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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 .

Carbon Compound
1

CHAPTER 2 : CARBON COMPOUNDS


A UNDERSTANDING CARBON COMPOUND

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
O State what carbon compound is,
O State the carbon compounds can be classified into two groups, i.e. organic and
inorganic,
O State what organic compound is,
O Gives examples of organic and inorganic carbon compounds,
O State what a hydrocarbon is,
O List the sources of hydrocarbon,
O Identify the combustion products of organic carbon compounds


Activity 1

Fill in the blanks with the correct answer.

1 Carbon compounds are compounds that contain ..... as one of their constituent elements.

2 There are two groups of carbon compounds; ......... compounds and ........
compounds.

3 Carbon compounds that can be obtained from non-living things are classified as
........compounds.

4 Hydrocarbons are the simplest of all organic compounds. Hydrocarbon contains only two
elements, ......... and ..........

5 Organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen together with a few other elements such as
oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus or halogens are called ...........

6 Hydrocarbons can be classified into two , ........... and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

7. Hydrocarbons that contain only carbon-carbon single bond is called .........

8 Hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond or carbon-carbon triple bond
is called .....

9. Natural sources of hydrocarbons are ........, coal and natural gas.

10 Organic compounds burn in excess of oxygen gas to produce .......... and

.........








WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
2

B ALKANES

Learning Outcomes:
You should be able to :
O state what alkane is,
O state what structural formula is,
O deduce the molecular formulae of the first ten alkanes
O Draw the structural formulae for the first ten straight-chain alkanes,
O Deduce the general formula of alkanes
O Name the first ten alkanes,
O Relate changes in physical properties with increase in the number of carbon atoms in alkanes molecules
O Explain the effect of the increase in number of carbon atoms in alkanes molecules on the molecules boiling
points,
O Describe complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes,
O Describe the substitution reaction of alkanes,
O Write chemical equations for combustion and substitution reaction of methane,
O Describe how methane affects everyday life.


Activity 2

a) Complete the table below:

Number
of
Carbon
Structural formula Molecular
formula
Name of
alkane
Condition at
room
temperature
1


CH
4

Methane

Gas
2








3











4





5











6













7





C
7
H
16





WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
3

8





C
8
H
18








9











10











b. Explain why on going down the alkane series, the melting and boiling point increase?

On going down the alkanes series, the .............. increases caused by the
increase in molecular size.
When the molecular size increases, the melting and boiling point ........ This is
because the larger the molecular size, the stronger the ........... forces of
attraction between the molecules. Thus more energy is needed to ........ the
forces of attraction during melting or boiling.

c. Explain why alkanes are non-conductors of electricity.

Alkanes are covalent compounds made up of ...........
They don't have ... ..moving ions. Hence alkanes are non-conductors of electricity.

d Ethane and propene burn in excess of oxygen gas. Balance the chemical equation of the
combustion of these hydrocarbons.

i) C
2
H
6
g) + O
2
g) CO
2
g) + H
2
O l)

ii) C
3
H
8
g) + O
2
g) CO
2
g) + 4H
2
O l)



Activity 3

Complete the sentences with the correct word.

1 Carbon is placed in Group .......
2 t has ...... electrons in its outer most shell.
3 An atom of carbon contributes ........ electrons to share with other atom of elements to
obtain the stable electron arrangement of inert gas elements.
4 Atoms in alkanes are bonded with ......... bond
5 The first member in this group is the simplest compound called .......
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
4

This smallest alkane can be found in natural gas and crude oil.
6 The general formula for the alkane family is ...........
7 Physical properties of alkanes
a ...........................
b ...........................
c ............................
d ............................
8 Alkanes are ...... compound, they have no effect on blue or red litmus paper.
9 Alkanes burn readily in air or in excess oxygen to produce ......and .....
10 The alkanes burn with a ....... flame if the combustion is not complete.
11 Alkanes undergo Substitution Reaction atom of H is replaced with ........ or
........... with the presence of sunlight or UV rays.
12 According to he UPAC, the ending ..... indicates the compound is a member of
the alkane family.


Activity 4

a) Name the compound a, b, c, d, e, and f.


09,30 (, (b
Substitution reaction
chlorination)
Excess chlorine
Sunlight or heat
(c (d (0 (I


Complete combustion
with excess O
2
ncomplete
combustion
limited O
2
)
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
5

b) State the uses of methane in everyday life

i ..................................
ii .................................
iii ..................................
iv ..................................
c) Explain how methane can cause fire in landfills and peat swamps
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.......................................


C ALKENES

Learning outcomes:
You should be able to:
O state what alkene is,
O deduce the molecular formulae of the first nine alkenes,
O deduce the general formula of alkenes,
O name the first nine alkenes,
O draw the structural formulae for the first nine straight chain alkenes,
O relate changes in physical properties with increase in the number of carbon atoms in alkenes molecules,
O explain the effects on boiling points of alkenes due to increase in the number of carbon atoms in alkenes
molecules,
O describe chemicals properties of alkenes,
O compare and contrast alkanes with alkenes,
O relate the reactivities of alkanes and alkenes to their chemicals bonds.
O Generalise the characteristics of homologous series based on alkanes and alkenes

Activity 5

a) Complete the table below:

Number
of
Carbon
Structural formula Molecular
formula
Name of
alkane
Condition at
room
temperature
2




















!




WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
6






































C
7
H
14


















^











10












b) Fill in the blanks by choosing the suitable answer from the textbox below.






i) Alkenes are ........ hydrocarbons.
ii) The names end with ........ The general formula for alkenes is
...........
iii) Generally alkenes have .......... melting and boiling point but ........as
the number of carbon atoms per molecule increases.
iv) Alkenes have ...... densities but increase as the number of carbon per atom
increases.
v) Alkenes are ...... with water but are .......... in organic solvents.
vi) Alkenes ........ conduct electricity.
vii) Alkenes burn with more ...... flame compared with alkanes of the same number of
carbon atoms because the percentage of carbon by mass in alkenes is ........
viii) Compare to alkane, alkene is ....... reactive, due to the presence of carbon-carbon
...... bond.
ix) Alkane and alkene can be identified with a test by using ...... water or
............ solution. Alkene decolourises both reagent while alkane does not.
more , immiscible , soluble , sooty , higher , low, bromine, low, polymerization
unsaturated, ene, C
n
H
2n
, double, acidified potassium manganate(VII) ,
increases, cannot
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
7
x) Small alkene molecules undergo addition reaction with one another. Thousands of
alkene molecules link together to form a large molecule .
This reaction is called ..............

Activity 6

a) Give name for each alkene compounds below


-) Construct the structural formula for:
i) C
5
H
10
iv) 2-methylbut-2-ene



ii) 2-chlorolpropene v) 3-methylbutene


iii) pent-2-ene vi) hex-1,3-diene

CH
3
CI
CH
3
CI

iii
vii

H
iv viii
Cl

CH
3
CH3
i v
ii vi
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
8

Activity 7
rite the molecular formula or structural formula of the product for every reaction of propene below.





















Activity 8
a) Table below shows the reactions to compare the chemical properties of alkane and
alkene. Complete the table.

Reaction
Observation
Hexane Hexene
Reaction with oxygen Hexane burns with a yellow
sooty flame

Reaction with bromine
water
No visible change



Reaction with acidified
potassium manganateV)
solution
No visible change





Propene
limited O
2

heat
excess O
2
,
heat
b ,
c
Addition
polymerization
H
2
Og)
300 C,60 atm,
H
3
PO
4

d
HCl g)
0
Cl
2
aq)
I
H
2
/

Ni
.180
o
C
g
acidified
KMnO
4
aq)

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
9
b) Calculate the percentage of carbon in
[ Relative atomic mass : H, 1 ; C, 12 ]
i) hexane




ii) hexene




hich compound can be a good fuel ? Explain .


c) List down 4 similar physical properties of alkane and alkene.
i) ................................
ii) ................................
iii) ................................
iv) ................................
d) Compare the chemical properties of alkene with alkane




















Alkene Aspect Alkane
Sootiness of flame
Bromine water
Acidified KMnO
4

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
10
D ISOMERS

Learning outcomes
You should be able to:
O Construct various structural formulae of a particular alkane and alkene.
O Explain what isomerism is
O &se I&!AC nomenclature to name isomers



Activity 9

a) Match column A with Column B

Column A

Column B
i) Phenomenon whereby two or more molecules
are found to have the same molecular formula
but different structural formula

Alkyl group
ii) The molecules that have the same numbers
and types of atoms but differ in the
arrangement of the atoms.


Ethene and Propene
iii) t is an alkane by dropping ane from the
name and replacing it with

somers
iv) These alkenes do not exhibit isomerism. somerism

v) somerism in alkanes starts with .... Butane


b) Draw the structural formula and give name to all isomers of

i) C
4
H
8






ii) C
4
H
10







iii) C
5
H
12





WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
11
E ALCOHOLS

Learning outcomes
You should be able to:
state the general formula of alcohols,
identify the functional group of alcohols,
list the names and molecular formulae for the first four alcohols,
draw structural formulae for isomers of propanol (C
3
H
7
OH) and butanol (C
4
H
9
OH),
name isomers of propanol and butanol using I&!AC nomenclature,
describe the industrial production of ethanol.
` describe the preparation of ethanol in the laboratory,
state the physical properties of ethanol,
predict the chemical properties for other members of alcohols,
explain with examples the uses of alcohol in everyday life,
explain the effects of the misuse and abuse of alcohols.


Activity 10

a) Fill in the blanks by choosing the suitable answer from the text box below





i) Alcohol is one of the Homologue Series that has functional group of .......
ii) The general formula for alcohol is .............
iii) The melting point of alcohol is ........ than alkane and alkene due to the
presence of .............
iv) This is because the functional group forms hydrogen bonding that is ......
than the bonds between molecules of alcohol.
v) Methanol, ethanol dan propanol dissolve in water. The solubility of other alcohols
decreases as the.......... increases.
vi) Naming the alcohol compound is likely to ...... C1 is numbered from the carbon that
nearest to the functional group..
vii) Alcohols are used as fuels, ......., in medicine, in making ........
and as a main component in alcoholic drinks.
viii) Alcohol is a ......... compound.





Hydroxyl ; non-hydrocarbon , alkene , solvents, higher, cosmetics,
stronger, molecular mass , -OH ,
n
H
2n+1
OH

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
12
b) Complete the table below.




i) Name :




ii) Name:


iii) Name

iv) structural formula






Name : Propan-2-ol
v) structural formula






Name : Butan-1-ol
vi) structural formula






Name : Pentan-2,3-diol


c) Draw the structural formula and give names to all isomers of

i) propanol C
3
H
7
OH)










ii) butanol C
4
H
9
OH)


















WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
13
Activity 11

a) Summarize the physical properties of ethanol in the table below

Physical properties Description
Physical state at room temperature
Smell and colour
Solubility in water
Volatility
Boiling point


b) Ethanol can be prepared in two ways, Fermentation and Hydration.
n fermentation process,
i) hat is the function of yeast?
.................................
.................................
.................................
.................................
ii) rite the chemical equation to show the fermentation process.

.............................
iii) State the temperature, catalyst and other condition needed for fermentation
process.
.................................
..................................
iv) State the disadvantages of this process.
..................................
..................................
.....................................

c) Hydration process involves hydration of ethene. Ethene is obtained from the
cracking of petroleum fractions.

i) rite the chemical equation for hydration process.

.................................

ii) State the temperature, pressure and catalyst needed for hydration process.

................................

................................





WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
14
Activity 12

a) Complete the table below

1 The Products of Combustion of ethanol

n excess oxygen:

n limited oxygen :
2 The products of Oxidation reaction of alcohol with acidified potassium dichromateV)
solution or acidified potassium manganate V) solution

Oxidation of ethanol


Oxidation of propanol
3 Dehydration of alcohol.

Draw and label the set of apparatus to show the dehydration process of propanol.










b) State True or False for every statement below.

1 Ethanol is an alcoholic drinks


2 Ethanol acts as a depressant on central nervous
system.

3 Alcoholic drinks only slow down physical activity, not
affect mental activity.

4 Alcoholism create social problems for the family and
society.

5 Methanol is a very toxic chemical and can cause
permanent blindness when consumed

6 Alcohol is not addictive


7 Long- term excessive consumption of alcohol drinks
can cause chronic liver disease and brain damage.

8 Because of alcohol is miscible with water, it cannot
be used as a solvent in toiletries.

9 Alcohol is one of the raw materials in manufacture of
explosive

10 Alcohol is an antiseptic



WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
15
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Learning outcomes
ou should be able to :
state the general formula of carboxylic acids,
identify the functional group of carboxylic acids,
list the names and molecular formulae of the first four members of carboxylic acid,
draw structural formulae of the first four members of carboxylic acid and name them
using the I&!AC nomenclature,
describe the preparation of ethanoic acid in the laboratory,
state the physical properties of carboxylic acids,
state the chemical reactions of ethanoic acids with other chemicals,
predict the chemical properties for other members of carboxylic acid,
explain with example the uses of carboxylic acids in everyday life

Activity 13

a) Complete the diagram below.



































Functional group :
CARBOXYLIC
ACIDS
&808 :
, ............

b ............

c ............

d .............


Ethanoic acid normally
prepared by
of an alcohol
names end with
' . Eg. ethanoic acid.
Physical properties
a ..................
b ..................
c .................
d ..................
e ..................
General formula:

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
16
b) Draw the structural formula of

Methanoic acid


Ethanoic acid
Propanoic acid Butanoic acid

2-methylbutanoic acid

2-methyl propanoic acid

c) A carboxylic acid, X has an empirical formula CH
2
O. Experimental determination
shows that it has a molar mass of about 59 g mol
-1


i) hat is the general formula of carboxylic acid?

ii) Determine the molecular formula of X
[ Relative atomic mass : H, 1 ; C, 12 ; O, 16 ]




iii) Draw the structural formula of X and give name.








Activity 14

a) Figure shows a series of conversion starting from ethene to ethyl ethanoate.





Based on the figure above, state
Reaction :.....................
Reaction :.....................

I
Ethene Ethanol
Ethanoic acid
II
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
17
b) Draw the set up of apparatus to prepare ethanoic acid .in laboratory
rite the chemical reaction that involve.
















c) rite the observation of every test for ethanoic acid below.

Test Observation nference
1 a. Ethanoic acid + metal
carbonate

b. Gas released + lime water

2 a. Ethanoic acid + magnesium


b. Gas given off + lighted
splinter

3
Ethanoic acid +
copper )oxide


4 Glacial ethanoic acid + ethanol
+ concentrated sulphuric acid +
heat

Then the boiling contents are
poured into a beaker half filled
with water.


.





WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
18

G ESTER

Learning outcomes:
You should be able to:
O state the general formula of esters
O identify the functional group of esters
O List the names and molecular formulae of simple esters.
O Draw structural formulae of simple esters and name them using the I&!AC nomenclature,
O Describe the preparation of ester in the laboratory,
O State the physical properties of ethyl ethanoate.
O !redict the ester produced from the esterification reaction.
O Write equations for the esterification reactions,
O state the natural sources of ester, state the uses of ester in everyday life.


Activity 15
a) Name the following esters and give the alcohols and carboxylic acids required to synthesise
the esters name.



b) Draw the structural formula for the compound form in the reaction between alchol and carboxylic acid
below.

i) methanol and propanoic acid


ii) ethanol + butanoic acid


iii) propan-1-ol + ethanoic acid

Formula Name Carboxylic acid Alcohol
Example :HCOOC
2
H
5

Ethyl methanoate Methanoic acid Ethanol
a) CH
3
COOCH
3



b) CH
3
COOC
3
H
7


c) C
2
H
5
COOCH
3


d) C
3
H
7
COOC
3
H
7


WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
19

Activity 16

a) Complete the diagram below


b) rite the fruit flavour for each of the ester below
i) n-pentyl ethanoate : ...........
ii) Octyl ethanoate : ...........
iii) Ethyl butanoate : ...........



Order in homoIogous series

Learning outcomes:
You should be able to :
O describe the systematic approach in naming members of homologous series.
O describe the order in the physical and chemical properties in homologous series.

ESTERS
Ester is a .........
organic compound
contain ......,
....... and
............
The general formula is

..........
.
the functional
group is COO- or
...... group
the name of an ester consists of two words.
The first word originates from......,
the second is from the ..........
All of them end with ' .....'
product of an
reaction between a carboxylic
acid and an alcohol.
The .....of flowers and
fruits is due to the presence
of esters
uses of ester,
a) ............
b) ............
c) ...........
d) ...........
Physical properties
1............
2.............
3.............
4..........
5.............
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
20

Activity 17

a) Name the homologous series for
i) Butan-1-ol : ...............
ii) Compound P : ..............
iii) Compound R : .............
iv) Compound S : ..............

b) rite the molecular formula of

i) compound P : ...............
ii) compound Q : ..............
iii) compound R : ...............
iv) compound S : ...............


H ATS

Learning outcomes:
You should be able to:
O State what oils are
O State what fats are
O State the importance of oils and fats for body processes
O State the sources of oils and fats
O List the uses of oils and fats
O State the differences between oils and fats
O Identify structural formulae for fat molecules of certain fatty acids
O State what saturated fats are
O State what unsaturated fats are
O Compare and contrast between saturated and unsaturated fats
O Describe the effects of eating food high in fats on health
O Describe the industrial extraction of palm oil
O ustify the use of palm oil in the food production


Butan-1-ol
C
4
H
9
OH
Compound P
Porcelain chips



Hydrogen
chloride
Compound Q

Acidified potassium
dichromateV) solution
Compound R
ethanol
Compound S
V
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
21

Activity 18

I) iII in the -Iank -y choosing the correct answer from the ta-Ie -eIow

ester solid heart
attack
hydrogenation harden stroke carbon high blood
pressure
margerine
saturated, ester
link
lipid trigleycerides Chlorofom liquid glycerol energy fatty acid

a) Fats , oils and waxes are from a large family of organic compound called .........
b) They are natural ..........
c) They are product of the reaction between ........ and ........
d) Fats are usually found in animal and they are ........while oil is fat from plant
and also from animal but they are .......... at room condition.
e) Fatty acids are long straight-chain containing between 12 to 18 ...... atoms per
molecule.
f) A molecule of glycerol may combine with one, two or three fatty acid to form a monoester, diester
or trimester. A Molecule of water is eliminated when a fatty acid joins to the glycerol molecule
and the resulting bond formed is called an .......-COO-).
g) Most fats and oils are .........
h) As a group, oil and fats tend to dissolve in organic solvents such as ........
i) Fats are an important source of ......... for our body.
j) ...... fats may cause cholesterol to deposit on the blood vessels and making them
........ . This can lead to ........., ..........and
.............
k) Unsaturated fats can be converted to saturated fats by a process called ........
l) ........ is made by hydrogenating some of the carbon-carbon double bond in
vegetable oil.

II) Compare fats and oiIs
Comparison Oils Fats
Source
Melting point
o
C < 20 / lower > 20 / higher
Physical state at room
temperature

Cholesterol content
Examples Peanut oil, soybean oil Butter , lard
Molecular structure


WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
22

III) Write the SimiIarities of fats and oiIs
In terms of Similarities
Molecular formula


Type of compound


Type of bond
.


Activity 19
a) Complete the flow chart below to show the Extraction Process of Palm Oil.




























b) State 5 benefits of palm oil compared to other vegetable oils

i) ..........................
ii) ..........................
iii) ...........................
iv) ..........................
v) ..........................
Oil palm fruit bunches

Stripping

Pressing

The fresh fruit bunches are sterilized ia large
pressure vessels at 140
o
C for 60-90 min.
The heat from the steam kills fungus and

Breaking down the oil-bearing cells. Crush
the palm oil fruits

The mixture is filtered to remove solid or
coarse fibre and allow to settle in an a large
clarification tank. The oil is skimmed off and
dried in a vacuum drier.
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
23

I NATURAL RUBBER

Learning outcomes:
You should be able to :
O List examples of natural polymers and their monomers,
O Draw the structural formula of natural rubber,
O State the properties of natural rubber,
O State the uses of natural rubber
O Describe the coagulation process of latex
O Describe the method used to prevent latex from coagulating,
O Describe the vulcanization of rubber,
O Describe how the presence of sulphur atoms changes the properties of vulcanised rubber,
O Compare and contrast the properties of vulcanised and unvulcanised natural rubber.


Activity 20

a) Give explanation for every situation below:
i) Latex coagulate slowly when it is exposed to the air.


ii) hen 20 cm
3
latex is added with 5cm
3
methanoic acid, latex coagulate rapidly.


iii) hen 5 cm
3
ammonia solution is added to latex, latex does not coagulate.


b) Compare the unvulcanized and vulcanised rubber in the table below.

Aspect Unvulcanised rubber Vulcanised rubber
Structure


Oxidation


Resistance of heat


Strength


Elasticity




WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
24

ACTIVITY 21

1 Base on the diagram above,

a) Name the product formed in step .
.................................
b) i) State the reagents needed for step .
............................
ii) rite the chemical equation for the reaction in step .
............................
c) i) Name the type of reaction occurring in step .
.............................
ii) A catalyst is needed for the reaction in step . Name the catalyst.
............................
d) i) Describe briefly how to carry out the reaction in step V.
.............................
ii) hat do you expect to observe when the reaction in step V is carried out?
................................
e) Draw the possible structural formulae of C
3
H
7
OH formed in step V.


f) i) Name the type of reaction occurring in step V.
.......................
ii) Give one use for C
3
H
6
)n formed in step V.
.......................
g) Compare and explain the sootiness of C
3
H
6
and C
3
H
8
when each of these
hydrocarbons is burnt in excess air.
[Relative atomic mass: H = 1; C = 12) [4]


WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
25

2 Diagram below shows the molecular formulae of 4 carbon compounds.

a) rite the general formula of the homologous series of compound B.

.....................................
b) State the functional group of compound A and compound D

Compound A : ..............................

Compound D : ..............................

c) Compound B shows isomerism. Draw the structural formula of aII isomers of compound B.




d) Compound D and compound C react in the presence of the concentrated sulphuric acid.
i) Name the product formed from the reaction.

.................................
ii) State one special characteristic of the product formed.

.................................

e) Compound A burns in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.

i) rite a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

.................................................................................................................

ii) 11.2 g of compound A burns in excess oxygen, calculate number of carbon
dioxide molecules formed.
[Relative atomic mass C = 12, O = 16 and
Avogadro number = 6.02 x 10
23
]









C
4
H
8

C
2
H
5
COOH
C
4
H
9
OH
C
4
H
10

A B C D
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
26
ARKING SCHEE : CARBON CO!O&ND

Activity Answer
1 1. carbon 6 saturated ;
2. organic ; inorganic 7 saturated hydrocarbon
3. inorganic 8 unsaturated hydrocarbon
4. Hydrogen ; carbon 9 petroleum
5. non hydrocarbon 10 carbon dioxide ; water

2 a) Refer to Form 5 text book page 37

b) the relative molecular mass ; increase. Van der Waals ( intermolecular
force) ; overcome

c) molecules. ; freely

d) i) 2 C
2
H
6
g) + 7O
2
g) 4CO
2
g) + 6H
2
O l)
ii) C
3
H
8
g) + 5O
2
g) 3CO
2
g) + 4H
2
O l)

3 1 14
2 4
3 4
4 single covalent
5 methane
6 C
n
H
2n+2
n= 1,2,3...
7 refer to F5 textbook page 37
8 neutral
9 carbon dioxide , water
10 sooty
11 chlorine , bromine
12 - ane

4 Refer to F5 textbook page 39 -41

5 a) Refer to F5 textbook page 45
b) i) unsaturated
ii) ene , C
n
H
2n
n= 2,3..
iii) low , increases
iv) low
v) immiscible/insoluble , soluble
vi) cannot
vii) sooty , higher
viii) more , double
ix) bromine , potassium manganateV)
x) polymerization

6 a) i) ethene v) chloroethene
ii) propene vi) 2-methylpropene
iii) but-1,3-diene vii) 1-chloropropene
iv) 3-methylbut-1-ene viii) but-2-ene

b) refer to F5 textbook page 55-56

7 Refer to F5 textbook page 49 - change ethene to propene
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
27

8 a) Hexene burns with a yellow and a very sooty flame
Hexene decolorizes reddish- brown bromine
Hexene decolorizes purple acidified potassium manganate V)
solution
b) Hexane = 83.72 % ; Hexene = 85.71 %
Hexane can be a good fuel because the percentage of carbon is low hence
produce less soot.
c) * cannot dissolve in water * cannot conduct electricity
* low melting and boiling point * neutral
* Produse CO
2
and water when burnt in oxygen

d) - Alkene produce more soot - alkane produce less soot
- Alkene decolorized bromine water alkane colour unchange
- Alkene decolourized the purple colour of acidified KMnO
4
solution -
Alkane does not change the purple colour.

9 a) i) isomerisme ii) somer iii) alkyl group
iv) ethane and propene v) butane

b i) 3 isomers : but-1-ene ; but-2-ene ; 2-methylpropene
ii) 2 isomers : butane ; 2-methylpropane
iii) 3 isomers ; pentane ; 2-methylbutane ; 2,2-dimethylpropane

10 a) i) hydroxyl / -OH v) molecular mass
ii) C
n
H
2n+1
OH n, 1,2,3,3. vi) alkene
iii) Higher ; OH/hydroxyl vii) solvents, cosmetics
iv) stronger, Viii) non hydrocarbon / carbon / organic

b) i) methanol ii) ethanol iii) propan-1-ol
iv), v) vi) refer to F5 textbook page 56

c) i) propan-1-ol ; propan-2-ol
ii) butan-1-ol ; butan-2-ol ; 2-methylpropan-1-ol;
2-methylpropan-2-ol

11 a)
Physical
properties
Description
Physical state at room
temperature
First 12 alcohols are liquid at room
temperature
Smell and colour

Alcohols are colourless and has a pleasant
smell
Solubility in water


First three alcohols are very soluble in water
miscible in all proportions)
Volatility

Alcohols are volatile
Boiling point Boling point alcohols are higher than the
alkanes with the same number of carbon.
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
28
As the size of molecules increases ,the
boiling point of alcohols increases.


b) i) yeast released biological enzymes, zymase. Zymase decomposes
glucose to form ethanol and carbon dioxide.


ii) Chemical equation : C
6
H
12
O
6
aq) 2CH
3
CH
2
OHaq) + 2CO
2
g
iii)
Temperature : 18-20
0
C
Catalyst : yeast zymase)
Other condition : absence of oxygen

iv) Disadvantage : The yeast dies and the fermentation process stop
when the concentration of ethanol formed reaches about 15%. Hence
it is impossible to get pure ethanol

c) i) C
2
H
4
g) + H
2
O g) CH
3
CH
2
OH g)

ii) temperature : 300
0
C
Pressure : 60 atm
Catalyst : phosphoric acid.

12

















a) 1 n excess oxygen : Carbon dioxide and water
n limited oxygen : Carbon, carbon monoxide and water

2 Oxidation of ethanol : Ethanoic acid and water
Oxidation of propanol : Propanoic acid and water

3 Set of apparatus : refer to F5 practical book


b) 1.T 6 F
2 T 7 T
3.F 8 F
4 T 9 T
5 T 10 T
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
29
13























b)
Methanoic acid

Ethanoic acid


Propanoic acid

Butanoic acid


2-methylbutanoic acid



Methyl propanoic acid
c) i) General formula : C
n
H
2n + 1
COOH
ii) 60
iii) ethanoic acid
an organic acid with car-oxyI
group COOH


C - OH
O
)
CARBOXYLIC
ACIDS
Uses :
- food preservative benzoic
acid)
- food flavouring
- ethanoic acid and methanoic
acid are used to coagulate
latex in rubber industry
- making ester and soft drinks


Ethanoic acid normally prepared
by oxidation of an aIcohoI
weak acid and names end with
'oic acid . Eg. ethanoic acid.
Ethanoic acid
- colourless liquid at room
conditions.
has sharp and pungent smell.
boiling point 118
o
C
soluble in water
pH 3 - 4
General formula
C
n
H
2n + 1
COOH
H C - OH

O
H - C C - OH

O
H


H
H - C - C C - OH

O
H


H
H


H
H - C - C - C C - OH

H

O
H


H
H


H
H


H
H - C - C - C C - OH

O
H


H
H


CH
3

H

H - C - C C - OH

O
H


H
H


CH
3

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
30


14





















a) hydration ; oxidation
b) refer to F5 textbook page 71
c)
Observation nferrence
1 The metal carbonate dissolves,
Efferverscence occurs

Carbon dioxide gas
released Gas turns lime water cloudy

2 Magnesium dissolves
Bubbles of gas given off

Hydrogen gas released
Gas burns with a 'pop' sound

3 The black powder dissolves to
form a blue solution.



Blue solution shows the
presence of Cu
2+
ion.
4 A colourless oily layer floats on
the water and gives pleasant
smell.
Ester is formed,
ethyl ethanoate

15 a)
Formula Name Carboxylic acid Alcohol
HCOOC
2
H
5

Ethyl mathanoate Methanoic acid Ethanol
a) CH
3
COOCH
3


Methyl ethanoate Ethanoic acid Methanol
b) CH
3
COOC
3
H
7

Propyl ethanoate Ethanoic acid propanol
c) C
2
H
5
COOCH
3

Methyl
propanoate
Propanoic acid Methanol
d) C
3
H
7
COOC
3
H
7
Propyl butanoate Butanoic acid propanoll

b) i) methylpropanoate ii) ethylbutanoate





H - C C - OH

O
H


H
H C C C OC H
3
O


H H H
H H

H C C C OC H
3
O


H H H
H H


H C C C - C O-C
2
H
5
O


H H H
H H H

H C C C - C O-C
2
H
5
O


H H H
H H H


WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
31


iii) prophylethanoat






16 a)




























b) i) bananas ii) oranges iii) pineapples

17


a) i) alcohol ii) alkene iii) carboxylic acid iv) ester
b)

P Q



R S





ESTERS
Ester is a non-
hydrocarbon organic
compound
contain carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen
The general formula is
CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1
the functional
group is COO-
or carboxylate
group
the name of an ester consists of two
words. The first word originates from
alcohols, the second is from the
carboxylic acids. All of them end with '-
oate'
product of an esterification
reaction between a
carboxylic acid and an
alcohol.
found in flowers and fruits.
The fragrance of flowers
and fruits is due to the
presence of esters
uses of ester,
as food flavouring
, to pleasant aromas
for making perfumes
b as organic solvents
for glue, varnish and
paint
- esters are colourless liquids
- sweet and fruity smell
- volatile, insoluble
- less dense than water

H C C C C - OH
O


H H H
H H H

H C C C C - OH
O


H H H
H H H


H C C C = C - H
H


H H H
H H H

H C C C = C - H
H


H H H
H H H


H C C C - C - H
H


H H H Cl
H H H

H C C C - C - H
H


H H H Cl
H H H


H C C OC
3
H
7

H
H O

H C C OC
3
H
7

H
H O


H
H O


WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
32
18































) a) lipid g) triglycerides
b) ester h) chloroform
c) glycerol , fatty acids i) energy
d) solid , liquid j) saturated, harden , stroke, High blood
e) carbon pressure, heart attack
f) ester link k) hydrogenation
l) margarine
) Comparison of fats and oiIs

Comparison Oils Fats
Source plants Animals
Melting point
o
C < 20 / lower > 20 / higher
Physical state at room
temperature
Liquid Solid / semi solid
Cholesterol content low high
Examples Peanut oil, soybean oil Butter , lard
Molecular structure Contain a high
percentage of
unsaturated carboxylic
acid
Contain a high
percentage of saturated
carboxylic acid
III) SimiIarities
n terms of similarities
Molecular formula The molecules contain of elements carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen
Type of compound They are naturally occurring esters

Type of bond They are big covalent molecules.



19

a)
Sterilisation - The fresh fruit bunches are sterilized is large pressure vessels at
140
o
C for 60-90 min. The heat from the steam kills fungus and bacteria

Stripping - The oil palm fruit is separated from the bunch

Digestion - Breaking down the oil-bearing cells. Crush the palm oil fruits

Pressing - hydraulic press is used to press out as much oil as possible

Purification - The mixture is filtered to remove solid or coarse fibre and allow to
settle in an a large clarification tank. The oil is skimmed off and dried in a
vacuum drier.

b) State 5 benefits of palm oil compared to other vegetable oils
i) rich in vitamin A and E
ii) stable at high temperature
iii) cholesterol free and can lower the cholesterol level
iv) easily absorbed and digested by our body
WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
33
v) cheap.



20 a )
i) -Bacteria from the air slowly attack the protein on the membrane of the
colloidal particles to produce lactic acids.
-ionisation of lactic acids produce hydrogen ions, H
+

-H
+
ions from the acids neutralize the negatively charged membranes of
the bcolloidal particles. Repelling forces between colloidal particles
disappear.
-collisions of these neutral particles cause their membranes to break up,
rubber polymers are set free.
-the free rubber polymers combine together to form large lumps.


ii)
- Positively charged H
+
ions from the acids neutralise the negatively
charged membranes of the colloidal particles. Repelling forces between
colloidal particles disappear.
-collisions of these neutral particles cause their membranes to break up,
rubber polymers are set free.
-The free rubber polymers combine together to form large lumps.

iii )
-Hydroxide ions, OH
-
from the aqueous ammonia solution neutralise the
lactic acids produced by the bacteria in the latex.
-the negatively charged on the membrane of the colloidal particles
remain.
-the repelling forces between the particles keep them apart.
-no coagulation of latex occurs



b)
Aspect Unvulcanised rubber Vulcanised rubber
Structure More C=C- bonds in
rubber molecule
Less C=C bonds
Oxidation Easily oxidised Resist oxidation
Resistance of heat Non-resistant
Easily melt and
decomposed
More resistance
Strengh Soft and easily
changes shape
stronger
Elasticity Less elastic
Easily stretched but
difficult to return to its
original shape
More elastic
Difficult to be
stretched but readily
returns to its original
shape


21 1 a) 1,2-dibromopropane

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
34
b) i) Propene gas and acidified potassium manganateV) solution

ii) C
3
H
6
+ O) + H
2
O C
3
H
6
OH)
2

c) i) Hydrogenation ii) Nickel

d) i) A mixture propane gas C
3
H
8
) and chlorine gas Cl
2
) is exposed to
ultraviolet light.

ii) Steamy fumes are produced.

e)


f) i) Polymerisation ii) To make plastic bottles

g) % of carbon by mass in C
3
H
6
123) = 85.71%
123) + 16)

% of carbon by mass in C
3
H
8
123) = 81.82%

123) + 18) % of carbon by mass in C
3
H
6
is higher than that in C
3
H
8
.
Hence, C
3
H
6
burns with a sootier flame than C
3
H
8
.





2 a) C
n
H
2n + 2
; n = 1, 2, 3, .....
b) A : carbon-carbon double bond // - C = C

B : carboxyl group // - COOH


c)


d) i) Butyl propanoate

ii) Sweet / pleasant /fragrance / fruity smell

e) C
4
H
8
+ 6O
2
4CO
2
+ 4H
2
O

mol A = 11.2 // 0.2
56


WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 2 . Carbon Compound
35

mol CO
2
= 4 x 0.2 // 0.8

No of molecule CO
2
= 0.8 x 6.02 x 10
23
// 4.816 x 10
23