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Example (Section 4.3): A radial gate in a water reservoir is shown in cross-section. The gate is 10 m wide in the horizontal direction.

(a) Determine the net horizontal and vertical fluid forces acting on the gate and their lines of action. (b) What resultant moment do these forces produce about the pivot, O? (N.B. This question can be answered without any calculations).
Patm

20 m

Patm

O Water = 1000 kg/m3

(NOT TO SCALE)

R=6m

:= 1000

kg/m3

g := 9.81

m/s2

Since Patm contributes to pressure on all faces of the gate, the net forces are found by considering just the hydrostatic pressure distribution. (a) Horizontal and vertical forces on gate and lines of action (i) Horizontal force, FH Consider the vertical projection of the gate

yC = 23 m yR

20 m

XC

XC

C FH R

6m

h := 6
y

m m

b := 10

y C := 23

2300_Example_Sec4.3

FH = PCV AV

PCV = g y C AV = b h

pressure at centroid of vertical projection area of vertical projection

then

FH := g y C b h

FH = 1.354 10

FH acts through the centre of pressure of AV (point R) IXcXc y C AV + yC where from the course manual, for a rectangular area b h IXcXc = 12
3

yR =

b h

then

y R :=

12

y C b h

+ yC m from the surface (0.13 m below the centroid)

y R = 23.13

(ii) Vertical force, FV FV acts vertically upward and is equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water sketched
V
20 m

FV = g V and acts through the centroid of the volume.

6m

O 10 m

The volume is made up of two simpler volumes: a rectangular cube and a quarter cylinder. We can work out the vertical forces and lines of action separately for each of the volumes and then determine the resultant force and line of action.

2300_Example_Sec4.3

then
FV1 20 m C1 xC1

FV = FV1 + FV2

and

FV1 := g ( 6 20 10) FV1 = 1.177 10

7

FV2 C2 xC2

1 2 FV2 := g 6 10 4
6m

)
N

FV

FV := FV1 + FV2 FV = 1.455 10

7

To fine the resultant line of action of FV, we use the fact that it must produce the same moment about any axis (such as O) as FV1 and FV2 do together i.e. FV x = FV1 xC1 + FV2 xC2 xC1 := 3 m 4 r xC2 = 3 4 6 xC2 := 3 xC2 = 2.546 then x := FV1 xC1 + FV2 xC2 FV m for a 1/4 circle, from the manual

and

x = 2.914

2300_Example_Sec4.3

(b) Moment about pivot, O, (Could the hydrostatic pressure force inadvertently open the gate?) Consider the hydrostatic pressure distribution acting on the gate

PR

dFR

The line of action of the pressure force on every section of the gate passes through O. Thus, the pressure distribution produces no moment about O. As a result, the mechanism that opens the gate only needs to overcome the weight of the gate itself, not any unbalanced moments due to the water.

2300_Example_Sec4.3