Anda di halaman 1dari 97

A PRESENTATION ON COMPREHENSIVE PROJECT ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MB812

GUIDED BY Mr. G. KRISHNAMURTHY PREPARED BY SHWETANG PANCHAL 09MBA22

INDUKAKA IPCOWALA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

FLOW OF THE PRESENTATION


INTRODUCTION NEED ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

APPROACHES OF KM
KM INITIATION COLLABORATIVE TOOLS CONNECTINF PEOPLE WITH INFORMATION MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF KM KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN
WIPRO HLL Dr. REDDYS LABORATORY

CAUSE FOR THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT


WHAT KM INVOLVES ? KNOWLEDGE ATTRIBUTES PRINCIPLES & PROCESS OF KM TYPE OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY KNOWLEDGE FRAMEWORK

THE RESEARCH

KNOWLEDGE

A dictionary definition of knowledge is the facts, feelings or experiences known by a person or group of people It includes

Familiarity Awareness Understanding gained through experience Result from making comparisons Identifying consequences & making connections Wisdom Insight

Knowledge is considered as being know how, or applied action.

THE JOURNEY FROM DATA TO WISDOM

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Process to help organization identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer information

Systematic and active management of ideas, information, and knowledge residing within organizations employees

Knowledge management is based on the idea that an organization's most valuable resource is the knowledge of its people. Therefore, the extent to which an organization performs well, will depend, among other things, On how effectively its people can create new knowledge, Share knowledge around the organization, and Use that knowledge to best effect. Leverage value of intellectual capital through reuse

OBJECTIVE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

The aim of knowledge management is not necessarily to manage all knowledge, just the knowledge that is most important to the organization. It is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where they need it, when they need it The right knowledge, In the right place, At the right time.

What we can do, and what the ideas behind knowledge management are all about, is to establish an environment in which people are encouraged to create, learn, share, and use knowledge together for the benefit of the organization

NEED ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Knowledge management is based on the idea that an organizations most valuable resource is the knowledge of its people. New is the focus on knowledge. Knowledge management recognizes that

all jobs involve knowledge work and so all staff is knowledge workers to some degree.
Creating Sharing Using knowledge.

Jobs depends more on knowledge rather than skills.


FEASIBILTIY STUDY

Do we know everything we need to know or are there gaps in our knowledge?

Dynamic Nature Continuous improvement Continuous learning Continuous updating


Medical advancements Formulation of new government policies Management practices

For Example:

Do we share what we knew ? Is the knowledge of individuals are available to whole organization ? Do we use what we know to best effect ? Not always

Not always applied

How many times have we had an idea about how a process or an activity could be improved ? How many times have we had an idea that might help our colleagues ? How many times have we implemented a new initiatives ?

WHAT DOES KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INVOLVES ?

Knowledge management is essentially about facilitating the processes by which knowledge is created, shared, and used in organization.

TECHNOLOGIES:

Communication

Collaboration

Access knowledge Communicates with others Perform group work Synchronous or asynchronous

Same place/different place Storage and retrieval

Capture, storing, retrieval, and management of both explicit and tacit knowledge through collaborative systems

WHAT DOES KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INVOLVES ?

SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES:

Artificial intelligence Expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, intelligent agents Intelligent agents Systems that learn how users work and provide assistance Knowledge discovery in databases Process used to search for and extract information Internal = data and document mining External = model marts and model warehouses XML Extensible Markup Language Enables standardized representations of data Better collaboration and communication through portals

KNOWLEDGE AS A PROGRESSION OF STATES


Decision Evaluate Weigh Synthesize Analyze Select Gather

KNOWLEDGE

Judgement Insights Structural Information Information Data

KNOWLEDGE ATTRIBUTES
MODE ACCESSIBILITY UTILITY

TYPE

USAGE MANAGEMENT LEVEL APPLICABILIT Y

VALIDITY

DOMAIN

PROFICIENCY

ORIENTATION

SOURCES

KNOWLEDGE ATTRIBUTES
IMMEDIACY RESOLUTION PROGRMMABILITY

AGE

CONCEPTUAL LEVEL

MEASURABILITY

PERISHABILITY

ABSTRACTION

RECURSION

VOLATILTIY

LOCATION

PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

RIGHT KNOWLEDGE, RIGHT PLACE, RIGHT TIME

TYPE OF KNOWLEDGE
A. EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE Knowledge that can be captured and written down in documents or databases. For Example:

Instruction manuals Written procedures Best practices Lessons learned Research findings

EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE

STRUCTURED DOCUMENTS
DATABASE SPREADSHEETS

UNSTRUCTURED EMAILS
IMAGES TRAINIG COURSES AUDIO-VIDEO

B. TACIT KNOWLEDGE Tacit knowledge is the knowledge that people carry in their heads. It is much less concrete than explicit knowledge. Knowledge that is more difficult to write down in a document or database. For Example: knowing how to ride a bicycle Tacit knowledge is considered to be most valuable knowledge because it provides context for

People Places Ideas and experience

OLD/NEW KNOWLEDGE

Make better use of the knowledge that already exists within the organization (OLD KNOWLEDGE)

Finding out what organization knew Taking steps to make knowledge accessible across organization Specific approaches to knowledge audit Mapping the organizations knowledge resources & flows Making tacit knowledge more explicit Making the movement cycle faster & speedy

To create new knowledge (NEW KNOWLEDGE). Training, Hiring external resources, Bringing different people and their knowledge together to create fresh knowledge and insights, etc. (cross functional team)

WAYS IN KNOWLEDGE
LINKING PEOPLE WITH INFORMATION
COLLECTING & CONNECTING CAPTURING & DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

THE CORE COMPONENTS OF KM


PEOPLE
Does the culture of organization supports ongoing learning & knowledge sharing ? Are people motivated and rewarded for creating, sharing, & using knowledge ?

PROCESS

Processes necessary to enhance knowledge sharing Deployment of information technology& communication technology

TECHNOLOGY

The enabler of knowledge sharing

KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
The knowledge is the key determining factor in organizational and economic success or failure. The most effective organizations in the knowledge economy will be those which recognize and best harness the crucial role that knowledge plays both inside and outside their organization.

KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE
policies and processes for identifying and capturing explicit and tacit knowledge.

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER
policies and processes for transferring knowledge among and between its various sources and forms.

KNOWLEDGE RETENTION
policies and processes for retaining organizational knowledge, especially during periods of organizational change.

CONTENT MANAGEMENT
policies and processes for efficiently managing the organizational knowledge base.

KNOWLEDGE CAPITAL
Policies and processes for measuring and developing the governments human and social capital.

ENABLING COMMUNITIES
Policies and processes for promoting and supporting knowledgebased community working across and between departments.

SUPPORTING A KNOWLEDGE CULTURE


Policies and processes to create the necessary cultural changes to embed the knowledge management ethos into working practices.

KNOWLEDGE PARTNERSHIPS
Policies and processes for promoting and supporting knowledge partnerships between central government and key partners such as local government, departmental agencies etc

SUPPORTING KEY BUSINESS ACTIVITIES


Policies and processes to support key business activities in government such as project management, the legislative process, delivery monitoring etc.

KNOWLEDGE BENCHMARKING
Policies and processes for benchmarking current knowledge management capabilities and practices against UK and international best practice, and for improving performance

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

KNOWLEDGE ALIGNMENT

CONTENT
ANALYSIS PLANNING

KNOWLEDGE PROCESSES

SHARING
ACQUISITION CREATION

KNOWLEDGE FOUNDATION

CULTURE
TECHNOLOGY SUSTAINING SYSTEMS

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH

PROCESS APPROACH

Codifies knowledge Formalized controls, approaches, technologies Fails to capture most tacit knowledge

PRACTICE APPROACH

Assumes that most knowledge is tacit Informal systems

Social events, communities of practice, person-to-person contacts

Challenge to make tacit knowledge explicit, capture it, add to it, transfer it

STARTING A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION


REVIEW YOUR OPTIONS
DO NOT GET TOO HUNG UP ON THE BEST KEEP IT SIMPLE AVOID ROCKET SCIENCE LEARN WHILE DOING LOOK AT YOUR ORGANIZATIONS GOALS LOOK FOR NEEDS, PROBLEMS AND PAINS START SMALL DO NOT TAKE OFF WITHOUT A PILOT REMEMBER THE BIG THREE: PEOPLE, PROCESSES, TECHNOLOGY THE ULTIMATE AIM: INSTITUTIONALIZATION

KM TOOLBOX INVENTORY OF TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES


After Action Reviews (AARs) Communities of Practice Conducting a knowledge audit Developing a knowledge management strategy Exit interviews Identifying and sharing best practices Knowledge centers Knowledge harvesting Peer assists Social network analysis Storytelling White pages

THE LFA APPROCH

SITUATION ANALYSIS

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS PROBLEM ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS

STRATEGY ANALYSIS PROJECT PLANNING MATRIX IMPLEMENTATION

35

SITUATION ANALYSIS - 1

STAKEHOLDER ANLYSIS

IMPORTANT GROUPS ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES OTHER PROJECTS INDIVIDUALS

HAVING AN INFLUENCE ON THE SITUATION OR PROJECT, OR ARE AFFECTED BY IT FAVOURABLY OR UNFAVOURABLY

36

SITUATION ANALYSIS - 2

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS KEY QUESTIONS: Who will be involved in knowledge management development?
Where will it be developed? Who will facilitate development? What is the background information needed? What is the requirement of materials and logistics?

37

SITUATION ANALYSIS - 3

PROBLEM TREE ANALYSIS

WHAT IS A PROBLEM? BEGIN WITH A STARTER PROBLEM, FROM AMONG THE PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED DEVELOP CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP / PROBLEM TREE IDENTIFY THE ROOT PROBLEM(S)

38

SITUATION ANALYSIS - 4

OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS

RE-STATE THE PROBLEMS AS OBJECTIVES, i.e. POSITIVE DESIRABLE STATES DEVELOP OBJECTIVES TREE ENDS-MEANS DIAGRAM FROM PROBLEM TREE

39

STRATEGY ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES SYSTEMATIC WAY OF SEARCHING FOR AND DECIDING ON PROBLEM SOLUTIONS INVOLVES CLUSTERING OBJECTIVES EXAMINATION OF FEASIBILITY OF DIFFERENT INTERVENTIONS

40

PROJECT PLANNING MATRIX

THE OBJECTIVES THE PROJECT

THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT

41

DEVELOPING KM ENVIRNMENT

PEOPLE

Why people dont want to share knowledge or do they? Organizational culture Individual behavior Alignment of rewards & recognition Make knowledge work part of everyones job Develop relationships Educate people about what is involved and skill them to do it Demonstrate the value Create champions and heroes Make it easy

DEVELOPING KM ENVIRNMENT
PROCESS

Organizational processes and infrastructure Organizations ability to work with computers Knowledge management infrastructures

DEVELOPING KM ENVIRNMENT

TECHNOLOGY

IT AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Groupware Intranets

Software specifically designed for group of people, not just individuals

An intranet is simply a private Internet.

Video conferencing

Time
CONNECTING PEOPLE WITH PEOPLE: COLLABORATIVE TOOLS

Email Place Social presence Technology

COMMON COLLABORATIVE TOOLS


Email Discussion boards Video conferencing

Project support tools


Workflow tools E-learning tools

Virtual working tools

CONNECTING PEOPLE WITH INFORMATION


COLLECTING THE CONTENT ORGANIZING THE CONTENT RETRIEVING AND USING THE CONTENT TOOLS & PROCESSES FOR CONTENT MANAGEMENT

Taxonomies Thesauri/thesaurus Search engines Portals Data mining Tools Information visualization Decision trees Root cause analysis

KNOWLEDGE CREATION TECHNOLOGIES

KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION DATA MANAGEMENT

Data governance
Data asset Data governance Data steward

Data Security Management


Data access Data erasure Data privacy Data security

Data Architecture, Analysis and Design


Data analysis Data architecture Data modeling

Data Quality Management


Database Management
Data maintenance Database administration Database management system

Data cleansing

Data integrity

Data quality

Data quality assurance

Reference and Master Data Management


Data integration
Master data management

Document, Record and Content Management


Document management system Records management

Reference data

Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence Management


Business intelligenc e

Meta Data Management


Meta-data manageme nt

Data mart

Data mining

Data movemen t

Data warehous ing

Metad ata

Meta data disco very

Metadata publishing

Metad ata registr y

CONTACT DATA MANAGEMENT


Business continuity planning

Marketing operations
Customer data integration Identity management Identity theft Data theft ERP software CRM software Address (geography) Postal code Email address Telephone number

DATA EXTRACTION & INTEGRATION

Getting heterogeneous data into the Warehouse: Data from different DBMSs (Data base management system), external information providers, various standard applications,...Tasks:

Extraction (accessing different databases) Cleaning (resolving inconsistencies) Transformation (different formats, languages) Replication (importing a whole DB) Analyzing (detecting invalid values) Checking for data quality (correctness, completeness) Update metadata, if necessary

EXTRACTION & INTEGRATION FROM THE VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY

RECONCILED DATA

LINK COLLECTION TRANSACTION LOG DIGITAL LIBRARY TRANSACTION LOG AUTHENTIFICATION SERVICE LOG

PERSONALIZED SERVICE LOG

DATA AGGREGATION & CUSTOMIZATION

Getting (multidimensional) data out of the Warehouse as the input for: Reporting (summarized by: who, when, where, what) Query tools

Online analytical processing (OLAP) Geographic information systems (GIS)

Decision support systems (DSS) Executive information systems (EIS)

DATA WAREHOUSE

A data warehouse is

a central repository for all or significant parts of the data that an enterprise's various business systems collect.

It enables the management to access the available data in an efficient way, learn about trends and make informed decisions.

DATA MINING

Data mining is the exploration and analysis, by automatic or semiautomatic means, of large quantities of data to discover meaningful patterns and rules. Reasons for Data Mining:

Data is being produced Data is being warehoused Computing power is affordable Competitive pressure is strong Commercial Data Mining software packages are available

TRANSFORM DATA IN TO ACTIONABLE INFORMATION IDENTIFY BUSINESS PROBLEMS WHERE ANALYZING DATA CAN BE IMPROVED

ACT ON THE INFORMATION

MEASURE THE RESULT

SOME APPLICATIONS FOR DATA MINING


Market segmentation Identifying 'good' and 'bad' customers Fraud detection Detecting cross selling potential Basis for marketing decisions (shelfing, sales promotions) Mass customization / recommender systems

COMMON TECHNIQUES FOR DATA MINING

Data mining uses mostly techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) research. Examples are:

Memory-based reasoning Automatic cluster detection Decision trees Neural networks Genetic algorithms Market basket analysis (MBA)

MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF KM ON THE ORGANISATIONS PERFORMANCE

THE BALANCED SCORECARD


Financial Customer Internal Processes Learning & Growth The LFA Approach

Return on investment (ROI) The Knowledge Management life cycle Get started Develop a strategy Design and launch a knowledge management initiative Expand and support Institutionalize knowledge management

Employee Survey

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN VARIOUS ORGANIZATION


WIPRO HINDUSTAN LEVER Dr. REDDYS LABORATORY

WIPRO

Knowledge Management in Wipro InfoTech has three objectives:

Mature the organization to a competency based and knowledge driven organization. Enable new technology/practices adoption for diversification and growth. Develop competency extension framework to create new business opportunities.

The Wipro InfoTech KM framework has three main frameworks .

Learning , KEEP (Knowledge Enhancement, Extraction and Practice) CARE (Competency Augmentation with Research Excellence).

LEARNING

Learning ensures that people build their competency using a mix of tools and processes like E-learning, competency assessment and competency development through specialized training and personalized instruction. THE COMPETENCY MODEL Competency definition Evaluation of current competency for existing technology Evaluation after developing the competency on newer technology Online evaluation and assessment is used to identify current competency levels. E-learning and Instructor Lead Training (ILT) are extensively used to bridge the gaps.

KEEP (Knowledge Extraction, Enhancement and Practice)

They ensure collection of disparate knowledge and expertise within the organization into a central repository. The knowledge is supplemented by gathering additional information from various external resources. The four pillars of KEEP are

Taxonomy (a uniform structure through which knowledge can be stored and accessed) It enablers, Practice based offering and Knowledge channels.

CARE (Competency Augmentation through Research and Excellence)

Through CARE they leverage on the expertise and knowledge built up in the organization to come up with innovative products and services. They inculcate creative thinking within Wipro InfoTech that capitalizes on people competency and expertise, supplementing it with a technology tracking activity, resulting in higher intellectual property.

By facilitation of technological roadmap Using external research resources Internal intelligence.

HINDUSTAN LEVER LIMITED


Building Communities of Practice IT interventions

Connecting people to people Providing Collaboration tools A system of Reward & Recognition Knowledge Strategies

Culture Change Initiatives

Focused Learning Approach

DR REDDYS LABORATORIES
Top Management Involvement

Cross-functional Ownership Major Discrepancies in KM implementation: Obstructive Organizational Structure Lack of Pull for KM System

Dysfunctional Reward System

THE RESEARCH

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

The objective of the report is to identify the extent to which organizations are aware about knowledge management. In addition, the focus is on understanding how the knowledge management initiators foresee the implementation process and deriving of benefits from this task. There are organizations participating in this survey that have or are planning to implement a knowledge management strategy. The report investigates the scope of effective implementation of a knowledge management strategy in the workplace of these front-line organizations.

THE RESEARCH METHOD

The research was conducted with the help of bml consulting company the focus group included Managing directors, Chief executive officers, Chief knowledge officers with specific responsibilities for knowledge management in 16 organizations with turnover exceeding Rs. 5000 millions (a$200 million) a year. The selection of the respondents was based on the size of the companies, which have the greatest need to implement knowledge management initiatives.

CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (KM)

Knowledge Management Strategy in Place

Respondents were asked whether their organization had a Knowledge Management initiative in place. Overall, 75% of respondents said that their organization had a knowledge management strategy in place.

STATUS OF ORGANIZATIONS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES

Respondents were asked to specify the extent of their organizations Knowledge Management program.

12.5% said their organization had Knowledge Management as an integral part of their business process and the value of organizational knowledge is reported to their stakeholders. 31.5% have integrated the knowledge management strategy with some technical or cultural issues. 37.5% of the respondents are utilizing knowledge management procedures to achieve known benefits and 50% have initiated knowledge in a non-uniform manner with pilot approaches in place. 50% of the respondents have no knowledge management strategy in place for achieving overall organizational goals.

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT DRIVER

Respondents from organizations that had or were considering a KM program were asked to specify at the level in the organization it is most suitable to implement a knowledge management strategy.

50% said KM implementation is most suitable organizationwide and a further 37.5% identify the departmental level to be the most suitable. This indicates that the drivers of the concept visualize knowledge management activities to spread across the organization.

EXPERIENCE TO DATE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT


CURRENT KM PROBLEMS Respondents were asked to rate issues related to implementing Knowledge Management on a percentage basis as to how critical they are in the current business scenario. Respondents views largely indicate knowledge transformation from tacit to explicit as a major issue and rated it at 73%. Issues like lack of sharing knowledge and reinventing the wheel were rated at 68% and 62% respectively indicating a major concern for a successful implementation of Knowledge Management, in the industry. Less critical issues identified by the respondents were Information Overload and Complex System at 55% and 41% respectively.

CURRENT KNOWLEDGE RELATED ISSUES

MAJOR ISSUES IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

The respondents were also asked about the future business problems affecting their decision making process in the coming five years and also as to what issues would be best managed by a successful implementation of a knowledge management strategy. The biggest threat identified by the respondents was the ability to reduce the time to market and develop a competitive advantage. Cost reduction and improved productivity follow this issue. Quality of the product was one of the major issues but was not identified as an immediate threat to business sustainability.

MAJOR ISSUES IN NEXT 5 YEARS

ACHIEVING THE BENEFITS


POTENTIAL ROLE OF KM Respondents were asked about the potential role KM can play in achieving specific organization objectives on a longterm and/or short-term basis. The response from the survey revealed that potential benefits on a long-term basis would be in context of improving revenue growth and further enhancing competitive advantage. Another potential long-term benefit identified was employee development and product innovation, which are very critical parameters in measuring the success of a KM implementation. Key short-term benefits expected by respondents would be reducing costs, improving marketing strategies, enhancing customer focus and facilitating profit growth.

KM AND ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY


USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO IMPLEMENT KM Respondents were asked about their use of technology to manage information. 88% had implemented Internet access. 75% had an intranet, 63% used a document management system. Around 50% had a decision support system in place and 44% used data warehousing and mining techniques. One interesting finding was a very low use of Groupware technologies, but 50% of the organizations with a KM strategy in place were planning to implement Groupware in the next 6 m0onths.

Another interesting find was that respondents with a KM strategy in place are currently at a preliminary level.
This is because the use of Artificial Intelligence based techniques for making knowledge available in a most accurate manner was not on the planning agenda.

IMPEDIMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION

Respondents who had a KM strategy in place or were planning to implement a sound KM Strategy were asked about the most likely threats they foresee in a successful implementation. According to the respondents, the integration of knowledge into everyday use in a normal working place and lack of use uptake due to insufficient communication were the major threats. In addition, threats such as, the user being unable to perceive personal benefits, and lack of participation from the senior management towards developing a sound KM strategy. These remained the prime areas of concern.

ORGANIZATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

FAILURE TO UNDERTAKE KEY KM REQUIREMENTS Respondents were asked when their organization intended to implement certain facets of KM practices.

Implementing enterprise resource planning, creating a KM strategy and benchmarking the current situation score more than establishing knowledge policies, incentives for knowledge working, creating a knowledge map or measuring intellectual capital.

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ACTION TAKEN TO DATE

Respondents whose organizations had a KM program were asked about the activities the KM strategy planners had undertaken such as

rewarding knowledge working, create a knowledge map and measuring intellectual capital.

THE KNOWLEDGE JOURNEY

Respondents were asked where their organization stood in terms of KM. We provided them with five descriptions and asked them to specify the most appropriate stand of the organization: 1. The organization does not demonstrate a relationship between the importance of KM and the achievement of organizational goals. 2. Awareness and implementation of KM across the organization may not be uniform but pilot projects are in place in some areas. 3. The organization uses KM procedures and tools and it is recognized that KM brings some benefit to the business 4. The organization has an integrated framework of KM procedures and tools, but there are some technical and cultural issues still to be overcome 5. KM procedure are an integral part of organizational and individual processes and the value of knowledge is reported to the stakeholders

Respondents were optimistic in terms of where they saw their organizations stood in terms of KM development. Most saw their organization falling into stages 3 or 4. There is also a realization that there is still a long way to go for a successful implementation of the Knowledge Management process.

THANK YOU