrees
A
D
V
A
A
D
Dmax
cos
s
M
(t): Sine A
M
= 2 V, f
M
= 2 kHz
Diagram 5.3.1-1:
Demodulated signal A
D
/A
Dmax
as a function of the phase
Note: The synchronous demodulation is per-
formed according to Equation (3-11),
or (3-12)
3 6
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Synchronous demodulation with the aid of a
free-wheeling VCO.
Table 5.3.2-1:
Control characteristic of the VCO
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
U
F
V
f
VCO
kHz
Diagram 5.3.2-1:
The control characteristic of the VCO in the PLL circuit of
the CF receiver
Option: This experiment requires a second
function generator 726 961.
Feed an AM signal into the input of the CF re-
ceiver. The modulating signal is harmonic and has
approximately a frequency of f
M
= 1000 Hz. Dis-
play the signal present at the output of the receiver
on the oscilloscope. Connect the counter in parallel
to the output. By tuning the controlling DC voltage
U
F
of the VCO it is possible to achieve f
M
= f
D
!
Attention: the tuning has to be carried out with
care! This is critical!
Synchronous demodulation with the aid of a
PLL-controlled VCO.
Remove the cable connected to the auxilary car-
rier input of the demodulator D2. For this insert the
bridging plug between the CARRIER RECOV-
ERY and auxiliary carrier input of D2. Use now
for demodulation the recovered auxilary carrier
from the PLL CARRIER RECOVERY. Sketch
the pilot tone of the transmitter and the recovered
signal in the receiver at the output of the PLL cir-
cuit in Diagram 5.3.2-2.
Diagram 5.3.2-2:
Pilot tone and recovered signal of the receiver
(1): Pilot tone at the CF transmitter
(2). Recovered pilot at the output of the PLL (receiver)
Hint:
The required auxiliary carrier oscillation is gene-
rated out of the pilot tone recovered in the PLL
circuit by means of frequency division f/8. De-
pending on the initial state of the frequency divid-
er this creates a fixed phase shift between the aux-
iliary carrier and carrier oscillation. Consequent-
ly, the demodulated signal shows an amplitude
error. (For the sake of testing connect and discon-
nect the bridging plug in the PLL-circuit of the CF
receiver and observe the amplitude of the demod-
ulated signal.
3 7
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Sketch the 20 kHz square-wave carrier of the
transmitter at the output of the divider and the cor-
responding recovered signal in the receiver in Dia-
gram 5.3.2-3. Disconnect and reconnect the
bridging plug at the receiver between the VCO in-
put and the output of the loop filter on the PLL cir-
cuit.
Diagram 5.3.2-3:
(1): 20 kHz - carrier at the transmitter
(2): The recovered auxiliary carrier at the receiver
Discuss the results.
5.3.3 DSB
SC
Demodulation
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. Repeat
the experiment in accordance with point 5.3.1.
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 2 V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger / AC mod. signal
Sketch the curve of the modulating signal and the
demodulated signal in Diagram 5.3.3-1. Discuss
the results.
Diagram 5.3.3-1:
Modulating and demodulated signal in DSB
SC
(1): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
(2): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
Summarize the requirements made on the auxiliary
carrier in synchronous demodulation.
5.4 Beats
Modulation is only produced if the carrier s
C
(t) and
modulating signal s
M
(t) are combined by a non-lin-
ear element. The following experiment describes
the linear superimposition of harmonic signals. For
this the carrier and the message signal are fed to a
linear quadripole. This is available in the form of an
summing amplifier on the CF transmitter. Set up
the experiment as specified in Fig. 5-4. Use the
connecting lead to feed the sinusoidal carrier of the
CF transmitter (A
2
= 2 V) into an input of the out-
put summer and feed a sine signal from the func-
tion generator with f
1
= 2.0 kHz, A
1
= 2 V into the
other input. Display the addition of both signals at
the output of the summing amplifier () on the os-
cilloscope.
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 _____
Time base 500 s/DIV
Trigger / AC
Diagram 5.4-1:
Additive superpositioning of 2 sinusoidal signals with the
same amplitudes but very different frequencies.
Sketch the signal curve in Diagram 5.4-1. Record
the spectrum of the superpositioned signal at the
output of the summer (summing amplifier). Use
Table 5.4-1. Depict the spectrum in Diagram 5.4-
2.
3 8
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 ______
Time base 500 s/DIV
Trigger / AC
Table 5.4-1: Spectrum of a beat
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
A
2
: V V
1
:
f
2
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
1
: V T : s
f
1
: kHz SPAN : kHz
n
f
KHz
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S n ( )
V2
O
U
T
0
2
0
4
0
T
T
L
F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
M
O
D
E
A
T
T
d
B
+
1
5
V
0
V
(
+
5
V
)
M
1
U U
I

>
I

>
T
T
L

-

I
N
(
B
)
T
T
L
-
IN
(
A
)
T
T
L
-
IN
(
A
)
A
N
A
L
O
G

(
A
)
R
A
T
IO
A
/B
P
E
R
IO
D
A
F
R
E
Q
A
F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
G
A
T
E
0
,1
s
0
,0
1
s
T
IM
E
A
-
B
C
O
U
N
T
A
C
H
E
C
K
1
s
1
0
s
%
= p
p
V k
H
z
D
C
Fig. 5-4: Experiment set-up for beats Diagram 5.4-2: Spectrum of the beat
3 9
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
Repeat the experiment for the message signal of
f
1
= approx. 20 kHz. Sketch the result in Diagram
5.4-3.
Diagram 5.4-3:
Additive superimposing of 2 sinusoidal signals with equal
amplitudes and approx. equal frequencies
Depict the spectrum in Diagram 5.4-4.
Table 5.4-2: Spectrum of a beat
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
A
2
: V V
1
:
f
2
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
1
: V T : s
f
1
: kHz SPAN : kHz
n
f
KHz
S(n)
V
S(n)
V
S n ( )
V2
Diagram 5.4-4: Spectrum of a beat
4 0
TPS 7.2.1.3
Double Sideband AM
4 1
TPS 7.2.1.3
Single Sideband AM
6 The Single Sideband AM (SSB)
In DSB each sideband carries all of the informa-
tion contents. The transmission bandwidth could
thus be reduced by half, if one sideband is sup-
pressed. It does not matter which sideband is used
for transmission and which one is suppressed. The
upper sideband appears in the normal position, the
lower one in the inverted position. If, for example,
we suppress the lower sideband in (3-8) then we
obtain:
s t A f t
m
f f t
SSB C C
C M
( ) cos
cos
=
( )
+ +
( )
[ ]
2
2
2

(6-1)
To suppress a sideband, a bandpass filter with
sharp cutoff is used which only allows the desired
spectral components to pass.
The dynamic characteristic of SSB resembles that
of the DSB
SC
. However the envelope curve is
somewhat more distorted.
Demodulation method : Synchronous de-
modulation
Bandwidth requirement : b = f
Mmax
(6-2)
Application : Line-bound transmis-
sion of telephone
signals in frequency-
division multiplex
technology
The SSB with residual carrier
If instead of the unattenuated carrier only a defined
fraction k of the carrier amplitude is transmitted,
then you obtain the SSB with residual carrier:
s t A k f t
m
f f t
ESB,T C C
C M
( ) =
( )
+

+
( )
[ ]]
cos
cos
2
2
2

(6-3)
Demodulation method : Synchronous de-
modulation
Bandwidth requirement : b = f
Mmax
.
Application : SSB radio links
The vestigial sideband AM (VSB)
In message or information signals with very low
frequency components bandpass filters with very
sharp cutoffs are required for the filtering out of
the unwanted sideband. Since this leads to phase
distortion, part of the unwanted sideband is also
transmitted. Then the filters used may have cutoffs
which are less sharp, on the other hand, the slope
characteristic has to be precisely defined (Nyquist
slope).
f
C
+ f
M
f
C (f)
m/2
1
Fig. 6-2: SSB with residual carrier
f
C
+ f
M
f
C (f)
m/2
1
Fig. 6-1: Representation of SSB
USL
s
C
4 2
TPS 7.2.1.3 Single Sideband AM
The overlapping transmission range has to run
symmetrically with respect to the carrier fre-
quency.
Demodulation method : Synchronous
demodulation
Bandwidth requirement : f
Mmax
< b < 2 f
Mmax
Application : TV technology
Experiment procedure
Set up the experiment as specified in Fig. 6-4.
Connect the output of the function generator di-
rectly to the AF input of the modulator M2. Set the
function generator to: sinusoidal, A
M
= 2 V and f
M
= 2 kHz.
6.1 Investigations on the dynamic
characteristic of the SSB
6.1.1 SSB
RC
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER ON. Display
the output signal of the channel filter CH2 and the
modulating signal s
M
(t) of the function generator
on the oscilloscope and sketch the signals. (Modu-
lation product on channel 2, modulating signal on
channel 1 of the oscilloscope). Use Diagram 6.1.1-
1. Shift the AF signal to the upper or lower
envelope curve of the AM signal. Vary the fre-
quency f
M
and the amplitude A
M
of the modulating
signal. What do you observe?
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 1 V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger mod. signal
Trigger to the modulating signal s
M
(t). Switch the
modulating signal off. Measure the unattenuated
carrier amplitude A
C
at the input of the channel
filter, as well as the amplitude A
RC
of the attenu-
ated carrier at the output of the channel filter.
Calculate the ratio k = A
RC
/A
C
. Determine the car-
rier suppression t in dB according to (6-4):
t
m
k
=20
2
log
(6-4)
6.1.2 SSB
SC
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. Set the
oscilloscope as specified in the Table.
Proceed as described in point 6.1.1. Use Diagram
6.1.2-1. What features does the SSB
SC
signal
have?
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 1 V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger / external mod. signal
f
C
+ f
M
f
C
+ f
M
(f) f
C
s
Fig. 6-3: Filter characteristic with Nyquist slope for VSB
Diagram 6.1.1-1: Dynamic characteristic of the SSB
RC
Signals
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at the output of CH2
Diagram 6.1.2-1: Dynamic characteristic of the SSB
SC
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at the output of CH2
4 3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Single Sideband AM
6.2 Spectrum of the SSB
6.2.1 SSB
RC
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER ON.
Analyzer settings
SPAN/kHz:1.5 ... 20
Set the spectrum analyzer as specified in the Ta-
ble. Connect its input to the output of the modulator
M2. As the modulating signal use a sinusoidal
signal with A
M
= 2 V and f
M
= 2 kHz. Feed the
modulating signal into the input filter of the CF
transmitter. Measure the SSB spectrum in the
range of approx. 15 kHz up to 25 kHz and enter the
measured values S(n) from the output of the
analyzer with their corresponding frequencies in
Table 6.2.1-1. The amplitude values of the wanted
spectral components are obtained from:
S (n)
S(n)
V V
AM
1 2
==

Calculate the spectral components S


AM
(n) with the
aid of (3-8). Also enter the calculated values for
S
AM
(n) in Table 6.2.1-1. Plot the curve of the
spectrum in Diagram 6.2.1-1. Label the spectral
lines.
Determine the transmission bandwidth of the AM
signal based on the measurements. Generalize the
results for the case of any modulating signals.
6.2.2 SSB
SC
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. Use a
sinusoidal signal with A
M
= 2 V and f
M
= 2 kHz as
a modulating signal. Measure the spectrum as de-
scribed in point 6.2.1. Enter your results in Table
6.2.2-1 and Diagram 6.2.2-1.
Evaluate your measurement results as shown in
point 6.2.1.
O
U
T
0
2
0
4
0
T
T
L
F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
M
O
D
E A
T
T
d
B
+
1
5
V
0
V
(
+
5
V
)
M
1
U U
I

>
I

>
T
T
L
-
IN
(
B
)
T
T
L
- IN
(A
)
T
T
L
-
IN
(
A
)
A
N
A
L
O
G
(
A
)
R
A
T
IO
A
/B
P
E
R
IO
D
A
F
R
E
Q
A
F
U
N
C
T
IO
N
G
A
T
E
0
,1
s
0
,0
1
s
T
IM
E
A
-B
C
O
U
N
T
A
C
H
E
C
K
1
s
1
0
s
%
= p
p
V k
H
z
D
C
Fig. 6-4: Experiment setup for SSB
V
1
:1
V
2
:10
f
r
/kHz: 50 b/Hz: 100
T/s:40
4 4
TPS 7.2.1.3 Single Sideband AM
Table 6.2.1-1: SSB
RC
spectrum
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Table 6.2.2-1: SSB
SC
spectrum
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 6.2.1-1: SSB
RC
spectrum f
M
= 2 kHz Diagram 6.2.2-1: SSB
SC
spectrum f
M
= 2 kHz
6.3 SSB demodulation
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 1 V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger mod. signal
Start with the settings given in point 6.1. With the
aid of a connecting lead feed the carrier signal
(f
C
= 20 kHz) of the CF transmitter directly into
the RF input of the demodulator D2. What have
you achieved by this?
Display the modulating signal s
M
(t) on the oscillo-
scope as well as the demodulated signal s
D
(t) at the
output of the LP filter of the CF receiver. Sketch
the curve of the modulating signal and the demod-
ulated signal in Diagram 6.3-1. Adjust the phase
between the original carrier of the transmitter and
the auxiliary carrier of the receiver. What do you
observe? Remove the connecting lead between
the CF transmitter and the demodulator. Now for
demodulation use the recovered auxilary carrier
from the PLL circuit to recover the carrier. For
this connect the bridging plug between CARRIER
4 5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Single Sideband AM
Diagram 6.3-1: Modulating and demodulated signal in SSB
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
Diagram 6.3-2: Modulating and demodulated signal in
SSB
SC
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
RECOVERY and the auxiliary carrier input of D2.
Discuss your findings.
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. This time
repeat the experiment for SSB
SC
.
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 2 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 1 V/DIV
Time base 100 s/DIV
Trigger mod. signal
4 6
TPS 7.2.1.3 Single Sideband AM
4 7
TPS 7.2.1.3
Ring Modulator
7 The Ring Modulator
Up until now the modulation process has been
described as a multiplication of a harmonic carrier
s
C
(t) with an equally harmonic message signal
s
M
(t) using a multiplier IC (e.g. AD632). This is
how the wanted modulation product is directly
obtained without any undesired sidelines. How-
ever, in practice product modulators in the form of
integrated circuits are of no importance because
they can only be used at relatively low frequencies.
Consequently, modulation is performed using dis-
crete components with non-linear characteristics
on account of the high frequencies used in commu-
nications engineering. A group of modulators im-
portant in practice is known under the name of
balanced modulators. These types of balanced
modulators include the push-pull and ring modula-
tors. The response of the ring modulator can also
be investigated using the training panel 736 201 CF
transmitter 20 kHz. Ring modulators are generally
designed with special diode and transistor
concepts. An example for this is illustrated in Fig.
7-1.
The bipolar carrier signal s
C
(t) is fed into the cent-
er taps of the two symmetrical differential trans-
formers. The diodes are supposed to perform a
pure switching operation, which is triggered ex-
clusively by the carrier amplitude. For this the
carrier amplitude has to be high enough. During the
positive half-oscillations of the carrier 2 diodes are
fully triggered in the forward direction (D1 and
D2). They function like closed switches while the
two other diodes are blocked. During this period
the modulating signal s
M
(t) fed into the transform-
er on the left flows through to the output
transformer. In the time in which the carrier's po-
larity is reversed, the previously blocked diodes
(D3 and D4) perform the job of transmitting the
modulating signal to the output transformer. How-
ever, this time the current of the modulating signal
flows in the reverse direction.
A symmetrical differential transformer is needed
for the carrier current to be able to switch the di-
odes without influencing the output signal. Its func-
tion is explained in Fig. 7-2.
The total flux
C
magnetically induced by the car-
rier current is equal to zero when the transformer
is perfectly symmetrical. Depending on the switch-
ing state of the diode pairs the current of the modu- Fig. 7-1: Ring modulator in diode technology
s
M
s
AM
+
s
T
D1
D3
D4
D2
s
C

s
M
s
AM
s
C
s
M
s
AM
s
C
4 8
TPS 7.2.1.3
Ring Modulator
s
M
i
i
T
T
C
C
C
C C
2
2
2 2
0
2
2
^
^
!
/
/

=+


0
f
T
3 f
T
Fig. 7-3: Dynamic characteristic and spectrum for the ring
modulator
Fig. 7-2: The principle of the differential transformer
5 f
T
f
lating signal alternates its flow through the output
transformer. The transformers have to be suitable
to process radio frequencies (RF). For that reason
ferrite is used as the core material. Earlier ring
modulators were manufactured exclusively with
differential transformers. Today they are being
overtaken more and more by ICs which operate
without transformers. Fig. 7-3 shows the dynamic
characteristic and the spectrum at the output of the
ring modulator. The AF signal is cancelled out in
the envelope of the modulated signal. Therefore,
the line at f = f
M
is missing in the spectrum
The following holds true for the spectrum of the
ring modulator:
s t f t f t f t
A f t
A f f t A f f t
A f f t
AM C C C
M M
M C M M C M
M C M
( ) =
( )

( )
+
( )
+ ( )
=
( )
[ ]
+ +
( )
[ ]

( )
[ ]

4
2
1
3
2 3
1
5
2 5
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2 3
2
3

[cos cos cos


...] cos
cos cos
cos AA f f t
M C M
cos 2 3 +
( )
[ ]
+
If you consider the spectrum of the ring modulator,
it becomes clear that suitable filters have to be
used to separate the wanted sidebands from the
interfering sidebands.
Questions
7.1 What features does the ring modulator have?
7.2 What circuit techniques and measures are
additionally required, if you want to generate a
narrow band AM signal with a balanced
modulator?
7.3 Which feature is common to all modulating
components?
(7-2)
4 9
TPS 7.2.1.3
Ring Modulator
Fig. 7-4: Experiment setup to examine signal characteristics at the ring modulator
Experiment procedure
Operating the CF transmitter as a ring
modulator
Set up the experiment as specified in Fig. 7-4 auf.
Set the toggle switch to CARRIER OFF. Use the
bridging plug to feed the square-wave carrier into
the RF input of the modulator. Feed a sinusoidal
signal with f
M
= 2.0 kHz and A
M
= 2 V as the
modulating signal into the AF input of the modula-
tor.
7.1 Dynamic response of the ring
modulator
Display the modulating AF signal and the output
signal of the modulator on the oscilloscope. Sketch
the signal in Diagram 7.1-1.
Settings on the oscilloscope
Input attenuator channel 1 1 V/DIV
Input attenuator channel 2 1 V/DIV
Time base 200 s/DIV
Trigger / AC mod. signal
Note: The use of a storage oscilloscope simplifies
this procedure. If only a real time oscillo-
scope is available, you have to trigger to the
AF signal and, if necessary, carefully adjust
its frequency, in order to obtain a standing
image.
Repeat the experiment with CARRIER ON.
Diagram 7.1-1: Dynamic characteristic of the modulating
and modulated signal (CARRIER OFF)
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulated signal
OUT
0
20
40
TTL
FUNCTION
MODE
ATT
dB
+15V
0V
(+5V)
M1
U
U
I >
I >
TTL - IN(B)
TTL - IN(A) TTL - IN(A)
ANALOG (A)
RATIO A/B
PERIOD A
FREQ A
FUNCTION
GATE
0,1s
0,01s
TIME A-B
COUNT A
CHECK
1s
10s
%
= pp V
kHz
DC
Diagram 7.1-2: Dynamic characteristic of the modulating
signal and modulated signal (CARRIER ON)
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulated signal
5 0
TPS 7.2.1.3
Ring Modulator
7.2 Spectrum at the output of the ring modulator
Table 7.2-1: Spectrum of the ring modulator
A
C
: V V
1
:
f
C
: kHz b : Hz
f
r
: kHz
A
M
: V T : s
f
M
: kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 7.2-1: Spectrum of the ring modulator
CARRIER OFF! Record the spectrum of the
modulation product at the output of the modulator
M2 in the range 0.5 kHz...100 kHz.
Analyzer settings
SPAN/kHz: 1 ... 25
Note: In the frequency range f
r
=200 kHz you
will not come that far under f
min
= 10
kHz. Consequently, you will have to
measure the lower frequency range
from approx. 0.5 kHz...10 kHz sepa-
rately in the range f
r
= 20 kHz. For this
use Table 7.2-1.
Plot the spectrum in a graph in Diagram 7.2-1.
Sketch the position of the suppressed carrier lines
with a dashed line.
V
1
:2
V
2
:2
f
r
/kHz: 200 b/Hz: 500
T/s:40
5 1
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
Solutions
2.3 A measurement example
1. Manual operation with analog voltmeter
The amplitude S
R
(1) of the fundamental harmonic
is greater than the square-wave amplitude A
R
by a
factor 4/ = 1.27. The formation law for the spec-
trum of a symmetrical square-wave signal is:
S n
A
n
R
R
( )
( )
=

4
2 1
n: 1, 2, 3...
2. Automatic operation with the XY recorder
or the storage oscilloscope
The reduction in the bandwidth b narrows the
spectral window. The manual frequency setting
thus becomes increasingly difficult, while at the
same time the spectral lines become clearer.
Even when using an oscilloscope as a display unit
which operates (almost) without any inertia, the
spectrum is no longer reproduced with full ampli-
tude. The reason for this lies in the time law of
electrical communications engineering. The filters
of the analyzer no longer reach the transient
recovery state. If mechanical measuring instru-
ments subject to inertia are used as display units,
e.g. a multimeter instrument or an XY recorder,
then the lowpass response of the entire system is
further improved. There is practically no pointer
deflection. The following general statements can
be made about the spectrum of the symmetrical
square-wave signal:
The spectrum has a line structure.
The spectral lines occur at odd numbered multi-
ples of the fundamental frequency f
R
. (3 f
R
,
5 f
R
, 7 f
R
, ...)
The amplitudes S
R
(n) respond inversely propor-
tional to the odd numbered multiples of the
fundamental frequency.(1/3, 1/5, 1/7, ...). The
envelope curve has the characteristic 1/f.
Diagram 2.3-1:
Spectrum of the square-wave signal A
R
= 5 V, /T
P
= 0.5
Table 2.3-1: Spectrum square wave signal
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
n
1 2.0 6.6 1 6.6 6.37
2 4.0 ---- - ---- ----
3 6.0 2.1 1 2.1 2.12
4 8.0 ---- - ---- ----
5 10.0 6.6 5 1.32 1.27
6 12.0 ---- - ---- ----
7 14.0 4.7 5 0.94 0.91
8 16.0 ---- - ---- ----
9 18.0 3.6 5 0.72 0.71
10 20.0 ---- - ---- ----
V
1
: 1
b : 500 Hz
f
r
: 20 kHz
T : 20 s
A
R
: 5 V
/T
P
: 5/10
f
R
: 2.00 kHz
f
kHz
V
2
S (n)
R
V
S (n)
R
V
S(n)
V
5 2
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
3 Review of amplitude modulation
Answers
3.1 Modulation means the frequency conversion
of an information signal from the AF position
of the baseband into the RF band of the
carrier. Here, the modulating signal
influences an appropriate parameter of the
carrier oscillation, e.g. the amplitude or fre-
quency. While f
C
>> f
M
always holds true in
modulation, mixing entails frequency
conversion being generated between signals
with comparable frequencies.
3.2 Modulation offers the following advantages:
Matching to the features of the transmis-
sion channel, i.e. improved efficiency
during transmission of information sig-
nals.
Multiple utilization of transmission chan-
nels, e.g. in frequency multiplexing
methods.
Improved signal-to-noise ratios (modul-
ation gain)
3.3 The DSB is something "new" produced by
combining the carrier oscillation and the
modulating signal. While the dynamic char-
acteristic of the AM signal can be observed
as a whole on the oscilloscope the spectrum
analyzer shows the AM broken down into its
components. With constant modulation
signal these components have amplitudes
contstant with respect to time.
3.4 In the dynamic characteristic of the beat a
phase shift of 180 arises in the envelope
curve. The frequency of the envelope curve
is approx. half the differential frequency of
the oscillation components involved. The
beat frequency corresponds to the arithme-
tic mean value.
3.5 The amplitude deviation A
C
indicates the
maximum change permissible for the carrier
amplitude A
C
. It is dependent on the
modulator constant and the amplitude A
M
of the modulating signal. The modulation
index m is the quotient formed out of the
amplitude deviation and the carrier ampli-
tude. The modulation index m can assume
values between 0 and 1. Overmodulation
occurs for m > 1.
3.6 In addition to envelope demodulation, syn-
chronous or coherent demodulation are
common demodulation methods particularly
in commercial communications systems. In
contrast to envelope demodulation, it re-
quires an auxiliary carrier which is stable in
terms of frequency, phase and amplitude.
3.7 The reduction in carrier power means an
improvement in the transmission efficiency.
The amount of power and amplifier circuitry
in the transmitter can be reduced.
Bandwidth is saved by limiting modulation to
one sideband. However, coherent demodu-
lation becomes problematic when the carrier
is completely suppressed. For that reason a
residual carrier is transmitted with which the
receiver is synchronized.
3.8 The following applies for the efficiency :
=
useful power
total power
Expressed by the modulation index m the
following holds true:
=
m
m
2
2
2+
For the maximum modulation index
m = 100% you obtain the best efficiency of
the DSB when = 33%! Regarding the
power needed in DSB at least 2/3 is squan-
dered in the carrier. Since the carrier con-
tains no information it can be suppressed to
increase the efficiency.
3.9 Methods of carrier suppression
Suppress the carrier using a bandpass fil-
ter with very sharp cutoffs.
Addition of a carrier in phase opposition
and of equal amplitude to the modulated
signal.
Use of a modulation method which does
not permit the carrier to reach the modu-
lation product, e.g. balanced or ring
modulator.
3.10 Here only coherent demodulation still con-
stitutes a viable alternative. For this an aux-
iliary oscillation is needed in the receiver,
which is in agreement with the original car-
rier in terms of frequency and phase and
whose amplitude remains constant.
5 3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
5 The Double Sideband AM
Experiment results
5.1 Investigating the dynamic characteristic
of the DSB
5.1.1 DSB
Diagram 5.1.1-1: Dynamic characteristic of the DSB signal
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at the output M2
The envelope curve of the AM signal nearly coin-
cides completely with the modulating signal and
immediately follows its changes in frequency and
amplitude.
Diagram 5.1.1-2: The modulation trapezoid
m
D d
D d
=

+

6 5 2
6 5 2
53%
.
.
The modulation index amounts to approx.
m = 53%. Observation: the trapezoid chords are
distorted "cigar-shaped". This is an indication for a
phase shift between the signals at the X and Y
input. These kinds of distortions can scarcely be
seen in Diagrams like 5.1.1-1.
Generating the modulation trapezoid
Oscilloscope set to XY mode. Set the coordinate
origin in the middle of the screen using the X-posi-
tion and Y-position controllers. If the modulating
AF signal reaches its negative maximum value,
then the X-deviation is at the far left. From there it
increases horizontally to the right with a rising
modulation signal. At the same time the amplitude
of the modulated signal drops. Consequently in XY
display modus a trapezoid is produced which the its
broad side on the left.
5.1.2 DSB
SC
Diagram 5.1.2-1: Dynamic characteristic of the DSB
SC
signal
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at output M2
The DSB
SC
signal has the characteristic of a beat,
i.e. it is the linear superpositioning of 2 harmonic
oscillations with very close frequencies. The enve-
lope curve of the beat shows zero crossings. There
the beat signal experiences phase shifts of 180.
Also the DSB
SC
signal follows the frequency
changes of the AF signal without any visible phase
delay. There is no overmodulation caused by
amplitude changes in the modulating signal, as in
the case of DSB.
The modulation trapezoid for DSB
SC
.
Diagram 5.1.2-2: The modulation trapezoid
Observations:
In the display of the modulation trapezoid in XY
mode Lissajous figures appear resembling a double
conic section depending on the modulation fre-
quency f
M
. These figures rotate as a function of
the frequency f
M
. The modulation trapezoid is bet-
5 4
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
ter suited for the assessment of moduation distor-
tions than direct display of the modulated signal in
YT modus. Between the modulating and the
modulated signal there arise, e.g. severe phase
delay distortions, if the modulation is performed
using the LP filter connected in series. These vis-
ible distortions on the oscilloscope are frequency-
dependent. They belong to the group of linear dis-
tortions and are caused by the phase response of
the electronic components (especially the LP fil-
ter).
Table 5.2.1-1: DSB spectrum
A
C
: 2.0 V V
1
: 2
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 2.0 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 2 kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
2 18.00 LSL 4,5 1.1 1
2 20.01 carrier 8.5 2.1 2
2 22.01 USL 4.5 1.1 1.00
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.2.1-1: DSB spectrum
Table 5.2.1-2: DSB spectrum
A
C
: 2.0 V V
1
: 2
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 1 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 3 kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurements Theory
Name
2 17.00 LSL 2.1 0.52 0.5
2 20.01 carrier 8.4 2.2 2.00
2 23.01 USL 2.2 0.55 0.50
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.2.1-2: DSB spectrum
5.2 Spectrum of the DSB
5.2.1 DSB
With f
M
= 3 kHz the frequency of the modulating
signal s
M
(t) already lies in the cutoff range of the
LP filter. For that reason using a filter can lead to
the attenuation of the amplitude at the modulator
input and thus to a reduction in the modulation
index.
From the spectra it follows that:
With increasing signal frequency f
M
the
USLs are shifted away from the carrier in
the direction of higher frequencies. This fre-
quency response of the USL is called the
normal position, high signal frequencies also
lie in the modulation spectrum at high
frequencies.
With increasing signal frequency f
M
the LSLs
shift further away from the carrier into the
lower frequencies. The frequency response
of the LSLs is thus called the inverted position
5 5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
because high signal frequencies lie in the
modulation spectrum at low frequencies.
Basically the following applies: The upper
sideband is in the normal position, the lower
sideband is in the inverted position.
The modulation index m amounts to approx. 60%.
Calculate the transmission bandwidths in DSB
based on the spectra. For f
M
= 2 kHz:
b = (22 18) kHz = 4 kHz = 2 f
M
.
For f
M
= 3 kHz:
b = (23 17) kHz = 6 kHz = 2 f
M
.
In general:
b = 2 f
Mmax
(3-9)
Table 5.2.2-1: DSB
SC
spectrum
A
C
: 2.0 V V
1
: 2
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 2.0 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 2 kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
2 18.00 LSL 4.5 1.1 1.00
2 ____ ____ ____ ____ _____
2 22.01 USL 4.5 1.1 1.00
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.2.2-1: DSB
SC
spectrum
5.2.2 DSB
SC
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
5 10 3.2 0.32
5 14 5,0 0.50
2 18 5.6 1.40
2 20 carrier 8.4 2.10
2 22 5.5 1.38
5 26 4.6 0.46
5 30 2.7 0.27
5 34 2.0 0.20
USL
1
USL
2
USL
3
USL
4
V
2
f
KHz
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
LSL
3
LSL
2
LSL
1
5.2.3 The AM spectrum for modulation with a
square-wave signal
Table 5.2.3-1: AM spectrum for
square-wave modulation
A
C
: 2 V V
1
: 2
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 2 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 2 kHz
Diagram 5.2.3-1: AM spectrum for square-wave modula-
tion
5 6
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
The USL
1
is taken as a reference for the calcula-
tion of the spectrum. Corresponding to the known
characteristic curve of the square-wave spectrum
the LSL and USL have to be located symmetrically
to the suppressed carrier, where the amplitudes
decrease inversely to the ordinal number n. The
deviations between the theory and the measure-
ments increase with rising frequency due to the fi-
nite upper frequency cutoff of the modulator IC.
Transmission bandwidth based on the spectrum
b = (22.01 18.00) kHz 4 kHz = 2 f
M
.
The following is true in the general case of a modu-
lating signal with the maximum frequency limit
f
Mmax
:
b = 2 f
Mmax
(3-9)
0 2.1 1.00 1.00
18 1.9 0.91 0.95
36 1.6 0.79 0.81
54 1.1 0.55 0.59
72 0.6 0.28 0.31
90 0.13 0.06 0.00
108 0.76 0.37 0.31
Table 5.3.1-1: Phase response of the DSB
s
M
(t): Sine A
M
= 2 V, f
M
= 2 kHz

degrees
A
D
V
A
A
D
Dmax
cos
Diagram 5.3.1-1:
Demodulated signal A
D
/A
Dmax
as a function of the phase
5.3 AM demodulation
(synchronous demodulation)
5.3.1 DSB
Diagram 5.3.1-1: Modulating and demodulated signal with
DSB, fixed phase relation
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
Observation:
With the exception of a constant amplitude factor
the modulating signal s
M
(t) and the demodulated
signal s
D
(t) are in agreement.
5 7
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
5.3.2 Carrier recovery
Table 5.3.2-1:
Control characteristic of the VCO
0.5 0.0
1.0 0.0
1.5 0.3
2.0 14.5
2.5 41.3
3.0 69.1
3.5 96.3
4.0 121.8
4.5 148.7
5.0 167.5
U
F
V
f
VCO
kHz
Diagram 5.3.2-1: The control characteristic of the VCO in
the PLL circuit of the receiver
The synchronous demodulation is performed
with the aid of a free-wheeling VCO.
In the demodulated signal a constant frequency
shift occurs for f
C
f
Aux
. This is maintained during
variation of the signal frequency f
M
. It is only de-
pendent on the control voltage U
F
of the VCO,
which determines the frequency f
Aux
of the auxil-
iary carrier. The frequency phase-shift between
the modulating signal and the demodulated signal
corresponds precisely to the frequency difference
between the carrier and the auxiliary oscillation.
The frequency shift in the demodulated signal dis-
appears completely for f
C
= f
Aux
.
Synchronous demodulation with the aid of a
PLL-controlled VCO.
Diagram 5.3.2-2:
(1): Pilot tone at the CF transmitter
(2): Recovered pilot at the output of the PLL (receiver)
After lock-in of the PLL the original pilot signal
and the recovered signal have exactly the same
frequency. A fixed phase-shift occurs between
the two signals. This leads to a (constant)
amplitude error during synchronous demodulation.
Diagram 5.3.2-3:
(1): 20 kHz original carrier at the transmitter
(2): The recovered auxiliary carrier at the receiver
A fixed phase-shift exists between the two carri-
ers. This phase-shift can assume 8 various values
due to the undefined starting conditions of the fre-
quency divider (f/8). These phase-shifts are asso-
ciated with amplitude errors in the demodulated
signal.
5 8
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
5.3.3 DSB
SC
demodulation
Diagram 5.3.3-1: Modulating and demodulated signal for
DSB
SC
(1): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
(2): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
The DSB
SC
shows the same phase-dependency as
the DSB
Requirements for the auxiliary carrier in synchro-
nous demodulation:
1. Frequency stability and frequency equality
with the original carrier frequency.
2. Constant phase angle < 90. Ideally = 0.
3. Amplitude stability of the auxiliary carrier
5.4 Beats
Diagram 5.4-1: Additive superpositioning of 2 sinusoidal
signals with the same amplitudes but very different
frequencies.
Linear superpositioning of 2 harmonic signals, here
with extremely different frequencies f
1
= 2.0 kHz
and f
2
= 20 kHz, generates a beat. The two
frequency components are easily distinguishable.
There is no frequency conversion for beats
Table 5.4-1: Spectrum of a beat
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
1 2 10.5 2.1 2
1 20 10.5 2.1 2
A
2
: 2 V V
1
: 5
f
2
: 20.0 kHz b : 500 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
1
: 2 V T : 20 s
f
1
: 2 kHz SPAN: 1...25 kHz
n
f
KHz
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 5.4-2: Spectrum of the beat
S n ( )
V2
Diagram 5.4-3: Additive superimposing of 2 sinusoidal
signals with the same amplitudes and almost the same
frequencies.
5 9
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
If harmonic signals with approximately the same
frequencies are additively superimposed, then the
beat takes on a totally different appearance.
f
1
= 20.01 kHz
f
2
= 20.03 kHz
Table 5.4-2: Spectrum of a beat
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
*
*
A
2
: 2 V V
1
: 5
f
2
:20.03 kHz b : 500 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
1
: 2 V T : 20 s
f
1
:20.01 kHz SPAN: 1...25 kHz
n
f
KHz
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S n ( )
V2
* Spectral lines cannot be resolved (discrimi-
nated) because they are packed so closely to
each other.
Diagram 5-4-4 shows the spectrum of a beat for
f
1
f
2
. The resolution of the analyzer is too low.
The closely-packed spectral lines of the beat are
no longer reproduced separately. The amplitude
display is invalidated.
Interpretation
The simple addition of the carrier and information
signal is not suited for the generation of frequency
conversion (modulation). Both unmodulated sig-
nals remain separate. There is no frequency shift
of the AF signal into the range of higher frequen-
cies, as is the standard case for modulation. In
order to maintain modulation, the carrier and the
modulating signal have to be supplied to an element
with non-linear characteristic.
Diagram 5.4-4: Spectrum of a beat
6 0
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
6 The Single Sideband AM (SSB)
Experiment results
6.1 Investigating the dynamic characteristic
of the SSB
6.1.1 SSB
RT
Diagram 6.1.1-1: Dynamic characteristic of the SSB
RC
signal
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulation product at the output of CH2
The SSB
RC
signal resembles the DSB signal in
terms of its dynamic characteristic.
k
A
A
t
m
k
= = =
=
RC
C
0 45
2 1
0 21
20
2
.
.
.
log
(6-4)
6.1.2 SSB
SC
Diagram 6.1.2-1. SSB
SC
time characteristic
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Modulated signal s
SSBsc
(t)
The modulated SSB
SC
signal is a pure sinusoidal
signal when the carrier and the unwanted sideband
have been completely suppressed.
6.2 Spectrum of the SSB
6.2.1 SSB
RC
Table 6.2.1-1: SSB
RC
spectrum
A
C
: 0.32 V V
1
: 5
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 2 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 2 kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
10 18 3.0 0.06 0.00
2 20 carrier 4.5 0.45 0.00
2 22 8.0 0.80 1.00
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 6.2.1-1: SSB
RC
spectrum f
M
= 2 kHz
LSL
USL
6 1
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
Table 6.2.2-1: SSB
SC
spectrum
A
C
: 0.32 V V
1
: 5
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 2 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 2 kHz
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
10 18 LSL 3.0 0.06 0.00
2 22 USL 8.0 0.80 1.00
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Diagram 6.2.2-1: SSB
SC
spectrum f
M
= 2 kHz
6.2.2 SSB
sc
6.3 SSB demodulation
Diagram 6.3-1: Modulating and demodulated signal in SSB
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
The synchronous demodulation of a SSB
RC
signal
provides a perfectly suitable demodulated signal.
The phase-shift set by the phase controller of the
CF transmitter occurs between the modulating sig-
nal s
M
(t) and demodulated signal s
D
(t). Any
influence on the amplitude of the demodulated
signal cannot be detected. The following applies
for the demodulated signal:
s t
A m
f t
D
C
M
( ) cos = ( )
4
2
Diagram 6.3-2: Modulating and demodulated signal for
SSB
SC
(1): Modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): Demodulated signal s
D
(t)
Also in the case of SSB signals the carrier has no
influence on synchronous demodulation. It can be
switched on and off at will.
6 2
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
7 The ring modulator
Answers
7.1 The ring modulator provides an AM signal
with carrier suppression. The line of the
modulating signal is missing in the output
spectrum for f = f
M
.
7.2 In balanced modulators frequency-periodic
modulation spectra are produced.
Consequentily the wanted bands have to be
filtered out, i.e. the interfering sidebands
have to be suppressed for the sake of a nar-
row transmission bandwidth.
7.3 All of the circuits which have been used for
modulation have one feature in common: a
non-linear characteristic. This is true in par-
ticular for the mixer, multiplier, ring modula-
tors etc. A switch can be seen as a very
extreme case, its characteristic has abrupt
step changes.
Experiment results
Diagram 7.1-1: Dynamic characteristic of modulating signal
and modulated signal (CARRIER OFF)
(1): modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): modulated signal
The modulation product has a certain similarity to
the PAM signal for the special case of a symmetri-
cal duty cycle t/T
P
= 50%.
Diagram 7.1-2: Dynamic characteristic of modulating signal
and modulated signal (CARRIER ON)
(1): modulating signal s
M
(t)
(2): modulated signal
7.2 Spectrum at the output of the ring modulator
Table 7.2-1: Spectrum of the ring modulator
A
C
: V V
1
: 2
f
C
: 20.0 kHz b : 100 Hz
f
r
: 50 kHz
A
M
: 2 V T : 40 s
f
M
: 2 kHz
f
KHz
V
2
S n ( )
V
S
AM
(n)
V
S
AM
(n)
V
Signal parameter Analyzer settings
Measurement Theory
Name
2 18 LSL2 5.20 1.30
2 22 LSL1 5.30 1.32
2 58 USL1 1.60 0.4
2 62 USL2 1.70 0.43
Diagram 7.2-1: Spectrum of the ring modulator
6 3
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
Observation:
Balanced modulators have an extended amplitude
spectrum. A double line appears for odd number
multiples of the carrier frequency. When compar-
ing theory with the measurement results it is con-
spicuous that the measured spectral amplitudes
turn out to be smaller as the frequency increases.
The reason for this lies in the low cutoff frequency
of the modulator ICs. High frequency spectral
components are more severely attenuated by the
modulator than lower frequency components.
When the carrier is switched on (CARRIER ON)
additional lines appear for odd numbered multiples
of the carrier frequency.
6 4
TPS 7.2.1.3
Solutions
6 5
TPS 7.2.1.3
Keywords
Keywords
AM demodulation ............................................................................................................................ 25
amplitude deviation .......................................................................................................................... 23
amplitude error ................................................................................................................................. 57
amplitude spectrum .......................................................................................................................... 10
auxiliary oscillation .......................................................................................................................... 26
baseband ........................................................................................................................................... 11
beat ............................................................................................................................................ 37, 59
carrier frequency technology............................................................................................................ 24
carrier recovery ................................................................................................................................ 20
carrier suppression............................................................................................................... 42, 52, 62
channel filter ..................................................................................................................................... 19
control characteristic ........................................................................................................................ 35
phase delay ....................................................................................................................................... 53
demodulation, coherent .................................................................................................................... 26
differential transformer .................................................................................................................... 47
double sideband AM ........................................................................................................................ 29
efficiency .......................................................................................................................................... 52
envelope curve........................................................................................................................... 23, 29
envelop curve modulation ................................................................................................................ 25
frequency conversion ....................................................................................................................... 29
frequency conversion ....................................................................................................................... 52
index ................................................................................................................................................. 21
input filter ......................................................................................................................................... 18
interfering sideband .......................................................................................................................... 48
inverted position ........................................................................................................................ 24, 54
line structure ..................................................................................................................................... 51
linear distortion ................................................................................................................................ 54
Lissajous-figure ................................................................................................................................ 53
loop filter ................................................................................................................................... 20, 35
lowpass filter .................................................................................................................................... 20
message signal .................................................................................................................................. 10
mixing ............................................................................................................................................... 52
modulation ........................................................................................................................................ 10
modulation index ....................................................................................................................... 23, 53
modulation product .......................................................................................................................... 23
modulation trapezoid ................................................................................................................. 31, 53
modulator .......................................................................................................................................... 11
modulator constant ........................................................................................................................... 23
multiplex signal ................................................................................................................................ 19
normal position.......................................................................................................................... 24, 54
Nyquist slope .................................................................................................................................... 41
original frequency band.................................................................................................................... 11
oscilloscope ...................................................................................................................................... 13
overmodulation................................................................................................................................. 52
phase change..................................................................................................................................... 29
phase detector ................................................................................................................................... 35
phase error ........................................................................................................................................ 26
phase shift ......................................................................................................................................... 57
phase shifter ...................................................................................................................................... 19
6 6
TPS 7.2.1.3
Keywords
PLL circuit ........................................................................................................................................ 20
processing of the message ................................................................................................................ 12
product modulator ..................................................................................................................... 18, 47
push-pull modulator ......................................................................................................................... 47
relaying the message ........................................................................................................................ 12
residual carrier .................................................................................................................................. 41
ring modulator .................................................................................................................................. 47
side oscillation .................................................................................................................................. 24
sideband vector ................................................................................................................................. 25
signal, analog .................................................................................................................................... 10
signal, deterministic ........................................................................................................................... 9
signal, digital .................................................................................................................................... 10
signal, stochastic................................................................................................................................. 9
single sideband AM.......................................................................................................................... 41
spectral domain ................................................................................................................................ 10
spectrum analyzer ............................................................................................................................. 13
square-wave signal ........................................................................................................................... 10
superheterodyne................................................................................................................................ 13
switching operation .......................................................................................................................... 47
synchronous demodulation............................................................................................................... 26
synchronous demodulator ................................................................................................................ 20
telecommunication system............................................................................................................... 12
time continuous .................................................................................................................................. 9
time domain ...................................................................................................................................... 10
time function ...................................................................................................................................... 9
time law ............................................................................................................................................ 14
time law of electrical communications engineering ........................................................................ 51
transmission bandwith ............................................................................................................... 43, 56
transmission channel ........................................................................................................................ 12
transmission of the message............................................................................................................. 12
uncertainty relation........................................................................................................................... 14
VCO.................................................................................................................................................. 35
vector diagram.................................................................................................................................. 24
wanted sideband ............................................................................................................................... 48