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I, Miss Khan Maheen Fatima, student of Bhavans College of T.Y.BMS [Semester V] hereby declare that I have completed my project, titled Impact of Print Media in India in the Academic Year 2011-2012. The information submitted herein is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Signature of Student


I, Prof. Krupa Rai, hereby certify that Miss Khan Maheen Fatima, student of Bhavans College of T.Y.BMS [Semester V] has completed her project, titled Impact of Print Media in India in the Academic year 2011-2012. The information submitted herein is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Signature of The Principal


No task however small can be completed on a hostile & uninspiring environment. Thus, I wish to thank every person who directly or indirectly helped to create a congenital atmosphere for us to work in & successfully complete our project. I express my highly indebted heartful gratitude to Prof. Krupa Rai for giving me the opportunity to do the project & providing me with greater learning experience.


Khan Maheen Fatima



Chapter 1
1. Introduction (Newspaper) 2. Importance

1.1 Introduction:

With a sort of boon coming in the world of print communication with the availability of printing press, telegraph, telephone, and telex, the publishing industry made hey while the sun was shining. The first hundred years was the time when the print industry tried to comprehend the new situation and shaped itself into a regular and formal sector but from the start of the 19th century, print media in most countries started specializing in certain areas. Since business in the form of advertisements in the print was also flourishing, the media enjoyed a great deal of financial comfort and provided jobs to tens of thousands of people across the globe. It took about 150 years from the invention of printing press in the middle of 15th century that the world witnessed first regular publication, which could be defined as a newspaper. Although there have been claims by many to be decorated as first newspaper like Mixed News in China in 710, Notizie Scritte, a monthly newspaper for which readers pay a gazetta, or small coin by Venetian government in 1556 etc, the World Association of Newspapers held Relation, as the first newspaper published in France in 1605. By this reckoning, the newspapers history is 400 years old. Indian print media is one of the largest print media in the world. The history of it started in 1780, with the publication of the Bengal Gazette from Calcutta. James Augustus Hickey is considered as the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise, or the Bengal Gazette in January 1780. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay, the Bombay Herald appeared, followed by the Bombay Courier next year. The first newspaper in an Indian language was the Samachar Darpan in Bengali. The first issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May 23, 1818. In the same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishing another newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822, the first Gujarati newspaper the Bombay Samachar was published from Bombay, which is still extant. The first Hindi newspaper, the Samachar Sudha Varshan began in 1854. The Indian language papers have taken over the English press as per the latest NRS survey of newspaper.

1.2 Importance:

It serves as a significant factor to inspire and impede consumerism. By influencing ones consciousness and perception, print media has formed society into what has become Indian Culture of today. The influence print media has can make one desire the thing he or she use to dislike, believe in principles he or she used to have an aversion to, and continually consumes items in excess. Print media has been extending the knowledge of the news or chronicles across the nation by keeping the public up- to- date on information pertaining to ones life, services, products, and the environment. Several trends that have propagated by the print media are food, fashion, and weigh loss programs. People are focused more on these trends today than ever before. Print media has made it more accessible for people to obtain whatever information he or she needs to keep up with these particular trends.

Chapter 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Problem of the study Objective of the study Research Design Data sources and methodology Data analysis


This chapter explains the various methods and techniques used in this research study with their suitability. This part of the research report is very important because it explain the concepts and procedures followed by researcher to study the report. It is helpful to the reader to study the report and understand whole the study easily.

Marketing research is a systematic and objective study of the problem pertaining to the marketing of goods and services. It is also scientific methods of gathering information about unknown variables in business.

The marketing research process involved a number of inter related activity which overlap and do not rigidity follow a particular sequence. The major steps involved in a research and related to my research are described as follows:

2.1Problem of the Study:

Any research project starts with defining the research objective, research problem similarly, my research project also started with formulating the research objective, and the main objective for this research is To know the expectations that the newspaper readers have from the newspapers.

So here, my role is to do a research through knowing the opinions of the customer, and try to increase the satisfaction level. To formulate a research problem the main consideration has to be given to the following:
Units of analysis [Who] -

The units of analysis or the population member for this research are the general readers of any newspapers. Time Duration [When] For the research, researcher had time period of 1 and half month, during which researcher had to complete the research.


Characteristics of interest [What] The main objective of the survey is To know the customer satisfaction level from the newspaper they are reading and to know the various expectations they have and want in the newspaper So to measure the satisfaction level, I need to study the following points, Newspapers referred by the customers. Degree of information they want in the newspaper. The kind of information they want in the newspaper.

3.2 Objective of the Study: Our main objective is To know the degree and kind of information they want in the newspaper. There are various alternative objectives, which can be described as follows.

To identify the needs and wants of customer from newspaper To create excellent opportunity of launching a new newspaper according to the
requirement of the customers.

To provide valuable services to customer and make them happy

3.3 Research Design: Selection of research design is purely depends on kind of research problem. Research Design is a specification of methods and procedures for acquiring information needed for solving the problem. It is a master plan or a model to conduct the formal investigations.

Exploratory research design:

Exploratory research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method, and selection of subjects. Given

its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Descriptive research design:

Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Causal research design:

Causal Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. The research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and allows market researchers to predict hypothetical scenarios upon which a company can base its business plan. For the present study, the Descriptive research design is used, because in this project mostly data is collected through questionnaire. At this stage the researcher, build some idea about sampling methods, source of data and method of data collection. In this project the primary and secondary data are used in the research design in my project is appropriate.

3.4 Data Sources & Methodology:

Determine the sources of the data:

For preparing any report we need the data as raw material, we can get it either from primary or from secondary sources or it can be from both source. There can be two main classifications of data source. Primary data Secondary data


Researchers used primary data as well as secondary data at some extent. In a project, mostly primary data as a major source of information. Primary data was collected through survey with the help of questionnaire as a research instrument, which provided very reach insight about the research objective, opinion of customer. Researcher have also used the secondary data for initial study information about the evolution of print media, its initial stage, growth, customer preferences, different product availability, industry and company detail, etc. were collected through secondary data from websites and feedback provided by customers.

Designing data collection form:

To collect their opinion researcher decided to collect the data by using Questionnaire which is easy and convenient way to collect data. When preparing questionnaire, the wording of question; number of questions, sequence of question and type of questions would be followed. The benefits of this type of method were following: To clarify the preference of people, which type of newspaper they needed most. To know the opinion of the customers regarding the reason of subscribing current newspaper More accuracy of the data, because of questionnaire

About questionnaire: There are total 18 questions in the questionnaire. Mostly the study used ranking method question in the form. The wording of questionnaire is easy to understand.


Sampling Decision:
It is not possible for me to meet all customers and collect their opinion. Because of time and financial limit the study used sample survey to overcome that problem. Researcher took sample of 100 units from entire population. It was as small as compare to population but because of said limitation, the study had to select the sample of 100 customers.

Editing and tabulation of data:

The collected data are needs to be checked whether it fill properly or not. This activity was done by researcher on the day when researcher fills up the questionnaire from the respondent. Researcher removed some improper filled questionnaire, there was need to edit some questionnaire. After editing, the next step was to count the frequency of responses for each of the questions in all the questionnaires. The frequency was the tabulating in proper format. I tabulate all the data. Tabulation means count the number of frequency of answer getting by respondent. The tabulated data was used for analyzing.

Processing and analyzing the collected data:

After the ending of field survey and tabulation, the next step is processing and analyzing the collected data. For analysis of data, I used the percentage method of analysis. Tables and graphs were used to present the complied data. After tables and graphs, finding and analysis follows which are shown in chapter of finding and analysis.


Chapter 3
1 . Industry scenario 2 . Print Media scenario (Newspaper)


3.1 Industry Scenario:

What are Media and Mass Media? Media refers to the tools used to store and deliver information or data. Now what does that means? It means that the work role of media is to send a particular message to an individual or group or to the society or to the world at large. To be more precise media is a tool from which large number of audience can be informed. Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a large audience. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers, and magazines. However, some forms of mass media such as books and manuscripts had already been in use for centuries. Mass media includes Internet media (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharing) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers. The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. Forms of Media: 1. Print Media 2. Electronic Media 3. Advertising Media 4. Multi-Media 5. News media 6. Social media


Print Media:
Print media includes such forms as newspapers, periodicals, magazines, books, newsletters, advertising, memos, business forms, etc. Generally Print Media refers to the world of newspapers and magazines, which informs its respective audience about the various happenings taking place around them and in the world and the following project is also based on this industry only that is newspaper industry.

Electronic Media:
Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CDROM and Online Content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format. Although the term is usually associated with content recorded on a storage medium, recordings are not required for live broadcasting and online networking. Any equipment used in the electronic communication process (e.g. television, radio, telephone, desktop computer, game console, handheld device) may also be considered electronic media.

Advertising Media:
Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers, or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with


the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor, or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations, and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media, which only use traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms. Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia

News Media:
The News Media refers to the section of the mass media that focuses on presenting current news to the public. These include print media (newspapers, magazines); broadcast media (radio stations, television stations, television networks), and increasingly Internet-based media (World Wide Web pages, weblogs). A medium is a carrier of something. Common things carried by media include information, art, or physical objects. A medium may provide transmission or storage of information or both. The


industries which produce news and entertainment content for the mass media are often called "the media" (in much the same way the newspaper industry is called "the press").

Social Media:
Social media are media for social interaction, using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media use web-based technologies to transform and broadcast media monologues into social media dialogues. They support the democratization of knowledge and information and transform people from content consumers to content producers. Businesses also refer to social media as user-generated content (UGC) or consumer-generated media (CGM). Social media utilization is believed to be a driving force in defining the current period as the Attention Age. A common thread running through all definitions of social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value. Thus, these are various branches coming out of one big tree naming MEDIA. But above all Print media was the first branch of this tree and even the project will continue on this branch only, that is, on Print Media. The origin of Print Media in India is very interesting. For the kindinformation Indian print media is one of the largest print media in the world.

Media in India:
Media in India initiated since the late 1700s with print media started in 1780, radio broadcasting initiated in 1927, and the screening of Auguste and Louis Lumire moving pictures in Bombay initiated during the July of 1895 is among the oldest and largest media of the world. Indian media private media in particular has been free and independent throughout most of its history. The period of emergency (19751977), declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India's media was faced with potential government retribution.


Indian Media & Entertainment Industry Today:

Over the last several years, Indian Media & Entertainment (M&E) Industry has consistently outperformed most other sectors in terms of growth. Standing tall at an estimated size of Rs513bn in CY2007, it is expected to continue to grow at a steady pace of 18.3% CAGR during CY2007-11. While traditional segments like Television and Print continue to account for the largest shares of the overall pie, it is emerging segments like Internet advertising, Radio and Animation and Gaming, which are expected to register higher growth. In terms of size, we believe that the Indian M&E industry has just touched the tip of the iceberg. In CY2007, the Indian M&E Industry accounted for a mere 0.9% of the Global M&E Industry, which stood at US $1,432bn and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.6% over CY2007-11.

A buoyant economy and extremely favorable demographics are the two key macro-economic constituents on which the Indian Media industry stands today. Media Industry generally tends to exhibit cyclical nature wherein it grows faster when the economy is buoyant and we believe the time is right for the Media industry to bask in the glory of India Shining story. In perspective, according to a McKinsey report (MGI India Consumer Report), if India continues on its steady growth path over the next two decades, a major transformation will take place in the Indian consumer market. Income levels will triple and result in India taking over as the fifth largest

consumer market (currently twelfth). Such strong growth and higher incomes will move over 291mn people out of desperate poverty and India's middle class will swell by almost ten times from its current size of 50mn to 583mn people (41% of population/ 128mn households) by 2025. Income growth will be the fastest in the urban areas where average real household incomes will increase by 5.8% whereas rural incomes will accelerate by 3.6% over the next two decades. Moreover, as higher disposable incomes propel consumer spending, more money will flow into leisure activities giving a steady impetus to M&E Industry. Besides the macro-economic factors, we believe steady advertising growth, liberal government regulations and convergence of diverse platforms will be the key growth drivers for the Media industry.

3.2 Print Media:

In CY2007, the Print Media segment in India stood at Rs149bn registering a yearly growth of 16.5%. Newspaper publishing, which accounts for 87% of the segment, registered a 16.6% yearly growth whereas Magazine publishing, which contributes the balance, grew at a marginally lower rate of 15%. Going ahead, Print Media is expected to deliver a 14% CAGR in overall revenues during CY2007-11 driven largely by advertising revenues as circulation growth is expected to witness a slowdown.


Newspaper publishing - Standing tall in India:

Contrary to popular belief and in defiance to global trends, Newspaper publishing still stands tall in India accounting for similar share of advertising pie as the popular idiot box (television). Newspaper publishing, a thriving business in India, generated Rs130bn in revenues during CY2007 out of which 61% came from advertising and the balance from circulation. In terms of advertising revenue growth, it once again outpaced television registering a robust 21.2% yearly growth during CY2007 as against 20.8% growth in advertising on television. Going ahead, the industry is expected to register a 13.9% CAGR in overall revenues during CY2007-11 largely driven by advertising revenue growth.

India has four news agencies namely, the Press Trust of India (PTI), United News of India (UNI),Samachar Bharti and Hindustan Smachar. Newspapers and magazines in India are independent and largely privately owned. About 5,000 newspapers, 150 of them major publications, are published daily in nearly 100 languages. Over 40,000 periodicals are also published in India. The periodicals specialize in various subjects but the majority of them deal with subjects of general interest. The country consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007 making it the second largest market in the world for newspapers. By 2009, India had a total of 81,000,000 Internet users comprising 7.0% of the country's population, and 7,570,000 people in India also had access to broadband Internet as of 2009 making it the 12th largest country in the world in terms of broadband Internet users. As of 2009, India is among the 4th largest television broadcast stations in the world with nearly 1,400 stations.


The first major newspaper in India, The Bengal Gazette-was started in 1780 under the British Raj. Other newspapers such as The India Gazette, The Calcutta Gazette, The Madras Courier (1785), The Bombay Herald (1789) etc. soon followed. These newspapers carried news of the areas under the British rule. The Times of India was founded in 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce by Bennett, Coleman and Company, a colonial enterprise now owned by an Indian conglomerate. The Times Group publishes The Economic Times (launched in 1961), Navbharat Times (Hindi language), and the Maharashtra Times (Marathi language). James Augustus Hickey is considered as the "father of Indian press" as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise, or the Bengal Gazette in January 1780. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay, the Bombay Herald appeared, followed by the Bombay Courier next year (this newspaper was later amalgamated with the Times of India in 1861). The first newspaper in an Indian language was the Samachar Darpan in Bengali. The first issue of this daily was published from the Serampore Mission Press on May 23, 1818. In the same year, Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya started publishing another newspaper in Bengali, the Bengal Gazetti. On July 1, 1822 the first Gujarati newspaper the Bombay Samachar was published from Bombay, which is still extant. The first Hindi newspaper, the Oodunt Marthand began in 1826. Since then, the prominent Indian languages in which papers have grown over the years are Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Bengali. The Indian language papers have taken over the English press as per the latest NRS survey of newspapers. The main reasons being the marketing strategy followed by the regional papers, beginning with Eenadu, a telugu daily started by Ramoji Rao. The second reason is being the growing literacy rate. Increase in the literacy rate has direct positive effect on the rise of circulation of the regional papers. The people are first educated in their mother tongue as per their state in which they live for e.g. students in Maharashtra are compulsory taught Marathi language and hence they are educated in their state language and the first thing a literate person does is read papers and gain knowledge


and hence higher the literacy rate in a state the sales of the dominating regional paper in that state rises. The next reason is being localization of news. Indian regional papers have several editions for a particular State for complete localisation of news for the reader to connect with the paper. Malayala Manorama has about 10 editions in Kerala itself and six others outside Kerala. Thus regional papers aim at providing localized news for their readers. Even Advertisers saw the huge potential of the regional paper market, partly due to their own research and more due to the efforts of the regional papers to make the advertisers aware of the huge market. Newspaper sale in the country increased by 11.22% in 2007. By 2007, 62 of the world's best selling newspaper dailies were published in China, Japan, and India. India consumed 99 million newspaper copies as of 2007 - making it the second largest market in the world for newspapers. Today this media is created at so large that its been admired at a world level. Along with the above-mentioned newspapers, other newspapers like Gujarat Samachar, Sandesh, Times of India equally contributed for the development of this field. The Big Divide - English v/s Regional: The Indian Newspaper industry is highly fragmented with more than 60,374 registered newspapers including 6,529 dailies. Hindi language newspapers comprise 44.6% of the registered dailies while English language newspapers comprise a mere 7.4% of the total.


According to the National Readership Survey (NRS) 2006, reach of the press medium (dailies and magazines combined) increased to 222mn in 2006 from 216mn in 2005. A higher percentage of population in the urban areas read any print media than their rural counterparts. English language newspaper readers are largely located in urban areas while the readership of Regional newspapers (Hindi and Vernacular dailies) is more evenly distributed between the urban and rural areas. Approximately 7.7% of the population in urban areas read English dailies, compared to a readership of only 0.3% in rural areas. By contrast, Hindi dailies have a proportionately larger readership in rural areas, in addition to their strong presence in the urban areas, with a readership of approximately 15.7% and 6.5% in urban and rural areas, respectively.

Print Media in India-Readership

Even in terms of overall readership, the Regional dailies (Hindi and vernacular dailies) dominate the pie with The Times of India being the only English daily to feature in the Top-10 list. Moreover, the Regional dailies have a readership: circulation multiple of 7-9 times compared with English newspapers of 2-3 times. This is primarily due to higher cover prices of Regional newspapers compared with English newspapers and the readers of Regional newspapers are generally from the lower socio-economic segment. Regional Newspapers enjoy a better distribution of readership TOI is the only English Newspaper to feature in Top 10.


Top Ten Newspapers by Readership

However, despite having higher number of registered newspapers, higher readership and a better proportionately distributed readership (urban + rural), the Regional dailies commands a lower share of the print advertising pie. English dailies (including Business dailies) attract the highest advertising revenues with approximately 50% of ad-spend followed by Hindi and other Indian language newspapers with approximately 25% of ad-spend each.


Chapter 4
1 . Print Media 2 . Characteristics of Print Media 3 . Strategies of Print Media 4 . Legal Bodies in Print Media 5 . Advantages of Print Media 6 . Disadvantages of Print Media 7 . Print Media other than Newspaper


4.1 Print Media:

Print media includes such forms as newspapers, periodicals, magazines, books, newsletters, advertising, memos, business forms, etc. Generally, Print Media refers to the world of newspapers and magazines, which informs its respective audience about the various happenings taking place around them and in the world and the following project is also based on this industry only that is newspaper industry. A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is declining in most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of a newspaper's income, is shifting from print to online; some commentators, nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television did not entirely supplant existing. For example: Yesterday while going to the city you might have seen an accident. Two buses have collided had by the mere sight you could make out that many passengers must have been or injured. You were busy with your daily engagements and forgot about the accident. Next day in the morning, you recalled that accident and wanted to know about the accident in details. Like how many passengers were killed or how many were injured or how the accident took place, etc. Where will you look for such details? In newspapers, of course. That is the thing, which will give you every news about the accident in details. Newspaper not only provides news of such incidents but also of various political, social, financial and entertainment news which is necessary and helpful to the society Notwithstanding the threat from Television and emerging media like Internet and Radio, the Print Media in India continues to dominate the M&E space attracting the highest revenues in terms of advertising.


4.2 Characteristics Of Print Media:

Print media characteristics are determined by the message, the delivery, and the production. When using print media, it is advantageous to know what you want to say and the best way to say it. Whether its direct mail, magazines, newspapers or fliers and business cards handed out in grocery stores, all are characteristics of print media fulfilling its determined purpose. 1) Mass circulation print media: Newspapers are the most common printed mass media. Delivered to the home or sold at a newsstand, newspapers can be published daily, or regularly over the course of a week or month. Newspapers have the advantage of providing quick, inexpensive, and tangible delivery of both news and advertising. You can't clip a pizza coupon from a radio advertisement. Magazines provide on a weekly or other periodic basis what the newspaper cannot: in-depth coverage and analysis of specific events or issues, not just the news of today. In most cases for newspaper and magazine print media, the information is a way to bring readers and potential customers to the advertisements. A few specialty newspapers and magazines are supported solely by subscription and stand sales but they are not the norm. 2) Delivery: Print media must get into the hands of the customer, the person who reads the material and responds to the advertisements. Home newspaper delivery does this in most areas. Mail delivery is another method. In fact, bulk mail delivery of printed newspapers, magazines, brochures, and newsletters represents one of the U.S. Postal Service's biggest revenue sources. Other methods are door-to-door delivery and distribution at places of large public gatherings: stores, sporting events, schools and even on busy sidewalks. Business fliers left at grocery checkouts can be worthwhile if only a few of the readers respond to them.


3) Print media production: Print media production means one of two things: ink or toner. Whether print media is printed in million-plus runs on a multi-million dollar web press or 1,000 copies off of a copier at a local print shop, the goal is the same: producing printed material that balances quality with price and the message with substance. Again, the versatility of print media allows a customer, an advertiser, politician or opinion maker to use a variety of options when producing print media to get out the word. Other characteristics are: 1. The print media like newspapers and magazines gives us an in-depth coverage and analysis of news stories around the world. These stories are permanent and readily available to the common people in times of need. The news stories can be read, re-read, and retained.

2. The timeliness of news in the print media is limited. Unlike the electronic media, they do not give us immediate news but it has the luxury of detailed representation, interpretation, and analysis. 3. Lot of variations are found in the print media in the forms of hard news, soft news, features, gossips, page 3 news, etc.Magazines serve special interests like fashion, food, politics, economics, etc.

4.3 Strategies of Print Media:

Four strategies that is been followed by this industry which helping newspaper to earn a good amount of profit not only today, but in future also. Among its other effects, the global recession of 200809 is catalyzing a permanent change in the media landscape. After years of gradual audience erosion, the pressure on newspapers and magazines has accelerated. Severe cutbacks in conventional advertising even when subscriptions or newsstand sales are robust are slicing deeply into publishers revenues and shredding

profitability. And it has affected print more than any other medium: Although overall advertising revenues fell by mid-single digits in 2008, newspapers, consumer magazines, and business-tobusiness trade publications saw print advertising declines of two to three times that. Performance has worsened so far in 2009. Print players have faced other cyclical downturns in which their businesses declined faster than other ad- supported media. But few print media companies can afford this time to simply batten down the hatches and ride out the current storm. The two major forces that are washing away the profitability of print media were at work long before the current recession and are now being exacerbated by the downturn. The first force is the ongoing shift in where marketers focus their spending. Marketers have accelerated shifts in spending away from paid advertising to other priorities including their own Web sites, in-store marketing, loyalty programs, and word-of-mouth campaigns and they arent likely to switch back. Spending on this type of below the line marketing (the industry term for categories other than paid media advertising) already represents three-quarters of most marketing budgets, having grown faster than paid media since well before the current recession. Below-theline programs will continue to capture the bulk of marketing spending as the economy recovers, placing a limit on the ad recovery that print media are counting on to restore their profits or even to ensure their survival. The second long-term trend devastating print profitability is the rise of digital media. Print has been hardest hit by this shift, since print ad pages are priced at a significant premium over other kinds of advertising, and marketers have been slower to cut broadcast and cable TV ad spending because of the value they place on sight, sound, and motion for brand campaigns. Even in the most optimistic scenario, print advertising would take many years to return to pre-recession levels. More likely, print media will follow the path seen in technology publishing, where more than half of ad pages disappeared after the tech bubble burst almost a decade ago, followed by declines in print ad revenues ever since. And although print media companies have taken a slice of the digital ad revenue pie, they must compete with a much broader, and expanding, set of rivals.


The steps that print media companies have taken to expand their share of marketing budgets and to succeed in the new digital environment have been largely unsuccessful. One obvious approach which many media commentators have called for is for publications to charge for their content online the same way they do in print. But journalism and information have become commodities on the Web. Only a few print publications, such as the Wall Street Journal, the Financial Times, and the Economist, are successfully charging for their content online. They are all specialized and oriented toward business professionals. Conversely, most general-interest publications that have experimented with paid content models have failed, including the august New York Times. A second approach moving entirely online without charging for content (shedding the costs of paper and distribution and counting on online advertising to make up for the loss of print revenues) has also had little success. Many new pricing models for online content have been suggested and are being experimented with including multi-title subscriptions, day passes, and micropayments the evidence so far suggests they are unlikely to succeed on a scale that would replace any significant fraction of the revenues from traditional but fast-disappearing print advertising. To anyone who cares about newspapers and magazines their publishers, their readers, their employees, the marketers who advertise in them, and those who recognize the value of journalism to a vibrant society the situation seems dire and unsolvable. But there is a way forward for print media companies that can help them adapt their business models to succeed in the new digital marketing environment. It is already visible in the efforts of some innovative players. A growing body of research tracking media companies that are succeeding in the new marketing environment and leading marketers who have successfully pursued innovative new digital strategies suggests that at least four strategies are available for the media company of the future. In the following sections, we examine the four success strategies in greater detail. 1. Build-Deeper-Relationship: Leading marketers recognize the power digital media has to start conversations with consumers. These marketers are pushing the boundaries of digital innovation, investing

in their own Web sites, mobile applications, and interactive kiosks in stores to deliver more targeted content for consumers. Procter & Gamble has built its own digital media assets in the home and beauty category, Nike targets runners and other athletes, and Diageo helps young adults find bars and nightlife. Companies with such private-label media offerings typically spend more money on them, than on conventional digital advertising. In many cases, private label media are designed to attract registered users, growing marketers own databases and enabling them to better target marketing messages and offers. These marketers recognize that as important as advertising is to growing and sustaining a brand the impact of that brand is based on much more than impressions delivered via advertising. Media companies continue to play a vital role in influencing consumers along the path to purchase. But print media have a privileged relationship with their readers, who trust the publications content and value its credibility. The decision to shop is often triggered by that relationship, whether it is with a print publication or with other targeted media such as cable networks and Web sites. In many categories, such as bridal magazines, fashion magazines, and shelter titles, the ads are valuable consumer content in their own right, trusted because of the context in which they appear. Newspapers are also bundles of interest areas, such as politics, entertainment, technology, auto, food, wine, and travel. Indeed, it is the quality of media companies branded environments around targeted interest areas that makes print media valuable for advertisers. Beyond the value of the environment for branding, print media also drive significant traffic to marketers own Web sites. Premium online environments, built on rich, exclusive content and applications, can enable print players to develop a still more intimate relationship with their readers. Consumers become more engaged and thus more willing to register and share personal data in exchange for offerings that are highly targeted to their interests and make it easier for them to connect with experts and others who share their interests. To date, however, most print media companies have fallen short in converting their readers into online registered users. They fear losing their audiences if they shield content behind a


registration wall. But a clear set of best practices is emerging for how to build a large database while still attracting a large audience. 2. Tap New Revenue Streams: The bulk of digital revenues for media companies will continue to come from advertising and sponsorship during the next few years. But maximizing revenue per name will play an increasingly vital role in building revenue streams and faster total income growth. Just as today in print, where media companies strike a balance between readers paying for content directly and marketers subsidizing access to it, media companies can continue to pursue both sources of revenue in the digital arena, recognizing that there are limits to the size of the audience they can generate if they charge consumers for content. They do not face all-or-nothing choices between ad-supported and paid content models, provided they slice up their content in ways that entice consumers to pay for some of it. These trade-offs were highlighted in a study Booz & Company conducted in the fall of 2008 with American Business Media (ABM), the trade association for business-tobusiness (B2B) media and information companies. The study, titled A Roadmap for Profitable Revenue Growth, discovered that ABM members are pursuing two equally viable transformation paths. The first path goes beyond expanding advertising, to reinvent the publishing model around a broader set of marketing solutions and services. These include custom content development, database marketing (building a set of names for marketers and developing targeted communications programs on their behalf), customer insights, and lead generation. These new revenue streams become separate, feebased businesses in their own right. The second transformation path focuses on delivering premium B2B content and applications that tap more deeply into professionals workflow needs, and providing highly specialized news and information. This includes offering premium newsletters that deliver deeper insights and must-have analysis, and assembling data, such as pricing information or supply chain details, that can serve as the glue in businesses workflow.


Among print media companies, two players that have innovated new models very successfully are Meredith and IDG. Meredith has built a marketing solutions business that is estimated at more than US$200 million in revenues, fueled in part by multiple acquisitions of targeted digital agencies for custom content creation, database marketing, and word-of-mouth campaigns. IDG has also reinvented itself as a marketing solutions business, migrating its business to digital and lead generation at a rapid clip and reinvigorating growth and profitability. Both companies capture revenues from a mix of their own premium environments and the private-label media that they build on behalf of clients. 3. Reinvent the Content Model: Growing revenues beyond traditional advertising and circulation models is only part of the profit equation for print media companies. They also need to dramatically lower their costs. Many newspapers and magazines have already begun to do so, but much more aggressive action is required. One or two rounds of 10 or 20 percent annual cost reduction is not sufficient to offset the advertising declines of the past few years, especially because print advertising is likely to continue to erode even after the recession. More targeted action is necessary that changes the way they approach content development. Print media companies need to employ a range of efforts, but first and foremost, they must focus resources on their profitable core and rebuild from that base. The profitable core is the set of print and digital content that most drives audience engagement around welldefined interest areas. It is only on those distinctive content assets that a media company can build a right to win, competing for attention against marketers, user-generated content, and other media companies. Identifying the profitable core requires thinking freshly about the zones or editions of a newspaper or magazine and eliminating sections that do not drive significant readership or advertising revenue. The New York Times, for example, cut the number of physical sections of the newspaper, combining the sports and business sections to better manage page count. The Detroit News cut the number of days for which home delivery is available, betting that the falloff in advertising from the eliminated days will be more than offset by the costs saved. Other papers have, of course,

gone to online only. Rationalization efforts also include focusing on a more targeted set of Web pages, continually tracking and evaluating areas of focus to profitably serve selected interest areas. At the same time, print players should explore new ways to align the cost of content with the revenues they generate from that content. For example, they should not rewrite wire copy, which is widely available online, but should use their resources better by delving deeper into its meaning or implications thereby cutting costs and increasing the output of brand-defining content. Editorial executives should also take a page from online players like, which go much further than print players in using paid external contributors, turning fixed costs into variable costs. They can also get others to contribute content for free, much as the Huffington Post builds a large volume of free online content from outside contributors looking to drive traffic back to their blogs or Web sites. Above all, these print players should focus their editorial spending on topics that drive consumer engagement. With print media companies in the unenviable position of having to cut costs or risk their very survival, new metrics for determining how to compensate journalists are critical. Print media should seek to move, where possible, to compensation models that link incentives to metrics based on the audience size and level of engagement that the content attracts. The Internet offers a way to better align the compensation that journalists receive with the value they create for their readers. For many publications, the right metric may simply be how many readers an article attracts and how engaged they are in terms of total page views or time spent. For others, however, such as leading publications that are defined by the quality and depth of their journalism and their thought leadership, new metrics may have to be devised to measure the influence or impact of an article. Of course, overall lower levels of compensation may be necessary. Finally, editors should embrace, not shun, user- generated content.


4. Innovate with New Products and Pricing: The emergence of the iPhone and Kindle has triggered a new round of discussion about how print players should reinvigorate their business models. Although it is not clear what impact these new platforms will ultimately have on the print industry, they are clearly aimed at two key unmet needs online: convenience and more flexible pricing. It is clear that when a significant share of consumers carries smart phones or other Webenabled devices, they will expect new and more convenient delivery and formatting of content. Print players have long recognized this, with newspapers being among the early adopters of wireless application protocol (WAP) sites, which encode content for mobile phone distribution. Today, print players continue to experiment with new digital editions as well as premium offerings delivered as e-newsletters, alert services, and downloadable content. They are also exploring new ways to leverage digital distribution for example, by providing new print-on-demand options that provide alternative formatting and customization options, as well as easy-to-use software to install in the home or office. Here again, innovation will be reinforced by unbundling the content offering and superserving targeted interest areas. Building out these interest areas means not just providing the same content in new formats, but also using applications that work with online, mobile, and other new devices to increase consumers willingness to pay for content or to register for it. The marriage of content and applications is at the heart of digital innovation, seen in applications such as search, social media, video players, recommendation engines, personalization, comparison shopping, photo sharing, and personal finance tools. At the same time, print players need to balance the risk of cannibalization (in which the audience migrates down to lower price points) with the upside of signing up new customers or up-selling existing customers.


Taking the Necessary Steps: The goal in all four success strategies is to build stronger relationships with audiences around their most passionate interest areas. Through bolder innovation, media companies can build communities around these interests, serving up the right combination of content and applications to provide real utility to consumers. Just as B2B publishers need to move more closely into their customers workflows through a combination of insights, applications, and more valuable data that builds on their existing offerings, consumer publishers need to get deeper into their audiences paths to purchase. This will maintain their relevance as consumers spend more time online and embrace the power of the Internet and mobile applications. In many ways, media executives face the same challenges as ad agencies: The evolving marketing and media ecosystem is placing Darwinian pressure on them to innovate and evolve, or risk becoming extinct. Some will surely rise to this challenge. If it isnt clear exactly how, thats because much of the experimentation is still in its earliest stages. However, the four strategies we have analyzed show that much is already coming into focus. The strategies that make media companies successful will require new capabilities: tracking and research to gain deeper insights into audience interests, informatics to manage and direct Web traffic, database management, custom content and applications development, and the ability to manage a network of partnerships. To acquire and scale up these capabilities, many media companies will need to partner with others. The survival of print media in some form is no small matter. At their best, newspapers and magazines enlighten, educate, and enable the smooth running both of the global economy and of civil societies. Today the pain is real, but their opportunities have rarely been so great. With aggressive action today to foster innovation and more aggressive cost management based on these new success strategies, media companies can position themselves for a bright future.


4.4 Legal Bodies:


The Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) of North America is a non-profit circulation-auditing organization. It is one of several organizations, operating in different parts of the world, that audits circulation, readership, and audience information for the magazines, newspapers, and other publications produced by their members. ABC is a forum of the magazine and newspaper publishers, advertisers, and advertising agencies, similar to BPA Worldwide. As a non-profit association, ABC is funded by dues and service fees by advertisers, advertising agencies, and publishers. ABC provides credible, verified information critical to the media buying and selling process by conducting independent, third-party audits of print circulation, readership, and Web site activity. ABC also maintains an electronic database of audited circulation and readership media. History: At the turn of the 20th century, publishers were ungoverned. A practice of inflating circulation figures to win advertising dollars was common. With little recourse, advertisers were forced to buy advertising based on exaggerated circulation claims. Determined to end deceptive industry practices, advertisers, advertising agencies and responsible publishers banded together to establish an industry organization to independently verify circulation. In 1914, ABC was created. The ABC founded in 1948 is a not for profit, voluntary organization consisting of Publishers, Advertisers and Advertising Agencies. It has done pioneering work in developing audit procedures to verify the circulation data published by those newspapers and periodicals, which have earned the right to display its emblem.

ABC as it is called and understood by all is a founder member of the International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations. The main function of ABC is to evolve, lay down a standard and

uniform procedure by which a member publisher shall compute its net paid sales. The circulation figure so arrived at is checked and certified by a firm of Chartered Accountants which are approved by the Bureau. The Bureau issues ABC certificates every six months to those publishers whose circulation figures confirm to the rules and regulations as set out by the Bureau. Facts and figures which are checked and certified by an independent body is a very important tool in the hands of the advertising business community. The details of ABC certified circulation figures are available online to all Members of the Bureau (at no extra cost.) An Advertiser would like to know the facts and figures before investing his money in advertising. An Advertiser ought to know how many people buy a publication and in which area. The ABC gives all these vital facts every six months. The ABC figures are not the outcome of opinions, claims or guesswork, but they are the result of rigid, in-depth and impartial audits of paid circulations of member publications by independent and leading firms of Chartered Accountants working in accordance with the rules / procedures prescribed by the Bureau.

Stages of ABC Audit:

First Stage : Newsprint Consumption Check : 1. Opening Stock of Newsprint with stock Register or Bank Certificate. 2. Purchases with invoices, Transport Documents, Goods Inward documents and Payment Vouchers 3. Print Orders, Newsprint issue Sheets, Machine Room Returns and Newsprint Stock. 4. Reconciled Newsprint Consumption with copies printed. Second Stage : Distribution Check : 1. Cash Sales - Cash Sales Records. 2. Subscription Sales 1. Subscribers Register with Postage Book. and

2. Subscribers' Register with Hand Delivery Book 3. Agency Sales 1. Agents' Sales Register with Railway / Air / Postage Book etc. 2. Agents' Sales Register with Returns Register. 3. Agents' Sales Register with Duplicate Bill Copies

Third Stage : Financial Reconciliation Check : 1. CASH SALES : 1. Cash Book with Cash Sales Register or Cash Sales Records. 2. Cash Book with Sales Account in General Ledger. 2. SUBSCRIPTION SALES : 1. Cash Book with Subscriber's Register. 2. Cash Book with Sales Account in General Ledger. 3. AGENCY SALES : 1. Agents' Sales Register with Agents' Ledger 2. Agents' Sales Register with Sales Account and Agents' Account in General Ledger. 3. Cash Book with Agents' Ledger 4. Cash Book with Agents' Account in General Ledger. Agents' Ledger with Credit Note Books. 5. Totals of Credit Note Books with Agents Accounts and Sales Account in General Ledger 6. Journal with Agents' Ledger and General Ledger. 7. Cash Book with Bank Pass Book.


Newspaper circulation:
A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day. Newspaper circulation rates are currently experiencing a downward trend. Circulation is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not always the same as copies sold, often called paid circulation, since some newspapers are distributed without cost to the reader. Readership figures are usually higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person. In many countries, circulations are audited by independent bodies such as the Audit Bureau of Circulations to assure advertisers that a given newspaper does indeed reach the number of people claimed by the publisher.


The Indian Newspaper Society (INS) acts as the central organization of the Press of India, an independent body authenticating circulation figures of newspapers and periodicals in India. It is an organization which plays a major role in protecting and promoting the freedom of press in India. The society was founded in the year of 1939. Its headquarters are at Rafi Marg, New Delhi. INS membership comprises the owners, proprietors and publishers of print media who discusses and suggest various measures to the government regarding the problems related to the newspaper industry. It is a kind of pressure group which works to protect the interest of newspaper industry in particular and print media in general. Indian newspaper industry today faces problems ranging from rising cost and paucity of newsprint to shrinking revenue from advertisement due to boom in electronic media. The executive committee of INS represents the current 990 members from newspapers, journals, periodicals and magazines.


At present Mr Hormusji N Cama, owner of Bombay Samachar [the oldest Indian and Asian daily still in circulation] is the president of INS [2008-09]. INS is hosting the annual congress of World Association for Newspapers (WAN) at Hyderabad in December 2009. History: The early beginnings of the Society can be traced back to October 11, 1927, when a Society bearing the name, The India, Burma & Ceylon Newspapers London Committee came into being, the name of which was changed to Indian & Eastern Newspaper Society (IENS) on October 4, 1935. This was an organization based in London representing and acting solely under the authority of newspapers, magazines, reviews and other journals published in India, Burma, Ceylon and other countries of Asia. The need, however, was felt for the establishment of a co-ordinating body in this country, comprising the proprietors of newspapers, which could deal directly and more expeditiously with the various day-to-day problems arising out of newspaper production. Thus The Indian & Eastern Newspaper Society came into being. It was inaugurated at a meeting of the representatives of the following founding publications on February 27, 1939, at the Statesman House, New Delhi, with Mr. Arthur Moore, Editor of the Statesman in the Chair, with the primary object was of serving as a Central Body for promoting the common interests of newspapers in India, Burma and Ceylon:

The Bombay Chronicle

2) The Times of India 3) The Rangoon Gazette 4) The Amrita Bazar Patrika 5) The Hindustan Times 6) The Hindustan Standard 7) Advance 8) The Pioneer 9) The Leader 10) The Tribune 11) The Civil and Military Gazette

12) The Hindu 13) The Madras Mail 14) The Statesman The original Articles of Association of the Society, prepared by Orr, Dignam & Company, were adopted on 27.2.1939. These underwent changes/modifications, from time to time. The Society was registered under the Companies Act 1913 on 12.10.1951. With the separation of Burma and Ceylon, after independence, the title of the Society necessitated a change and with the acceptance of the Registrar of Companies (accorded on 25.1.1988), the word Eastern was deleted and the Society acquired its present name, i.e. The Indian Newspaper Society (INS). The number of members of the Society increased gradually and in 1999-2000, stood at 709. The activities of the Society, development of its Corporate structure, interface with various organizations, governmental and non-governmental, etc. are briefly brought out in the ensuing paragraphs: Corporate Structure: The Society decided at its first meeting that its officers will consist of President, Deputy President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer and also a Committee five. It was also decided that the Secretary may also be the Treasurer. The Officers are to be selected at the Annual General Meeting of Members and shall be in office for one year. The President was responsible for running of the Secretariat; Secretary shall maintain all records; and the Treasurer shall be responsible for all the funds of the Society. The present Office Bearers of the Society are : Mr. T. Venkattram Reddy, President Mr. Kundan R. Vyas, Deputy President Mr. Ashish Bagga, Vice President Mr. Rakesh Sharma, Honorary Treasurer


Mr. Asutosh De was appointed as Secretary of the Society with effect from 1.8.1939. The position of the Secretary was upgraded and the designation changed to Secretary General in September 1997 when Mr. P.K. Lahiri, IAS (Retd.), formerly Secretary to the Government of India and also Executive Director, Asian Development Bank, Manila, assumed charge as the first Secretary General. In February 2005, Mr. Deepak Raja has joined INS as Secretary General. The Secretariat of the Society presently consists of Officiating Secretary General, Deputy Secretaries and other supporting staff. Mr. V. Shankaran is the present Officiating Secretary General. Membership: Eligibility of weekly publications to join the Society was discussed at the meeting on 27.6.1939 and it was agreed that the Societys rules did not bar them. In fact, the definition of Newspaper in the Articles of the Society includes periodicals. It was also agreed that weekly reviews and other periodicals admitted to membership should be liable to pay the same subscription as other members. An Agreement Form to be signed by all members of the Society embodying an undertaking by them to abide by the Rules and Rulings was adopted at the General Meeting held on 12.7.1943. The entrance fee for membership originally pegged at Rs.100/- and the Annual Membership subscription at Rs.1000/- underwent changes from time to time. Subsequently, the entrance fee was increased to Rs.500/- and the annual subscription rates were fixed on slab basis for big, medium and small member publications. The present annual membership subscription, which was revised in 1999-2000, is as follows: Small (Circulation below 20,000 copies) Rs. 3,500/Medium (Circulation between 20,001 & 50000 copies) Rs. 7,000/Big (Circulation above 50,001 copies) Rs. 10,000/In September 1938, Reuters, London, introduced A News Service to A subscribers on payment of Rs.1750/- per month. It was resolved that the agreement with them be terminated and a new agreement entered into from 1.5.1939 providing for a comprehensive A service of 1,00,000 words per month on payment of Rs.1600/- per month. It was also decided that newspapers

should combine to maintain a representative in the United States, so as to bring the Indian market to the American advertisers. Consequent ion change in the constitution of Reuters, proposals were put forward by the Society for a possible transfer of the ownership of the Associated Press (AP) to newspapers in India. During 1945, the Society took up the issue of transfer of the proprietarily control of the Associated Press of India to newspapers in India and a sub-committee was formed to frame concrete proposals. The Committee recommended that control of API be taken over by a Trust or similar organization. At the meeting of the Society held in October 1946, it was decided to form a new company, namely, the Press Trust of India (PTI), and its first Board of Directors was elected by the Society. The principal features of the Agreement between Reuters Limited and PTI included purchase of shares in Reuters, setting up an independent organization by PTI in London for collection and dispatch of Reuter news etc., subsequently, the Press Trust of India was set up as an independent news agency, primarily at the initiative of the INS.

Advertising Agencies Rules outlining the conditions to be fulfilled by the advertising agents for recognition were originally drawn up by IENS in London. These were adopted by IENS and it was resolved that the Rules would be binding on members in respect of all advertisement contracts henceforth entered into and that recognition of agencies not already recognized should only be accorded by the Society if the applicant complied with the Rules. Payment of commission was discussed at the meeting on June 27, 1939 and it was resolved that commission in excess of 15 per cent may continue to be paid to recognized agencies on existing contracts, but no commission in excess of the said percentage shall be paid on new business after 31.12.1940.In July 1940 an agreement was reached between the Society and the representatives of the leading advertising agents regarding commission payable, certificates of net sales and adoption of a standard form of contract for use by advertising agents.


In the Conference held in July 1941 between the Society and the representatives of leading advertising agents, it was agreed to set up a joint standing committee for consultative purpose on matters affecting the agents. In return, the agents agreed to accept 15 per cent as maximum commission from all member publications as from 1.7.1941, standing committee for consultative purpose on matters affecting the agents. In return, the agents agreed to accept 15 per cent as maximum commission from all member publications as from 1.7.1941. Standard Contract form acceptable to newspapers and advertising agents was finalized in December 1941 and adopted in December 1942. One of the major activities of the Society is the interface between member publications and accredited advertising agencies relate to monitoring payments to publications by the agencies. This is done through a system of Monthly Review Verification (MRV). Member Publications are expected to file MRV returns monthly showing the out standings, beyond the credit period, from agencies. This information is collated through a computerized system; and agencies whose arrears are high are taken up for intensive review and monitoring. Depending upon the arrears position of the agencies under monitoring, action is taken to enforce payment of dues to publications through instrumentalities such as issuance of warning/final warning letters or notice of disaccreditation.

The system of monitoring through MRV has been largely instrumental in keeping the arrears of agencies under check. The system is being further refined with the change over to a newly developed software for the purpose. Both publications and agencies are encouraged to resolve their disputes mutually and the Society does not intervene in such matters.


Newsprint Supply & Newsprint Control Order Newsprint is the life line of the newspaper industry and its supply, prices etc., have been under continuous review by the Society since inception. The outbreak of World War II in September 1939, led to interruption in supply of newsprint and it was decided to deal directly with the foreign exporters with the assistance of the Society in London. Representations to the Government of India led to the recognition of newspapers as an essential industry for priority for supply/shipment of newsprint to India.

Between May 1941 and April 1962, Government of India issued several Newsprint Control Orders. While the 1962 Order is still in force (of course with many modifications) the earlier orders were withdrawn. The Control Orders dealt with various issues including price, import restrictions on number of pages that a newspaper can print etc.. As a matter of fact, the newsprint industry comes under the jurisdiction of different ministries of the Central Government, including Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. Newsprint was one of the typical products which faced all the rigours of a regime of controls and the newspaper industry had to deal with several agencies, apart from the Ministries mentioned above like the Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI), State Trading Corporation (STC), Controller of Imports & Exports etc., India has been totally dependent on imported newsprint till 1955-56, when indigenous production was commenced by Nepal Mills in the public sector. At present, there are 56 newsprint mills in India with a capacity of about 9.5 lac tonnes per annum (as per information furnished by the Indian Newsprint Mills Association). Four of these newsprint mills are in the public sector, namely, Nepal, Mysore Paper Mills, Hindustan Newsprint Ltd., and Tamil Nadu Newsprint & Papers Ltd. Figures of indigenous production and import of newsprint are given below:-Newsprint was one of the typical products which faced all the rigours of a regime of controls and the newspaper industry had to deal with several agencies, apart from the Ministries mentioned above like the Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI), State Trading Corporation (STC), Controller of Imports & Exports etc.,


India has been totally dependent on imported newsprint till 1955-56, when indigenous production was commenced by Nepal Mills in the public sector. At present, there are 56 newsprint mills in India with a capacity of about 9.5 lac tonnes per annum (as per information furnished by the Indian Newsprint Mills Association) .Four of these newsprint mills are in the public sector, namely, Nepal, Mysore Paper Mills, Hindustan Newsprint Ltd., and Tamil Nadu Newsprint & Papers Ltd. Press Freedom: The Society has been vigilant in the matter of safeguarding the freedom of the Press and taking up specific cases with the concerned authorities urging immediate investigation as also taking remedial action. The Society has remained vigilant in taking up issues, from time to time, pertaining to attacks on newspaper personnel and establishments by anti social elements and attempts, sometimes by people in power to stifle the independence of the Press and pressmen Of late the matter of safety and security both on newspaper establishments and journalists and employees of newspaper establishments, while performing their duties has been a matter of extreme concern. The Society has been making continuous efforts to ensure that the newspapers could be published without fear and damage to the assets of newspaper establishments Objectives of INS: The objective of the Society which may be enlarged at any time as hereinafter provided are:To act as a central organization of the Press of India, Burma and Ceylon. To promote and safeguard such business interests of members as ae affected or are likely to be affected by the action of Legislatures, Governments, the Law Courts, municipal and local bodies and associations or organizations commercial or formed for any other purpose and to take such steps as may seem desirable to that end. To collect information upon all topics having a practical interest for members and to communicate the same to them.


To promote co-operation in all matters affecting the common interests of members. To hold periodical conferences of its members to discuss and determine action on matters of common interest. To make rules to govern the conduct of its members, to provide penalties for the infringement thereof, and to provide means of determining whether there has been such infringement. To maintain a permanent secretariat in India to watch over the interests of members and to permit of a constant interchange of information and views. To do or concur in doing all such other things as may be considered conducive or incidental to the attainment of the aforesaid objects or to the interests of newspapers in general or of the Society or any of its members unparticular.

RNI-Registrar of Newspaper for India

Every citizen publishing, or intending to publish, a newspaper or periodical, avails the services of Registrar of Newspaper for India. This Charter is a commitment of RNI to provide to every such person consuming prompt services in the transparent, equitable and accountable manner. Following are the services provided by RNI: 1) Title verification. 2) Registration of Newspapers. 3) Issue of revised/duplicate certificates. 4) Issue of entitlement certificate for procurement of indigenous newsprint for small/medium newspapers. 5) Authentication of certificate of registration for import of newsprint. 6) Issue of essential certificate for import of printing machinery/material. 7) Every request for a service shall be acknowledged within seven days of its receipt in the office of RNI Ceasing Declarations and Annual Statements will also be acknowledged in the same limit.

8) Every office of RNI will display prominently in its reception area the particulars of officers responsible services including redressal of grievances and the time when public can meet them. 9) All grievances will be acknowledged within seven days of receipt in RNI. 10) RNI always to suggestions for improvement of its services. The Office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India, more popularly known as RNI, came into being on July 1, 1956, on the recommendation of the First Press Commission 1953 and by amending the Press and Registration of Books Act 1867. The PRB Act contains the duties and functions of RNI. On account of some more responsibilities entrusted upon RNI during all these years, the office is performing both statutory as well as some non-statutory functions. Under statutory functions, the following jobs are covered:

Compilation and maintenance of a Register of Newspapers containing particulars about all the newspapers published;

Issue of Certificate of Registration to newspapers published under valid declaration; Scrutiny and analysis of annual statements sent by the publishers of newspapers every year under PRB Act containing information on circulation, ownership etc;

Informing district magistrates about availability of titles, to intending publishers for filing declaration;

Ensuring that newspapers are published in accordance with the provisions of PRB Act 1867 and the rules made thereunder;

Verification under Section 19-F of PRB Act, of circulation claims furnished by the publishers in their Annual Statements; and


The following fall under the non-statutory functions:

Formulation of Newsprint Allocation Policy - Guidelines and issue of Eligibility Certificate to the newspapers to enable them to import newsprint and to procure indigenous newsprint;

Assessing and certifying the essential need and requirement of newspaper establishments to import printing and composing machinery and allied materials

4.5 Advantages of Print Media:

1. Print media still provides publicity. 2. Because increased costs have shrunk news holes and increased the space devoted to advertising, less space is left for press release articles. But as news staffs also shrink, fewer staff members are available to write other types of articles. 3. Continuing layoffs and downsizing increases the opportunities for well-written press releases that provide newsworthy information. This requires knowing whats newsworthy and providing it through copy written in Associated Press style, and in objective language. 4. If your marketing plan includes publicity, print media still provides the opportunity to attract attention. 5. Online versions of print media help to keep online advertising affordable. 6. This is not so much an advantage of print media as the effect of providing print media content online. 7. Most print media now have an online version or at least a Web site. All the information placed online by print media keeps a constant stream of fresh new content for searchers. It also keeps down the price of advertising to reach those searchers. 8. Without print media providing their online versions loads of content, advertising space on good content sites would likely be more expensive. Plus many print media businesses will often provide a special discount if you purchase ad space in their print and online versions. This further keeps online web site advertising inexpensive.


9. Different types of print media (newspapers and magazines) have a loyal readership. This can be very useful for advertisers as compared to advertising on the Internet. 10. If you are targeting a particular geographical area, you can do so with ease through print media. For example, a local newspaper would be a best medium to advertise about a new shopping complex. 11. You can choose the size of the advertisement space. This will help you to plan the budget of the expenses to be incurred while advertising. 12. Certain forms of print media have a very loyal fans following in terms of readers. This would guarantee you added readership. 13. Magazines and newspapers are always in the eye amongst public. Magazines are read for a period of a month, which brings more attention to an advertisement. 14. You can even advertise through brochures or leaflets depending upon your target audience. If the information is in detail, a brochure can prove to be an apt option. A leaflet in that case, would be useful for a brief message 4.6 Disadvantages of Print Media:
1. 2.

The cost incurred can sometimes be expensive considering the medium you choose. The shelf life of any particular print medium is limited. Newspapers for example, are amongst the public eye only for a day.


This medium may not always give you a wide reach. Internet, on the other hand, can target a global audience.


There is a limitation in terms of the kind of people who may actually read your message. The particular newspaper may not actually be accessible every time to your target group, which means, your message may be missed! The Internet on the other hand, can be accessed from anywhere.


You may have to plan months in advance to advertise in print media. It does not offer you flexibility when you are faced with a tight deadline.


Advertisements may get lost in all the clutter of editorial and ads by competitors.


4.7 Print Media other than Newspaper:

1. Magazines 2. Newsletter 3. Brochures 4. Posters 5. Yellow Pages 6. Outdoor Advertising 7. Banner Advertising 8. Press releases Let us have a short idea about this also:

Magazines: Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three. Magazines can be distributed through the mail; through sales by newsstands, bookstores or other vendors; or through free distribution at selected pick up locations.


Newsletter: A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication generally about one main topic that is of interest to its subscribers. Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters.[1] Additionally, newsletters delivered electronically via email (e-Newsletters) have gained rapid acceptance for the same reasons email in general is gaining popularity over printed correspondence. Many newsletters are published by clubs, churches, societies, associations, and businesses, especially companies, to provide information of interest to their members, customers or employees.


General attributes of newsletters include news and upcoming events of the related organization, as well as contact information for general inquiries.


A brochure (also referred to as a pamphlet) is a type of leaflet. Brochures are most commonly found at places that tourists frequently visit, such as museums, major shops, and tourist information. Brochure racks or stands may suggest visits to amusement parks and other points of interest. Another type of brochure is interpersonal brochures, which are brochures based on other people. Then there are pamphlets that you can find in health clinics and hospitals that give help and advice to do with your health. The two most common brochure styles are single sheet, and booklet (folded leaflets) forms. The most common types of single-sheet brochures are the bi-fold (a single sheet printed on both sides and folded into halves) and the tri-fold (the same, but folded into thirds). A bi-fold brochure results in four panels (two panels on each side), while a tri-fold results in six panels (three panels on each side). Brochures are often printed using four color process on thick gloss paper to give an initial impression of quality. Businesses may turn out small quantities of brochures on a computer printer or on a digital printer, but offset printing turns out higher quantities for less cost. Compared with a flyer or a handbill, a brochure usually uses higher-quality paper, more color, and is folded


Posters: A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eyecatching and convey information. Posters may be used for many purposes. They are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are also used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous works, and are generally low-cost

compared to original artwork. Another type of poster is the educational poster, which may be about a particular subject for educational purposes.

Many people also collect posters, and some famous posters have themselves become quite valuable. Collectors' posters and vintage posters are usually framed and matted. Posters may be any size. 5. Yellow Pages: A particular Yellow Pages (YP) is a print directory which provides an alphabetical listing of businesses within a specific geographical area (e.g., Greater Chicago), which are segregated under headings for similar types of businesses (e.g., Plumbers). Traditionally these directories have been published by the local phone company, but due to the highly profitable nature of the business there are numerous independent directory publishers. Some YP publishers focus on a particular demographic (e.g., Christian Yellow Pages or Business Pages).Yellow Pages directories are usually published annually, and distributed for free to all residences and businesses within a given coverage area. The majority of listings are plain and in small black text, usually in the Bell Gothic or Bell Centennial typefaces. The YP publishers generate profit by selling advertising space or listings under each heading. Advertising may be sold by a direct sales force or by approved agencies (CMR's). Available advertising space varies among publishers and ranges from bold names up to four color twin page ads ("double trucks").


Outdoor Advertising: A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers. Typically showing large, ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the top designated market areas. Bulletins are the largest, most impactful standard-size billboards. Located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal arterials, they command high-density

consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic). Bulletins afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative "customizing" through extensions and embellishments. Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located chiefly in commercial and industrial areas on primary and secondary arterial roads. Posters are a smaller format than bulletins and are viewed principally by residents and commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure.

Banner Advertising: A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF, JPEG, PNG), JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java, Shockwave or Flash, often employing animation, sound, or video to maximize presence. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i.e. either wide and short, or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content, such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. For every unique user click on the ad, the affiliate earns money. The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser. This event is known as an "impression". When the viewer clicks on the banner, the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner. This event is known as a "click through". In many cases, banners are delivered by a central ad server. When the advertiser scans their log files and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad, the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. Usually though, advertisers use ad


networks to serve their advertisements, resulting in a revs hare system and higher quality ad placement. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question, although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag.


Chapter - 5
1. Advertising 2. Indian Print/Newspaper Advertising


5.1 Advertising:
Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging 'environmentally friendly' behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game and television viewing promotion, and a "lazy man" routine through a loss of exercise . Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement. In 2007, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $150 billion in the United States and $385 billion worldwide. With newspaper advertising, you have the choice to reach a large or small geographic collection of people. With National Newspaper Advertising, the coverage can be huge, but so

can the rates. What you have to do here is weigh up if the advertising costs can be justified. A classified advert in a national can cost around 30 per scc (single column centimetre) but is more likely to be around 50. A DPS (double page spread) in a national like the Guardian will be around 34,000. So, make sure that you set yourself a realistic budget when you look at the national's. However, with regional newspaper advertising, you have the advantage of selecting a local audience and this can be the best option if you are advertising a business on the doorstep of the audience in question. The rates are also a lot lower than national newspapers, and an advertisement will cost from just a few pounds to a couple of thousand. The advantages of print media enables you to send in the copy and have it displayed on the section you want within a few days. If it is a classified ad, this can be just 48 hours. The beauty of print media advertising is that you can be as creative as you wish, as long as you follow the guidelines set out by the newspaper. This will usually exclude nudity and strong sexual references in the copy and publishers will usually adhere to advertising standards legislation. Types of Advertising: Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Majorly there two kinds of Advertising. They are: 1) Physical Advertising 2) Digital Advertising 1) Physical Advertising: Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small,

narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. There are several tips on making a print ad stand out more. The attached hyperlink will show you a YouTube video about these tips Link label 2) Billboard advertising: Billboards are large structures located in public places, which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums. Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including: Target advertising, One-day, and long-term campaigns, Conventions, Sporting events, Store openings and similar promotional events, and Big advertisements from smaller companies. In-store advertising: In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. Celebrity branding: This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns

such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana. 2) Digital Advertising: Television advertising / Music in advertising: The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). The majority of television commercials features a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events. Virtual product placement is also possible. Infomercials An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and features, and commonly have testimonials from consumer sees the

advertised toll-free telephone

often demonstrate products and their

consumers and industry professionals.


Radio advertising: Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam. Product placements Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Space balls also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard. of banner



History of Advertising in India The dawn of Indian Advertising marked its beginning when hawkers called out their wares right from the days when cities and markets first began. It was then that the signages, the trademarks, the press ads and the likes evolved. Concrete advertising history began with classified advertising. Ads started appearing for the first time in print in Hickeys Bengal Gazette which was Indias first newspaper. Studios mark the beginning of advertising created in India as opposed to being imported from England. Studios were set up for bold type, ornate fonts, fancier, larger ads. Newspaper studios trained the first generation of visualizers and illustrators Major advertisers during that time were retailers like Spencers, Army & Navy and Whiteaway and Laidlaw. Retailers catalogues that were used as marketing promotions provided early example. Patent medicines: The first brand as we know them today was a category of advertisers. Horlicks becomes the first malted milk to be patented in1883. B Dattaram and Co. claims to be the oldest existing Indian agency in Mumbai which was started in 1902. Later, Indian ad agencies were slowly established and they started entering foreign owned ad agencies. Ogilvy and Mater and Hindustan Thompson Associate agencies were formed in the early 1920s. In 1939, Levers advertising department launched Dalda the first major example of a brand and a marketing campaign specifically developed for India. In the 1950s, various advertising associations were set up to safeguard the interests of various advertisers in the industry. In 1967, the first commercial was aired on Vividh Bharati and later in 1978; the first television commercial was seen. Various companies now started advertising on television and sponsoring various shows including Humlog and Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi. In 1986, Mudra Communications created Indias first folk-history TV serial Buniyaad which was aired on Doordarshan; it became the first of the mega soaps in the country. Later in 1991, First India-targeted satellite channel, Zee TV started its broadcast. 1995 saw a great boom in media boom with the growth of cable and satellite and increase of titles in the print medium. This decade also saw the growth of public relations and events and other new promotions that various


companies and ad agencies introduced. Advertising specific websites were born, one of them being agency faqs now known as a faqs.

Indian Print/Newspaper Advertising

Newspaper is the biggest and best medium to know whats happening around you. Every morning everyone wants to read a newspaper so that they can kick start their day. Being the biggest and popular medium, it is also the best source of advertising. Since post independence newspaper advertising in India has flourished. Nowadays there is a stiff competition in this field as there are various newspapers available in Indian market. Majority newspapers are of big brands and it means more newspaper advertising opportunities. Newspaper advertising in India is the best way to get maximum exposure. Herein by a simple advertisement you can capture maximum Indian market and reach large population.

According to the recent survey every Indian loves to read a newspaper and seeing Indias population we can say that newspaper advertising in India is the most lucrative option. This means at one go you can easily showcase your company and products to the entire India. The biggest advantage of newspaper advertising in India is that there are various newspapers in various languages. This means you can easily saturate your target audience and can advertise according to that.

By doing this you can easily reach and target your audience, moreover it is also the sure shot way to disseminate your message. It has been seen that majority big companies prefer to propagate their message via newspaper advertising in India as it is not only cheap but also very successful. The Indian print media it seems is hurtling down an uncertain road, riddled with potholes and barriers in its attempt keep with rapidly changing media habits of the great Indian middle class. The print media does not only have to jostle with stiff intra competition but rise up to the challenges posed by the external nemeses as well. These challenges are mainly coming from the electronic media. From a single T.V channel in 1991 there are currently over 150 channels,

beaming a variety of programs. Moreover, the number of news channels is also increasing by the day. Despite these predicaments, the potential for newspapers in India is huge. The national readership survey carried out by ORG Marg and A.C Neilson in 2002-2003, showed that there had been an addition of 21 million readers to the 179 million who read newspapers on a daily basis. English dailies accounted for more than half of this augment. There are almost twelve Indian newspaper giants that sell more than a million copies each. This translates into a total circulation of 16-17 million, which is a huge number by any conceivable standards. The advertising pie in India has rapidly increased since the liberalization policies enacted by the Indian government. Advertising revenues is growing at a rapid pace of 7% per annum. In this the print medium is still dominant with 37.3% market share in 2003 while the total share of T.V was 39.6%. Newspaper advertisements have a number of unique advantages that cant be ignored. Not only do they cost a lot less and can be inserted in any leading daily within 24 hours but also help in a better brand recall value. This is due to the fact that we are better able to remember things that we read, than the ones we see or hear. Moreover, the habit of reading newspapers is so deeply ingrained in the psyche of most Indian families, that most of us cant imagine sipping our morning tea without the newspaper in our hands. We all know that for business promotion there is strong need of effective advertising so as to make the brand recognizable worldwide. There are various means of advertising available, including newspapers, magazines, television, radio and Internet. In India, newspaper advertising is one of the oldest means of promotion for any product or service. Reading newspaper is a daily practice of many people in India, and due to this popularity of newspaper in India it is known to be a good medium of advertising. The success of newspaper advertising in India is due to its wide reach and visibility. Through advertising in newspapers, you can target the Indian market on a wider scale as well as get in contact with a large group of people. So, it would not be wrong to say that through newspaper advertising you can advertise your product or service at one shot among a large group of people. Another beneficial factor of newspaper advertising in India is that it has different newspapers in


different languages, and in this way you can easily capture your target group and advertise accordingly to meet your business objectives. Newspaper advertising in India has many distinctive advantages if compared to other means of advertising and these advantages cannot be ignored. You need not have to pay huge amount of money for newspaper advertising, the cost is very economical. Also the advertisements can be inserted in any popular newspaper in just 24 hours. Moreover it helps in a better brand recall value. Almost every Indian likes reading newspaper so as to remain updated with latest happenings in and around the society, hence it is the best way to get maximum publicity. Hence, we can say that newspaper advertising saves time, money and effort as compared to other modes of advertising. There are many newspapers in India that are directly or indirectly associated with advertising like Hindustan Times, Times of India, The Statesman, The Pioneer and so on. Various business magazines available in the market offer all necessary information and updates about the advertising world. These business magazines do have current statistics and market prices of newspaper advertising. You can also search over the internet for recent updates in the field of newspaper advertising. Advertising and marketing are perhaps two of the most lucrative fields in the corporate world. There is no end to the methods by which advertisers and marketing service agencies can forward their concepts to the general people, who are basically the consumers as well. It is also lucrative because there is unlimited space for creativity and conceptualization in creating saleable ideas. In the modern day world, one can name a number of platforms for the presentation of advertising and marketing ideas. With the progress in technology, the advertising world stands at a great advantage of scaling newer heights of success. The Indian advertising industry has also come of age and created an impressive status for itself in the global scenario. Although there are various platforms for advertising and marketing of products and services, such as newspaper advertising, television advertising, business magazine advertising, radio advertising, internet advertising, etc, yet newspaper advertising is perhaps the most conventional and the most popular choice for many advertisers. Newspapers are still the most preferred choice amongst people who want to get a taste of the latest events and happenings early in the morning. Newspapers act as an effective means of public relations between the readers and the news providers. The fact that newspapers are so much popular among people of all ages, and especially when they cater to a


wide range of topics related to society, advertisers and marketing agencies view newspapers as an effective tool for promoting their products and services. Newspaper advertising has come of age and broken all grounds to present the most innovative of concepts and ideas for readers. Moreover, the presentation of news and advertisements on colored pages and better paper materials makes it even more lucrative for advertisers to employ the service of newspapers in showcasing their products and services. In India, where there are such a huge number of newspapers in many languages doing the rounds of the entire country every morning, various advertising and marketing agencies view this as a possible opportunity to promote their creations in the most attractive manner on print. With the existence of a number of online media advertisers in the thriving Indian market, Pitch on Net is one of the many publications, which highlights the most important news on the latest market trends, provides consultation, and a host of other services. Its online version covers all the necessary details on advertising and marketing, taking into account the various modes and their advantages. Marketing and advertisement are the means by which an organization relates itself to its audience and interacts in the market. Marketing in advertising is a very complex business and it emphasizes on new ideas, technologies and lifestyle trends. There are new advertising and promotional methods that need to assess and compare with traditional available methods that is more or less cost-effective. We constantly provide you with new available methods that keep you up with developments so you can make informed decisions about where to put your advertising emphasis like internet advertising etc. Though it is difficult to measure the response from the advertising as it inevitably involves a bit of calculated guesswork but still we suggest that it is better to keep the records of what you did, when, to whom, for how much and what resulted. This may make your task much easier. We offer you with some basic rules for good marketing and advertising such as try to keep it simple that is ideally suited for targeted audience. Provide as much updated information as possible with fancy graphic and less complicated visual effects so that they are properly conveyed to the large masses of people. The banner is the attention part that closely relates to the reader about the concerned issues. Create of desire and action that relates benefits to the reader so that they are interested and influenced.


Make a prominent message that benefits the marketing and advertisement. Not to forget, always highlight a single impressive benefit, quickly and simply as it offers an impressive, relevant benefit to the reader. This benefit should ideally contain the business brand name. Also, try to use simple vocabulary and language in order to communicate with the audience at the same level. The message of your advertisement must be quick and easy to absorb with clear fonts and language. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts and avoid any complicated words. Make the message easily readable with description in such a way that the customer can visualize their personal involvement and affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. Generally, it has seen that people respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. So try to develop a proposition that is special or unique. One must try to emphasize what makes service special. One must try to claim superiority over the competitors; one should put as much emphasis as you can behind your USP (unique selling point) by displaying the references or testimonials.


Chapter - 6
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

About the Company Services Infrastructure Process Growth Talent and reason Advantages




6.1 About the Company

ONE changes the whole picture One is an institution which provides total communication solutions to the brand. They help the various brands to reach to its respective consumers through their unique way of advertising which attracts the consumers towards the product. They simultaneously help the consumers to

buy the product which exactly fits their requirement. One was established with goal to reach end users and to make them avail their requirements in the most easily and rapid manner. They firmly believe to provide total communication solutions at the Right Place, at the Right Time, at the Right Price. The following are the Philosophy of the One


1. Business is just the survival of the fittest and who knows it better than us ? 2. We believe in giving the best in all our deliverables 3. A simple pre-briefing, a brainstorming session or a massive media planning exercise We put our best foot forward

At ONE, they employ creativity as a means to the end and not the end itself. We offer practical and innovative solutions and our strategies are aimed at making your brands successful in the long run. 6.2 Services:

'If you have nothing different to say, say it differently'

Here's a place where you find the confluence of right brain solutions and a leftbrain approach

Out of the box extravagance makes way for pragmatic strategies

The message is clear - strategy works


6.3 Infrastructure
A key element of the success we have attained so far is our infrastructure

Fully furnished air conditioned office at prime location MAC and high-end IBM machines Laser color, B/W printers, A3 TP Scanner Telephone lines, email and Internet connection, fax, etc. Visual library, all licensed latest designing softwares Proficiency in printing technology... resource pool of processors, printers, fabricators


6.4 Process:
Traveling on the right path leads to the right destination There are standard operating procedures for every action The result of every action is by and large assured right at the outset


6.5 Growth

There is only ONE way Right people, right practices, right place and growth are integral to ONE

In just four years, we've gone from a modest one client to an enviable client list that includes industrial giants

Together, we have created a synergy of growth that in one word reads PHENOMENAL


6.5 Talent and Reason: Talent:

'To encourage talent is to create it'is the ONE policy

We have recruited people with the right attitude and extraordinary talent

From designing a press campaign or media buying, we have a team blessed with experience, dynamism and skills

Simply put, a team with a 'WE CAN' attitude Reason Innovation is at times simpler than you think! ONE is an agency with innovative but cost effective solutions ONE takes you away from the routine of pre-conceived solutions We help you explore simpler and more specific answers to the marketing communication issues


6.6 Advantages:

Exclusivity The golden rule at ONE Communication As good as its impact on brands performance Versatility Expertise in variety of communication tools & media





1. AGE -: 1) <=10 ., 2) 11-20 ., 3) 21-30 ., 4) 31-40 .., 5) 40>

Chart Title
Q2-<=10 Q2-31-40 Q2-11-20 Q2-40> 14% 17% 29% Q2-21-30

19% 21%

This analysis helps us in identifying the maximum age group which reads newspaper. The result says that age group between 21-30 reads maximum newspaper, 29%. The reason for this age group of people refers newspaper not only just to read news but also for job search, matrimonial, etc. so the consumption of newspaper increases. Whereas <=10 is gaining minimum percentage, 14% .This a childhood age. Kid just starts learning the different alphabets, numbers, converting alphabets into words. Newspaper helps them in by giving a good collection of vocabulary along with language knowledge. 11-20 is gaining 17%, this is a growing age, and awareness of reading newspaper gradually increases, along with gradual growth in academics. 31-40 is gaining 21%. Generally this group of individuals prefers to read newspaper either in the morning or in the leisure time as they are busy to increase their progress graph, and devotes less time in reading news paper. 40and above age is gaining third place, 19%. Generally after 40 people prefer to stay a peaceful life, tense free life, away from the world. They read newspaper just to pass the time and thus loves to stay busy with their family.


2. SEX -: 1) MALE ., 2) FEMALE ..

Chart Title
Q3-Male Q3-Female



This is the answer to the question which sex consumes more newspaper, that is reads more newspaper?Looking at the pie chart one can find that there is very minor difference as female gains 49% and male 51%. Generally females read newspaper in noon time, if working then depends upon the time they get. Male are considered as a human addicted to the newspaper and at least want newspaper to read once in day.

3. OCCUPATION -: 1) Student ... 2) Service ., 3) Business.

Chart Title
Q5-Student Q5-Business Q5-Service

29% 37%



From the received data we get that the individuals doing job/service read newspaper more than the other two sectors, student and business. Service sector has got maximum percentage, that is, 37%. Whereas student are gaining 34%. Seems that they are much busy in studies. Its generally believed students read very less newspaper, but trends seems to be changing, businessman refer newspaper less as per this survey, they are gaining 29%


Chart Title
Q7-1 Q7-2 Q7-3


25% 35%

A very interesting and encouragement giving result. Readers prefer and subscribe newspaper in both the languages, English and Gujarati. 40% of total subscribe newspapers in Gujarati and English language. There are various reasons for it. Some subscribe it to learn both languages together; some might to teach their children both languages along with motive to get maximum knowledge about surroundings and world. Further some are subscribing either if newspaper because they are subscribing that language paper from long, what we say as customer loyalty. 35% of the total subscribes Gujarati newspaper only as its the regional language. Whereas 25% of total prefer English newspaper. This might be because English could be their mother tongue


Q8-TOI Q8-DNA Q8-AM Q8-AA 3% 0% 0% Q8-HT



This data predicts something new and once again interesting. Ahmedabad Mirror, a year before introduced paper is gaining a huge amount of attention from the audience. 57% percent of the total are reading Ahmedabad Mirror which is very much beneficial for Benette & Colman company. People are subscribing this newspaper as they find it more trustworthy and relevant. It is helping the company to earn the maximum profit out of total market share along with gaining good market position. TOI is receiving 40%, again coming from the same company. If we come to HT then it has gain only 3% and the other two 0%. Seems that people a strongly addicted to AM and TOI.



Chart Title
Q9-ET Q9-FE Q9-BS Q9-None Q9-IB


0% 0%5%


Economic Times is enjoying by maximum of readers 6% from the received data.Whereas Business Standard gains 5%. People are very less aware and encouraged in reading Financial Dailies and therefore one need to do something very effective to increase the sales of the financial dailies, especially in Ahmedabad.



Chart Title
Q10-GS Q10-DB Q10-JH


Q10-SANDESH Q10-SAMBHAV Q10-JANSATTA 0% 0% 29% 25% 46%

Gujarat Samachar is enjoying the maximum readership of 46%. Its even enjoying its position by being one the very oldest Gujarati Daily in Gujarat. People are subscribing this newspaper as they find it more trustworthy and relevant. Some are even found addicted to this paper that is this paper has a strong customer loyalty. Sandesh and Divya Bhaskar are having 25% and 29% of readership strength. Jay Hind and Jansatta have received failure in making their product reach to the market


Chart Title
Q11-Qualitative and Realistic News Q11-Quantative and Realistic News Q11-Attractive News Q11-Reasonable News

25% 24%

13% 23% 15%

Size matters a lot and in the case of newspaper also this does matters. After the introduction of AM people are willing to purchase the newspaper in tabloid size. Reason for this is, AM is small in size and easy to carry with individual. It has gain 25 %( max.). It is even cheaper than the other newspaper and so now people are expecting the publication companies to print more newspaper in tabloid format. If size does matter then price also does and people are willing to purchase paper which costing Re.1 or at the max Rs.2. above all quality plays a major role and people are expecting to get qualitative and realistic news, 23%. Quantitative and realistic news is getting 15% and Looks 14 %.( min)


Chart Title


As we all generally do, 60 %( max.) of respondents read newspaper with morning tea. 18% while sitting idle. Generally females read the newspaper in the noon time after completing household work and while taking some rest in the noon, 9%, while travelling very few people read newspaper according to this survey, 7% and at office, 6%(least)


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Humor columns have received maximum percentage of 20 %( max.). People are willing to laugh with intellectual view point. Editors column has received 18%. Music columns stand second in a row with 22%, whereas advice and food columns receive equal 12%(least)



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This helps us to identify the kinds of add readers like to least more and least Sports - 21 %( max.)

Adults- 19% Buildings-bungalows -17% Auto-mobiles -16% IT related -14% House-hold items -3% (least)



Chart Title

15% 16%

17% 24%


Its but obvious that one would love to read national news more than international and so it has receive maximum percentage, 24 %( max.). After getting national news, comes regional in which we stay and so it 22% of respondents even feel that regional news should be given more preference. Again local news, surrounding news receives 16%. Very few are interested in knowing the financial news and so just15% of the respondents has given it maximum preference. But almost none wants to read crime news and so has got only 6 %( least).



Chart Title

Again Tabloid format comes into existence. After a revolutionary launch of Ahmedabad Mirror people feel much comfortable with that format of newspaper. Small, cheap, covering every almost news in detail, etc. thus it gains 37 %( max.) of the overall respondents. Berliner is also ranked 1 by 29%percent of respondents. Compact size is also liked by 24% of respondents but broadsheet size is losing its position to 10 %.( least) 13.KINDS OF SUPPLEMENTARY YOU PREFER? RANK THEM IN 1-6(1 BEST 6 LEAST) 1) HEALTHCARE 2) FOODING .. 3) EDUCARE 4) FILMY DUNIYA 5) CORPORATE WORLD .. 6) BAL JAGAT ..


Chart Title

17% 8%

13% 19%



Now a days people are more education conscious and so maximum number of respondents have ranked it 1, 22 %( max.). Filmy Duniya has also gain good importance and 21% of respondents have ranked tit 1. Some people love to eat varieties of Food and different cuisines and 19% of respondents have marked it 1. Whereas Healthcare and Bal-Jagat are ranked1 by 13% and 8%(least) of respondents. Statistical Mean Analysis of Ranked Data 1). ACCORDING TO YOU WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF AN IDLE NEWSPAPAER? RANK THEM IN 1-5(1 BEST 5 LEAST) 1) QUALITATIVE AND REALISTIC NEWS . 2) QUANTITATIVE AND REALISTIC NEWS 3) ATTRACTIVE LOOKS . 4) REASONABLE PRICE 5) TABLOID FORMAT ..


Chart Title
Series1 3.11 2.93




The lowest mean got from the above data is 2.33, Qualitative and Realistic News , which states that people expect more of quality news then other aspects mentioned above


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Series1 3.45 2.86 2.86 2.7 2.63 2.56


Food column with minimum mean, 2.56 stands first in the row. People according to the received data love to read food columns more than the other mentioned columns. 3).WHAT KINDS OF ADDS WOULD YOU GENERALLY PREFER? RANK THEM IN 1-7 (1 BEST 7 LEAST) 1) FASHIONS 2) SPORTS . 3) ADULTS . 4) AUTO-MOBILES 5) BUILDINGS-BUNGLOWS . 6) IT RELATED 7) HOUSEHOLD ITEMS

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Series1 3.51 3.78 3.83 4.35 3.83

2.78 2.66

Generally people find sport adds to read. Sports ads are with minimum mean of 2.66, is the most preferable ad to read.




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People are more keen to read National news then International or other news. The mean of National News stands to 2.09,lowest in mean and number in rank. But one should even consider the difference between the readership of International and National news, 0.31, very minor. This states that now the graph of readership is moving to International News



Chart Title
Series1 3.09 3.5 4.45 2.47 2.51 3.19

Educare receives minimum mean with ranking one in the line. People prefer more to read the supplementary which gives them educative knowledge, than other supplementary.


Chapter 8
1. Findings 2. Utility 3. Limitations 4. Suggestions


8.1 Findings:
By survey we find that customers are quite unsatisfied with the newspaper they are subscribing and want something more, know-ledged and innovative. Customer satisfaction is one of the most important part for any Newspaper. Quality of paper and other materials used in printing a paper should be qualitative.. As the time has passing the customer satisfaction level is decreasing on the Newspaper and Electronic Media is taking a rapid place in their minds.

8.2 Utility:
For Company: It could be used to find out the weak spots which could be changed to gain more customer satisfaction. Any Newspaper publishing company could find out its position in customers eye with the help of our Project. Some suggestions could be really beneficial to increase companys productivity.

For Customers: If company makes changes to improve its weak spots than customer will surely benefit. Customer would get their goods timely and without any damage. Thus price could also be reasonably for both of the parties.

For College: Students can review this work to get a better idea of Print Media and especially about the Newspaper.


8.3 Limitations:
The study also faces various limitations in the field of data collection, analysis and in preparing the detail report on Print Media services, the following limitations are: Due to time limit it creates the restriction on the area of the study It seems to be a little costly for us. Some of the people are suggesting something new, which is not at possible. As project is based on potential users, so it is very difficult to get genuine answers from such people. The study is based on an Descriptive research, and mostly data is collected through a questionnaire, so researcher faces various difficulties in data collection and analysis of the data. As the research results is totally based on the opinion on the people, so here researcher face the problem in findings a conclusion, because there are lot of different views of the people for Newspapers Sometimes it is very difficult to understand customer opinions & their suggestion, while filling up a questionnaires, so researcher have to make their suggestions in a proper format

8.4 Suggestions:
1. One suggestion was that newspaper should not encourage the crime news or any such news which affects the nervous system of a human being, after a certain extent. 2. Another was not disclosing such adds which has nudity. 3. Language should be easy and good. There must be informative and entertainment proportional to each other. 4. News covered should be unbiased. 5. The Newspaper should be informative as well as attractive and the prices should be at apr with the news and material they cover. 6. In Newspapers first page should be index covering the matters point wise mentioned in the paper.

7. Good Newspaper should publish the actual and unbiased data.


Chapter 9
Reference: Advertising and promotion by George & Michael Google



Chapter 10 APPENDIX

1) N AME -: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) AGE -: 1) <=10 ., 2)11-20 ., 3)21-30 ., 4)31-40 ..5)40> 3) SEX -: 1) MALE ., 2) FEMALE .. 4) LOCATION(AREA) -: ----------------------------5) OCCUPATION -: 1) Student ... 2) Service ., 3) Business. 6) PHONE(O/M) -: -----------------------------------7) WHICH LANGUAGE NEWSPAPER YOU SUSCRIBE -: 1) ENGLISH .., 2) GUJARATI .., 3) BOTH .

8) WHICH ENGLISH NEWSPAPAER YOU SUBSCRIBE? WHY? (1) TIMES OF INDIA .. (2) AHMEDABAD MIRROR .. (3) HINDUSTAN TIMES .. (4) DNA .. (5) ASIAN AGE .. REASON-: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9) WHICH FINANCIAL DAILY YOU REFER TO? WHY? (1) ECONOMIC TIMES .. (2) BUSINESS STANDARD (3) INDIA BULLS ..

(4) THE FINANCIAL EXPRESS (5) NONE REASON-: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10) WHICH GUJARATI NEWSPAPER YOU SUBSCRIBE? WHY? 1) GUJARAT SAMACHAR . 2) SANDESH .. 3) DIVYA BHASKAR 4) SAMBHAV .. 5) JAY HIND 6) JANSATTA ..

REASON-: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11) ACCORDING TO YOU WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF AN IDLE NEWSPAPAER? RANK THEM IN 1-5(1 BEST 5 LEAST) 1)QUALITATIVE AND REALISTIC NEWS . 2) QUANTITATIVE AND REALISTIC NEWS 3) ATTRACTIVE LOOKS . 4) REASONABLE PRICE 5) TABLOID FORMAT ..






18) OTHER SUGGESTIONS -: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Medium TV Press Radio Cinema Outdoor Internet Total

Year of growth in 2008(%) 22 18 40 50 14 45 20

Leading newspaper in India





9.6 9.4

7.4 4.1