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Law

Law1 is a system of rules and guidelines, usually enforced through a set of institutions.2 It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivatives markets. Property law defines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal (often referred to as chattel) and real property. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, while tort law allows claims for compensation if a person's rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalised in a statute, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between Sovereign States in activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, "The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual."3 Legal systems elaborate rights and responsibilities in a variety of ways. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, which codify their laws, and common law systems, where judge made law is not consolidated. In some countries, religion informs the law. Law provides a rich source of scholarly inquiry, into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis or sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness and justice. "In its majestic equality", said the author Anatole France in 1894, "the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets and steal loaves of bread."4 In a typical democracy, the central institutions for interpreting and creating law are the three main branches of government, namely an impartial judiciary, a democratic legislature, and an accountable executive. To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public, a government's bureaucracy, the military and police are vital. While all these organs of the state are creatures created and bound by law, an independent legal profession and a vibrant civil society inform and support their progress.
1From Old English lagu "Words of Mel"; legal comes from Latin legalis, from lex "law", "statute" ( Law, Online Etymology Dictionary; Legal, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary) 2Robertson, Crimes against humanity, 90; see "analytical jurisprudence" for extensive debate on what law is; in The Concept of Law Hart argued law is a "system of rules" (Campbell, The Contribution of Legal Studies, 184); Austin said law was "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction" (Bix, John Austin); Dworkin describes law as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice (Dworkin, Law's Empire, 410); and Raz argues law is an "authority" to mediate people's interests (Raz, The Authority of Law, 336). 3n.b. this translation reads, "it is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens: upon the same principle, if it is advantageous to place the supreme power in some particular persons, they should be appointed to be only guardians, and the servants of the laws." (Aristotle, Politics 3.16). 4The original French is: "La loi, dans un grand souci d'galit, interdit aux riches comme aux pauvres de coucher sous les ponts, de mendier dans les rues et de voler du pain" (France, The Red Lily, Chapter VII).

Legal subjects
All legal systems deal with the same basic issues, but each country categorises and identifies its legal subjects in different ways. A common distinction is that between "public law" (a term related closely to the state, and including constitutional, administrative and criminal law), and "private law" (which covers contract, tort and property).5 In civil law systems, contract and tort fall under a general law of obligations, while trusts law is dealt with under statutory regimes or international conventions. International, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law, contract, tort, property law and trusts are regarded as the "traditional core subjects",6 although there are many further disciplines .

International law
International law can refer to three things: public international law, private international law or conflict of laws and the law of supranational organisations. Public international law concerns relationships between sovereign nations. The sources for public international law development are custom, practice and treaties between sovereign nations, such as the Geneva Conventions. Public international law can be formed by international organisations, such as the United Nations (which was established after the failure of the League of Nations to prevent the Second World War),7 the International Labour Organisation, the World Trade Organisation, or the International Monetary Fund. Public international law has a special status as law because there is no international police force, and courts (e.g. the International Court of Justice as the primary UN judicial organ) lack the capacity to penalise disobedience.8 However, a few bodies, such as the WTO, have effective systems of binding arbitration and dispute resolution backed up by trade sanctions.9

5Although many scholars argue that "the boundaries between public and private law are becoming blurred", and that this distinction has become mere "folklore" (Bergkamp, Liability and Environment, 12). 6E.g. in England these seven subjects, with EU law substituted for international law, make up a "qualifying law degree". For criticism, see Peter Birks' poignant comments attached to a previous version of the Notice to Law Schools. 7History of the UN, United Nations. Winston Churchill (The Hinge of Fate, 719) comments on the League of Nations' failure: "It was wrong to say that the League failed. It was rather the member states who had failed the League." 8The prevailing manner of enforcing international law is still essentially "self help"; that is the reaction by states to alleged breaches of international obligations by other states (Robertson, Crimes against Humanity, 90; Schermers-Blokker, International Institutional Law, 900901). 9Petersmann, The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System, 32

Conflict of laws (or "private international law" in civil law countries) concerns which jurisdiction a legal dispute between private parties should be heard in and which jurisdiction's law should be applied. Today, businesses are increasingly capable of shifting capital and labour supply chains across borders, as well as trading with overseas businesses, making the question of which country has jurisdiction even more pressing. Increasing numbers of businesses opt for commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958.10 European Union law is the first and, so far, only example of a supranational legal framework. Given the trend of increasing global economic integration, many regional agreementsespecially the Union of South American Nations are on track to follow the same model. In the EU, sovereign nations have gathered their authority in a system of courts and political institutions. These institutions are allowed the ability to enforce legal norms both against or for member states and citizens in a manner which is not possible through public international law.11 As the European Court of Justice said in the 1960s, European Union law constitutes "a new legal order of international law" for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states.12

Constitutional and administrative law


Constitutional and administrative law govern the affairs of the state. Constitutional law concerns both the relationships between the executive, legislature and judiciary and the human rights or civil liberties of individuals against the state. Most jurisdictions, like the United States and France, have a single codified constitution, with a Bill of Rights. A few, like the United Kingdom, have no such document. A "constitution" is simply those laws which constitute the body politic, from statute, case law and convention. A case named Entick v Carrington13 illustrates a constitutional principle deriving from the common law. Mr Entick's house was searched and ransacked by Sheriff Carrington. When Mr Entick complained in court, Sheriff Carrington argued that a warrant from a Government minister, the Earl of Halifax, was valid authority. However, there was no written statutory provision or court authority. The leading judge, Lord Camden, stated that, The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property. That right is preserved sacred and incommunicable in all instances, where it has not been taken away or abridged by some public law for the good of the whole ... If no excuse can be found or produced, the silence of the books is an authority against the defendant, and the plaintiff must have judgment.14

10Redfem, International Commercial Arbitration, 6869 11SchermersBlokker, International Institutional Law, 943 12See the fundamental C-26/62 Van Gend en Loos v Nederlanse Administratie Der Belastingen, and Flaminio Costa v E.N.E.L. decisions of the European Court. 13Entick v Carrington (1765) 19 Howell's State Trials 1030; [1765] 95 ER 807 14"Entick v Carrington". 19 Howells State Trials 1029 (1765). USA: Constitution Society. . Retrieved 2008-11-13.

The fundamental constitutional principle, inspired by John Locke, holds that the individual can do anything but that which is forbidden by law, and the state may do nothing but that which is authorised by law.1516 Administrative law is the chief method for people to hold state bodies to account. People can apply for judicial review of actions or decisions by local councils, public services or government ministries, to ensure that they comply with the law. The first specialist administrative court was the Conseil d'tat set up in 1799, as Napoleon assumed power in France.17

Criminal law
Criminal law, also known as penal law, pertains to crimes and punishment.18 It thus regulates the definition of and penalties for offences found to have a sufficiently deleterious social impact but, in itself, makes no moral judgment on an offender nor imposes restrictions on society that physically prevents people from committing a crime in the first place.19 Investigating, apprehending, charging, and trying suspected offenders is regulated by the law of criminal procedure.20 The paradigm case of a crime lies in the proof, beyond reasonable doubt, that a person is guilty of two things. First, the accused must commit an act which is deemed by society to be criminal, or actus reus (guilty act).21 Second, the accused must have the requisite malicious intent to do a criminal act, or mens rea (guilty mind). However for so called "strict liability" crimes, an actus reus is enough.22 Criminal systems of the civil law tradition distinguish between intention in the broad sense (dolus directus and dolus eventualis), and negligence. Negligence does not carry criminal responsibility unless a particular crime provides for its punishment.2324

15Locke, The Second Treatise, Chapter 9, section 124 16Tamanaha, On the Rule of Law, 47 17Auby, Administrative Law in France, 75 18Cesare Beccaria's seminal treatise of 17631764 is titled On Crimes and Punishments (Dei delitti e delle pene). 19Brody, Acker and Logan, Criminal Law, 2; Wilson, Criminal Law, 2 20Brody, Acker and Logan, Criminal Law, 2 21See e.g. Brody, Acker and Logan, Criminal Law, 205 about Robinson v California, 370 U.S. 660 (1962). 22See e.g. Feinman, Law 111, 260261 about Powell v Texas, 392 U.S. 514 (1968). 23Drmann, Doswald-Beck and Kolb, Elements of War Crimes, 491 24Kaiser, Leistungsstrungen, 333

Examples of crimes include murder, assault, fraud and theft. In exceptional circumstances defences can apply to specific acts, such as killing in self defence, or pleading insanity. Another example is in the 19th century English case of R v Dudley and Stephens, which tested a defence of "necessity". The Mignonette, sailing from Southampton to Sydney, sank. Three crew members and Richard Parker, a 17 year old cabin boy, were stranded on a raft. They were starving and the cabin boy was close to death. Driven to extreme hunger, the crew killed and ate the cabin boy. The crew survived and were rescued, but put on trial for murder. They argued it was necessary to kill the cabin boy to preserve their own lives. Lord Coleridge, expressing immense disapproval, ruled, "to preserve one's life is generally speaking a duty, but it may be the plainest and the highest duty to sacrifice it." The men were sentenced to hang, but public opinion was overwhelmingly supportive of the crew's right to preserve their own lives. In the end, the Crown commuted their sentences to six months in jail.25 Criminal law offences are viewed as offences against not just individual victims, but the community as well.26 The state, usually with the help of police, takes the lead in prosecution, which is why in common law countries cases are cited as "The People v ..." or "R (for Rex or Regina) v ..." Also, lay juries are often used to determine the guilt of defendants on points of fact: juries cannot change legal rules. Some developed countries still condone capital punishment for criminal activity, but the normal punishment for a crime will be imprisonment, fines, state supervision (such as probation), or community service. Modern criminal law has been affected considerably by the social sciences, especially with respect to sentencing, legal research, legislation, and rehabilitation.27 On the international field, 111 countries are members of the International Criminal Court, which was established to try people for crimes against humanity.28

25About R v Dudley and Stephens [1884] 14 QBD 273 DC, see Simpson, Cannibalism and the Common Law, 212217, 229237 26 27Pelser, Criminal Legislation, 198 28The States Parties to the Rome Statute, International Criminal Court

Contract law
Contract law concerns enforceable promises, and can be summed up in the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (agreements must be kept).29 In common law jurisdictions, three key elements to the creation of a contract are necessary: offer and acceptance, consideration and the intention to create legal relations. In Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company a medical firm advertised that its new wonder drug, the smokeball, would cure people's flu, and if it did not, the buyers would get 100. Many people sued for their 100 when the drug did not work. Fearing bankruptcy, Carbolic argued the advert was not to be taken as a serious, legally binding offer. It was an invitation to treat, mere puff, a gimmick. But the court of appeal held that to a reasonable man Carbolic had made a serious offer. People had given good consideration for it by going to the "distinct inconvenience" of using a faulty product. "Read the advertisement how you will, and twist it about as you will", said Lord Justice Lindley, "here is a distinct promise expressed in language which is perfectly unmistakable".30 "Consideration" indicates the fact that all parties to a contract have exchanged something of value. Some common law systems, including Australia, are moving away from the idea of consideration as a requirement. The idea of estoppel or culpa in contrahendo, can be used to create obligations during pre-contractual negotiations.31 In civil law jurisdictions, consideration is not required for a contract to be binding.32 In France, an ordinary contract is said to form simply on the basis of a "meeting of the minds" or a "concurrence of wills". Germany has a special approach to contracts, which ties into property law. Their 'abstraction principle' (Abstraktionsprinzip) means that the personal obligation of contract forms separately from the title of property being conferred. When contracts are invalidated for some reason (e.g. a car buyer is so drunk that he lacks legal capacity to contract)33 the contractual obligation to pay can be invalidated separately from the proprietary title of the car. Unjust enrichment law, rather than contract law, is then used to restore title to the rightful owner.34

29Wehberg, Pacta Sunt Servanda, 775 30About Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 1 QB 256, and the element of consideration, see Beale and Tallon, Contract Law, 142143 31Austotel v Franklins (1989) 16 NSWLR 582 32e.g. In Germany, 311 Abs. II BGB 33 105 Abs. II BGB 34Smith, The Structure of Unjust Enrichment Law, 1037

Tort law
Torts, sometimes called delicts, are civil wrongs. To have acted tortiously, one must have breached a duty to another person, or infringed some pre-existing legal right. A simple example might be accidentally hitting someone with a cricket ball.35 Under the law of negligence, the most common form of tort, the injured party could potentially claim compensation for his injuries from the party responsible. The principles of negligence are illustrated by Donoghue v Stevenson.36 A friend of Mrs Donoghue ordered an opaque bottle of ginger beer (intended for the consumption of Mrs Donoghue) in a caf in Paisley. Having consumed half of it, Mrs Donoghue poured the remainder into a tumbler. The decomposing remains of a snail floated out. She claimed to have suffered from shock, fell ill with gastroenteritis and sued the manufacturer for carelessly allowing the drink to be contaminated. The House of Lords decided that the manufacturer was liable for Mrs Donoghue's illness. Lord Atkin took a distinctly moral approach, and said, The liability for negligence ... is no doubt based upon a general public sentiment of moral wrongdoing for which the offender must pay ... The rule that you are to love your neighbour becomes in law, you must not injure your neighbour; and the lawyer's question, Who is my neighbour? receives a restricted reply. You must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour.37 This became the basis for the four principles of negligence; (1) Mr Stevenson owed Mrs Donoghue a duty of care to provide safe drinks (2) he breached his duty of care (3) the harm would not have occurred but for his breach and (4) his act was the proximate cause, or not too remote a consequence, of her harm.38 Another example of tort might be a neighbour making excessively loud noises with machinery on his property.39 Under a nuisance claim the noise could be stopped. Torts can also involve intentional acts, such as assault, battery or trespass. A better known tort is defamation, which occurs, for example, when a newspaper makes unsupportable allegations that damage a politician's reputation.40 More infamous are economic torts, which form the basis of labour law in some countries by making trade unions liable for strikes,41 when statute does not provide immunity.42

35Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850 36Donoghue v Stevenson ([1932] A.C. 532, 1932 S.C. (H.L.) 31, [1932] All ER Rep 1). See the original text of the case in UK Law Online. 37Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 532, 580 38 39Sturges v Bridgman (1879) 11 Ch D 852 40e.g. concerning a British politician and the Iraq War, George Galloway v Telegraph Group Ltd [2004] EWHC 2786 41Taff Vale Railway Co v Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants [1901] AC 426 42In the UK, Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992; c.f. in the U.S., National Labor Relations Act

Property law
Property law governs valuable things that people call 'theirs'. Real property, sometimes called 'real estate' refers to ownership of land and things attached to it.43 Personal property, refers to everything else; movable objects, such as computers, cars, jewelry, and sandwiches, or intangible rights, such as stocks and shares. A right in rem is a right to a specific piece of property, contrasting to a right in personam which allows compensation for a loss, but not a particular thing back. Land law forms the basis for most kinds of property law, and is the most complex. It concerns mortgages, rental agreements, licences, covenants, easements and the statutory systems for land registration. Regulations on the use of personal property fall under intellectual property, company law, trusts and commercial law. An example of a basic case of most property law is Armory v Delamirie.44 A chimney sweep's boy found a jewel encrusted with precious stones. He took it to a goldsmith to have it valued. The goldsmith's apprentice looked at it, sneakily removed the stones, told the boy it was worth three halfpence and that he would buy it. The boy said he would prefer the jewel back, so the apprentice gave it to him, but without the stones. The boy sued the goldsmith for his apprentice's attempt to cheat him. Lord Chief Justice Pratt ruled that even though the boy could not be said to own the jewel, he should be considered the rightful keeper ("finders keeper") until the original owner is found. In fact the apprentice and the boy both had a right of possession in the jewel (a technical concept, meaning evidence that something could belong to someone), but the boy's possessory interest was considered better, because it could be shown to be first in time. Possession may be nine tenths of the law, but not all. This case is used to support the view of property in common law jurisdictions, that the person who can show the best claim to a piece of property, against any contesting party, is the owner.45 By contrast, the classic civil law approach to property, propounded by Friedrich Carl von Savigny, is that it is a right good against the world. Obligations, like contracts and torts are conceptualised as rights good between individuals.46 The idea of property raises many further philosophical and political issues. Locke argued that our "lives, liberties and estates" are our property because we own our bodies and mix our labour with our surroundings.47

43eg Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] 2 All ER 426 44Armory v Delamirie (1722) 93 ER 664, 1 Strange 505 45Matthews, The Man of Property, 251274 46Savigny, Das Recht des Besitzes, 25 47Locke, Second Treatise on Civil Government, Chap. IX. Of the Ends of Political Society and Government. Chapter 9, section 123.

Equity and trusts


Equity is a body of rules that developed in England separately from the "common law". The common law was administered by judges. The Lord Chancellor on the other hand, as the King's keeper of conscience, could overrule the judge made law if he thought it equitable to do so.48 This meant equity came to operate more through principles than rigid rules. For instance, whereas neither the common law nor civil law systems allow people to split the ownership from the control of one piece of property, equity allows this through an arrangement known as a 'trust'. 'Trustees' control property, whereas the 'beneficial' (or 'equitable') ownership of trust property is held by people known as 'beneficiaries'. Trustees owe duties to their beneficiaries to take good care of the entrusted property.49 In the early case of Keech v Sandford50 a child had inherited the lease on a market in Romford, London. Mr Sandford was entrusted to look after this property until the child matured. But before then, the lease expired. The landlord had (apparently) told Mr Sandford that he did not want the child to have the renewed lease. Yet the landlord was happy (apparently) to give Mr Sandford the opportunity of the lease instead. Mr Sandford took it. When the child (now Mr Keech) grew up, he sued Mr Sandford for the profit that he had been making by getting the market's lease. Mr Sandford was meant to be trusted, but he put himself in a position of conflict of interest. The Lord Chancellor, Lord King, agreed and ordered Mr Sandford should disgorge his profits. He wrote, I very well see, if a trustee, on the refusal to renew, might have a lease to himself few trust-estates would be renewed ... This may seem very hard, that the trustee is the only person of all mankind who might not have the lease; but it is very proper that the rule should be strictly pursued and not at all relaxed. Of course, Lord King LC was worried that trustees might exploit opportunities to use trust property for themselves instead of looking after it. Business speculators using trusts had just recently caused a stock market crash. Strict duties for trustees made their way into company law and were applied to directors and chief executive officers. Another example of a trustee's duty might be to invest property wisely or sell it.51 This is especially the case for pension funds, the most important form of trust, where investors are trustees for people's savings until retirement. But trusts can also be set up for charitable purposes, famous examples being the British Museum or the Rockefeller Foundation.

48McGhee, Snell's Equity, 7 49c.f. Bristol and West Building Society v Mothew [1998] Ch 1 50Keech v Sandford (1726) Sel Cas Ch 61 51Nestl v National Westminster Bank plc [1993] 1 WLR 1260

Further disciplines
Law spreads far beyond the core subjects into virtually every area of life. Three categories are presented for convenience, though the subjects intertwine and overlap. Law and society Labour law is the study of a tripartite industrial relationship between worker, employer and trade union. This involves collective bargaining regulation, and the right to strike. Individual employment law refers to workplace rights, such as job security, health and safety or a minimum wage. Human rights, civil rights and human rights law are important fields to guarantee everyone basic freedoms and entitlements. These are laid down in codes such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights (which founded the European Court of Human Rights) and the U.S. Bill of Rights. The Treaty of Lisbon makes the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union legally binding in allmember states except Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union Poland and the United Kingdom.52 Civil procedure and criminal procedure concern the rules that courts must follow as a trial and appeals proceed. Both concern a citizen's right to a fair trial or hearing. Evidence law involves which materials are admissible in courts for a case to be built. Immigration law and nationality law concern the rights of foreigners to live and work in a nation-state that is not their own and to acquire or lose citizenship. Both also involve the right of asylum and the problem of stateless individuals. Social security law refers to the rights people have to social insurance, such as jobseekers' allowances or housing benefits. Family law covers marriage and divorce proceedings, the rights of children and rights to property and money in the event of separation. Law and commerce Company law sprang from the law of trusts, on the principle of separating ownership of property and control.53 The law of the modern company began with the Joint Stock Companies Act 1856, passed in the United Kingdom, which provided investors with a simple registration procedure to gain limited liability under the separate legal personality of the corporation.

52A Guide to the Treaty of Lisbon, The Law Society 53Berle, Modern Corporation and Private Property

Commercial law covers complex contract and property law. The law of agency, insurance law, bills of exchange, insolvency and bankruptcy law and sales law are all important, and trace back to the medival Lex Mercatoria. The UK Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the US Uniform Commercial Code are examples of codified common law commercial principles. Admiralty law and the Law of the Sea lay a basic framework for free trade and commerce across the world's oceans and seas, where outside of a country's zone of control. Shipping companies operate through ordinary principles of commercial law, generalised for a global market. Admiralty law also encompasses specialised issues such as salvage, maritime liens, and injuries to passengers. Intellectual property law aims at safeguarding creators and other producers of intellectual goods and services. These are legal rights (copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights) which result from intellectual activity in the industrial, literary and artistic fields.54 Restitution deals with the recovery of someone else's gain, rather than compensation for one's own loss. Unjust enrichment When someone has been unjustly enriched (or there is an "absence of basis" for a transaction) at another's expense, this event generates the right to restitution to reverse that gain. Law and regulation Tax law involves regulations that concern value added tax, corporate tax, income tax. Banking law and financial regulation set minimum standards on the amounts of capital banks must hold, and rules about best practice for investment. This is to insure against the risk of economic crises, such as the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Regulation deals with the provision of public services and utilities. Water law is one example. Especially since privatisation became popular and took management of services away from public law, private companies doing the jobs previously controlled by government have been bound by varying degrees of social responsibility. Energy, gas, telecomms and water are regulated industries in most OECD countries. Competition law, known in the U.S. as antitrust law, is an evolving field that traces as far back as Roman decrees against price fixing and the English restraint of trade doctrine. Modern competition law derives from the U.S. anticartel and anti-monopoly statutes (the Sherman Act and Clayton Act) of the turn of the 20th century. It is used to control businesses who attempt to use their economic influence to distort market prices at the expense of consumer welfare. Consumer law could include anything from regulations on unfair contractual terms and clauses to directives on airline baggage insurance.
54WIPO, Intellectual Property, 3

Environmental law is increasingly important, especially in light of the Kyoto Protocol and the potential danger of climate change. Environmental protection also serves to penalise polluters within domestic legal systems.

Legal systems
In general, legal systems can be split between civil law and common law systems.55 The term "civil law" referring to a legal system should not be confused with "civil law" as a group of legal subjects distinct from criminal or public law. A third type of legal system accepted by some countries without separation of church and stateis religious law, based on scriptures. The specific system that a country is ruled by is often determined by its history, connections with other countries, or its adherence to international standards. The sources that jurisdictions adopt as authoritatively binding are the defining features of any legal system. Yet classification is a matter of form rather than substance, since similar rules often prevail.

55Modern scholars argue that the significance of this distinction has progressively declined; the numerous legal transplants, typical of modern law, result in the sharing by modern legal systems of many features traditionally considered typical of either common law or civil law (Mattei, Comparative Law and Economics, 71)

Civil law
Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by governmentand custom.56 Codifications date back millennia, with one early example being the Babylonian Codex Hammurabi. Modern civil law systems essentially derive from the legal practice of the 6th-century Eastern Roman Empire whose texts were rediscovered by late medieval Western Europe. Roman law in the days of the Roman Republic and Empire was heavily procedural, and lacked a professional legal class.57 Instead a lay magistrate, iudex, was chosen to adjudicate. Precedents were not reported, so any case law that developed was disguised and almost unrecognised.58 Each case was to be decided afresh from the laws of the State, which mirrors the (theoretical) unimportance of judges' decisions for future cases in civil law systems today. From 529-534 AD the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I codified and consolidated Roman law up until that point, so that what remained was one-twentieth of the mass of legal texts from before.59 This became known as the Corpus Juris Civilis. As one legal historian wrote, "Justinian consciously looked back to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the peak it had reached three centuries before."60 The Justinian Code remained in force in the East until the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Western Europe, meanwhile, relied on a mix of the Theodosian Code and Germanic customary law until the Justinian Code was rediscovered in the 11th century, and scholars at the University of Bologna used it to interpret their own laws.61 Civil law codifications based closely on Roman law, alongside some influences from religious laws such as Canon law, continued to spread throughout Europe until the Enlightenment; then, in the 19th century, both France, with the Code Civil, and Germany, with the Brgerliches Gesetzbuch, modernised their legal codes. Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (e.g. Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions.6263 Today, countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and China to most of Central and Latin America.64 The United States follows the common law system described below.

56Civil law jurisdictions recognise custom as "the other source of law"; hence, scholars tend to divide the civil law into the broad categories of "written law" (ius scriptum) or legislation, and "unwritten law" (ius non scriptum) or custom. Yet they tend to dismiss custom as being of slight importance compared to legislation (Georgiadis, General Principles of Civil Law, 19; Washofsky, Taking Precedent Seriously, 7). 57Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 18 58Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 21 59Stein, Roman Law in European History, 32 60Stein, Roman Law in European History, 35 61Stein, Roman Law in European History, 43 62Hatzis, The Short-Lived Influence of the Napoleonic Civil Code in Greece, 253263 63Demirg-Kunt -Levine, Financial Structures and Economic Growth, 204 64The World Factbook Field Listing Legal system, CIA

Common law and equity


Common law and equity are legal systems where decisions by courts are explicitly acknowledged to be legal sources. The "doctrine of precedent", or stare decisis (Latin for "to stand by decisions") means that decisions by higher courts bind lower courts. Common law systems also rely on statutes, passed by the legislature, but may make less of a systematic attempt to codify their laws than in a "civil law" system. Common law originated from England and has been inherited by almost every country once tied to the British Empire (except Malta, Scotland, the U.S. state of Louisiana, and the Canadian province of Quebec). In medieval England, the Norman conquest led to a unification of various tribal customs and hence a law "common" to the whole country. The common law developed when the English monarchy had been weakened by the enormous cost of fighting for control over large parts of France. King John had been forced by his barons to sign a document limiting his authority to pass laws. This "great charter" or Magna Carta of 1215 also required that the King's entourage of judges hold their courts and judgments at "a certain place" rather than dispensing autocratic justice in unpredictable places about the country.65 A concentrated and elite group of judges acquired a dominant role in law-making under this system, and compared to its European counterparts the English judiciary became highly centralised. In 1297, for instance, while the highest court in France had fifty-one judges, the English Court of Common Pleas had five.66 This powerful and tight-knit judiciary gave rise to a rigid and inflexible system of common law.67 As a result, as time went on, increasing numbers of citizens petitioned the King to override the common law, and on the King's behalf the Lord Chancellor gave judgment to do what was equitable in a case. From the time of Sir Thomas More, the first lawyer to be appointed as Lord Chancellor, a systematic body of equity grew up alongside the rigid common law, and developed its own Court of Chancery. At first, equity was often criticised as erratic, that it varied according to the length of the Chancellor's foot.68 But over time it developed solid principles, especially under Lord Eldon.69 In the 19th century the two systems were fused into one another. In developing the common law and equity, academic authors have always played an important part. William Blackstone, from around 1760, was the first scholar to describe and teach it.70 But merely in describing, scholars who sought explanations and underlying structures slowly changed the way the law actually worked.71

65Magna Carta, Fordham University 66Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 4 67Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 3 68Pollock (ed) Table Talk of John Selden (1927) 43; "Equity is a roguish thing. For law we have a measure... equity is according to the conscience of him that is Chancellor, and as that is longer or narrower, so is equity. 'Tis all one as if they should make the standard for the measure a Chancellor's foot." 69Gee v Pritchard (1818) 2 Swans. 402, 414 70Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book the First Chapter the First 71Gordley-von Mehren, Comparative Study of Private Law, 17

Religious law
Religious law is explicitly based on religious precepts. Examples include the Jewish Halakha and Islamic Shariaboth of which translate as the "path to follow"while Christian canon law also survives in some church communities. Often the implication of religion for law is unalterability, because the word of God cannot be amended or legislated against by judges or governments. However a thorough and detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. For instance, the Quran has some law, and it acts as a source of further law through interpretation,72 Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), Ijma (consensus) and precedent. This is mainly contained in a body of law and jurisprudence known as Sharia and Fiqh respectively. Another example is the Torah or Old Testament, in the Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses. This contains the basic code of Jewish law, which some Israeli communities choose to use. The Halakha is a code of Jewish law which summarises some of the Talmud's interpretations. Nevertheless, Israeli law allows litigants to use religious laws only if they choose. Canon law is only in use by members of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion. A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Until the 18th century, Sharia law was practiced throughout the Muslim world in a non-codified form, with the Ottoman Empire's Mecelle code in the 19th century being first attempt at codifying elements of Sharia law. Since the mid-1940s, efforts have been made, in country after country, to bring Sharia law more into line with modern conditions and conceptions.7374 In modern times, the legal systems of many Muslim countries draw upon both civil and common law traditions as well as Islamic law and custom. The constitutions of certain Muslim states, such as Egypt and Afghanistan, recognise Islam as the religion of the state, obliging legislature to adhere to Sharia.75 Saudi Arabia recognises Quran as its constitution, and is governed on the basis of Islamic law.76 Iran has also witnessed a reiteration of Islamic law into its legal system after 1979.77 During the last few decades, one of the fundamental features of the movement of Islamic resurgence has been the call to restore the Sharia, which has generated a vast amount of literature and affected world politics.78

72Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 159 73Anderson, Law Reform in the Middle East, 43 74Giannoulatos, Islam, 274275 75Sherif, Constitutions of Arab Countries, 157158 76Saudi Arabia, Jurist 77Akhlagi, Iranian Commercial Law, 127 78Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law, 1

Legal theory
History of law
The history of law is closely connected to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.7980 By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements ("if ... then ..."). Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi. The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, German, and French.81 The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society. The small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law",82 relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law (thmis), human decree (nomos) and custom (dk).83 Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy.84

79Thodorids. "law". Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. 80VerSteeg, Law in ancient Egypt 81Richardson, Hammurabi's Laws, 11 82Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, 56 83J.P. Mallory, "Law", in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, 346 84Ober, The Nature of Athenian Democracy, 121

Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated.8586 Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I.87 Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medival legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. In medival England, royal courts developed a body of precedent which later became the common law. A Europe-wide Law Merchant was formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice rather than with the many splintered facets of local laws. The Law Merchant, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property.88 As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Law Merchant was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes. The Napoleonic and German Codes became the most influential. In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply. However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging.89 EU law is codified in treaties, but develops through the precedent laid down by the European Court of Justice.

85Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, 39 86Stein, Roman Law in European History, 1 87As a legal system, Roman law has affected the development of law worldwide. It also forms the basis for the law codes of most countries of continental Europe and has played an important role in the creation of the idea of a common European culture (Stein, Roman Law in European History, 2, 104107). 88Sealey-Hooley, Commercial Law, 14 89Mattei, Comparative Law and Economics, 71

Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti (c. 100300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance.90 Manu's central philosophy was tolerance and Pluralism, and was cited across Southeast Asia.91 This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire.92 Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Hong Kong also adopted the common law. The eastern Asia legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences.93 Japan was the first country to begin modernising its legal system along western lines, by importing bits of the French, but mostly the German Civil Code.94 This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Ch'ing dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law.95 Today Taiwanese law retains the closest affinity to the codifications from that period, because of the split between Chiang Kai-shek's nationalists, who fled there, and Mao Zedong's communists who won control of the mainland in 1949. The current legal infrastructure in the People's Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights.96 Due to rapid industrialisation, today China undergoing a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social and political, rights. A new contract code in 1999 represented a move away from administrative domination.97 Furthermore, after negotiations lasting fifteen years, in 2001 China joined the World Trade Organisation.98

Philosophy of law

90For discussion of the composition and dating of these sources, see Olivelle, Manu's Code of Law, 18-25. 91Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 276 92Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 273 93Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 287 94Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 304 95Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 305 96Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 307 97Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, 309 98Farah, Five Years of China WTO Membership, 263304

"But what, after all, is a law? [...] When I say that the object of laws is always general, I mean that law considers subjects en masse and actions in the abstract, and never a particular person or action. [...] On this view, we at once see that it can no longer be asked whose business it is to make laws, since they are acts of the general will; nor whether the prince is above the law, since he is a member of the State; nor whether the law can be unjust, since no one is unjust to himself; nor how we can be both free and subject to the laws, since they are but registers of our wills." Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, II, 6.99 The philosophy of law is commonly known as jurisprudence. Normative jurisprudence is essentially political philosophy, and asks "what should law be?", while analytic jurisprudence asks "what is law?". John Austin's utilitarian answer was that law is "commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience".100 Natural lawyers on the other side, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, argue that law reflects essentially moral and unchangeable laws of nature. The concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in entanglement with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. Hugo Grotius, the founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulseas Aristotle had indicatedand reason.101 Immanuel Kant believed a moral imperative requires laws "be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature".102 Jeremy Bentham and his student Austin, following David Hume, believed that this conflated the "is" and what "ought to be" problem. Bentham and Austin argued for law's positivism; that real law is entirely separate from "morality".103 Kant was also criticised by Friedrich Nietzsche, who rejected the principle of equality, and believed that law emanates from the will to power, and cannot be labelled as "moral" or "immoral".104105106

99Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book II: Chapter 6 (Law) 100Bix, John Austin 101Fritz Berolzheimer, The World's Legal Philosophies, 115116 102Kant, Immanuel, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 42 (par. 434) 103Green, Legal Positivism 104Nietzsche, Zur Genealogie der Moral, Second Essay, 11 105Kazantzakis, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Philosophy of Law, 9798 106Linarelli, Nietzsche in Law's Cathedral, 2326

In 1934, the Austrian philosopher Hans Kelsen continued the positivist tradition in his book the Pure Theory of Law.107 Kelsen believed that although law is separate from morality, it is endowed with "normativity"; meaning we ought to obey it. While laws are positive "is" statements (e.g. the fine for reversing on a highway is 500); law tells us what we "should" do. Thus, each legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm (Grundnorm) instructing us to obey. Kelsen's major opponent, Carl Schmitt, rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions.108 Therefore, Schmitt advocated a jurisprudence of the exception (state of emergency), which denied that legal norms could encompass of all political experience.109 Later in the 20th century, H. L. A. Hart attacked Austin for his simplifications and Kelsen for his fictions in The Concept of Law.110 Hart argued law is a system of rules, divided into primary (rules of conduct) and secondary ones (rules addressed to officials to administer primary rules). Secondary rules are further divided into rules of adjudication (to resolve legal disputes), rules of change (allowing laws to be varied) and the rule of recognition (allowing laws to be identified as valid). Two of Hart's students continued the debate: In his book Law's Empire, Ronald Dworkin attacked Hart and the positivists for their refusal to treat law as a moral issue. Dworkin argues that law is an "interpretive concept",111 that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. Joseph Raz, on the other hand, defended the positivist outlook and criticised Hart's "soft social thesis" approach in The Authority of Law.112 Raz argues that law is authority, identifiable purely through social sources and without reference to moral reasoning. In his view, any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative instruments in mediation are best left to sociology, rather than jurisprudence.113

107Marmor, The Pure Theory of Law 108Bielefeldt, Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberalism, 2526 109Finn, Constitutions in Crisis, 170171 110Bayles, Hart's Legal Philosophy, 21 111Dworkin, Law's Empire, 410 112Raz, The Authority of Law, 336 113Raz, The Authority of Law, 37 etc.

Economic analysis of law


In the 18th century Adam Smith presented a philosophical foundation for explaining the relationship between law and economics.114 The discipline arose partly out of a critique of trade unions and U.S. antitrust law. The most influential proponents, such as Richard Posner and Oliver Williamson and the socalled Chicago School of economists and lawyers including Milton Friedman and Gary Becker, are generally advocates of deregulation and privatisation, and are hostile to state regulation or what they see as restrictions on the operation of free markets.115 The most prominent economic analyst of law is 1991 Nobel Prize winner Ronald Coase, whose first major article, The Nature of the Firm (1937), argued that the reason for the existence of firms (companies, partnerships, etc.) is the existence of transaction costs.116 Rational individuals trade through bilateral contracts on open markets until the costs of transactions mean that using corporations to produce things is more cost-effective. His second major article, The Problem of Social Cost (1960), argued that if we lived in a world without transaction costs, people would bargain with one another to create the same allocation of resources, regardless of the way a court might rule in property disputes.117 Coase used the example of a nuisance case named Sturges v Bridgman, where a noisy sweetmaker and a quiet doctor were neighbours and went to court to see who should have to move.118 Coase said that regardless of whether the judge ruled that the sweetmaker had to stop using his machinery, or that the doctor had to put up with it, they could strike a mutually beneficial bargain about who moves house that reaches the same outcome of resource distribution. Only the existence of transaction costs may prevent this.119 So the law ought to pre-empt what would happen, and be guided by the most efficient solution. The idea is that law and regulation are not as important or effective at helping people as lawyers and government planners believe.120 Coase and others like him wanted a change of approach, to put the burden of proof for positive effects on a government that was intervening in the market, by analysing the costs of action.121

114According to Malloy (Law and Economics, 114), Smith established "a classical liberal philosophy that made individuals the key referential sign while acknowledging that we live not alone but in community with others". 115Jakoby, Economic Ideas and the Labour Market, 53 116Coase, The Nature of the Firm, 386405 117Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, 144 118 119Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, IV, 7 120Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, V, 9 121Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, VIII, 23

Sociology of law
Sociology of law is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of law with society and overlaps with jurisprudence, economic analysis of law and more specialised subjects such as criminology.122 The institutions of social construction and legal frameworks are the relevant areas for the discipline's inquiry. At first, legal theorists were suspicious of the discipline. Kelsen attacked one of its founders, Eugen Ehrlich, who sought to make distinct the differences between positive law, which lawyers learn and apply, and other forms of 'law' or social norms that regulate everyday life, generally preventing conflicts from reaching lawyers and courts.123124 Around 1900 Max Weber defined his "scientific" approach to law, identifying the "legal rational form" as a type of domination, not attributable to people but to abstract norms.125 Legal rationalism was his term for a body of coherent and calculable law which formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism.126 Another sociologist, mile Durkheim, wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions.127 Other notable early legal sociologists included Hugo Sinzheimer, Theodor Geiger, Georges Gurvitch and Leon Petraycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the U.S.128129

Legal institutions

It is a real unity of them all in one and the same person, made by covenant of every man with every man, in such manner as if every man should say to every man: I authorise and give up my right of governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of men, on this condition; that thou givest up, thy right to him, and authorise all his actions in like manner. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, XVII

122Jary, Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 636 123Rottleuthner, La Sociologie du Droit en Allemagne, 109 124Rottleuthner, Rechtstheoritische Probleme der Sociologie des Rechts, 521 125Rheinstein, Max Weber on Law and Economy in Society, 336 126 127Johnson, The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, 156 128Gurvitch, Sociology of Law, 142 129Papachristou, Sociology of Law, 8182

The main institutions of law in industrialised countries are independent courts, representative parliaments, an accountable executive, the military and police, bureaucratic organisation, the legal profession and civil society itself. John Locke, in his Two Treatises of Government, and Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, advocated for a separation of powers between the political, legislature and executive bodies.130 Their principle was that no person should be able to usurp all powers of the state, in contrast to the absolutist theory of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan.131 Max Weber and others reshaped thinking on the extension of state. Modern military, policing and bureaucratic power over ordinary citizens' daily lives pose special problems for accountability that earlier writers such as Locke or Montesquieu could not have foreseen. The custom and practice of the legal profession is an important part of people's access to justice, whilst civil society is a term used to refer to the social institutions, communities and partnerships that form law's political basis.

Judiciary
A judiciary is a number of judges mediating disputes to determine outcome. Most countries have systems of appeal courts, answering up to a supreme legal authority. In the United States, this is the Supreme Court;132 in Australia, the High Court; in the UK, the Supreme Court;133 in Germany, the Bundesverfassungsgericht; in France, the Cour de Cassation.134135 For most European countries the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg can overrule national law, when EU law is relevant. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg allows citizens of the Council of Europe member states to bring cases relating to human rights issues before it.136 Some countries allow their highest judicial authority to over-rule legislation they determined as unconstitutional. In Roe v Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned a Texas law which forbade the granting of assistance to women seeking abortion.137 The U.S.'s constitution's fourteenth amendment was interpreted to give Americans a right to privacy, and thus a woman's right to choose abortion.

130Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, Book XI: Of the Laws Which Establish Political Liberty, with Regard to the Constitution, Chapters 67 131Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, XVII 132A Brief Overview of the Supreme Court, Supreme Court of the United States 133House of Lords Judgments, House of Lords 134Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, Bundesverfassungsgericht 135Jurisprudence, publications, documentation, Cour de cassation 136Goldhaber, European Court of Human Rights, 12 137Roe v Wade (1973) 410 U.S. 113 Retrieved 2007-01-26

A judiciary is theoretically bound by the constitution, much as legislative bodies are. In most countries judges may only interpret the constitution and all other laws. But in common law countries, where matters are not constitutional, the judiciary may also create law under the doctrine of precedent. The UK, Finland and New Zealand assert the ideal of parliamentary sovereignty, whereby the unelected judiciary may not overturn law passed by a democratic legislature.138 In communist states, such as China, the courts are often regarded as parts of the executive, or subservient to the legislature; governmental institutions and actors exert thus various forms of influence on the judiciary.139 In Muslim countries, courts often examine whether state laws adhere to the Sharia: the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt may invalidate such laws,140 and in Iran the Guardian Council ensures the compatibility of the legislation with the "criteria of Islam".141142

Legislature
Prominent examples of legislatures are the Houses of Parliament in London, the Congress in Washington D.C., the Bundestag in Berlin, the Duma in Moscow, the Parlamento Italiano in Rome and the Assemble nationale in Paris. By the principle of representative government people vote for politicians to carry out their wishes. Although countries like Israel, Greece, Sweden and China are unicameral, most countries are bicameral, meaning they have two separately appointed legislative houses. In the 'lower house' politicians are elected to represent smaller constituencies. The 'upper house' is usually elected to represent states in a federal system (as in Australia, Germany or the United States) or different voting configuration in a unitary system (as in France). In the UK the upper house is appointed by the government as a house of review. One criticism of bicameral systems with two elected chambers is that the upper and lower houses may simply mirror one another. The traditional justification of bicameralism is that an upper chamber acts as a house of review. This can minimise arbitrariness and injustice in governmental action.143

138Dicey, Law of the Constitution, 3782 139E.g., the court president is a political appointee (JensenHeller, Introduction, 1112). About the notion of "judicial independence" in China, see Findlay, Judiciary in the PRC, 282284 140Sherif, Constitutions of Arab Countries, 158 141 142Rasekh, Islamism and Republicanism, 115116 143Riker, The Justification of Bicameralism, 101

To pass legislation, a majority of Members of Parliament must vote for a bill (proposed law) in each house. Normally there will be several readings and amendments proposed by the different political factions. If a country has an entrenched constitution, a special majority for changes to the constitution will be required, making changes to the law more difficult. A government usually leads the process, which can be formed from Members of Parliament (e.g. the UK or Germany). But in a presidential system, an executive appoints a cabinet to govern from his or her political allies whether or not they are elected (e.g. the United States or Brazil), and the legislature's role is reduced to either ratification or veto.144

Executive
The executive in a legal system serves as a government's centre of political authority. In a parliamentary system, as with Britain, Italy, Germany, India, and Japan, the executive is known as the cabinet, and composed of members of the legislature. The executive is chosen by the Prime Minister or Chancellor, whose office holds power under the confidence of the legislature. Because popular elections appoint political parties to govern, the leader of a party can change in between elections. The head of state is apart from the executive, and symbolically enacts laws and acts as representative of the nation. Examples include the German president (appointed by members of federal and state Parliaments) the Queen of the United Kingdom (a hereditary title), and the Austrian president (elected by popular vote). The other important model is the presidential system, found in France, the U.S. and Russia. In presidential systems, the executive acts as both head of state and head of government, and has power to appoint an unelected cabinet. Under a presidential system, the executive branch is separate from the legislature to which is not accountable.145146 Although the role of the executive varies from country to country, usually it will propose the majority of legislation, and propose government agenda. In presidential systems, the executive often has the power to veto legislation. Most executives in both systems are responsible for foreign relations, the military and police, and the bureaucracy. Ministers or other officials head a country's public offices, such as a foreign ministry or interior ministry. The election of a different executive is therefore capable of revolutionising an entire country's approach to government.

144About "cabinet accountability" in both presidential and parliamentary systems, see Shugart Haggard, Presidential Systems, 67 etc. 145Haggard, Presidents, Parliaments and Policy, 71 146Olson, The New Parliaments of Central and Eastern Europe, 7

Military and police


While military organizations have existed as long as government itself, the idea of a standing police force is relatively modern concept. For example, Medival England's system of traveling criminal courts, or assizes, used show trials and public executions to instill communities with fear to maintain control.147 The first modern police were probably those in 17th-century Paris, in the court of Louis XIV,148 although the Paris Prefecture of Police claim they were the world's first uniformed policemen.149 Weber famously argued that the state is that which controls the legitimate monopoly of the means of violence.150151 The military and police carry out enforcement at the request of the government or the courts. The term failed state refers to states that cannot implement or enforce policies; their police and military no longer control security and order and society moves into anarchy, the absence of government.152

Bureaucracy
The etymology of "bureaucracy" derives from the French word for "office" (bureau) and the Ancient Greek for word "power" (kratos).153 Like the military and police, a legal system's government servants and bodies that make up its bureaucracy carry out the directives of the executive. One of the earliest references to the concept was made by Baron de Grimm, a German author who lived in France. In 1765 he wrote, The real spirit of the laws in France is that bureaucracy of which the late Monsieur de Gournay used to complain so greatly; here the offices, clerks, secretaries, inspectors and intendants are not appointed to benefit the public interest, indeed the public interest appears to have been established so that offices might exist.154

147See, eg Tuberville v Savage (1669), 1 Mod. Rep. 3, 86 Eng. Rep. 684, where a knight said in a threatening tone to a layman, "If it were not assize time, I would not take such language from you." 148History of Police Forces, History.com Encyclopedia 149Des Sergents de Ville et Gardiens de la Paix la Police de Proximit, La Prfecture de Police 150Weber, Politics as a Vocation 151Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation, 154 152In these cases sovereignty is eroded, and often warlords acquire excessive powers (Fukuyama, State-Building, 166167). 153Bureaucracy, Online Etymology Dictionary 154Albrow, Bureaucracy, 16

Cynicism over "officialdom" is still common, and the workings of public servants is typically contrasted to private enterprise motivated by profit.155 In fact private companies, especially large ones, also have bureaucracies.156 Negative perceptions of "red tape" aside, public services such as schooling, health care, policing or public transport are a crucial state function making public bureaucratic action the locus of government power.157 Writing in the early 20th century, Max Weber believed that a definitive feature of a developed state had come to be its bureaucratic support.158 Weber wrote that the typical characteristics of modern bureaucracy are that officials define its mission, the scope of work is bound by rules, management is composed of career experts, who manage top down, communicating through writing and binding public servants' discretion with rules.159

Legal profession
A corollary of the rule of law is the existence of a legal profession sufficiently autonomous to be able to invoke the authority of the independent judiciary; the right to assistance of an advocate in a court proceeding emanates from this corollaryin England the function of barrister or advocate is distinguished from legal counselor (solicitor).160 As the European Court of Human Rights has stated, the law should be adequately accessible to everyone and people should be able to foresee how the law affects them.161 In order to maintain professionalism, the practice of law is typically overseen by either a government or independent regulating body such as a bar association, bar council or law society. Modern lawyers achieve distinct professional identity through specified legal procedures (e.g. successfully passing a qualifying examination), are required by law to have a special qualification (a legal education earning the student a Bachelor of Laws, a Bachelor of Civil Law or a Juris Doctor degree162), and are constituted in office by legal forms of appointment (being admitted to the bar). Most Muslim countries have developed similar rules about legal education and the legal profession, but some still allow lawyers with training in traditional Islamic law to practice law before personal status law courts.163 In China and other developing countries there are not enough law-trained people to staff the existing judicial systems, and, accordingly, formal standards are more relaxed.164

155Mises, Bureaucracy, II, Bureaucratic Management 156Kettl, Public Bureaucracies, 367 157 158Weber, Economy and Society, I, 393 159Kettl, Public Bureaucracies, 371 160HazardDondi, Legal Ethics, 1 161The Sunday Times v The United Kingdom [1979] ECHR 1 at 49 Case no. 6538/74 162Higher academic degrees may also be pursued. Examples include a Master of Laws, a Master of Legal Studies or a Doctor of Laws. 163Ahamd, Lawyers: Islamic Law 164HazardDondi, Legal Ethics, 2223

Once accredited, a lawyer will often work in a law firm, in a chambers as a sole practitioner, in a government post or in a private corporation as an internal counsel. In addition a lawyer may become a legal researcher who provides ondemand legal research through a library, a commercial service or through freelance work. Many people trained in law put their skills to use outside the legal field entirely. Significant to the practice of law in the common law tradition is the legal research to determine the current state of the law. This usually entails exploring case-law reports, legal periodicals and legislation. Law practice also involves drafting documents such as court pleadings, persuasive briefs, contracts, or wills and trusts. Negotiation and dispute resolution skills (including ADR techniques) are also important to legal practice, depending on the field.165

Civil society
Classical republican concept of "civil society" dates back to Hobbes and Locke.166 Locke saw civil society as people who have "a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them."167 German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel distinguished the "state" from "civil society" (burgerliche Gesellschaft) in Elements of the Philosophy of Right.168 Hegel believed that civil society and the state were polar opposites, within the scheme of his dialectic theory of history. The modern dipole statecivil society was reproduced in the theories of Alexis de Tocqueville and Karl Marx.169170 Nowadays in post-modern theory civil society is necessarily a source of law, by being the basis from which people form opinions and lobby for what they believe law should be. As Australian barrister and author Geoffrey Robertson QC wrote of international law, ... one of its primary modern sources is found in the responses of ordinary men and women, and of the non-governmental organizations which many of them support, to the human rights abuses they see on the television screen in their living rooms.171

165Fine, The Globalisation of Legal Education, 364 166Warren, Civil Society, 34 167Locke, Second Treatise, Chap. VII, Of Political or Civil_Society. Chapter 7, section 87 168Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, 3, II, 182; Karkatsoulis, The State in Transition, 277278 169(Pelczynski, The State and Civil Society, 113; Warren, Civil Society, 59) 170Zaleski, Pawel (2008). "Tocqueville on Civilian Society. A Romantic Vision of the Dichotomic Structure of Social Reality". Archiv fr Begriffsgeschichte (Felix Meiner Verlag) 50. 171Robertson, Crimes Against Humanity, 9899

Freedom of speech, freedom of association and many other individual rights allow people to gather, discuss, criticise and hold to account their governments, from which the basis of a deliberative democracy is formed. The more people are involved with, concerned by and capable of changing how political power is exercised over their lives, the more acceptable and legitimate the law becomes to the people. The most familiar institutions of civil society include economic markets, profit-oriented firms, families, trade unions, hospitals, universities, schools, charities, debating clubs, non-governmental organisations, neighbourhoods, churches, and religious associations.172

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172There is no clear legal definition of the civil society, and of the institutions it includes. Most of the institutions and bodies who try to give a list of institutions (such as the European Economic and Social Committee) exclude the political parties. For further information, see Jakobs, Pursuing Equal Opportunities, 56; KaldorAnheierGlasius, Global Civil Society, passim (PDF); Karkatsoulis, The State in Transition, 282283.

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External links
Legal news and information network for attorneys and other legal professionals Encyclopaedic project of academic initiative in Jurispedia Legal articles, news, and interactive maps DRAGNET: Search of free legal databases from New York Law School WorldLII - World Legal Information Institute

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Lawyer
Lawyer

19th century painting of lawyers, by French artist Honor Daumier Occupation Names Type Activity sectors Description Competencies Analytical skills Critical thinking skills Knowledge of the law Proficiency in legal research and legal writing see Professional requirements Attorney, counselor (counsel), solicitor, barrister, advocate Profession Law, business

Education required

Fields of employment Related jobs

Courts, government, private sector, NGOs, legal aid Judge, Prosecutor, Law clerk, Law professor

A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law."173 Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political and social authority, and deliver justice. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who retain (i.e., hire) lawyers to perform legal services. The role of the lawyer varies significantly across legal jurisdictions, and so it can be treated here in only the most general terms.174175 More information is available in country-specific articles (see below).

Terminology
In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place.176 In Australia the word "lawyer" is used to refer to both barristers and solicitors (whether in private practice or practising as corporate in-house counsel). In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or have qualified as civil law notaries in the province of Quebec. Common law lawyers in Canada may also be known as "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates (or avocats in French) often call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor". In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used loosely to refer to a broad variety of law-trained persons. It includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, legal executives and licensed conveyancers, ; and people who are involved with the law but do not practise it on behalf of individual clients, such as judges, court clerks, and drafters of legislation.

173Henry Campbell Black, Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed. (St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1979), 799. 174Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr. & Angelo Dondi, Legal Ethics: A Comparative Study (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8047-4882-9), 20-23. 175John Henry Merryman and Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), 102-103. 176Hazard, 22-23.

In India, the term "lawyer" is often colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961.177 In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of legally trained people. It specifically includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may also include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term generally refers to attorneys who may practice law; it is never used to refer to patent agents178 or paralegals.179 Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept.

Responsibilities
In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries, clerks, and scriveners.180181 These countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider;182 rather, their legal professions consist of a large number of different kinds of law-trained persons, known as jurists, of which only some are advocates who are licensed to practice in the courts.183184185 It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals.186

177Advocates Act, 1961, s. 2. 178Carl W. Battle, The Patent Guide: A Friendly Guide to Protecting and Profiting from Patents (New York: Allworth Press, 1997), 49. 179David G. Cooper and Michael J. Gibson, Introduction to Paralegal Studies, 2nd ed.(Clifton Park: Thomson Delmar Learning, 1998), 4. 180Richard L. Abel, "Lawyers in the Civil Law World," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 1-53 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 4. 181Merryman, 105-109. 182Walter O. Reyrauch, The Personality of Lawyers (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964), 27. 183Jon T. Johnsen, "The Professionalization of Legal Counseling in Norway," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 54-123 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 91. 184Kahei Rokumoto, "The Present State of Japanese Practicing Attorneys: On the Way to Full Professionalization?" in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 160-199 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 164. 185Merryman, 105. 186Hazard, 21-33.

Notably, England, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but then evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between advocates and procurators in some civil law countries, though these two types did not always monopolize the practice of law as much as barristers and solicitors, in that they always coexisted with civil law notaries.187188189 Several countries that originally had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer.190191192193 Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged together its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to AngloAmerican competition.194 In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is usually permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below.

187Benoit Bastard and Laura Cardia-Vonche, "The Lawyers of Geneva: an Analysis of Change in the Legal Profession," trans. by Richard L. Abel, in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 295-335 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 297. 188Carlos Vilads Jene, "The Legal Profession in Spain: An Understudied but Booming Occupation," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 369-379 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 369. 189Vittorio Olgiati and Valerio Pocar, "The Italian Legal Profession: An Institutional Dilemma," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 336368 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 338. 190Bastard, 299, and Hazard, 45. 191Harry W. Arthurs, Richard Weisman, and Frederick H. Zemans, "Canadian Lawyers: A Peculiar Professionalism," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 123-185 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 124. 192David Weisbrot, "The Australian Legal Profession: From Provincial Family Firms to Multinationals," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 244-317 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 250. 193Georgina Murray, "New Zealand Lawyers: From Colonial GPs to the Servants of Capital," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 318-368 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 324. 194Anne Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers in France," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, 185219 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 208.

Oral argument in the courts


Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, and of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions.195 However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts.196 In countries like the United States that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers. In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro se, or on their own behalf. It is common for litigants to appear unrepresented before certain courts like small claims courts; indeed, many such courts do not allow lawyers to speak for their clients, in an effort to save money for all participants in a small case.197 In other countries, like Venezuela, no one may appear before a judge unless represented by a lawyer.198 The advantage of the latter regime is that lawyers are familiar with the court's customs and procedures, and make the legal system more efficient for all involved. Unrepresented parties often damage their own credibility or slow the court down as a result of their inexperience.199200

Research and drafting of court papers


Often, lawyers brief a court in writing on the issues in a case before the issues can be orally argued. They may have to perform extensive research into relevant facts and law while drafting legal papers and preparing for oral argument. In England, the usual division of labour is that a solicitor will obtain the facts of the case from the client and then brief a barrister (usually in writing).201 The barrister then researches and drafts the necessary court pleadings (which will be filed and served by the solicitor) and orally argues the case.202 In Spain, the procurator merely signs and presents the papers to the court, but it is the advocate who drafts the papers and argues the case.203

195Hazard, 30-32. 196Richard L. Abel, The Legal Profession in England and Wales (London: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 116. 197See, e.g., Cal. Code. Civ. Proc. 116.530 (preventing attorneys from appearing in small claims court except as parties or witnesses). 198Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, "The Venezuelan Legal Profession: Lawyers in an Inegalitarian Society," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 380-399 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 387. 199Gordon Kent, "Lawyerless Litigants: Is Justice Being Served?" Edmonton Journal, 27 January 2002, A1. 200Alan Feuer, "Lawyering by Laymen: More Litigants Are Taking a Do-It-Yourself Tack," New York Times, 22 January 2001, B1. 201Fiona Boyle, Deveral Capps, Philip Plowden, Clare Sandford, A Practical Guide to Lawyering Skills, 3rd ed. (London: Cavendish Publishing, 2005), 47-50. 202See Abel, England and Wales, 56 and 141. 203Jene, 369.

In some countries, like Japan, a scrivener or clerk may fill out court forms and draft simple papers for lay persons who cannot afford or do not need attorneys, and advise them on how to manage and argue their own cases.204

Advocacy (written and oral) in administrative hearings


In most developed countries, the legislature has granted original jurisdiction over highly technical matters to executive branch administrative agencies which oversee such things. As a result, some lawyers have become specialists in administrative law. In a few countries, there is a special category of jurists with a monopoly over this form of advocacy; for example, France formerly had conseils juridiques (who were merged into the main legal profession in 1991).205 In other countries, like the United States, lawyers have been effectively barred by statute from certain types of administrative hearings in order to preserve their informality.206

Client intake and counseling (with regard to pending litigation)


An important aspect of a lawyer's job is developing and managing relationships with clients (or the client's employees, if the lawyer works in-house for a government or corporation). The client-lawyer relationship often begins with an intake interview where the lawyer gets to know the client personally, discovers the facts of the client's case, clarifies what the client wants to accomplish, shapes the client's expectations as to what actually can be accomplished, begins to develop various claims or defenses, and explains his or her fees to the client.207208

204Rokumoto, 164. 205Anne Boigeol, "The French Bar: The Difficulties of Unifying a Divided Profession," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 258-294 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 263; and Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers," 206. 206Richard L. Abel, American Lawyers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 132. See, e.g., Hines v. Lowrey, 305 U.S. 85 (1938) (upholding limitation on attorneys' fees in veterans' benefits cases to $10). 207Paul J. Zwier & Anthony J. Bocchini, Fact Investigation: A Practical Guide to Interviewing, Counseling, and Case Theory Development (Louisville, CO: National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 2000), 13-44. 208John H. Freeman, Client Management for Solicitors (London: Cavendish Publishing Ltd., 1997), 266-274.

In England, only solicitors were traditionally in direct contact with the client.209 The solicitor retained a barrister if one was necessary and acted as an intermediary between the barrister and the client.210 In most cases a barrister would be obliged, under what is known as the "cab rank rule", to accept instructions for a case in an area in which they held themselves out as practising, at a court at which they normally appeared and at their usual rates.211212

Legal advice
Legal advice is the application of abstract principles of law to the concrete facts of the client's case in order to advise the client about what they should do next. In many countries, only a properly licensed lawyer may provide legal advice to clients for good consideration, even if no lawsuit is contemplated or is in progress.213214215 Therefore, even conveyancers and corporate in-house counsel must first get a license to practice, though they may actually spend very little of their careers in court. Failure to obey such a rule is the crime of unauthorized practice of law.216 In other countries, jurists who hold law degrees are allowed to provide legal advice to individuals or to corporations, and it is irrelevant if they lack a license and cannot appear in court.217218 Some countries go further; in England and Wales, there is no general prohibition on the giving of legal advice.219 Sometimes civil law notaries are allowed to give legal advice, as in Belgium.220 In many countries, non-jurist accountants may provide what is technically legal advice in tax and accounting matters.221
209Abel, England and Wales, 1 and 141. 210J. R. Spencer and Richard M. Jackson, Jackson's Machinery of Justice, 8th ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 336. 211R.E. Megarry, Lawyer and Litigant in England (London: Stevens and Sons, 1962), 32. 212Maureen Paton, "Cab-rank exits," The Times, 9 October 2001, 1. This brief article explains the uneasy tension between solicitors and barristers, and the loopholes that have developed. For example, a barrister need not accept a case if the fee is too low or the barrister is just too busy. 213Arthurs, 125; Johnsen, 74; and Prez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 387. 214Erhard Blankenburg and Ulrike Schultz, "German Advocates: A Highly Regulated Profession," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 124-159 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 124. 215Joaquim Falco, "Lawyers in Brazil," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 400-442 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 401. 216Justine Fischer and Dorothy H. Lackmann, Unauthorized Practice Handbook: A Compilation of Statutes, Cases, and Commentary on the Unauthorized Practice of Law (Buffalo: William S. Hein Company, 1990), 30-35. 217Abel, England and Wales, 185; Bastard, 318. 218Kees Schuyt, "The Rise of Lawyers in the Dutch Welfare State," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 200-224 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 201. 219Stephen J. McGarry, Multidisciplinary Practices and Partnerships: Lawyers, Consultants, and Clients, 1.06[1] (New York: Law Journal Press, 2002), 1-29. 220Luc Huyse, "Legal Experts in Belgium," in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 2, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 225-257 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 227. 221Murray, 325; and Rokumoto, 164.

Protecting intellectual property


In virtually all countries, patents, trademarks, industrial designs and other forms of intellectual property must be formally registered with a government agency in order to receive maximum protection under the law. The division of such work among lawyers, licensed non-lawyer jurists/agents, and ordinary clerks or scriveners varies greatly from one country to the next.222223

Negotiating and drafting contracts


In some countries, the negotiating and drafting of contracts is considered to be similar to the provision of legal advice, so that it is subject to the licensing requirement explained above.224 In others, jurists or notaries may negotiate or draft contracts.225 Lawyers in some civil law countries traditionally deprecated "transactional law" or "business law" as beneath them. French law firms developed transactional departments only in the 1990s when they started to lose business to international firms based in the United States and the United Kingdom (where solicitors have always done transactional work).226

Conveyancing
Conveyancing is the drafting of the documents necessary for the transfer of real property, such as deeds and mortgages. In some jurisdictions, all real estate transactions must be carried out by a lawyer (or a solicitor where that distinction still exists).227 Such a monopoly is quite valuable from the lawyer's point of view; historically, conveyancing accounted for about half of English solicitors' income (though this has since changed),228 and a 1978 study showed that conveyancing "accounts for as much as 80 percent of solicitor-client contact in New South Wales."229 In most common law jurisdictions outside of the United States, this monopoly arose from an 1804 law230 that was introduced by William Pitt the Younger as a quid pro quo for the raising of fees on the certification of legal professionals such as barristers, solicitors, attorneys and notaries.231
222 223Lee Rousso, "Japan's New Patent Attorney Law Breaches Barrier Between The 'Legal' And 'Quasi-Legal' Professions: Integrity Of Japanese Patent Practice At Risk?" 10 Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y 781, 783-790 (2001). 224Arthurs, 125; and Prez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 387. 225Huyse, 227. 226Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers," 206. 227Abel, England and Wales, 176; Hazard, 90-93; Murray, 325; and Prez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 387. 228Abel, England and Wales, 177. 229Weisbrot, 292. 230s. 14 Stamp Act 1804 231Brian Abel-Smith and Robert Stevens, Lawyers and the Courts: A Sociological Study of the English Legal System, 1750-1965 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), 23.

In others, the use of a lawyer is optional and banks, title companies, or realtors may be used instead.232 In some civil law jurisdictions, real estate transactions are handled by civil law notaries.233 In England and Wales a special class of legal professionalthe licensed conveyanceris also allowed to carry out conveyancing services for reward.234 ian S. lapating

Carrying out the intent of the deceased


In many countries, only lawyers have the legal authority to draft wills, trusts, and any other documents that ensure the efficient disposition of a person's property after death. In some civil law countries this responsibility is handled by civil law notaries.235 In the United States, the estates of the deceased must generally be administered by a court through probate. American lawyers have a profitable monopoly on dispensing advice about probate law (which has been heavily criticized).236

Prosecution and defense of criminal suspects


In many civil law countries, prosecutors are trained and employed as part of the judiciary; they are law-trained jurists, but may not necessarily be lawyers in the sense that the word is used in the common law world.237 In common law countries, prosecutors are usually lawyers holding regular licenses who simply happen to work for the government office that files criminal charges against suspects. Criminal defense lawyers specialize in the defense of those charged with any crimes.238

232Weisbrot, 251. 233Arthurs, 125; Huyse, 227; and Schuyt, 201. 234Simon Domberger and Avrom Sherr, "The Impact of Competition on Pricing and Quality of Legal Services," in The Regulatory Challenge, eds. Matthew Bishop, John Kay, Colin Mayer, 119137 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 121-122. 235 236Ralph Warner & Stephen Elias, Fed Up with the Legal System: What's Wrong & How to Fix It (Berkeley: Nolo Press, 1994), 11. 237Hazard, 34-35; Huyse, 227; Merryman, 105, and Schuyt, 201. 238Larry J. Siegel and Joseph J. Senna, Introduction to Criminal Justice, 10th ed. (Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005), 311-325.

Education
The educational prerequisites to becoming a lawyer vary greatly from country to country. In some countries, law is taught by a faculty of law, which is a department of a university's general undergraduate college.239 Law students in those countries pursue a Master or Bachelor of Laws degree. In some countries it is common or even required for students to earn another bachelor's degree at the same time. Nor is the LL.B the sole obstacle; it is often followed by a series of advanced examinations, apprenticeships, and additional coursework at special government institutes.240 In other countries, particularly the United States, law is primarily taught at law schools. In the United States241 and countries following the American model, (such as Canada242 with the exception of the province of Quebec) law schools are graduate/professional schools where a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for admission. Most law schools are part of universities but a few are independent institutions. Law schools in the United States (and many in Canada and elsewhere) award graduating students a J.D. (Juris Doctor/Doctor of Jurisprudence) (as opposed to the Bachelor of Laws) as the practitioner's law degree. Many schools also offer post-doctoral law degrees such as the LL.M (Legum Magister/Master of Laws), or the S.J.D. (Scientiae Juridicae Doctor/Doctor of Juridical Science) for students interested in advancing their research knowledge and credentials in a specific area of law.243

239Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, "Latin Legal Cultures in the Age of Globalization," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 6. 240Abel, England and Wales, 45-59; Rokumoto, 165; and Schuyt, 204. 241Wayne L. Anderson and Marilyn J. Headrick, The Legal Profession: Is it for you? (Cincinnati: Thomson Executive Press, 1996), 52-53. 242Anonymous, "Careers in the legal profession offer a variety of opportunities: While we may not think about it often, the legal system affects us every day," The Telegram, 14 April 2004, D8. 243Christen Civiletto Carey and Kristen David Adams, The Practice of Law School: Getting In and Making the Most of Your Legal Education (New York: ALM Publishing, 2003), 525.

The methods and quality of legal education vary widely. Some countries require extensive clinical training in the form of apprenticeships or special clinical courses.244 Others, like Venezuela, do not.245 A few countries prefer to teach through assigned readings of judicial opinions (the casebook method) followed by intense in-class cross-examination by the professor (the Socratic method).246247 Many others have only lectures on highly abstract legal doctrines, which forces young lawyers to figure out how to actually think and write like a lawyer at their first apprenticeship (or job).248249250 Depending upon the country, a typical class size could range from five students in a seminar to five hundred in a giant lecture room. In the United States, law schools maintain small class sizes, and as such, grant admissions on a more limited and competitive basis.251 Some countries, particularly industrialized ones, have a traditional preference for full-time law programs,252 while in developing countries, students often work full- or part-time to pay the tuition and fees of their part-time law programs.253254 Law schools in developing countries share several common problems, such as an overreliance on practicing judges and lawyers who treat teaching as a part-time hobby (and a concomitant scarcity of full-time law professors);255256 incompetent faculty with questionable credentials;257 and textbooks that lag behind the current state of the law by two or three decades.258259
244Hazard, 127-129; Merryman, 103; and Olgiati, 345. 245Prez-Perdomo, "Venezuelan Legal Profession," 384. 246Robert H. Miller, Law School Confidential: A Complete Guide to the Law School Experience, By Students, for Students (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2000), 25-27. 247Anderson, 4-10. 248Blankenburg, 132; Friedman and Prez-Perdomo, 6; Hazard, 124-128; and Olgiati, 345. 249Sergio Lopez-Ayllon and Hector Fix-Figaro, " 'Faraway, So Close!' The Rule of Law and Legal Change in Mexico: 1970-2000," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, 285-351 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 324. 250Herbert Hausmaninger, "Austrian Legal Education," 43 S. Tex. L. Rev. 387, 388 and 400 (2002). 251Miller, 42-60. 252Abel, American Lawyers, 57; Miller, 25; and Murray, 337. 253Falco, 410. 254J.S. Gandhi, "Past and Present: A Sociological Portrait of the Indian Legal Profession," in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 369-382 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 375. 255Lopez-Ayllon, 324. 256Eliane Botelho Junqueira, "Brazil: The Road of Conflict Bound for Total Justice," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, 64-107 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 89. 257Junqueira, 89. 258 259Rogelio Prez-Perdomo, "Venezuela, 1958-1999: The Legal System in an Impaired Democracy," in Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe, eds. Lawrence M. Friedman and Rogelio Perez-Perdomo, 414-478 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 459. For example, a 1997 study found that not a single law school in Venezuela had bothered to integrate any part of the Convention on Children's Rights into its curriculum, even though Venezuela had signed the treaty in 1990 and subsequently modified its domestic laws to bring them into compliance. Rather than embark on curriculum reform, Venezuelan law schools now offer special postgraduate courses so that recent graduates can bring their legal knowledge up-to-date with current law.

Earning the right to practice law


Some jurisdictions grant a "diploma privilege" to certain institutions, so that merely earning a degree or credential from those institutions is the primary qualification for practicing law.260 Mexico allows anyone with a law degree to practice law.261 However, in a large number of countries, a law student must pass a bar examination (or a series of such examinations) before receiving a license to practice.262263264 In a handful of U.S. states, one may become an attorney (a socalled country lawyer) by simply "reading law" and passing the bar examination, without having to attend law school first (although very few people actually become lawyers that way).265 Some countries require a formal apprenticeship with an experienced practitioner, while others do not.266 For example, a few jurisdictions still allow an apprenticeship in place of any kind of formal legal education (though the number of persons who actually become lawyers that way is increasingly rare).267

Career structure
The career structure of lawyers varies widely from one country to the next.

Common law/civil law


In most common law countries, especially those with fused professions, lawyers have many options over the course of their careers. Besides private practice, they can become a prosecutor, government counsel, corporate in-house counsel, administrative law judge, judge, arbitrator, law professor, or politician.268 There are also many non-legal jobs which legal training is good preparation for, such as corporate executive, government administrator, investment banker, entrepreneur, or journalist.269 In developing countries like India, a large majority of law students never actually practice, but simply use their law degree as a foundation for careers in other fields.270
260Abel, American Lawyers, 62. 261Lopez-Ayllon, 330. 262 263Hazard, 127, 129, & 133; Miller, 335-341. 264Alan A. Paterson, "The Legal Profession in Scotland: An Endangered Species or a Problem Case for Market Theory?" in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. 1, eds. Richard L. Abel and Philip S.C. Lewis, 76-122 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 89. 265G. Jeffrey MacDonald, "The self-made lawyer: Not every attorney goes to law school," The Christian Science Monitor, 3 June 2003, 13. 266Hazard, 129 & 133. 267Weisbrot, 266. 268Abel, American Lawyers, 167-175; Abel, England and Wales, 214; Arthurs, 131; Gandhi, 374; Merryman, 102, and Weisbrot, 277. 269Anderson, 124-131. 270Gandhi, 374.

In most civil law countries, lawyers generally structure their legal education around their chosen specialty; the boundaries between different types of lawyers are carefully defined and hard to cross. After one earns a law degree, career mobility may be severely constrained.271 For example, unlike their American counterparts,272 it is difficult for German judges to leave the bench and become advocates in private practice.273 Another interesting example is France, where for much of the 20th century, all judiciary officials were graduates of an elite professional school for judges. Although the French judiciary has begun experimenting with the Anglo-American model of appointing judges from accomplished advocates, the few advocates who have actually joined the bench this way are looked down upon by their colleagues who have taken the traditional route to judicial office.274 In a few civil law countries, such as Sweden,275 the legal profession is not rigorously bifurcated and everyone within it can easily change roles and arenas.

Specialization
In many countries, lawyers are general practitioners who will take almost any kind of case that walks in the door.276 In others, there has been a tendency since the start of the 20th century for lawyers to specialize early in their careers.277278 In countries where specialization is prevalent, many lawyers specialize in representing one side in one particular area of the law; thus, it is common in the United States to hear of plaintiffs' personal injury attorneys.279

271Merryman, 102-105. 272Although it is common for former American judges to return to private practice, it is highly controversial for them to suggest that they still retain any judicial powers (for example, by wearing judicial robes in advertisements). Brad McElhinny, "Workman criticized for using robe in ad: Group files State Bar complaint about the way former justice seeks clients," Charleston Daily Mail, 3 February 2005, 1A. 273Blankenburg, 133. 274Boigeol, "The Rise of Lawyers," 202. 275Bernard Michael Ortwein II, "The Swedish Legal System: An Introduction," 13 Ind. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 405, 440-445 (2003). 276Hazard, 39-43; Olgiati, 353. 277Abel, American Lawyers, 122. 278Michael H. Trotter, Profit and the Practice of Law: What's Happened to the Legal Profession (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 50. 279Herbert M. Kritzer, "The fracturing legal profession: the case of plaintiffs' personal injury lawyers," 8 Int'l J. Legal Prof. 225, 228-231 (2001).

Organization
Lawyers in private practice generally work in specialized businesses known as law firms,280 with the exception of English barristers. The vast majority of law firms worldwide are small businesses that range in size from 1 to 10 lawyers.281 The United States, with its large number of firms with more than 50 lawyers, is an exception.282 The United Kingdom and Australia are also exceptions, as the UK, Australia and the U.S. are now home to several firms with more than 1,000 lawyers after a wave of mergers in the late 1990s. Notably, barristers in England and Wales and some states in Australia do not work in "law firms". Those who offer their services to the general publicas opposed to those working "in house"are required to be self-employed.283 Most work in groupings known as "sets" or "chambers", where some administrative and marketing costs are shared. An important effect of this different organizational structure is that there is no conflict of interest where barristers in the same chambers work for opposing sides in a case, and in some specialised chambers this is commonplace.

Professional associations and regulation


Mandatory licensing and membership in professional organizations
In some jurisdictions, either the judiciary284 or the Ministry of Justice285 directly supervises the admission, licensing, and regulation of lawyers.

280Anderson, 111-117. 281Hazard, 39. 282Junqueira, 92. According to this source, as of 2003, there were 901 law firms with more than 50 lawyers in the United States. 283Gary Slapper and David Kelly, The English Legal System, 7th ed. (London: Cavendish Publishing Ltd., 2004), 550. 284Weisbrot, 264. 285Johnsen, 86.

Other jurisdictions, by statute, tradition, or court order, have granted such powers to a professional association which all lawyers must belong to.286 In the U.S., such associations are known as mandatory, integrated, or unified bar associations. In the Commonwealth of Nations, similar organizations are known as Inns of Court, bar councils or law societies.287 In civil law countries, comparable organizations are known as Orders of Advocates,288 Chambers of Advocates,289 Colleges of Advocates,290 Faculties of Advocates,291 or similar names. Generally, a nonmember caught practicing law may be liable for the crime of unauthorized practice of law.292 In common law countries with divided legal professions, barristers traditionally belong to the bar council (or an Inn of Court) and solicitors belong to the law society. In the English-speaking world, the largest mandatory professional association of lawyers is the State Bar of California, with 200,000 members. Some countries admit and regulate lawyers at the national level, so that a lawyer, once licensed, can argue cases in any court in the land. This is common in small countries like New Zealand, Japan, and Belgium.293 Others, especially those with federal governments, tend to regulate lawyers at the state or provincial level; this is the case in the United States,294 Canada,295 Australia,296 and Switzerland,297 to name a few. Brazil is the most well-known federal government that regulates lawyers at the national level.298 Some countries, like Italy, regulate lawyers at the regional level,299 and a few, like Belgium, even regulate them at the local level (that is, they are licensed and regulated by the local equivalent of bar associations but can advocate in courts nationwide).300 In Germany, lawyers are admitted to regional bars and may appear for clients before all courts nationwide with the exception of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichtshof or BGH); oddly, securing admission to the BGH's bar limits a lawyer's practice solely to the supreme federal courts and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany.301

286Boigeol, The French Bar, 271; Merryman, 106, and Junqueira, 89. 287Abel, England and Wales, 127 and 243-249; Arthurs, 135; and Weisbrot, 279. 288Bastard, 295; and Falco, 401. 289Blankenburg, 139. 290Jene, 370. 291Paterson, 79. 292Arthurs, 143. 293Murray, 339; Rokumoto, 163; and Schuyt, 207. 294Abel, American Lawyers, 116. 295Arthurs, 139. 296Weisbrot, 244. 297Bastard, 299. 298Falco, 404. 299Olgiati, 343. 300Huyse, 239. 301Howard D. Fisher, The German Legal System and Legal Language, 3rd ed. (London: Routledge Cavendish, 2002), 208-209.

Generally, geographic limitations can be troublesome for a lawyer who discovers that his client's cause requires him to litigate in a court beyond the normal geographic scope of his license. Although most courts have special pro hac vice rules for such occasions, the lawyer will still have to deal with a different set of professional responsibility rules, as well as the possibility of other differences in substantive and procedural law. Some countries grant licenses to non-resident lawyers, who may then appear regularly on behalf of foreign clients. Others require all lawyers to live in the jurisdiction or to even hold national citizenship as a prerequisite for receiving a license to practice. But the trend in industrialized countries since the 1970s has been to abolish citizenship and residency restrictions. For example, the Supreme Court of Canada struck down a citizenship requirement on equality rights grounds in 1989,302 and similarly, American citizenship and residency requirements were struck down as unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1973 and 1985, respectively.303 The European Court of Justice made similar decisions in 1974 and 1977 striking down citizenship restrictions in Belgium and France.304

Who regulates lawyers


A key difference among countries is whether lawyers should be regulated solely by an independent judiciary and its subordinate institutions (a self-regulating legal profession),305 or whether lawyers should be subject to supervision by the Ministry of Justice in the executive branch. In most civil law countries, the government has traditionally exercised tight control over the legal profession in order to ensure a steady supply of loyal judges and bureaucrats. That is, lawyers were expected first and foremost to serve the state, and the availability of counsel for private litigants was an afterthought.306 Even in civil law countries like Norway which have partially selfregulating professions, the Ministry of Justice is the sole issuer of licenses, and makes its own independent re-evaluation of a lawyer's fitness to practice after a lawyer has been expelled from the Advocates' Association.307 Brazil is an unusual exception in that its national Order of Advocates has become a fully selfregulating institution (with direct control over licensing) and has successfully resisted government attempts to place it under the control of the Ministry of Labor.308309
302Andrews v. Law Society of British Columbia, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 143. 303Abel, American Lawyers, 68. 304Mary C. Daly, "Ethical and Liability Issues in International Legal Practice," in Comparative Law Yearbook of International Business, vol. 17, eds. Dennis Campbell and Susan Cotter, 223268 (London: Kluwer Law International, 1995), 233. 305For a classic explanation of the self-regulating legal profession, see the Preamble to the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct, 10-13. 306Abel, Civil Law World, 10; Johnsen, 70; Olgiati, 339; and Rokumoto, 161. 307 308Falco, 423. 309Maria da Gloria Bonelli, "Lawyers' Associations and the Brazilian State, 1843-1997," 28 Law & Soc. Inquiry 1045, 1065 (2003).

Of all the civil law countries, Communist countries historically went the farthest towards total state control, with all Communist lawyers forced to practice in collectives by the mid-1950s.310311 China is a prime example: technically, the People's Republic of China did not have lawyers, and instead had only poorlytrained, state-employed "legal workers," prior to the enactment of a comprehensive reform package in 1996 by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.312 In contrast, common law lawyers have traditionally regulated themselves through institutions where the influence of non-lawyers, if any, was weak and indirect (despite nominal state control).313 Such institutions have been traditionally dominated by private practitioners who opposed strong state control of the profession on the grounds that it would endanger the ability of lawyers to zealously and competently advocate their clients' causes in the adversarial system of justice.314 However, the concept of the self-regulating profession has been criticized as a sham which serves to legitimize the professional monopoly while protecting the profession from public scrutiny.315 Disciplinary mechanisms have been astonishingly ineffective, and penalties have been light or nonexistent.316317318

Voluntary associations of lawyers


Lawyers are always free to form voluntary associations of their own, apart from any licensing or mandatory membership that may be required by the laws of their jurisdiction. Like their mandatory counterparts, such organizations may exist at all geographic levels.319320 In American English, such associations are known as voluntary bar associations.321 The largest voluntary professional association of lawyers in the English-speaking world is the American Bar Association.

310Kandis Scott, "Decollectivization and Democracy: Current Law Practice in Romania," 36 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 817, 820. (2004). 311Timothy J. Tyler, "Judging the Past: Germany's Post-Unification Lawyers' Admissions Review Law," 29 Tex. Int'l L.J. 457, 472 (1994). 312Michael J. Moser, "Globalization and Legal Services in China: Current Status and Future Directions," in The Internationalization of the Practice of Law, eds. Jens I. Drolhammer and Michael Pfeifer, 127-136 (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001), 128-129. 313Abel, American Lawyers, 142-143; Abel, England and Wales, 29; and Arthurs, 148. 314Arthurs, 138; and Weisbrot, 281. 315Abel, American Lawyers, 246-247. 316Abel, American Lawyers, 147; Abel, England and Wales, 135 and 250; Arthurs, 146; Hazard, 135; Paterson, 104; and Weisbrot, 284. 317Richard L. Abel, English Lawyers Between Market and State: The Politics of Professionalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 374-375. 318William T. Gallagher, "Ideologies of Professionalism and the Politics of Self-Regulation in the California State Bar," 22 Pepp. L. Rev. 485, 490-491 (1995). 319 320Abel, England and Wales, 132-133. 321Arthurs, 141.

In some countries, like France and Italy, lawyers have also formed trade unions.322

Cultural perception of lawyers


Hostility towards the legal profession is a widespread phenomenon. The legal profession was abolished in Prussia in 1780 and in France in 1789, though both countries eventually realized that their judicial systems could not function efficiently without lawyers.323 Complaints about too many lawyers were common in both England and the United States in the 1840s,324325 Germany in the 1910s,326 and in Australia,327 Canada,328 the United States,329330331 and Scotland332 in the 1980s.

322Boigeol, The French Bar, 274; and Olgiati, 344. 323Blankenburg, 126; and Boigeol, The French Bar, 272. 324Abel, England and Wales, 37. 325Gerald W. Gawalt, "Sources of Anti-Lawyer Sentiment in Massachusetts, 1740-1840," in Essays in Nineteenth-Century American Legal History, ed. Wythe Holt, 624-648 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976), 624-625. According to this source, the strong anti-lawyer sentiment of the period was rather ironic, since lawyers were actually so scarce in the American colonies that a 1715 Massachusetts law forbade litigants from retaining two lawyers because of the risk of depriving one's opponent of counsel. 326Blankenburg, 127. 327Weisbrot, 246. 328Arthurs, 128. 329Marc Galanter, "Predators and Parasites: Lawyer-Bashing and Civil Justice, " 28 Ga. L. Rev. 633, 644-648 (1994). 330Stephen D. Easton, "Fewer Lawyers? Try Getting Your Day in Court," Wall Street Journal, 27 November 1984, 1. This article rebuts the common complaint of too many lawyers in the U.S. by pointing out that it is virtually impossible for a plaintiff to prevail in the vast majority of countries with less lawyers, like Japan, because there are simply not enough lawyers or judges to go around. Even wrongful death cases with clear evidence of fault can drag on for decades in Japan. Thus, any reduction in the number of lawyers would result in reduced enforcement of individual rights. 331Gerry Spence, With Justice For None: Destroying An American Myth (New York: Times Books, 1989), 27-40 332Paterson, 76.

Public distrust of lawyers reached record heights in the United States after the Watergate scandal.333334 In the aftermath of Watergate, legal self-help books became popular among those who wished to solve their legal problems without having to deal with lawyers.335 Lawyer jokes (already a perennial favorite) also soared in popularity in English-speaking North America as a result of Watergate.336 In 1989, American legal self-help publisher Nolo Press published a 171-page compilation of negative anecdotes about lawyers from throughout human history.337 In Adventures in Law and Justice (2003), legal researcher Bryan Horrigan dedicated a chapter to "Myths, Fictions, and Realities" about law and illustrated the perennial criticism of lawyers as "amoral [...] guns for hire"338 with a quote from Ambrose Bierce's satirical The Devil's Dictionary (1911) that summarized the noun as: "LAWYER, n. One skilled in circumvention of the law."339 More generally, in Legal Ethics: A Comparative Study (2004), law professor Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr. with Angelo Dondi briefly examined the "regulations attempting to suppress lawyer misconduct" and noted that their similarity around the world was paralleled by a "remarkable consistency" in certain "persistant [sic?] grievances" about lawyers that transcends both time and locale, from the Bible to medieval England to dynastic China.340 The authors then generalized these common complaints about lawyers as being classified into five "general categories" as follows: abuse of litigation in various ways, including using dilatory tactics and false evidence and making frivolous arguments to the courts; preparation of false documentation, such as false deeds, contracts, or
333 334Jerold Auerbach, Unequal Justice: Lawyers and Social Change in Modern America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 301. 335For examples of legal self-help books written by lawyers which concede that the profession has a bad image, see Mark H. McCormack, The Terrible Truth About Lawyers (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1987), 11; Kenneth Menendez, Taming the Lawyers (Santa Monica, CA, Merritt Publishing, 1996), 2; and Stuart Kahan and Robert M. Cavallo, Do I Really Need A Lawyer? (Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company, 1979), 2. 336Gayle White, "So, a lawyer, a skunk and a catfish walk into a bar...: No shortage of jokes," National Post, 27 May 2006, FW8. 337Andrew Roth & Jonathan Roth, Devil's Advocates: The Unnatural History of Lawyers (Berkeley: Nolo Press, 1989), ix. 338Bryan Horrigan, "Myths, Fictions, and Realities" (chap. 2), in Adventures in Law and Justice: Exploring Big Legal Questions in Everyday Life, Law at Large, 5582 (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2003, ISBN 0-86840-572-8), 55 & 6266. Bierce is quoted p. 64. 339Ambrose Bierce, "Lawyer", in The Devil's Dictionary (1911), electronic entry at Dict.org. Also found quoted in many legal books. 340Hazard, 60.

wills; deceiving clients and other persons and misappropriating property; procrastination in dealings with clients; and charging excessive fees.341

Compensation
Lawyers are paid for their work in a variety of ways. In private practice, they may work for an hourly fee according to a billable hour structure,342 a contingency fee343 (usually in cases involving personal injury), or a lump sum payment if the matter is straightforward. Normally, most lawyers negotiate a written fee agreement up front and may require a non-refundable retainer in advance. In many countries there are fee-shifting arrangements by which the loser must pay the winner's fees and costs; the United States is the major exception,344 although in turn, its legislators have carved out many exceptions to the so-called "American Rule" of no fee shifting. Lawyers working directly on the payroll of governments, nonprofits, and corporations usually earn a regular annual salary.345 In many countries, with the notable exception of Germany,346 lawyers can also volunteer their labor in the service of worthy causes through an arrangement called pro bono (short for pro bono publico, "for the common good").347 Traditionally such work was performed on behalf of the poor, but in some countries it has now expanded to many other causes such as the environment.

341Hazard, 60. 342Anderson, 111-112. 343Herbert M. Kritzer, Risks, Reputations, and Rewards: Contingency Fee Legal Practice in the United States (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004), 258-259. According to this source, contingency fees (or de facto equivalents) are allowed, as of 2004, in Canada, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, the Dominican Republic, Greece, France, Brazil, Japan, and, of course, the United States. 344See Fleischmann Distilling Corp. v. Maier Brewing Co., 386 U.S. 714 (1967) (reviewing history of the American Rule). 345Anderson, 120-121. 346Matthias Kilian and Francis Regan, "Legal expenses insurance and legal aidtwo sides of the same coin? The experience from Germany and Sweden," 11 Int'l J. Legal Prof. 233, 239 (2004). According to this article, pro bono arrangements are illegal in Germany. 347Abel, American Lawyers, 129-130.

In some countries, there are legal aid lawyers who specialize in providing legal services to the indigent.348349 France and Spain even have formal fee structures by which lawyers are compensated by the government for legal aid cases on a per-case basis.350 A similar system, though not as extensive or generous, operates in Australia, Canada, as well as South Africa. In other countries, legal aid specialists are practically nonexistent. This may be because non-lawyers are allowed to provide such services; in both Italy and Belgium, trade unions and political parties provide what can be characterized as legal aid services.351 Some legal aid in Belgium is also provided by young lawyer apprentices subsidized by local bar associations (known as the pro deo system), as well as consumer protection nonprofit organizations and Public Assistance Agencies subsidized by local governments.352 In Germany, mandatory fee structures have enabled widespread implementation of affordable legal expense insurance.353

348Abel, American Lawyers, 133. 349Arthurs, 161; Murray, 342; Prez-Perdomo, 392; Schuyt, 211; and Weisbrot, 288. 350Boigeol, The French Bar, 280; and Jene, 376. 351Olgiati, 354, and Huyse, 240. 352Huyse, 240-241. 353Blankenburg, 143.

History
Ancient Greece
The earliest people who could be described as "lawyers" were probably the orators of ancient Athens (see History of Athens). However, Athenian orators faced serious structural obstacles. First, there was a rule that individuals were supposed to plead their own cases, which was soon bypassed by the increasing tendency of individuals to ask a "friend" for assistance.354 However, around the middle of the fourth century, the Athenians disposed of the perfunctory request for a friend.355 Second, a more serious obstacle, which the Athenian orators never completely overcame, was the rule that no one could take a fee to plead the cause of another. This law was widely disregarded in practice, but was never abolished, which meant that orators could never present themselves as legal professionals or experts.356 They had to uphold the legal fiction that they were merely an ordinary citizen generously helping out a friend for free, and thus they could never organize into a real professionwith professional associations and titles and all the other pomp and circumstancelike their modern counterparts.357 Therefore, if one narrows the definition to those men who could practice the legal profession openly and legally, then the first lawyers would have to be the orators of ancient Rome.358

Early Ancient Rome


A law enacted in 204 BC barred Roman advocates from taking fees, but the law was widely ignored.359 The ban on fees was abolished by Emperor Claudius, who legalized advocacy as a profession and allowed the Roman advocates to become the first lawyers who could practice openlybut he also imposed a fee ceiling of 10,000 sesterces.360 This was apparently not much money; the Satires of Juvenal complain that there was no money in working as an advocate.361

354Robert J. Bonner, Lawyers and Litigants in Ancient Athens: The Genesis of the Legal Profession (New York: Benjamin Blom, 1927), 202. 355Bonner, 204. 356Bonner, 206. 357Bonner, 208-209. 358Hazard, 18. 359John A. Crook, Law and Life of Ancient Rome (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967), 90. 360Crook, 90. Crook cites Tacitus, Annals VI, 5 and 7 for this point. For more information about the complex political affair that forced Emperor Claudius to decide this issue, see The Annals of Tacitus, Book VI (Franklin Center, PA: The Franklin Library, 1982), 208. 361Crook, 91.

Like their Greek contemporaries, early Roman advocates were trained in rhetoric, not law, and the judges before whom they argued were also not lawtrained.362 But very early on, unlike Athens, Rome developed a class of specialists who were learned in the law, known as jurisconsults (iuris consulti).363 Jurisconsults were wealthy amateurs who dabbled in law as an intellectual hobby; they did not make their primary living from it.364 They gave legal opinions (responsa) on legal issues to all comers (a practice known as publice respondere).365 Roman judges and governors would routinely consult with an advisory panel of jurisconsults before rendering a decision, and advocates and ordinary people also went to jurisconsults for legal opinions.366 Thus, the Romans were the first to have a class of people who spent their days thinking about legal problems, and this is why their law became so "precise, detailed, and technical."367

Late Ancient Rome


During the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire, jurisconsults and advocates were unregulated, since the former were amateurs and the latter were technically illegal.368 Any citizen could call himself an advocate or a legal expert, though whether people believed him would depend upon his personal reputation. This changed once Claudius legalized the legal profession. By the start of the Byzantine Empire, the legal profession had become well-established, heavily regulated, and highly stratified.369 The centralization and bureaucratization of the profession was apparently gradual at first, but accelerated during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.370 At the same time, the jurisconsults went into decline during the imperial period.371

362Crook, 87. 363Crook, 88. 364 365Crook, 89. 366 367 368Crook, 90. 369A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey, vol. 1 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), 507. 370Fritz Schulz, History of Roman Legal Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946), 113. 371Schulz, 113.

In the words of Fritz Schulz, "by the fourth century things had changed in the eastern Empire: advocates now were really lawyers."372 For example, by the fourth century, advocates had to be enrolled on the bar of a court to argue before it, they could only be attached to one court at a time, and there were restrictions (which came and went depending upon who was emperor) on how many advocates could be enrolled at a particular court.373 By the 380s, advocates were studying law in addition to rhetoric (thus reducing the need for a separate class of jurisconsults); in 460, Emperor Leo imposed a requirement that new advocates seeking admission had to produce testimonials from their teachers; and by the sixth century, a regular course of legal study lasting about four years was required for admission.374 Claudius's fee ceiling lasted all the way into the Byzantine period, though by then it was measured at 100 solidi.375 Of course, it was widely evaded, either through demands for maintenance and expenses or a sub rosa barter transaction.376 The latter was cause for disbarment.377 The notaries (tabelliones) appeared in the late Roman Empire. Like their modern-day descendants, the civil law notaries, they were responsible for drafting wills, conveyances, and contracts.378 They were ubiquitous and most villages had one.379 In Roman times, notaries were widely considered to be inferior to advocates and jurisconsults.380 Roman notaries were not law-trained; they were barely literate hacks who wrapped the simplest transactions in mountains of legal jargon, since they were paid by the line.381

Middle Ages
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the onset of the Early Middle Ages, the legal profession of Western Europe collapsed. As James Brundage has explained: "[by 1140], no one in Western Europe could properly be described as a professional lawyer or a professional canonist in anything like the modern sense of the term 'professional.' "382 However, from 1150 onward, a small but increasing number of men became experts in canon law but only in furtherance of other occupational goals, such as serving the Roman Catholic Church as priests.383 From 1190 to 1230, however, there was a crucial shift in which some men began to practice canon law as a lifelong profession in itself.384

372Schulz, 268. 373Jones, 508-510. 374Jones, 512-513. 375Jones, 511. 376 377 378Jones, 515. 379 380 381Jones, 516. 382James A. Brundage, "The Rise of the Professional Jurist in the Thirteenth Century," 20 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com. 185 (1994). 383Brundage, 185-186. 384Brundage, 186-187.

The legal profession's return was marked by the renewed efforts of church and state to regulate it. In 1231 two French councils mandated that lawyers had to swear an oath of admission before practicing before the bishop's courts in their regions, and a similar oath was promulgated by the papal legate in London in 1237.385 During the same decade, Frederick II, the emperor of the Kingdom of Sicily, imposed a similar oath in his civil courts.386 By 1250 the nucleus of a new legal profession had clearly formed.387 The new trend towards professionalization culminated in a controversial proposal at the Second Council of Lyon in 1275 that all ecclesiastical courts should require an oath of admission.388 Although not adopted by the council, it was highly influential in many such courts throughout Europe.389 The civil courts in England also joined the trend towards professionalization; in 1275 a statute was enacted that prescribed punishment for professional lawyers guilty of deceit, and in 1280 the mayor's court of the city of London promulgated regulations concerning admission procedures, including the administering of an oath.390

Titles
Generally speaking, the modern practice is for lawyers to avoid use of any title, although formal practice varies across the world.

385Brundage, 188. 386Brundage, 188-189. 387Brundage, 190. 388Brundage, 189. 389 390John Hamilton Baker, An Introduction to British Legal History, 3rd ed. (London: Butterworths, 1990), 179.

Historically lawyers in most European countries were addressed with the title of doctor, and countries outside of Europe have generally followed the practice of the European country which had policy influence through colonization. The first university degrees, starting with the law school of the University of Bologna (or glossators) in the 11th century, were all law degrees and doctorates.391 Degrees in other fields did not start until the 13th century, but the doctor continued to be the only degree offered at many of the old universities until the 20th century. Therefore, in many of the southern European countries, including Portugal and Italy,392 lawyers have traditionally been addressed as doctor, a practice which was transferred to many countries in South America393 (including Macau in China).394 The term "doctor" has since fallen into disuse, although it is still a legal title in Italy and in use in many countries outside of Europe.395 The title of doctor has never been used to address lawyers in England or other common law countries (with the exception of the United States). This is because until 1846 lawyers in England were not required to have a university degree and were trained by other attorneys by apprenticeship or in the Inns of Court.396 Since law degrees started to become a requirement for lawyers in England, the degree awarded has been the undergraduate LL.B.

391Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008. Garca y Garca, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008. 392E.g. Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009. 393Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009. 394Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009 395Regio Decreto 4 giugno 1938, n.1269, Art. 48. (in Italian). Accessed February 10, 2009. 396Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, pp. 430, 432, 434, 436

Even though most lawyers in the United States do not use any titles, the law degree in that country is the Juris Doctor, a professional doctorate degree,397 and some J.D. holders in the United States use the title of "Doctor" in professional398 and academic situations.399 In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g. Peru, Brazil, Macau, Portugal, Argentina, and Italy),400 J.D. holders who are attorneys will often use the title of doctor as well.401 It is not uncommon for English-language male lawyers to use the honorific suffix "Esq." (for "Esquire"). In the United States the style is also used by female lawyers.402 In many Asian countries, the proper title for a lawyer is simply, "lawyer", but holders of the Juris Doctor degree are also called "" (doctor).403

George Remus
George Remus was a famous Cincinnati lawyer and bootlegger during the prohibition era. It has been claimed that he was the inspiration for the title character Jay Gatsby in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. 404

397Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education. Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). " Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients," "InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics" NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). University of Utah The Graduate School Graduate Handbook. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education". Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopedia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees). 398American Bar Association. Model Code of Professional Responsibility, Disciplinary Rule 2102(E). Cornell University Law School, LLI. Accessed February 10, 2009. Peter H. Geraghty. Are There Any Doctors Or Associates In the House?. American Bar Association, 2007. 399E.g. University of Montana School of Business Administration. Profile of Dr. Michael Harrington. University of Montana, 2006. See also Distance Learning Discussion Forums. New wrinkle in the "Is the JD a doctorate?" debate. Distance Learning Discussion Forums, 2003-2005. 400E.g. Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009; Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009; and Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009. 401E.g. Dr. Ronald Charles Wolf. Accessed February 16, 2009. Florida Bar News. Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues. Florida Bar Association, July 1, 2006. 402See the "Esquire" article in the English Wikipedia, particularly the "United States" section in that article. 403Google Translate; The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary. (2002). Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, Beijing.; Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (Chinese-English). (2006). Pearson Education, Hong Kong, 2006. Also see The Morrison & Foerster law firm website, one of the largest law firms in Asia and the United States, for an example of usage 404"Celebrities & Ghosts". Seelbach Hilton. Archived from the original on 2006-02-15. . Retrieved 2006-03-03.

Early life
Remus was born in Germany in 1876. His family moved to Chicago by the time he was 5. At age 14 George supported the family by working at a pharmacy, because his father was unable to work. Remus later bought the pharmacy by age 19. Within 5 years, Remus expanded, buying another drugstore. Remus soon tired of the pharmacy business and by 24, he became a lawyer.

Legal and Bootlegging Careers


He specialized in criminal defense, especially murder, and became rather famous. By 1920 he was earning $50,000 a year. Remus divorced his wife after an affair with his secretary Imogene. Alcohol Prohibition began on January 17, 1920, and within a few months Remus saw that his criminal clients were becoming very wealthy very quickly. Remus memorized the Volstead Act and found loopholes whereby he could buy distilleries and pharmacies to sell liquor to himself under government licenses for medicinal purposes. Remus would then hijack his own liquor so he could sell it illegally. Remus moved to Cincinnati where 80 percent of America's bonded whiskey was located, and bought up most of the whiskey manufacturers. In less than three years Remus made $40 million, with the help of his trusted number two man George Conners. He owned many of America's most famous distilleries, including the Fleischmann Distillery, which he bought for $197,000 and came with 3100 gallons of whiskey. In addition to serving the Cincinnati community, many other small towns, such as Newport, Kentucky, began serving as drinking towns where gamblers opened small casinos to entertain their drunken patrons. One of Remus' fortified distilleries was the Death Valley Ranch, which he purchased from George Gehrum. The outside world thought it was only accessible by dirt road. The actual distillery was located at 2656 Queen City Ave. The alcohol was distilled in the attic of the home then dumb-waitered below. The basement was where a trap door was located and a tunnel approximately fifty to 100 feet long and six feet under the earth. The "bootleggers" would push the products along the tunnel out to a waiting car, usually making it safely away. It is believed to be one of the only locations never busted in the Cincinnati area. In 1920, a raid by hijackers took place, but Remus' armed guards, led by John Gehrum, fired heavy volleys at the hijackers and, after a short fight, the wounded attackers left.

Remus was known as a gracious host. He held many parties, including a 1923 birthday party for Imogene in which she appeared in a daring bathing suit along with other aquatic dancers, serenaded by a fifteen-piece orchestra. Children in the area also saw Remus as a fatherly figure. Jack Doll recalls an episode in which Remus playfully tossed a boy into his Olympic-sized swimming pool and then gave him $10 to buy a new suit. Doll states that a full boy's suit could be purchased for one dollar in 1920. George and Imogene held a New Year's Eve party at their new mansion, nicknamed the Marble Palace, in 1922. The guests included 100 couples from the most prestigious families in the area. As parting gifts, Remus presented all the men with diamond watches, and gave each guest's wife a brand new car. Remus held a similar party in June 1923, during his problems with the government, when he gave each female guest (of the fifty present) a brand new Pontiac.

Legal troubles
Remus finally spent two years in Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for bootlegging. While he was in prison, his wife Imogene started an affair with prohibition agent Franklin Dodge. Dodge and Imogene liquidated Remus' assets and hid as much of the money as possible, in addition to attempting to deport Remus, and even hiring a hitman to murder Remus for $15,000. In addition, Remus's huge Fleischmann distillery was sold by Imogene, who gave her imprisoned husband only $100 of the multimillion-dollar empire he created. Imogene divorced Remus in late 1927. On the way to court, on October 6, 1927, for the finalization of the divorce Remus had his driver chase the cab carrying Imogene and her daughter through Eden Park in Cincinnati, finally forcing it off the road. Remus jumped out and shot Imogene while her daughter Ruth tried to stop him. Imogene died later that day. The prosecutor in the case was 30-year-old Charles Taft, son of Chief Justice and former President William Howard Taft and brother of the future Senator Robert Taft. Although he had lost his last big case, against another bootlegger, Charlie was seen as a man with a bright political future. The trial made national headlines for a month, as Remus defended himself on the murder charge. Remus pleaded temporary insanity. Partly because Remus was very popular in the city, the jury deliberated only 19 minutes before acquitting him by reason of insanity. The state of Ohio then tried to commit Remus to an insane asylum since the jury found him insane, but prosecutors were thwarted by their previous claim (backed up by the prosecution's three well-known psychiatrists) that he could be tried for murder because was not insane.

Remus tried to get back into bootlegging after his six-month insanity sentence, but soon retired when he found that the market had been taken over by gangsters.

Later life
George Remus later moved to Covington, Kentucky (across the border from Ohio) where he lived out the next twenty years of his life modestly without incident.

References
The Long ThirstProhibition in America: 1920-1933 by Thomas M. Coffey, W.W. Norton & Co., New York City 1975. Prohibition: Thirteen Years That Changed America by Edward Behr, Arcade Publishing, New York City 1996. "All That Jazz", Brandon Brady, CityBeat of Cincinnati, Jan. 3 2002 "George Remus". George Remus: A Prohibition Saga. Retrieved 2006-06-19.

External links
New York Times: The Bootlegger's Wife by David Willis McCullough TIME.com: American Justice Gangsters In Our Own Back Yard by Bryan Meade

History of Baltimore City College


The history of Baltimore City College began in 1839, when the city council of Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. passed a resolution mandating the creation of a male high school with a focus on the study English and classical literature. The Baltimore City College was opened in the same year with 46 pupils under the direction of Nathan C. Brooks, a local educator and poet.405 It is the third oldest high school in the nation. In 1850, the council granted the school the authority to present its graduates with certificates of completion.406 An effort to expand that power and allow City College to confer Bachelor of Arts degrees began in 1865, but ended unsuccessfully in 1869.407

405Steiner (1894), p.207. 406Steiner (1894), p. 209 407Steiner (1894), p. 218.

As the importance of higher education increased in the early 20th century, the school's priorities shifted to preparing students for college.408 In 1927, the academic program was further changed, when City College divided its curriculum into two tracks: the standard college preparatory "B" course, and a more rigorous "A" course of study.409 The school underwent demographic changes following the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education case that called for an end to racial segregation. African Americans joined City College for the first time in September 1954 and became a significant proportion of the student population by the 1960s.410 The school saw further changes in the student population with the admission of women in 1978.411 Academic standards and enrollment at Baltimore City College (BCC) went through a period of decline in the 1980s and the early 1990s. The "A" and "B" courses were discontinued and a single academic track was offered.412 In the mid-1990s, with an increase in funding from the school system, BCC began to experience a turnaround. Administrators re-strengthened academic standards and, in 1998, the school began offering the International Baccalaureate (IB)Diploma Program.413 By the beginning of the 2000s decade, City College was experiencing an academic resurgence. During this period the school was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as a National Blue Ribbon School,414 and was listed as one of the top high schools in the U.S. by Newsweek.415

408Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1902), p. 79. 409Leonhart (1939), p. 121. 410Hlubb (1965), p. 51. 411Daneker (1988), p. 58. 412Katz-Stone, Adam (January 28, 2000). "School boundaries". Baltimore Business Journal. . Retrieved 2007-07-25. 413Ey, Craig S. (December 10, 1999). "City College shows that city schools can be good". Baltimore Business Journal. . Retrieved 2007-07-25. 414"Blue Ribbon Schools Program: Schools Recognized 1982-1983 through 1999-2002" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education. . Retrieved 2007-07-16. 415"The Top of the Class: 2007 List". MSNBC. Archived from the original on May 24, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-22.

Early years
The creation of a male high school "in which the higher branches of English and classical literature only should be taught" was authorized unanimously by the Baltimore City Council on March 7, 1839.416 A building on what was then Courtland Street (now Preston Gardens at St. Paul Place) was acquired to serve as the new high school. The school opened its doors on October 20, 1839 with 46 students.417 Enrollment was restricted to white, male students of Baltimore who had completed grammar school and passed an entrance exam.418 Those enrolled were offered two academic tracks, a classical literature track and an English literature track. The sole instructor for both tracks was the educator and poet, Nathan C. Brooks, who also served as principal.419 To accommodate the two tracks, Brooks split the school day into two sections: one in the morning from 9 am to 12 am, and another in the afternoon from 2 pm to 5 pm. During the morning session, students studied either classics or English; however, the afternoon was devoted to English.420 In its first three years, the school was housed in many locations before returning to the original building on Courtland Street. In 1843, the city council allocated $23,000 to acquire a building for the school at the northwestern corner of Fayette and Holliday Streets.421 The building was the former Assembly Rooms, built in 1797 by architects Robert Cary Long and Nicholas Rogers to accommodate social events for Baltimore's elite,422 and the site of the first private library company of Baltimore. The school was next door to the Holliday Street Theatre, where the Star Spangled Banner was first performed in 1814, following the British attack on Baltimore.423 Although it was not designed to house an academic institution, the school would occupy this building for 30 years.424 The school went through the first of a series of name changes in 1844. Known as the "High School", it was renamed the "Male High School" because of the establishment of two schools for femalesEastern and Western High Schools.425

416 417 418Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1913). 83rd Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: Meyer & Thalheimer. pp. 4. . 419 420 421Steiner (1894), p. 208. 422Waite, Diana S. (Winter 19961997). "An architectural study blurs the picture of who designed Davidge Hall". The Bulletin 81 (3). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-07-24. 423"Holliday Street Theatre". Maryland Online Encyclopedia. . Retrieved 2007-07-24. 424Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1870). 42nd Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: Kelly, Piet, & Co.. pp. 112. . 425Leonhart (1939), p. 19.

In 1849, after a decade of service, Brooks resigned as principal of the school, which had grown to include 232 students and 7 teachers, excluding Brooks. Rev. Dr. Francis G. Waters, who had been the president of Washington College, succeeded Brooks. The following year the city council renamed the school "The Central High School" and granted the commissioners of the public schools the right to confer certificates to the school's graduates.426 Exercising that new authority, the school held its first commencement ceremony in 1851 with philosopher, author and civic leader Severn Teackle Wallis as the guest speaker.427 This bolstered enrollment in the school, as students were drawn by the prospect of receiving a certificate attesting to their level of education. That year 156 students applied to the schoolan increase of 50 students.428 The growing enrollment necessitated a reorganization of the school. Under the direction of Waters, the school day was divided into eight periods lasting fortyfive minutes: four sessions were held in the morning and four in the afternoon. In addition to reorganizing the schedule, he divided the courses into seven different departments: Belles-letters and history, mathematics, natural sciences, moral, mental, and political science, ancient languages, modern languages and music. Each of the seven instructors was assigned to a distinct department and received the title of "professor".429

Baltimore City College


Name Changes March 7, 1839: 1844: 1850: October 9, 1866: The High School Male High School The Central High School The Baltimore City College (BCC)

426 427Steiner (1894), p. 212. 428 429Steiner (1894), pp. 210211.

In 1865, in accordance with a recommendation from the board of commissioners of the Baltimore City public schools, City College began offering a five-year track,430 beginning a process aimed at elevating the school to a college and allowing it to grant its graduates degrees. To further these aims, the school was renamed "The Baltimore City College" (BCC) by an act of the city council on October 9, 1866.431 That same year, the board of commissioners recommended that the city council make a formal proposal to the Maryland General Assembly to grant City College the authority to confer Bachelor of Arts degrees to its graduates. According to the 38th Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of the Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council, the elevation of the school was designed to "afford advantages to students...who may adopt the profession of teacher as a pursuit of life."432 Thus, the elevation was intended to provide qualified teachers for the Baltimore school system. However, the city council never acted on this recommendation and though the school changed nominally, it was never truly granted the power of a college.433 Not only did the city council fail to make the recommendation to the general assembly, but it also failed to adequately maintain the facilities of the school. In the 43rd Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of the Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council, the president of the board wrote: The subject of chronic lamentation,the Baltimore City College Building,which for the past fifteen years has afforded annually such abundant matter for melancholy regrets, not withstanding all the fervent promises and eloquent professions of interest that have been made from time to time extended, still remains as a crumbling monument of our withered hopes and blasted expectations.434

430Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1866). 37th Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: James Young. pp. 105106. . 431 432Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1867). 38th Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: James Young. pp. 7. . 433 434Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1872). 43rd Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: John Cox. pp. 9. .

In addition, the president of the board again requested that the city council attempt to elevate the status of City College, "so that it shall be placed on equal footing in all respects to that of a first class collegiate institution,"435 but no action was taken. Since there was no incentive to pursue the five-year track, no student remained at the school for the extra year of study and the course was abandoned in 1869.436

Relocation
It was not until 1873, when a fire spread from the Holliday Street Theatre to the "Assembly Rooms," that the city council finally decided to expend the resources to erect a new building for the school. The city council acquired a lot on Howard Street opposite Centre Street and allocated $150,000 for the construction of the new building.437 During the construction, City College was housed in a building of the Baltimore Female College, where it remained until its new English Gothic revival-style building was dedicated on February 1, 1875.438 While at the Baltimore Female College, the five-year course was reintroduced and the fouryear track was eliminated.439 That allowed students to pursue advanced courses, which included calculus, political economy, logic and higher-level language courses, which were emphasized in the curriculum. Students were expected to learn Latin, French, and German; and Greek was offered as an optional course.440 In 1876, ceremonies were held in the adjacent Academy of Music for the new Johns Hopkins University, which had established several buildings alongside City College under its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. Four graduates of City College entered Hopkins as a part of the first undergraduate class.441 That same year BCC's academic program underwent further changes with the introduction of a one-year track, which provided an opportunity for students who could not complete the entire course of study because they needed to enter the labor market.442 Courses in the one-year track focused on providing students with pragmatic skills, such as "book-keeping", "commercial arithmetic", and "business correspondence".443
435 436Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1870). 41st Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: Kelly, Piet, & Co.. pp. 56. . 437Steiner (1894), p. 220. 438Steiner (1894), p. 221. 439Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1875). 46th Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: Kelly, Piet, & Co.. pp. 63. . 440Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1875). 46th Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: Kelly, Piet, & Co.. pp. 66. . 441Leonhart (1939), p. 43. 442Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1877). 48th Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: Kelly, Piet, & Co.. pp. 62. . 443

City College's first extracurricular activity, the Bancroft Literary Association, was established the same year to provide a forum for student debate.444 A second debating society, the Carrollton Society, was established in 1878.445 One of the first athletic teams appeared the following year, when a group of students organized a lacrosse teamthe first at a public high school.446 The establishment of Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (Poly) in 1883 was an important development for City College's athletics program. With the founding of Poly, City College acquired an arch rival in academics and sportsparticularly football.447 The schools have met annually in a football clash since 1889.448 The formal organization of an athletic program at BCC did not begin until 1895.449 During the early years of the athletic program, City College played chiefly against college teams because few other secondary schools existed in Maryland. City College's 1895 football schedule included St. John's College, Swarthmore College, the United States Naval Academy, University of Maryland, and Washington College.450

Reconstruction
Baltimore City College U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Baltimore City College on Howard and Centre Streets after the reconstruction

444"BCC History". Baltimore City College Alumni Association. . Retrieved 2007-07-06. 445 446Fisher, Donald M. (2002). Lacrosse: A History of the Game. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 83. ISBN 978-0-8018-6938-9. . 447Leonhart (1939), p. 48. 448Leonhart (1939), p. 219. 449Leonhart (1939), p. 198 450Leonhart (1939), p. 200.

Location: Coordinates: Built: Architect: Architectural style(s): Added to NRHP: NRHP Reference#:

530 N. Howard St., Baltimore, Maryland 391746N 763725W 1895 Baldwin & Pennington; Henry S. Rippel Beaux Arts, Romanesque August 11, 1983 83002925
451

City College's Tudor and Gothic-style building lasted until 1892, when it was undermined by the construction of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tunnel from Camden Station to Mount Royal Station, and collapsed.452 Several years of political in-fighting and the change to a reformist city administration delayed construction of a new structure. Designed by the architects Baldwin and Pennington, the new structure was not completed until 1899.453

451"National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15. . 452"A ninety-six ton electric locomotive". Scientific American. August 10, 1895. . Retrieved 200707-13. 453Leonhart (1939), p. 70.

The succeeding year, the only time since 1851, the school did not hold a commencement.454 Members of the senior class had decided to make fun of the professors in the Green BagCity College's year book since 1896.455 When the school board was alerted of the matter, it attempted to censor the edition, passing a resolution requiring the Green Bag to be reviewed by Principal Francis A. Soper. However, the year book had already been printed, and the editors refused to have the edition censored and reprinted. The school board responded by withholding the diplomas of six of the editors of the Green Bag and the business manager, and by preventing the school from holding a commencement ceremony. One of the boys expelled, Clarence Keating Bowie, became a member of the school board in 1926.456 In 1901, the course of study at City College went through a series of further changes. The most significant was the reduction of the five-year course of study to four years; though students who entered prior to 1900 were allowed to complete the five-year course.457 The new course, like the course it replaced, allowed graduates to be admitted to Johns Hopkins University without examination, and provided students with greater flexibility. Instead of requiring students to complete the same set of courses, it allowed students to choose their courses, as long as they completed 150 credits.458 The program's explicit purpose was to provide special preparation for those wishing to attend college because of the increasing significance of college education. Though specific classes were not required, to meet the goal, students were required to complete courses in English literature and composition, four foreign languages, mathematics, science, history, commerce, drawing, music, and physical culture.459

454Leonhart (1939), p. 74. 455Leonhart (1939), p. 237. 456Leonhart (1939), p. 77. 457Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1902), p. 7. 458Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1902), p. 22. 459

"Castle on the Hill"


By World War I, attendance in the school was rapidly increasing. An annex was added on 26th Street to alleviate overcrowding in the Howard Street building, but it was insufficient. Therefore, during the 1920s, alumni began campaigning to provide a proper building for the school, and in 1926, ground was broken for a massive Collegiate Gothic stone castle with a 38-acre (153,781 m) campus, on a hill in the newly annexed northeastern suburbs at 33rd Street and The Alameda. The four-level "Castle on the Hill", which was surmounted by a 150 ft (46 m) tower and designed by architects Buckler and Fenhagen, cost almost $3,000,000 and accommodated 2,500 students.460 The "castle" featured arched windows and cornices, cloisters, gargoyles, stained glass, mahogany paneling, plaster arches, chandeliers and terra cotta tiles and terrazzo floors with two courtyards and plans for additional wings and buildings.461 The following year, in 1927, the "Advanced Academic Course" ("A" Course) was introduced. Students in the "A" Course were able to enter their second year of college following their graduation.462 This program of study and its counterpart, the college preparatory course ("B" Course), became the backbone of City College's academic program for over 60 years. On April 10, 1928, after nearly two years of construction, "The Castle on the Hill" opened its doors to the students and faculty.463 The next year, the students published the first edition of The Collegian, City College's newspaper.464 The publication quickly became an indispensable part of student life and gained national attention, when it won second place in a contest sponsored by the Columbia Scholastic Press Association of Columbia University. The Collegian held the first place title between 19351939.465 When Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 led to U.S. entry into World War II, blood donor projects, stamp and bond drives, and the dedication of service flags gave the City College a wartime atmosphere. More than three quarters of the students participated in the Victory Corps, which sponsored courses in communications, map reading, judo and the study of the poisonous and non-poisonous plants on Pacific islands.466 By the time the war ended in 1945, 4,667 City College students had served in the armed forces, 204 of whom lost their lives.467 The names of all of the fallen, including two Medal of Honor recipients, are inscribed on a bronze memorial, which sits today in the center of the school.468

460Leonhart (1939), p. 120. 461Leonhart (1939), pp. 123124. 462 463Leonhart (1939), p. 181. 464Leonhart (1939), p. 126. 465Leonhart (1939), p. 146. 466 467 468Strasburger, Victor, editor (1967). The 1967 Green Bag. pp. 20.

Integration
Following the landmark Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, the Baltimore City board of school commissioners was forced to desegregate the school system, which had been racially divided since the 1860s. As a result, 10 African-American students entered City College in September 1954,469 comprising 0.5% of the student population. A decade later, in the 196465 academic year, African-American students represented 30% of the student population.470 In 1956 the school system also sent two African-American men to teach at the school: Eugene Parker, who coached for thirty years, and Pierre Davis, who left after one year but returned in 1971 as City College's first African-American principal.471 Although African-American enrollment increased, the transition from the segregated system was not seamless. In 1964, enrollment in the selective "A" Course still skewed disproportionately to white students. Only six African Americans were enrolled that year compared with 110 Whites,472 and they were similarly underrepresented in extracurricular activities.473 Such de facto segregation was a systemic problem in Baltimore throughout the 1960s.474 To address the problem, Superintendent Laurence G. Paquin proposed a reorganization of Baltimore's high schools. He called for the creation of 13 comprehensive high schools that would offer both vocational training and college preparatory classes, and the elimination of multiple academic tracks in high school. However, Paquin's proposal met stiff opposition from City College parents and alumni, who feared that his plan threatened the foundations of City College's academic program. Councilman William Donald Schaefer, an alumnus of City College, convened a City Council hearing on the proposal, which stymied Paquin's effort.475

469Hlubb (1965), p. 10. 470 471Daneker (1988), p. 38. 472Hlubb (1965), p. 20. 473Hlubb (1965), p. 34. 474"From the Old Order to the New OrderReasons and Results, 19571997". Baltimore City Public School System. 2006. . Retrieved 2007-07-25. 475

By the late 1970s, the school's population, academic program, and building were all in decline, in part reflecting the economic problems of the city as a whole.476 In 1977, the city school system allocated money to refurbish the school and bolster the college preparatory program. That same year the school system announced its intent to make City College coeducational; however, the all-male tradition did not end easily. Alumni argued for the uniqueness of a single-sex education system, and a task force studying the issue voted 116 in favor of keeping the all-male tradition. In a stunning reversal, the board of school commissioners voted to admit women citing constitutional concerns over equal rights.477 The following year City College enrolled women for the first time.478

Recent history
By 1990, the school's academic program was once again deteriorating and enrollment was declining. The Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools raised questions about the ability of City College to offer students an academically rigorous course of study.479 During this period of decline, the "A" Course was discontinued by Principal Joseph Antenson, who contended that the program was racially discriminatoryan argument Paquin had made nearly three decades earlierand opted for a standardized curriculum.480 However, the change did little to improve the school; therefore, in 1992, the school system hired a private contractor to run City College. That action was a part of the unsuccessful "Educational Alternatives program", which lasted for about 14 months.481 Then, in 1994, Joseph M. Wilson was appointed principal of City College.482 Wilson, with the aid of alumni and parents, was able to secure more funding and autonomy from the school system, which were used to redesign the curriculum and to introduce the IB Diploma Program in 1998.483

476 477 478 479 480"A Request to End International Baccalaureate at the Baltimore City College" (PDF). Baltimore City College Alumni Association. May 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-07-16. 481 482 483

The new academic program attracted increased attention to the school. In 2000, City College was recognized as a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education, which placed it among the best schools in the country.484 The following year, the Toronto National Post reported on the twomonth long task of searching for the perfect high school in Great Britain, the United States, and Canada. It never found the perfect school . . . [however] we found a few outstanding ones, the paper concluded. And one of thesethe subject of a prominent feature articlewas City College, led by Wilson.485 The school's rankings in Newsweek's report of the nation's top high schools improved during this period. In 2003, it was ranked 593.486 Three years later, in 2006, City College was ranked 206,487 and in 2007 it was ranked 258.488 Given an estimated 27,500 public high schools across the nation, the 2007 ranking placed City College in the top one percent of all high schools. In its criteria, Newsweek divided the number of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate tests taken by the number of graduating seniors. The magazine stated that the measure showed schools which were committed to helping students take collegelevel courses. In addition to the academic resurgence of the school, the building was recognized for its historical and architectural interest. The Castle on the Hill was honored in 2003 by being placed on the National Register of Historic Places.489490491 This designation coincided with the 75th anniversary of the structure and campus as well as City College's 165th year of existence. On April 24, 2007 it earned the additional distinction of being listed as a Baltimore City Landmark. Mayor Sheila Dixon stated that: The castle on the hill, as City College is known, is truly a historic landmark. It is worthy of preservation and acknowledgment.492

484 485"Newsgram 2001". Amherst College. 2001. . Retrieved 2007-07-30. 486"The Top of the Class: 2003 List". MSNBC. . Retrieved 2007-07-22. 487"The Top of the Class: 2006 List". MSNBC. Archived from the original on December 3, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. 488 489"Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/30/03 through 7/05/03". National Park Service. July 11, 2003. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 490"City College Designated A Baltimore Landmark". CBS Broadcasting, Inc.. April 25, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-22. 491Janis, Stephen (April 24, 2007). "Baltimore City College honored as official landmark". The Examiner. . Retrieved 2007-05-22. 492

The landmark status bill was passed by the city council in accordance with a recommendation made by the council's staff, which found that the building dates from a historic and architecturally significant period. This new status prevents the buildings exterior from being altered without the approval of the city's Commission for Historical and Architectural Preservation.493 However, the previous year City College was a victim of vandalism at the hands of a group of children ranging in age from 8 to 15, as a renovation of the school neared completion.494 In the summer of 2007, scenes from the 2008 sequel Step Up 2 were filmed at City College.495 Interior and campus shots were used to form the fictional Maryland School for the Arts. In 2007 controversy about the academic program arose, when members of the Baltimore City College Alumni Association argued that the IB Program was diverting a significant amount of the school's resources to benefit a fraction of the student population.496 Approximately 30 students out of 1300 were enrolled in the full IB Diploma Program at City College. Some members also argued that the rigidity of the program did not give students enough flexibility.497 Citing these concerns, the alumni association encouraged the school to replace the IB Program with the "A course" and expand the number of Advanced Placement courses offered.498 In December 2008 City announced the donation of $50,000 by alumnus H. Corbin Gwaltney '39. The founder and long time editor of Johns Hopkins Magazine, Gwaltney's donation will benefit the modernization of City's library.499 This is the second largest donation by a single alumnus to the school, David Rubenstein, founder of the Carlyle Group donated the largest amount $100,000 in 2006.

Principals
Dr. Nathan C. Brooks (18391849) Dr. Jerome Denaburg (19661969)

Rev. Dr. Francis G. Waters (18491853)

Dr. Pierre A. Davis (19701974)

493 494"Vandalism at Baltimore City College". CBS Broadcasting, Inc.. August 14, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. . Retrieved 2006-08-15. 495""Step Up 2" Puts Baltimore Back On Big Screen". CBS Broadcasting, Inc.. February 15, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-02-24. 496Neufeld, Sara (February 10, 2007). "Elite Program in Dispute". The Baltimore Sun: p. Final Edition,1A. . Retrieved 2007-07-30. 497 498 499"Elite Program in Dispute". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. . Retrieved 2008-12-04.

John A. Getty (1853)

Maurice Wills (1974 1976)

George Morrison (1853 1857)

Isaiah E. White (1976 1977)

Dr. Thomas D. Baird (18571873)

Gordon Stills (1977 1978)

William Elliott, Jr. (1873 1890)

Dr. Solomon Lausch (19781988)

Francis A. Soper (1890 1911)

Jean Johnson (1988 1990), (19921994)

Dr. Wilbur F. Smith (19111926)

Dr. Joseph Antenson (19901992)

Dr. Frank R. Blake (19261932)

Joseph M. Wilson, J.D. (19942004)

Dr. Philip H. Edwards (19321948)

Dr. James Scofield (2005)

Chester H. Katenkamp (19481956)

Dr. Deborah L. Wortham

(2005)

Henry T. Yost (1956 1963)

Timothy Dawson (2006 2010)

Dr. Julius G. Hlubb (19631966)

Ms. Cindy Harcum (2010present)

indicates principals who attended Baltimore City College

References
Board of Commissioners of Public Schools (1902). 73rd Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. Baltimore: John D. Lucas Printing Company. Daneker, David C., editor (1988). 150 Years of the Baltimore City College. Baltimore: Baltimore City College Alumni Association. Hlubb, Julius G. (1965). An Analysis of Student Enrollment at the Baltimore City College. Diss. George Washington University. Leonhart, James Chancellor (1939). One Hundred Years of the Baltimore City College. Baltimore: H.G. Roebuck & Son. Steiner, Bernard C. (1894). History of Education in Maryland. Washington: Government Printing Office. ISBN 0-384-57825-X.

Roman Catholicism in Liberia


The Roman Catholic Church in Liberia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. There around 166,000 Catholics in Liberia - 5.8% of the population. There are 3 dioceses including 1 archdiocese:500 Monrovia 1. Cape Palmas 2. Gbarnga

500Country information on Liberia. Catholic Hierarchy. Obtained 30-06-09.

History
Background
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Americo-Liberian settlers were to be found on the sea-coast and at the mouths of the two most important rivers. Of the native tribes the principal are the Veys, the Pessehs, the Barlines, the Bassas, the Kroos, the Frebos, and the Mandingos. Outside of the negroes of American origin not many Liberians were Christians. The converts came chiefly from the Kroos and the Frebos. Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterians, and Episcopalian missions had been established in the country for many years with scant results at the beginning of the 19th century.

First American mission to Liberia


As a number of the first American colonists were Catholic negroes from Maryland and the adjoining states, they eventually caught the attention of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and the second Provincial Council of Baltimore in 1833 undertook to meet the difficulty of sending missionaries to serve the local faithful. In accordance with the measures taken, Rev. Edward Barron, Vicar-General of Philadelphia, Rev. John Kelly of New York, and Denis Pindar, a lay catechist from Baltimore, volunteered for the mission and sailed for Africa from Baltimore on 2 December 1841. They arrived there safe and Father Barron said the first Mass at Cape Palmas on 10 February 1842. After a time, finding that he did not receive missionaries enough to accomplish anything practical, Father Barron returned to the United States, and thence went to Rome where he was made on 22 January 1842, Vicar Apostolic of the Two Guineas, and titular Bishop of Constantia.

Missionary take-over of religious congregations


With seven priests of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost he returned to Liberia, arriving at Cape Palmas on 30 Nov., 1843. Five of these priests died on the mission of fever, to which Denis Pindar, the lay catechist, also fell a victim, 1 Jan., 1844. Bishop Barron and Father Kelly held out for two years, and then, wasted by fever, they determined to return to the United States, feeling that it was impossible to withstand the climate any longer. Bishop Barron died of yellow fever during an epidemic at Savannah, Georgia, 12 September 1854, Father Kelly died at Jersey City, New Jersey, 28 April 1866.

The Fathers of the Holy Ghost, who took up the work, were also forced by the climate to abandon it in a couple of years, and the permanent mission lapsed until 25 Feb., 1884. The Fathers of Montfort (Company of Mary), under Fathers Blanchet and Lorber, then laid the foundation of another mission at Monrovia. The President of the Republic, Mr. Johnson, and the people generally gave them a cordial welcome, because of its emphasis on providing a thorugh education, but the sectarian ministers organized a cabal against them, and endeavoured to thwart all their efforts to spread the Catholic faith. They made some progress in spite of this, and in the following year, having received reinforcements from France, opened a school for boys and extended their operations into other places. Father Bourzeix learned the native language, in which he compiled a catechism and translated a number of hymns. Deaths among the missionaries and the health of the others shattered by fever forced these priests also to abandon the Liberia mission. After this it was visited occasionally by missionaries from Sierra Leone until 1906, when Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples handed its care over to the Society of African Missions from Lyon, and three Irish priests, Fathers Stephen Kyne, Joseph Butler, and Dennis O'Sullivan, with two French assistants, continued to work among the 2800 Catholics the vicariate was estimated to contain in 1910.501 Diplomatic relationships between the Vatican and Liberia were established in 1927, celebrated by a spectacular and massive march through the streets of Monrovia on the feast of Christ the King, which subsequently boosted registration in Catholic schools and a lasting foundation of Catholicism.502

Outspokenness during the dicatorships


Under the dictatorships of William Tubman up to Samuel Doe, the Catholic Church continued its work in education and with the poor, as well as using its voice to denounce abuses and corruption under the different dictatorial regimes. The Catholic Church was seen as more trustworthy than other churches because its peculiar mode of financing and hierarchy did not leave it at the government's mercy. Its financing came "predominantly from giant German agencies which would simply cease contributing if previous grants were not scrupulously accounted for." Because of the fact that it did not include high-ranking government officials, and because of the Catholic episcopal authority (prelates were not elected for just a few years), the Church benefited from a great freedom of expression, which it used wisely to denounce the government when necessary, using "machinery for public comment on national issues" with the Lenten or Advent Pastoral Letters. Archbishop Michael Kpakala Francis in his first letter written in 1977, denounced corruption in these words:

501 "Liberia". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 502Burrowes, Carl Patrick. Power and press freedom in Liberia, 1830-1970: the impact of globalization and civil society on media-government relations, p.130. Africa World Press, 2004. ISBN-1592212948

"It is not too late to stop this ugly trend of corruption in our country. We are proud to call ourselves Christian, but can we honestly do so if corrupt practices are the normal things in our lives?"503

First Pastoral Letter of Archbishop Francis, 1977

The Catholic Church also used its voice to condemn the systematic recourse to violence for political ends in Liberia. For instance, after Samuel Doe's coup in 1980, the Catholic Bishops were quick in bringing out a statement on "The Liberian Situation", emphasizing the role of the Church in the country's political life, "without usurping the role of the State and without favouring any party." The bishops reminded the State of its duty to protect and not breach the citizens' rights. The statement declared that:

"Violence has no place in a just government. Violence destroys the very fabric of society, foments hatred and brings about hostility where there should be love"504

Catholic Bishops Pastoral Letter on "The Liberian Situation", 1980

Civil war and aftermath


During the civil war, many churches and religious centers were used as shelters. Priests and religious were also the target of violence and many were killed.505 The Catholic Church in Liberia has on many occasions renewed its appeal for a War Crimes Court to be set up, "in an effort to enhance the justice system against individuals who commit atrocities against Liberians", as reconciliation must come with justice.506

503Cited in Gifford, Paul. Christianity and politics in Doe's Liberia, p.56. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN-052152010X 504Cited in Gifford, Paul. Christianity and politics in Doe's Liberia, pp.72-73. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN-052152010X 505US Embassy Remembers Five Slain Catholic Nuns, Church Wants War Crimes Court In Liberia. The Informer (Monrovia). 16-07-2008. Obtained 31-06-09. 506Toe, Jerome. Catholic Prelate Calls For War Crimes Court. The Informer (Monrovia). 16-072008. Obtained 30-06-09.

Involvement in the fight against AIDS


The Catholic Church has been committed since the beginning to the care of those affected by AIDS and the prevention of the spread of the disease. Recently, as part of its effort "to complement government and global efforts to create an increase awareness on the prevention of the HIV and AIDS pandemic", the Catholic Heath Secretariat of the Diocese of Gbarnga in Liberia has renewed its commitment and perseverance by organizing "intense HIV/AIDs awareness and sensitization campaigns in Bong County".507

References
This article incorporates text from the entry Liberia in the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1910.

Fremont High School (Sunnyvale, California)


Fremont High School Fremont High School entrance.jpg Address 1279 SunnyvaleSaratoga Road Sunnyvale, California, 94087 Coordinates Information Type Established School district Principal Enrollment Color(s) Mascot Nobel laureates Website Public 4-year 1923 Fremont Union High School District Bryan Emmert 1,900 cardinal and white Firebirds Andrew Fire www.fhs.fuhsd.org 372111N 1220201W

507Liberia: Catholic Church Intensifies Crusade On HIV/Aids in Bong. The Informer (Monrovia). 19-06-2009. Obtained 30-06-09.

Fremont High School is a comprehensive, co-educational, public secondary school in Sunnyvale, California, United States. Fremont is currently the only open public high school located in the city of Sunnyvale and is part of the Fremont Union High School District (FUHSD).

History
Fremont was originally named West Side Union High School, the first school opened in the West Side Union High School District. In 1923, it opened in rooms of the Sunnyvale Grammar School as the only high school in the Sunnyvale Cupertino (West Valley) area, and then moved to a temporary building after purchase of the school site in 1923. The school building was designed in 1925 by noted California school architect W. H. Weeks, after the necessary bond referendum passed on the third attempt. On March 27, 1925, the Board of Trustees unanimously voted to change the name of the school and district to Fremont Union High School.508 In 1969, a late-night fire occurred in the Bell Tower (visible in the photo to right) of the main building but did little damage to the school property. On July 1, 1996, after much controversy, the Fremont Union School Board did away with the original Indian mascot at the request of American Indians, replacing it with the current Firebirds mascot. This change has been embraced by the school population.

Campus
Fremont High School is located at the intersection of Fremont Avenue and SunnyvaleSaratoga Road. The school has a comparatively large football stadium, which is used by nearby schools such as rival Homestead. The original buildings are built in a Spanish mission architectural style. The Fremont Union High School District's offices are also located on the school campus. The school site was once used as a military base. There is a stretch of open space on the campus that runs from the front entrance gates to the rear parking lot (parallel to Fremont Ave). That area was used as a short runway. There are also a couple of World War II-era Quonset huts located near the tennis courts.

508History at Fremont Union High School District, retrieved April 12, 2010.

Student enrollment
In the 20062007 school year, Fremont had a total enrollment of 1,878 students. Fremont is known for its diversity; nearly every racial group found in California is represented in its student population. White students comprise 26.9% of the student population while black students comprise 4.7% of the population. Hispanic students are the largest group, representing 36.6% of the student population with Asian students not far behind at 31.2% of the school's student population. Also, there are a small number of American Indian students, comprising around 0.5% of the student population.509 This racial diversity makes Fremont High School unique in the Fremont Union High School District; the other schools in the district are predominantly made up of white and Asian students.

Extracurriculars
Fremont students participate in a wide range of extracurricular activities ranging from marching band and athletics to various cultural and community service clubs like Octagon, Key Club, Culinary Club, LiNK (Liberty in North Korea), and The Movie Club. The poetry slam team has won numerous awards at spoken word poetry competitions. The Gamer's Club is one of Fremont High School's most exclusive clubs: of 147 applications submitted, only 32 were allowed membership in the club for the 2010-2011 school year. Fremont High School DECA has a variety of outstanding achievements, having over 2000 hours of community service as a whole for the 09-10 school year (more than all other Fremont clubs combined) and sent numerous competitors to represent at the international competitive level. Seventy-Five percent of those representatives became finalists at those international competitions (which includes than 1% of all DECA students). Furthermore, so far in the 20052006 school year, Fremont athletic teams have had successful seasons; Fremont currently holds League Champions titles in Varsity girl's tennis, wrestling, and Varsity girl's basketball. The Fremont Wrestling Team is also currently one of highest ranking high school wrestling teams in the state, after taking 3rd place as a team at State Championships in 2006, as well as having 4 State Champions. A member of the team later won the Walsh Ironman Invitational in Ohio in December 2006, as well successfully defended his state title in 2007. In 20032004 the Fremont varsity cheerleaders took 1st place in every cheer competition in which they competed, including the National Cheerleading Association Championships in Anaheim. Fremont's rival, Homestead High School, located in nearby Cupertino, is also part of the FUHSD.

509Fremont High School at School Matters, retrieved April 12, 2010.

Notable alumni
Notable alumni of Fremont High School include: Tully Banta-Cain New England Patriots football player Carl Ekern Los Angeles Rams football player Andrew Fire Professor at Stanford University and 2006 Nobel Prize cowinner of Medicine or Physiology Donna Hanover Newscaster, actress Teri Hatcher Golden Globe-winning actress Imran Khan Bollywood actor Steve Kloves Oscar-nominated screenwriter Francie Larrieu-Smith Olympic distance runner Jason Simontacchi Washington Nationals baseball player Troy Tulowitzki Colorado Rockies shortstop Bill Green - Olympian, Track & Field (Hammer Throw, 5th Place 1984) Bruce Wilhelm World's Strongest Man and Olympian in Weightlifting Peter Ueberroth Olympic organizer and 1984 Time Magazine Man of the Year Tyler McCain- Famous Tattoo Artist, LA Ink 2010-

External links
Fremont High School website Fremont Union High School District website Fremont Octagon Official Website Fremont Key Club Official Website Fremont Yearbook Official Website Fremont Firebird Marching Band Website Fremont Union High School District Cupertino | Fremont | Homestead | Lynbrook | Monta Vista

GENICOM

GENICOM

Industry Fate Successor Founded Defunct Headquarters Parent

Computer printers Merged TallyGenicom 1982 2003 Chantilly, Virginia, U.S. General Electric

From 1982 to 2003, GENICOM was a leading American manufacturer of computer printers, based in Chantilly, Virginia.

The GE years
In 1954, General Electric (GE) decided to decentralize the company into separate business units. After reorganizing the motors and controls groups, several products remained that did not fit into the new groups- these 'leftovers' were formed into the Specialty Control Department. A decision was made to build a new plant in Waynesboro, Virginia for Specialty Control with Dr. Louis T. Rader as General Manager. $3.5 million was used to purchase 75 acres ( m2) and build the plant on the site of the original 1927 Waynesboro airport. The seminal managers and engineers consisted of 145 families moved from Schenectady, New York and the initial workforce consisted of about 400 local residents were hired in the first year.

GENICOM
In 1982, GE sold the printer and relays groups and the company was formed as the GENICOM Corporation in 1983. The 1987 purchase of the printer business assets of Centronics added the 350 series dot matrix printers and the LineWriter series of band printers to their product line. During these years Genicom leased offices in Calabasas, California. At this facility development was being conducted on a 400 dot per inch monochrome laser printer. In the early 1990s, GENICOM's headquarters and corporate offices were moved from Waynesboro, VA to Chantilly, Virginia.

In January 1995, the purchase of Printer System Corporation (PSC), a small developer of IBM interfaces in Gaithersburg, Maryland, was announced. PSC President Art Gallo joined GENICOM as a vice president. PSC became GENICOM 's laser development group and began producing GENICOM printers using Lexmark and Kentek engines. In 1996 Texas Instruments printer business was purchased, giving GENICOM a line of airline ticket, boarding pass and baggage tag printers. In August 1997, GENICOM purchased the printer division of Digital Equipment Corporation for $27 million and produced printers under both the GENICOM and Digital logos. Compaq purchased Digital in February 1998 and new products were then branded with the Compaq logo. The relays group was sold to CII Technologies (since acquired by Tyco International) and soon moved to North Carolina. In 1997 new 320000-square-foot (30000 m2) repair facility was built in Louisville, Kentucky and operations were moved from Waynesboro. The Louisville operation proved unprofitable and was closed in April 2000. GENICOM upgraded their old ASK/CA Manman database to Oracle; the project was budgeted for $6 million but cost $20 million by 1999.

Delisting
GENICOM's stock was delisted from the NASDAQ in January when stock price went below $1. CEO Paul Winn and Chief Financial Officer James Gale were relieved of their positions in March as the company went into chapter 11 and Shaun Donnellan was brought in as CEO. The Canadian operations were sold for $6.22 million and the airline printer business was sold to IER for $3.5 million. The ongoing lawsuit with Compaq was settled for $12.6 million. GENICOM International was spun off as a separate corporation, selling and marketing GENICOM products.[0] In August, Sun Capital Partners and Art Gallo purchased the remaining assets of GENICOM, including the operations in Chantilly, Waynesboro and McAllen.[1] The Datacom manufacturing operation was purchased in 2001 and operated as a sister company.[2]

TallyGenicom
In 2003, GENICOM and Tally merged to form TallyGenicom (TG).

References

Louis T Rader papers at VCU

Missouri Plan
The Missouri Plan (originally the Missouri Nonpartisan Court Plan, also known as the merit plan, or some variation) is a method for the selection of judges. It originated in Missouri in 1940, and has been adopted by several states of the United States. Similar methods are used in some other countries. Under the Plan, a non-partisan commission reviews candidates for a judicial vacancy. The commission then sends to the governor a list of candidates considered best qualified. The governor then has sixty days to select a candidate from the list. If the governor does not make a selection within sixty days, the commission makes the selection. At the general election soonest after the completion of one year's service, the judge must stand in a "retention election". If a majority vote against retention, the judge is removed from office, and the process starts anew.510 If the majority vote in favor of retention, the judge serves out a full term.

Nonpartisan judicial commissions under the Plan


Under the Missouri Nonpartisan Court Plan, a nonpartisan judicial commission reviews applications, interviews candidates and selects a judicial panel. For the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, the Appellate Judicial Commission makes the selection. It is composed of three lawyers elected by members of the Missouri Bar (the organization of all lawyers licensed in this state), three citizens selected by the governor, and the chief justice, who serves as chair. Each of the three geographic districts of the Court of Appeals must be represented by one lawyer and one citizen member on the Appellate Judicial Commission. Each of the circuit courts in Clay, Greene, Jackson, Platte, and St. Louis Counties, and the city of St. Louis has its own circuit judicial commission. These commissions are composed of the chief judge of the court of appeals district in which the circuit is located, plus two lawyers elected by the bar and two citizens selected by the governor. All of the lawyers and citizens must live within the circuit for which they serve the judicial commission.

510"Nonpartisan Court Plan". Missouri Judicial Web site. June 28, 2007. .

History and spread of the plan


Missouri voters adopted the system by initiative petition in November 1940 after several very contentious judicial elections, which were heavily influenced by the political machine of Tom Pendergast.511 Most low-level judges in Missouri are elected, except in Kansas City, St. Louis and Springfield, where the Missouri Plan is mandated by the state constitution for all judicial vacancies.512 After Missouri adopted this method for selecting judges, several other states adopted it, either in full or in part.513 The plan was put forth by a committee chaired by Luther Ely Smith, "founder" of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. .514 The Missouri Non-Partisan Court Plan has served as a model for thirty-four other states that use merit selection to fill some or all judicial vacancies. Sixteen states still elect their judges in partisan elections.515 California uses a heavily modified version in which the Governor can theoretically nominate any California attorney who has practiced for ten years. But then the nominee must undergo an evaluation by the Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation of the State Bar of California, which then forwards a nonbinding evaluation to the Governor. For superior court positions, the Governor can make an appointment after receiving a report from JNE. For appellate court positions, the Governor submits the nomination to the Commission on Judicial Appointments, consisting of the Chief Justice, the Attorney General, and the presiding justice of the affected Court of Appeal district (or the most senior presiding justice for Supreme Court nominations). The CJA holds a public meeting, and receives the report from the JNE Commission, then decides whether to confirm the nominee. Once confirmed, the judge can take office but then must go through retention elections (at different intervals for each level of the judiciary). The Missouri Plan is not without critics. There are several alternative ways of filling judicial posts which are used in other states. These include direct elections (either partisan or non-partisan), election by the state legislature, or appointment by the governor with advice and consent of the state senate. Missouri had previously used all of these methods before adopting the Nonpartisan Court Plan in 1940.

Criticisms of the Missouri Plan

511 512 513 514http://www.nps.gov/jeff/historyculture/upload/luther_ely_smith.pdf Luther Ely Smith: Founder of a Memorial - nps.gov - Retrieved January 12, 2008 515http://www.mobar.org/81a9785d-c049-411d-bdd5-816ffe26a2a6.aspx

Excessive influence of attorneys


Better Courts for Missouri has argued that flaws in the current plan give elite trial lawyers too much control over judicial selection. According to the organization's executive director, "they are a small, insular group who have their interests. They have a lot to add to the process, but we don't think they should dominate the process - (and they) are in no way accountable to Missourians." 516

Low diversity of panels


Former Missouri State legislator and lawyer, Elbert Walton, has focused on the plan's effect on African Americans. "It is unfair that lawyers elect judges ... It disenfranchises people and it especially disenfranchises black people."517 At a press conference in February, 2008, Walton accused Missouri Bar President Charlie Harris, an African-American,518 of ignoring the Missouri Plan's effect on black people. Walton noted that no African American had ever been elected to one of the Missouri Bar's three slots on the Appellate Judicial Commission, though many have been appointed judges, and suggested that Mr. Harris "ought to be ashamed of himself" for supporting such a plan.519 Studies conducted by the American Judicature Society show that merit selection ensures a more diverse judiciary than does partisan elections. Governor Phil Bredesen of Tennessee has criticized that state's version of the Missouri Plan for similar reasons.520

Political interference
The Wall Street Journal wrote "If the recent slugfests have proven anything, it's that Missouri's courts are every bit as hung up in politics as they are in other states. The difference is that in Missouri the process happens behind closed doors."521 Tennessee governor Phil Bredesen has made similar complaints. He remarked, "I think [the nominating commissioners] have been vastly too political in their selection process. And what they are supposed to do is give you the best candidates in the ideal world."522

516Bob Watson, "Opponents of judicial selection process form new group" Jefferson City News Tribune. Accessed 2008-14-03. 517Jason Noble, "Another amendment, another hearing, more of the same debate on the judicial selection process Kansas City Star 2008-26-02. Accessed 2008-14-03. 518Missouri Bar News Release, September 28, 2007,[3] News Release 519Scott Lauck, St. Louis attorney says blacks left out of judicial selection Daily Record 520Justice at Stake, Bredesen complains about Missouri Plan 521Wall Street Journal Missouri Compromised 2007-22-12. Accessed 2008-14-03 522Andy Sher. Chattanooga Times Free Press "Bredesen Wants Nominating Commission to Operate in Open 2008-14-01.

External links
Explanations of the Missouri Plan

Info from the Missouri Judiciary Voting for Missouri's Judges - From Missouri Bar Association

Pro-Missouri Plan links

Let the People Judge the Judges: Reforming Virginia's Judicial Selection Process Judges and elections are not always a good mix Missourians for Fair and Impartial Courts

Anti-Missouri Plan links

Minnesota Judicial Elections: Better Than the "Missouri Plan"

''Erigeron elegantulus''
Erigeron elegantulus Scientific classification Kingdom: Unranked: Unranked: Unranked: Order: Family: Tribe: Genus: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Asterales Asteraceae Astereae Erigeron

Species: Binomial name Erigeron elegantulus


Greene

E. elegantulus

Erigeron elegantulus is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common names blue dwarf fleabane and volcanic daisy. It is an uncommon plant native to the Modoc Plateau and surroundings in northeastern California and southeastern Oregon, where it grows on the rocky volcanic soils of the region. This wildflower is a small perennial daisy forming patches of narrow, hard, pointed leaves a few centimeters long in shades of green to white. The erect stems are up to 15 centimeters in height and each hold a single flower head less than a centimeter wide. The head has a center of yellow disc florets and a fringe of ray florets which may be blue, purple, or pink.

External links
Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Photo gallery

Fan magazine
A fan magazine is a professionally written and published magazine intended for the amusement of fans of the popular culture subject matter which it covers. It is distinguished from a scholarly or literary magazine on the one hand, by the target audience of its contents, and from a fanzine on the other, by the commercial and for-profit nature of its production and distribution. American examples include Photoplay, Modern Screen, and Sports Illustrated.

Temposhark
Temposhark

Background information

Also known as Origin Genres Years active Labels Website Live Band Line-up Members Robert Diament (vocals 2004-present) Mathis Richet (drums 2006-present) Mark Ferguson (bass 2007-present) Leila MacFie (keyboards 2009-present) Past members

Robert Diament Brighton & London, England Electronica, Alternative, Indie, Pop, Rock 2004present Paper & Glue Defend Music Temposhark.com

Luke Busby (keyboards/co-songwriter 2004-2007) Jasmin O'Meara (bass 2004-2005) Laurence Warder (bass 2005-2006) Luke Juby (keyboards 2008) Temposhark is an English electronic rock band, formed in London and Brighton by singer-songwriter Robert Diament. Temposhark are best known for their songs Bye Bye Baby, Joy, It's Better To Have Loved and Not That Big; a duet with singer Imogen Heap which appears on their 2008 debut album The Invisible Line. Their second album Threads was released in 2010 and reached the top 15 on iTunes UK electronic albums chart. Other notable artist collaborations include Guy Sigsworth, Sean McGhee, Youth from Killing Joke, Kate Havnevik, Melnyk, Camille, MaJiKer, Morgan Page, Avril and the virtuoso violinist Sophie Solomon.

Early EPs and Collaborations (2004-2007)


The initial idea for Temposhark started in London whilst Diament was recording and writing with producer Youth from Killing Joke. At this time, Diament also began staying in Brighton where his old school friend Luke Busby was studying visual art and music at the time. Diament has spoken about that era of initial experimentation, Crime was one of the first songs that Luke and I ever wrote, when Luke was studying in Brighton. Listening to the clip just now brought back so many

hilarious memories of us running riot around Brighton with our friend Tasha (who went on to become the very wonderful Bat For Lashes). Around the time of writing Crime, Tasha and I performed in a musical Luke had written. We put it on in a tiny Brighton theatre and had such a laugh doing it. Great memories - but I just hope the video footage never turns up!523 Diament set up his own UK record label in December 2004 called Paper and Glue releasing a series of limited edition Temposhark singles, the first of which was their EP Neon Question Mark. Temposhark quickly collaborated with singer Imogen Heap (Frou Frou), received club remixes from electro pioneers including Cursor Miner, Mark Moore (S'Express), Melnyk, Metronomy, Avril (FCommunications), Carmen Rizzo and Crispin J Glover as well as hip-hop crew Border Crossing, Masashi Naka (Escalator Records, Japan), Akira the Don and electropunk duo Noblesse Oblige. The band have also written two short film soundtracks for fine artist Justine Pearsall. Diament and Pearsall went on to collaborate on an art music video for the Temposhark song It's Better To Have Loved in 2005. This art video was first screened in public at the De La Warr Pavilion in February 2006 when Temposhark performed live at the respected British arts venue.524 A second EP 'Invisible Ink/Little White Lie' came out in May 2005 which attracted many new admirers including producer Guy Sigsworth, best known for his work with Madonna, Bjrk and Britney Spears. Sigsworth went on to produce Temposhark's first nationwide released UK single It's Better To Have Loved, which came out as a limited edition CD on December 12, 2005. All of these early Temposhark limited edition EPs came in deluxe packaging helping to create a buzz around the band in creative circles and with their fanbase. The band themselves were never pictured on the sleeves instead choosing striking original art images and stylish die-cut record sleeves. Around this time, Temposhark's live shows included bass player Jasmin O'Meara who also plays bass for Zoot Woman.525

523:: arjanwrites music blog ::: Free Download: Temposhark "Crime" 524Temposhark-Video Screening and Live Gig: Noise Of Art- 03 Feb '06 525BBC - Berkshire - Entertainment - Temposhark

In 2005, Diament said that his band name was thought up when he "woke up in the midst of a dream one night, at like 4am, and just said the word Temposhark. So it came from my subconscious I guess. Honestly it was that simple. I wanted a name that sounded strong. I liked the idea that music could be a weapon. Something powerful."526 In May 2006 Temposhark released their second nationwide single Joy on limited edition CD and 7 vinyl and the band set out on a UK tour visiting towns all over the UK. These dates included a very high profile London show at Tate Britain on Fri May 5 and Carling Academy Islington on Sat May 20. Temposhark gained many new fans when Joy was featured on the front homepage of iTunes UK and in iTunes weekly newsletter. In 2007, Temposhark toured the USA with their full band as well as completing their debut album, to be released in March 2008 in USA and Europe. In 2008, their collaboration with rapper Akira The Don was released in US magazine XLR8R called Bang.

The Invisible Line (2008 debut album)


Temposhark's debut album The Invisible Line was released in Spring 2008 in both UK and USA/Canada.527 It was produced and recorded in London by rising producer Sean McGhee with two tracks produced by Guy Sigsworth. The album includes the song Blame, which was co-written with producer Youth aka Martin Glover from Killing Joke as well as a duet with Imogen Heap called Not That Big. On March 15, 2007 at the South by Southwest 2007 festival, Temposhark announced on stage that their debut album was to be called The Invisible Line. Singer Robert Diament has said that the album title was inspired by controversial British artist Tracey Emin from passages in her books Exploration Of The Soul (1994) and Strangeland (2005).528 A behind-the-scenes video of Temposhark recording at London's RAK Studios was released on YouTube.com on May 26, 2007. The video was synced up to the full album version of the Temposhark song Blame.529 This is thought to be the first preview of the newly recorded album version of the song. In October 2007, Temposhark's song Blame was nominated in the Best International category at the Ontario Independent Music Awards which take place in Toronto, Canada on November 15, 2007.530 Due to the album being leaked ahead of its official Spring 2008 release, its now been made available on iTunes in Europe, Australia and Japan.
526Temposhark-Forums 527Temposhark - Releases 528http://zxlcreative.blogs.com/electroqueer/2008/01/eq-chat-with-te.html As mentioned by Diament in an interview dated 16th January 2008 "An artist I love called Tracey Emin wrote about her birth and invisible lines that connect the past, present and future in her book 'Exploration Of The Soul' and it really resonated with me, that idea." 529YouTube - temposhark's Channel 530Temposhark - Releases: Temposhark nomintated in Ontario Independent Music Awards

In February 2008, Temposhark and their song Blame was announced as a finalist in the Pop/Top 40 category of the International Songwriting Competition (ISC).531 Blame was chosen by a board of respected judges included Nelly Furtado, Macy Gray, DJ Tiesto, Robert Smith of The Cure and Julian Casablancas of The Strokes.532 In April 2008, the song went on to become a winning finalist in the Pop/Top 40 category.533 In the same month, The Invisible Line was highlighted in The Guardian as a new band to watch article, described as "What if Kate Bush had shagged Marc Almond and spawned a monster that grew up listening to Violator? That's Temposhark, musically at any rate."534 In March 2008, the NME praised Temposhark's debut album with a positive review, "What if Trent Reznor was raised on the Pet Shop Boys rather than Einsturzende Neubauten? Think these dudes... they could be your new favourite band. 7 out of 10"535 Temposhark filmed four songs live for Fox TV's music show Fearless Music in the USA during April 2008.536 Temposhark's animated music video to their single Blame was selected for the Edinburgh International Film Festival 2008. Directed by New York based artist Motomichi Nakamura, the video will be screened on 22 June as part of the Mirrorball event focused on music video and music documentaries.537 On 27 June 2008, SXSW Click digital festival announced Temposhark's music video Blame in the top 3 finalists for the best music video of 2008.538 At the end of July 2008, Temposhark were announced the winner of the Music Video category, and will therefore have their video screened at the 2009 SXSW Film Festival in Austin, Texas.539 Temposhark's music video to Blame was then shortlisted for the Portgual International Music Video Festival ViMUS 2008 and was screened in Pvoa de Varzim, Portugal between 47 September 2008.540 The Blame video went on to be nominated for a Hollywood Music Award (ceremony in November 2008) whilst also being selected for screening at the San Francisco International Animation Festival (run by the San Francisco Film Society) and at the Holland Animation Film Festival 2008.541

531International Songwriting Competition - Contact 532International Songwriting Competition - Judges and Prizes 533International Songwriting Competition - Winners 534No 267: Temposhark | Music | Guardian Unlimited Music 535Temposhark - Releases: NME gives Temposhark's debut album the thumbs up! 536Temposhark - Blog 537Temposhark - Releases: 'Blame' video screening at Edinburgh International Film Festival 2008 538SXSWclick! 539SXSWclick! 540http://festivalvimus.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/international-videoclips-competition.pdf 541http://www.temposhark.com/site/news/detail.php?articleId=599

On September 7, 2008, Temposhark's song Knock Me Out was played on the MTV Video Music Awards 2008.542 In November 2008, Temposhark's video Blame won the New Music Video Awards 2008.543

Threads (2010 second album)


In 2009, two new digital singles The World Does Not Revolve Around You and Bye Bye Baby were released, each accompanied by a music video. Also in Summer 2009, Diament wrote songs with producer Guy Sigsworth544 and popstar Diana Vickers.545 In April 2010, Temposhark released their second album Threads. The album has 11 brand new songs. Released on 5 April 2010 as a digital download and reached number 15 in the iTunes Top 20 electronic albums in the UK.546 The digital version of the album includes 2 bonus remixes of the title track by Morgan Page and MaJiKer and PDF downloadable artwork. The album reached the USA Top 20 in CMJ's college radio albums chart in March 2010.547 In March 2010, Temposhark's song Bye Bye Baby was nominated for an Exposure Music Award in the UK.548 In May 2010, the song also received regular radio play in Germany when released as a single there.549 In May 2010 for an interview with UK magazine The Kaje, Diament described Threads as a "break-up album in many ways. A lot of the songs are about the end of a relationship and the start of a new life."550 Diament said the album was originally going to be called Fireworks but after writing the song Threads he decided that title summed up the album's overall mood and continued his earlier concept from his debut The Invisible Line of "how music can really connect people. But also of how everyone is interconnected in the world".551

542 543http://www.temposhark.com/site/news/detail.php?articleId=613 544[4] 545[5] 546Temposhark website - Releases section 547Interview with Robert Diament of Temposhark discussing the album Threads, Issue 1 of The Kaje, May 2010 548Temposhark nominated for Exposure Music Award 549Germany radio play for Temposhark 550 551

Touring
Temposhark's first live appearances took place in fashionable London club nights such as Electrogogo, Nag Nag Nag, Kashpoint, Computer Blue and Drama. In August 2005, British style icon Princess Julia joined Temposhark on stage at the TDK Cross Central music festival where Temposhark were supporting Grace Jones and Goldfrapp. Her duet on the song 'Paris' has since been made into a popular electro club remix and they performed the track live a further time at Nag Nag Nag for Fischerspooner's after show party in September. Temposhark toured the UK in 2006 visiting all major cities, culminating in a performance at London's Tate Britain art gallery and soon afterwards at the Mean Fiddler Latitude Festival on 16 July 2006. Temposhark first visited New York on a UK music industry trade mission in June 2006 and started performing live in Europe soon after including a sold out headline gig in Paris in July 2006. In November 2006, Temposhark began performing with their new live band, French drummer Mathis Richet and bassist Mark Ferguson. This led to the band being invited by music festival/conference South by Southwest 2007 (SXSW), which became the band's first ever live shows in the USA. They performed live twice to pack out audiences at the event in Austin, Texas on the 15 and 16 March 2007. Temposhark were awarded funding from the 'British Music Abroad' scheme run by the PRS Foundation, Arts Council England and UK Trade and Investment to support their SXSW 2007 trip to the USA. On 11 May 2007, Temposhark announced their first theatre and club tour of the USA.552 Temposhark's US tour supporting Darren Hayes from Savage Garden took place between 1126 June 2007. They visited cities including New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Toronto and San Francisco, with dates in all cities completely sold out. Temposhark played a live solo concert as part of New York fashion week in September 2007, it was their longest US show so far, at just under one hour.553 In April 2008, Temposhark returned to the live circuit performing headline live shows in London as well as a short USA tour of the East Coast including New York, Hartford, Philadelphia and Buffalo.554 Temposhark also announced a new live member, the keyboard player Luke Juby who is best known for being in popstar Mika's band.555 In June 2008, Temposhark headline London club night Popstarz to coincide with the launch of their single Blame and the UK release of their debut album. The show at Simon Hobart's Popstarz sees the band return to the London clubs where they first began.556

552:: arjanwrites music blog ::: Temposhark Joins Darren Hayes on U.S. Tour in June 553:: arjanwrites music blog ::: Temposhark at New York Fashion Week 554Temposhark-Events 555Home / Artists / International Artists: Music Production / Luke Juby 556Temposhark-Live at Popstarz- 20 Jun '08

In March 2010, Temposhark performed live at the Institute of Contemporary Arts fundraising gala at KoKo, London557 alongside other acts including Ellie Goulding, Lily Allen, Bryan Ferry and I Blame Coco.558 In April 2010, Robert Diament of Temposhark sang live in Paris, France as part of MaJiKer's series of live concerts The Lab which has included other vocalists Camille, Indi Kaur, Bndicte Le Lay and Sacha Bernardson.559

Remixes
Having successfully remixed the track Pull Up The People for M.I.A., Temposhark have started to remix other artists. Recent remix commissions include French music star Camille (Virgin/EMI Records) for her single Ta Douleur, Hellogoodbye (Sanctuary/Drive Thru Records) for their global hit song Here In Your Arms and Kate Havnevik (Universal/Continentica Records) for You Again taken from her cult hit debut album Melankton. January 2006 saw Temposhark remix Sophie Solomon's song Holy Devil taken from the virtuoso violinist's solo album Poison Sweet Madeira on Decca Records. Their remix has since been a success in Germany on both radio and at the iTunes German store. In June 2007, Temposhark's remix of Melnyk's song Me And My Muse was released on Melnyk's album Silence Remixed. Temposhark's interpretation included additional vocals by lead singer Robert Diament. The remix was later added onto Melnyk's 25 compilation of artists from his label. Melnyk has remixed a number of songs for Temposhark including their cult hit Joy. Temposhark collaborated again with Melnyk in 2008 for his second album Revolutions on a track called Hurricane which was inspired by the Temposhark song Knock Me Out.560 In October 2009, Temposhark released a 20-track compilation albums of rare remixes and previously unreleased songs and b-sides called Remixes & Rarities.

Internet popularity and podcasts


In March 2006 MySpace featured Temposhark as one of their favourite artists giving the band a new worldwide platform with more than 700,000 unique plays to date.561 The band also have over 20,000 friends on the networking site.

557[6] 558Temposhark perform live at ICA gala 2010 559MaJiKer's Lab concerts 560http://www.temposhark.com/site/news/detail.php?articleId=603 561As of February 22nd 2008 http://www.myspace.com/temposhark

2006 also saw the launch of Temposhark's official podcast series featuring lengthy interviews with fellow musicians/singers (including Kate Havnevik and Sophie Solomon) as well as short video documentaries and studio diaries. This free series of digital downloads began in May that year and is available from music stores such as iTunes and has attracted a cult following of 15,000 subscribers.562 In December 2007 and January 2008, Temposhark's singer Robert Diament was invited to be a guest blogger on music blog ArjanWrites.com where he wrote a number of blog entries related to his favourite music.563 In January 2008, Temposhark launched their music on the Last.fm internet radio network. In one week they had over 54,600 plays of songs from their debut album.564 In February 2008, MySpace featured Temposhark again as one of their featured artists giving them an incredible boost to their listening figures of over 70,000 listens in a few days.565 In March 2008, global fashion brand Fred Perry chose Temposhark as one of their new favourite rising bands. Temposhark were featured for the whole month of March at the Fred Perry website and a selection of Temposhark's songs, taken from their debut album, were streamed on the Fred Perry website radio player.566 In March 2008, the band's debut album reached number 20 in the top 100 iTunes USA chart for electronic music.567 In May 2008, Temposhark won funding of 15,000 from SliceThePie ( SliceThePie.com,) winning the top prize out of over 1,000 selected bands. The money helped the band make and release their second album Threads.568 On 27 June 2008, SXSW Click digital festival announced Temposhark's music video Blame in the top 3 finalists for the best music video of 2008.569 At the end of July 2008, Temposhark were announced the winner of the Music Video category, and will therefore have their video screened at the 2009 SXSW Film Festival in Austin, Texas.570

562Temposhark's Podcast 563:: arjanwrites music blog ::: Introducing Rob Diament, Guest Blogger 564Temposhark Music at Last.fm 565 566Fred Perry Subculture / the best in new music / temposhark 567http://deadlymelody.com/upcoming-events/temposharks-tour-kick-off-show-crash-mansion/ 568[7] 569 570

On 29 August 2008, Temposhark recorded a live radio session for the British Council's radio show The Selector571 which included an exclusive acoustic song I Kissed A Girl, a cover version of the hit number 1 song by Katy Perry. Having been uploaded onto the internet, the song quickly became popular with bloggers572 and fans alike.573 During the radio interview singer Robert Diament joked that, Having sung the song, I'd now love to kiss Katy Perry!574

In 2010, Temposhark's Knock Me Out gained popularity with gamers thanks to the song being featured575 on the US computer game website OurWorld576 in level 6577 of the game Dance Planet and Dance Planet Multiplayer.578 In May 2010, Rob Diament of Temposhark featured in the music video to Will Kevans' single Dialling Tone starring British actor Russell Tovey.579 In July 2010, Temposhark songs Joy and Crime were used in fashion campaigns by Max Mara and Marina Rinaldi.580

Discography
Full length albums
Threads (April 2010) Worldwide release date (including USA, Canada, UK, Germany, France and many more) Paper and Glue Digital Download) Remixes & Rarities (October 2009) Worldwide release date (including USA, Canada, UK, Germany, France and many more) Paper and Glue Digital Download) The Invisible Line (July 2008 (hard release)/ March 2008 (soft release) UK release date Paper and Glue/Defend Music (via Pinnacle) CD & Digital Download) The Invisible Line (March 2008 USA/Canada release date Paper and Glue/Defend Music (via Ryko) CD & Digital Download) The Invisible Line (March 2008) Europe release date (including Germany, France and many more) Paper and Glue/Defend Music CD & Digital Download)
571http://www.selector-radio.com/selector_content.html 572http://zxlcreative.blogs.com/electroqueer/2008/08/more-hot-than-2.html 573http://www.arjanwrites.com/arjanwrites/2008/08/listen-to-tempo.html 574 575Temposhark track featured on OurWorld game 576a Video on YouTube 577OurWorld.com 578Video on YouTube 579Video on YouTube 580Temposhark songs used by Max Mara and Marina Rinaldi 2010

CD singles/EPs/digital downloads
Threads (January 2010 Paper and Glue) (4 track digital download including remixes by Morgan Page) Bye Bye Baby (November 2009 Paper and Glue) (4 track digital download including remixes by Melynk and Monsieur Adi) The World Does Not Revolve Around You (September 2009 Paper and Glue) (2 track digital download including b-side, MaJiKer remix of Threads) Blame (June 2008 Paper and Glue) (Single out last week of June 2008 in UK) Blame (April 2008 Paper and Glue) (Digital download to coincide with USA tour - with new remixes and animated music video directed by Motomichi Nakamura) Joy (May 2006 Paper and Glue) (A bonus remix of Joy by Melnyk was released as a digital download in January 2007 on iTunes) It's Better To Have Loved (December 2005 Paper and Glue) Battleships (August 2005 17 track promo sampler featuring rare early homestudio demos and remixes Paper and Glue) Invisible Ink/Little White Lie (May 2005 Paper and Glue) Neon ? (December 2004 Paper and Glue) Temposhark Sampler (May 2004 11 track promo sampler featuring rare early demos and remixes)

Vinyl singles
Blame (June 2008 Paper and Glue 7" vinyl) Joy (May 2006 Paper and Glue 7" vinyl) Little White Lie (May 2005 Paper and Glue 12" vinyl) (The three Little White Lie remixes were re-released as a Digital EP in January 2007 on iTunes) Neon ? (December 2004 Paper and Glue pink 10" vinyl) Play With The Minute (June 2004 Paper and Glue white label 12" vinyl)

Compilations
Stash DVD magazine - Blame music video directed by Motomichi Nakamura (October 2008/Stash number 49 DVD magazine)581 XLR8R Magazine CD - "Bang (Akira The Don Remix)" (April 2008/XLR8R Magazine USA covermount CD)
581http://www.stashmedia.tv/archive/stash49.htm

Rockumentaries CD with Ray-Ban - "Joy (album version)" (April 2008/BlackBook Magazine USA covermount CD) Robopop 'The Return' - CD1: "Paris" CD2: "Paris" 'The Most Remix' (December 2006/Lucy Pierre/Planet Clique Records) TSHDT - "Not That Big (Metronomy Remix)" (October 2006/Australian magazine covermount CD) Vice CD - "Joy" (May 2006/Vice Magazine covermount CD) Viva Paris - "Invisible Ink" 'Avril Remix' (May 2006/Viva fashion agency promotional CD) Ministry of Sound Chill Out Sessions - "It's Better To Have Loved" (January 2006/Ministry of Sound) London Now 2005 - "Hard, Medium, Soft" (November 2005/VirginDigital.com online compilation) Ministry of Sound Angel Beach - "Invisible Ink" (July 2005/Ministry of Sound) Vice CD - "Little White Lie" (April 2005/Vice Magazine covermount CD) Tank Magazine - "Crime" (February 2005/Tank Magazine covermount CD)

Temposhark remixes
Akira The Don - "Bang" (Akira The Don Vs. Temposhark) (2008/Paper & Glue) Kate Havnevik - "You Again" (2006/Continentica Records) Camille - "Ta Douleur" (2006/EMI Virgin Records) Hellogoodbye - "Here In Your Arms" (2006/Sanctuary Records) Melnyk - "Me And My Muse" (2006/Gaymonkey Records) Sophie Solomon - "Holy Devil" (2006/Decca Records) M.I.A. - "Pull Up The People" (2005/XL Records)

Cover versions
I Kissed A Girl (Katy Perry cover version) - live acoustic version recorded for The Selector radio show, August 29, 2008.582 Like A Prayer (Madonna cover version) - live full band version performed on Temposhark's USA & UK live tours in 2007.583

Videography
582http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D17J4-EncIc 583http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qtGHFLS2Xrk

Music videos
Bye Bye Baby directed by Ben Charles Edwards (2009)[8] The World Does Not Revolve Around You directed by Doyle Hooper (2009)[9] Blame (Radio Edit) directed by Japanese animator Motomichi Nakamura (2008) [10] Blame (Album Version) behind the scenes studio video directed by Doyle Hooper (2007)[11] It's Better To Have Loved (Guy Sigsworth Mix) directed by British artist Justine Pearsall (2005)[12]

Concert film/Interview
Map The Music documentary film including Temposhark, directed by Samantha Hale (TBC 2008)

Awards
2009 - Nominated in two categories of Exposure Music Awards 2009, Best Dance Track (Joy) and Best Video (Blame) 584 2009 - Nominated as Best Commissioned Film (Blame animated music video) at 16th Stuttgart International Festival of Animated Film.585 2008 - Winner of the New Music Video Awards 2008 for their video Blame directed by Motomichi Nakamura.586 2008 SXSW Sound Checks award for best music video of 2008 for Blame animated video, directed by Motomichi Nakamura.587 2007 - International Songwriting Competition, Blame was a winning finalist in the Pop/Top 40 category, judged by Nelly Furtado.588

External links
Temposhark's official website Temposhark on MySpace.com Temposhark page at their record label Defend Music
584Exposure Music Awards nominations 2009, April 2009. 585http://www.film-medien-festival.de/suchergebnisse.html 586http://www.wearelistening.org/vote_nmva.php 587SXSWclick! 588http://www.songwritingcompetition.com/winners.htm

Temposhark YouTube channel

James H. Duncan
James Henry Duncan

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 3rd district In office March 4, 1849 March 3, 1853 Preceded by Succeeded by Amos Abbott William S. Damrell

Born Died Political party

December 5, 1793Haverhill, Massachusetts February 8, 1869Haverhill, Massachusetts Whig

James Henry Duncan (December 5, 1793 February 8, 1869) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts. Born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, he attended Phillips Exeter Academy, and graduated from Harvard University in 1812. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1815 and commenced practice in Haverhill. He was an active militia officer, and attained the rank of colonel. He was president of the Essex Agricultural Society, and member of the State House of Representatives in 1827, 1837, 1838, and again in 1857. He served in the State senate from 1828 to 1831. He was a delegate to the Whig National Convention at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1839. He was appointed Commissioner-inBankruptcy in 1841. He was elected as a Whig to the Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses (March 4, 1849 March 3, 1853).

Following his political career he was engaged in the real-estate business. He died in Haverhill, aged 75, and was interred in Linwood Cemetery. His daughter Margaret Duncan married Stephen Henry Phillips on October 3, 1871.589

External links
James H. Duncan at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

James Duncan (athlete)


Medal record

James H. Duncan at the 1912 Olympic Games.

Mens athletics

Competitor for the

United States

589Robert S. Rantoul (1888). Duane Hamilton Hurd. ed. History of Essex County, Massachusetts: with Biographical Sketches of Many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men. 1. Philadelphia: J.W. Lewis & Company. pp. xlviii li. .

Olympic Games Bronze 1912 Stockholm Discus throw James Henry "Jim" Duncan (September 25, 1887 January 21, 1955) was an American athlete, a member of the Mohawk Athletic Club, the Bradhurst Field Club and the Irish American Athletic Club. He competed mainly in the discus throw. Duncan was a member of the U.S. Olympic Team in the 1912 Summer Olympics held in Stockholm, Sweden and competed in the discus throw, winning the won the bronze medal. During World War I he rose to the rank of Lieutenant in the U.S. Army.

World record
Duncan was the first holder of the official world discus record. On May 26, 1912, he hurled the discus with his right hand 156 feet 1 inches (47.59) at the Irish American Athletic Club's track & field, Celtic Park in Queens, New York. On the same day, he hurled the discus 96 feet 7.5 inches, with his left hand, breaking the world's record for right and left hands combined with a distance of 252 feet 8 and 7/8 inches.590 This throw was recognized by the IAAF when they issued their inaugural list of records in 1912.

Military career
Duncan was a Lieutenant in the U.S. Army, Expeditionary Forces during World War I. He was attached to the 11th Company of Engineers. He served in five offensive and one defensive sectors. After his discharge from the U.S. Army, he stayed in France, married a French woman and opened a gymnasium in Paris. He was also the caretaker and manager of the American Military Cemetery at Suresnes, near Paris and corresponded with many American mothers, informing them of his visits to their sons graves.591 In 1920, he was offered the position of trainer for the French Olympic athletes training for the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp.592 In 1927, his 3 year old daughter, Jacqueline Duncan won a beauty competition, being voted "the healthiest and most beautiful child of more than 30,000 who entered a competition organized by one of the leading Paris newspapers."593 Duncan was critically injured in 1932, when in an apparent suicide attempt, he shot himself three times, with two bullets lodging in his abdomen. He was in France.594 He died on January 21, 1955.
590New York Times, April 27, 1932. 591 592New York Times, April 16, 1920. 593New York Times, June 1, 1927. 594To, Wireless (April 27, 1932). "J. H. Duncan Shoots Himself In France. Superintendent Of The American Cemetery At Suresnes Is In Critical Condition. He Appeared Depressed. War Veteran Established 2 World Records For Discus Throw At Celtic Park Here In 1912". New York Times. .

Further reading
Sullivan, James E. (1912). The Olympic Games Stockholm - 1912. New York: American Sports Publishing Company. Retrieved 2009-01-03.

External links
profile Sports-reference.com profile Archives of Irish America - NYU Winged Fist Organization

John H. Duncan
John H. Duncan (1855 - October 1929) was an American architect.

Biography
He was the designer of the Wolcott Hotel. One of the most famous architects in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, his popularity rose after being selected as the architect of what is now Grant's Tomb595, another "reconstruction" of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (Greek Ionia).596 Another of Duncan's most famous works is the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Arch in Grand Army Plaza in Brooklyn NY, often referred to as Brooklyn's version of the Arc de Triomphe.597 Duncan also contributed townhouses on Manhattan's Upper East side. One marvelous example is 21 E 84st (with its neighbors, 1132 and 1134 Madison Avenue), still intact today with much of the original interior and exterior. "A brick and terra-cotta terrace (English-style grouping of jointly designed townhouses), now sullied by unhappy storefronts on the avenue. But look up at the frieze"

Retrieved 2010-07-09. "James H. DunCan, American veteran of the World War and for many years superintendent of the American Military Cemeetery at Suresnes, is in a serious condition in the hospital at Boulognesur-Seine tonight as a result of self-inflicted bullet wounds." 595Dolkart, Andrew; Postal, Matthew A. (2003). Guide to New York City Landmarks. John Wiley and Sons. p. 196. ISBN 0471369004, 9780471369004. . 596Dolkart, Andrew; Postal, Matthew A. (2003). Guide to New York City Landmarks. John Wiley and Sons. p. 197. ISBN 0471369004. ISBN 9780471014392. . 597Donald Martin Reynolds (1994). The Architecture of New York City: Histories and Views of Important Structures, Sites, and Symbols. Rev. Ed.. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 312313. ISBN 0471369004. ISBN 0471014397.

He also designed Walhall, a "great estate" in Greenwich Ct. Although the main house no longer exists, an outbuilding intended eventually for the superintendent still exists and is a private residence today.598

Wilhelm Busch
Wilhelm Busch Portrait painted by Franz von Lenbach, c. 1875 Born Died Nationality Genres 15 April 1832Wiedensahl, Kingdom of Hanover 9 January 1908 (aged 75)Mechtshausen (today part of Seesen), German Empire German Caricature Painting Poetry Max and Moritz

Notable work(s)

Signature Wilhelm Busch (15 April 1832 9 January 1908) was an influential German caricaturist, painter, and poet who is famed for his satirical picture stories with rhymed texts. After initially studying mechanical engineering and then art in Dsseldorf, Antwerp, and Munich, he turned to drawing caricatures. One of his first picture stories, Max and Moritz (published in 1865), was an immediate success and has achieved the status of a popular classic and perennial bestseller. Max and Moritz as well as many of his other picture stories are regarded as one of the main precursors of the modern comic strip. Max and Moritz, for instance, was an inspiration for the Katzenjammer Kids. Being an early pioneer next to Rodolphe Tpffer in the art of combining words and pictures to tell often humorous stories in sequential panels, throughout the latter half of the 20th century Busch has become posthumously known in German by the honorary epithet of Grovater der Comics ("Grandfather of Comics"). Wilhelm Busch also wrote a number of poems in a similar style to his picture stories. Besides that he produced more than 1,000 oil paintings that remained unsold up to his death in 1908. He was also active as a sculptor.

598The Great Estates, Greenwich Connecticut 1880-1930.ISBN 0-914659-19-7.

Many couplets from Busch's humorous verses have achieved the status of adages in the German language, such as "Vater werden ist nicht schwer, Vater sein dagegen sehr" ("It's easy to become a father, but being one is harder rather") or "Dieses war der erste Streich, doch der zweite folgt sogleich" ("This was the first initial trick, but then the second follows quick"). Only Goethe and Schiller are quoted more frequently in German than Busch.

Works
(with the year of publication) 1859 Die kleinen Honigdiebe599 1864 Bilderpossen 1865 Max and Moritz 1866 Schnaken und Schnurren 1867 Hans Huckebein, der Unglcksrabe 1868 Schnaken und Schnurren, part II 1869 Schnurrdiburr oder die Bienen Braun 1870 Der heilige Antonius von Padua 1872 Schnaken und Schnurren, part III 1872 Die fromme Helene 1872 Bilder zur Jobsiade 1872 Pater Filuzius 1873 Der Geburtstag oder die Partikularisten 1874 Dideldum! 1874 Kritik des Herzens 1875 Abenteuer eines Junggesellen 1876 Herr und Frau Knopp 1877 Julchen 1878 Die Haarbeutel 1879 Fipps, der Affe 1881 Stippstrchen fr uglein und hrchen 1881 Der Fuchs. Die Drachen. - Zwei lustige Sachen 1882 Plisch und Plum
599"Die kleinen Honigdiebe at the Early Comics Archive". bugpowder.com. . Retrieved 15 October 2010. (German)

1883 Balduin Bhlamm, der verhinderte Dichter 1884 Maler Klecksel 1891 Eduards Traum 1893 Von mir ber mich (autobiography) 1895 Der Schmetterling 1904 Zu guter Letzt 1908 Hernach 1909 Schein und Sein 1910 Ut ler Welt (legends)

Recent & Current Publications


Gaus, Andy (2003). Max and Moritz and Other Bad-Boy Tales. New Translation from the German. Rockville, MD: James A. Rock & Co. ISBN 0-918736-17-X. Die beliebtesten Geschichten. Das Grosse Wilhelm Busch Album in Farbe. Remseck, Germany: Unipart Verlag. ISBN 978-3912234122.

Museums
The Wilhelm-Busch house museum, Mechtshausen, Germany is located in a former rectory, and it served as his residence during the last years of life (1898 1908). The Wilhelm-Busch-Mill in Ebergtzen, Germany is located in the village where he lived in from 1841 to 1845. His life there and friendship with the millers son, Erich Bachmann, may have been part of the inspiration for the "Max and Moritz" story The Wilhelm Busch Museum in Hannover,600 is also "Deutsches Museum fr Karikatur und kritische Grafik", featuring besides Busch's works a wider collection of satiric graphics, including "Four Hundred Years of Caricature" with an active lecture schedule.

Gallery

600"Wilhelm bush Museum". .

External links
Collection of known works (Projekt Gutenberg-DE) Works by Wilhelm Busch at Project Gutenberg Biography and works (in German) The Virtuoso - a new years concerto on YouTube

Smoking concert
Smoking concerts were live performances, usually of music, before an audience of men only; popular during the Victorian era. These social occasions were instrumental in introducing new musical forms to the public. At these functions men would smoke and speak of politics while listening to live music. These popular gatherings were sometimes held at hotels. The term continued to be used for student, variety performances, especially those associated with Oxford or Cambridge. Annual Smoking Concerts were held at Imperial College London into the 1980's. The saying "Booking for smoking concerts now" came into use at this time meaning that a person had recovered and was in the prime of health. This saying is used in the works of writer P.G. Wodehouse. The Medical Students' Society at the University of Liverpool still holds an annual smoking concert.[13]

References
1. Eva Mantzourani (Canterbury Christ Church University College), The Aroma of the Music and the Fragrance of the Weed: Music and Smoking in Victorian London

External links
[14] Picture of a Victorian hotel with a smoking concerts advertisement.

Chinese yuan
The yuan (sign: ; code: CNY, Chinese: , pronunciation [jun] or [jun] Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Zh-yun.ogg) is, in the Chinese language, the base unit of a number of modern Chinese currencies. The distinction between yuan and Renminbi (RMB) is analogous to that between the pound and sterling; the pound (yuan) is the unit of account while sterling (renminbi) is the actual currency.

A yun () is also known colloquially as a kui ( - "lump", originally of silver). One yun is divided into 10 jio () or colloquially mo ("feather"). One jio is divided into 10 fn (). The symbol for the yuan () is also used to refer to the currency units of Japan and Korea, and is used to translate the currency unit dollar; for example, the US dollar is called Miyun (), or American yuan, in Chinese. When used in English in the context of the modern foreign exchange market, the Chinese yuan most commonly refers to the renminbi (CNY), which traded for US$0.1517 on February 9, 2011.601

Etymology and characters


Yuan in Chinese literally means a "round object" or "round coin". During the Qing Dynasty, the yuan was a round and silver coin. The character for yuan has two formsa less formal, , and a more formal, or . The pronunciation of the two is the sameyun. The Japanese yen was originally also written , which was simplified to (en) with the promulgation of the Ty kanji in 1946. The Korean won used to be written (won) some time after World War II and as from 1902 to 1910, but is now written as (won) in Hangul exclusively, in both North and South Korea. The Hong Kong dollar, Macanese pataca and New Taiwan dollar are also written as y] and Republic of China (Taiwan) are usually marked with after the digits (e.g. 100 ). In People's Republic of China, using '' as well as RMB to denote the currency is common (e.g. 100 or RMB 100 ). In many parts of China, renminbi (/ rnmnb) are counted in kuai (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: kui; literally "piece") rather than "yuan". In Cantonese, widely spoken in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau, kui, jio, and fn are called mn (), huh (), and sn (), respectively. Sn is a word borrowed into Cantonese from the English cent.

Coins
Provincial coinage for the first yuan Province Start Anhui (Anhwei) Zhejiang (Chekiang) Hebei (Chihli) Years of coin production Finish 1897 1897 1896 1909 1924 1908

601"Chinese Yuan (renminbi)". Google finance. 2010-08-01. .

Liaoning (Fengtien) Fujian (Fukien) Henan (Honan) Hunan Hubei (Hupeh) Gansu (Kansu) Jiangnan (Kiangnan) Jiangxi (Kiangsi) Jiangsu (Kiangsu) Jilin (Kirin) Guangxi (Kwangsi) Guangdong (Kwangtung) Guizhou (Kweichow) Shanxi (Shansi) Shandong (Shantung) Shaanxi (Shensi) Xinjiang (Sinkiang) Sichuan (Shechuan) Taiwan Yunnan

1897 1896 1905 1897 1895 1914 1898 1901 1898 1899 1919 1889 1928 1913 1904 1928 1901 1898 1893 1906

1929 1932 1931 1926 1920 1928 1911 1912 1906 1909 1949 1929 1949 1913 1906 1928 1949 1930 1894 1949

Early history
The yuan was introduced in 1889 at par with the Mexican peso, a silver coin deriving from the Spanish dollar which circulated widely in South East Asia since the 17th century due to Spanish presence in the region, namely Philippines and Guam. It was subdivided into 1000 cash (, wn), 100 cents or fen (, fn), and 10 jio (, not given an English name, cf. dime). It replaced copper cash and various silver ingots called sycees. The sycees were denominated in tael. The yuan was valued at 0.72 tael, (or 7 mace and 2 candareens). Banknotes were issued in yuan denominations from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with the Imperial Bank of China and the "Hu Pu Bank" (later the "Ta-Ch'ing Government Bank"), established by the Imperial government. During the Imperial period, banknotes were issued in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 jio, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan, although notes below 1 yuan were uncommon.

The earliest issues were silver coins produced at the Guangdong (Canton) mint in denominations of 5 cents, 1, 2 and 5 jio and 1 yuan. Other regional mints were opened in the 1890s producing similar silver coins along with copper coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 cash. The central government began issuing its own coins in the yuan currency system in 1903. These were brass 1 cash, copper 2, 5, 10 and 20 cash, and silver 1, 2 and 5 jio and 1 yuan. After the revolution, although the designs changed, the sizes and metals used in the coinage remained mostly unchanged until the 1930s. From 1936, the central government issued nickel (later cupronickel) 5, 10 and 20 fen and yuan coins. Aluminium 1 and 5 fen pieces were issued in 1940. The earliest issues were silver coins produced at the Kwangtung mint. Other regional mints were opened in the 1890s. The central government began issuing its own coins in the yuan currency system in 1903. Banknotes were issued in yuan denominations from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with banks established by the Imperial government. In 1917, the warlord in control of Manchuria, Zhang Zuolin, introduced a new currency, known as the Fengtien yuan or dollar, for use in the Three Eastern Provinces. It was valued at 1.2 yuan in the earlier (and still circulating) "small money" banknotes and was initially set equal to the Japanese yen. It maintained its value (at times being worth a little more than the yen) until 1925, when Zhang Zuolin's military involvement in the rest of China lead to an increase in banknote production and a fall in the currency's value. The currency lost most of its value in 1928 as a consequence of the disturbance following Zhang Zuolin's assassination. The Fengtien yuan was only issued in banknote form, with 1, 5 and 10 yuan notes issued in 1917, followed by 50 and 100 yuan notes in 1924. The last notes were issued in 1928. After the revolution, a great many local, national and foreign banks issued currency. Although the provincial coinages mostly ended in the 1920s, the provincial banks continued issuing notes until 1949, including Communist issues from 1930. Most of the banknotes issued for use throughout the country bore the words "National Currency", as did some of the provincial banks. The remaining provincial banknotes bore the words "Local Currency". These circulated at varying exchange rates to the national currency issues. During the 1930s, several new currencies came into being in China due to the activities of the invading Japanese. The pre-existing, national currency yuan came to be associated only with the Nationalist, Kuomintang government. In 1935, the Kuomintang Government enacted currency reforms to limit currency issuance to four major government controlled banks: the Bank of China, Central Bank of China, Bank of Communications and later the Farmers Bank of China. The circulation of silver yuan coins was prohibited and private ownership of silver was banned. The banknotes issued in its place were known as (Pinyin: fb) or "Legal Tender". A new series of base metal coins began production in 1936 following the reforms.

Between 1930 and 1948, banknotes were also issued by the Central Bank of China denominated in customs gold units. These circulated as normal currency in the 1940s alongside the yuan. The Japanese occupiers issued coins and banknotes denominated in li (, 1/1000 of a yuan), fen, jiao and yuan. Issuers included a variety of banks, including the Central Reserve Bank of China (for the puppet government in Nanking) and the Federal Reserve Bank of China (for the puppet government in Beijing). The Japanese decreed the exchange rates between the various banks' issues and those of the Nationalists but the banknotes circulated with varying degrees of acceptance among the Chinese population. Between 1932 and 1945, the puppet state of Manchukuo issued its own yuan. The Japanese established two collaborationist regimes during their occupation in China. In the north, the "Provisional Government of the Republic of China" ( ) based in Beijing established the Federal Reserve Bank of China ( , pinyin: Zhnggu linh zhnbi ynhng). The FRB issued notes in 1938 at par with Kuomintang y In the aftermath of the Second World War and during the civil war which followed, Nationalist China suffered from hyperinflation, leading to the introduction of a new currency in 1948, the gold yuan. The number of banks issuing paper money increased after the revolution. Significant national issuers included the "Commercial Bank of China" (the former Imperial Bank), the "Bank of China" (the former Ta-Ch'ing Government Bank), the "Bank of Communications", the "Ningpo Commercial Bank", the "Central Bank of China" and the "Farmers Bank of China". Of these, only the Central Bank of China issued notes beyond 1943. An exceptionally large number of banknotes were issued during the Republican era (19111949) by provincial banks (both Nationalist and Communist). After the revolution, in addition to the denominations already in circulation, "small money" notes proliferated, with 1, 2 and 5 cent denominations appearing. Many notes were issued denominated in English in cash (wn). In the 1940s, larger denominations of notes appeared due to the high inflation. 500 yuan notes were introduced in 1941, followed by 1000 and 2000 yuan in 1942, 2500 and 5000 yuan in 1945 and 10,000 yuan in 1947. Banknotes of the first yuan suffered from hyperinflation following the Second World War and were replaced in August 1948 by notes denominated in gold yuan, worth 3 million old yuan. There was no link between the gold yuan and gold metal or coins and this yuan also suffered from hyperinflation. In 1948, the Central Bank of China issued notes (some dated 1945 and 1946) in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 yuan. In 1949, higher denominations of 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000, 1,000,000 and 5,000,000 yuan were issued.

In July 1949, the Nationalist Government introduced the silver yuan, which was initially worth 500 million gold yuan. It circulated for a few months on the mainland before the end of the civil war. This silver yuan remained the de jure official currency of the Republic government in Taiwan until 2000. The Central Bank of China issued notes in denominations of 1 and 5 fen, 1, 2 and 5 jiao, 1, 5 and 10 yuan.

Banknotes
Banknotes are available in (issue date): First (1980) edition 1. 0.1 (9/22/1988), 2. 0.2 (5/10/1988-2004), 3. 0.5 (4/27/1987), 4. 1 (5/10/1988), 5. 2 (5/10/1988-2004), 6. 5 (9/22/1988), 7. 10 (9/22/1988), 8. 50 (4/27/1987), and 9. 100 (5/10/1988), Second (1990) edition 1. 1 (3/1/1995), 2. 2 (4/10/1996-2004), 3. 50 (8/20/1992), and 4. 100 (8/20/1992), Third (1996) edition 1. 1 (4/1/1997),602

All of the banknotes that are 1 or higher feature geographical features of China on the reverse side.
602People's Bank of China 2003-2004 currency year book, book 2, Currency of the People's Republic of China, in Chinese. ISBN 7-207-05026-7

On the obverse side, banknotes less or equal to 10 feature different ethnicities of China. 1-jiao note has Gaoshan and Manchu men ; 2-jiao note has Buyei and Korean girls; 5-jiao note has Miao and Zhuang girls in red. 1-yuan note has Dong and Yao girls in red; 2-yuan note has Uyghur and Yi (Nuosu) girls in green; 5yuan note has Tibetan girl and a Hui elder; 10-yuan note has Han and Mongol men. The 50 note features an intellectual, a farmer, and an industrial worker, characteristic Chinese communist images. The 100 note features four people important to the founding the People's Republic of China: Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and Zhu De. Coins carry the Emblem of the People's Republic of China, the full title of the state in Chinese and pinyin on the obverse side, and the denomination and an image of a flower on the reverse side.

Communist control
The various Soviets under the control of China's communists issued coins between 1931 and 1935, and banknotes between 1930 and 1949. Some of the banknotes were denominated in ch'uan, strings of wn coins. The People's Bank was founded in 1948 and began issuing currency that year, but some of the regional banks continued to issue their own notes in to 1949. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the Central Bank of China issued a separate currency in the northeast to replace those issued by the puppet banks. Termed "" (pinyin:Dngbi ji shng litngqun), it was worth 20 of the yuan which circulated in the rest of the country. It was replaced in 1948 by the gold yuan at a rate of 150,000 north-eastern yuan = 1 gold yuan. In 1945, notes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan. 500 yuan notes were added in 1946, followed by 1000 and 2000 yuan in 1947 and 5000 and 10,000 yuan in 1948. Various, mostly crude coins were produced by the Soviets. Some only issued silver 1 yuan coins (Hunan, Hupeh-Honan-Anhwei, Min-Che-Kan, North Shensi and P'ing Chiang) whilst the Hsiang-O-Hsi Soviet only issued copper 1 fen coins and the Wan-Hsi-Pei Soviet issued only copper 50 wn coins. The Chinese Soviet Republic issued copper 1 and 5 fen and silver 2 jiao and 1 yuan coins. The Szechuan-Shensi Soviet issued copper 200 and 500 wn and silver 1 yuan coins. Notes were produced by many different banks. There were two phases of note production. The first, up until 1936, involved banks in a total of seven areas, most of which were organized as Soviets. These were: Area Chinese Soviet Republic 5 fen Start year 1933 End year 1936 Denominations 1 fen

1 jiao 2 jiao 5 jiao 1 yuan 2 yuan 3 yuan Hunan-HubeiJiangsi 2 jiao 3 jiao 5 jiao 1 yuan Northwest Anwei 5 jiao 1 yuan 5 yuan Fujian-ChekiangKiangsi 1 jiao 2 jiao 5 jiao 1 yuan 10 yuan Hubei 2 ch'uan 10 ch'uan 1 ch'uan 2 ch'uan 5 jiao 1 yuan P'ing Chiang 2 jiao Sichuan-Shensi 1932 1933 1 ch'uan 1931 1 jiao 1930 1932 1 ch'uan 1932 1934 10 wn 1932 2 jiao 1931 1933 1 jiao

2 ch'uan 3 ch'uan 5 ch'uan 10 ch'uan Production of banknotes by communist forces ceased in 1936 but resumed in 1938 and continued through to the centralization of money production in 1948. A great many regional banks and other entities issued notes. Before 1942, denominations up to 100 yuan were issued. That year, the first notes up to 1000 yuan appeared. Notes up to 5000 yuan appeared in 1943, with 10,000 yuan notes appearing in 1947, 50,000 yuan in 1948 and 100,000 yuan in 1949. As the communist forces took control of most of China, they introduced a new currency, in banknote form only, denominated in yuan. This became the sole currency of mainland China at the end of the civil war. A new yuan was introduced in 1955 at a rate of 10,000 old yuan = 1 new yuan. It is known as the renminbi yuan. In 1946, a new currency was introduced for circulation in Taiwan, replacing the Japanese issued Taiwan yen. It was not directly related to the mainland yuan. In 1949, a second yuan was introduced in Taiwan, replacing the first at a rate of 40,000 to 1. This is the currency of Taiwan today.

Connection with US dollar


Originally, a silver yuan had the same specifications as a silver dollar. During the Republican era (19111949), the English translation "yuan" was often printed on the reverse of the first yuan banknotes but sometimes "dollar" was used instead.603 In the Republic of China, the common English name is the "New Taiwan dollar" but banknotes issued between 1949 and 1956 used "yuan" as the English translation.604 More modern notes lack any English text.

603Ronald Wise. "Banknote images of China, 1914 - 1949". . Retrieved 2006-11-23. 604sinobanknote.com. "Table of New Taiwan dollar". . Retrieved 2006-11-23.

G20 summit
The upcoming G20 summit will deal with currency issues regarding the Yuan.605606 Until 2010, China had kept the Yuan in a fixed exchange rate against the US dollar, which kept the Yuan weaker than its free market rate. Ahead of the summit, in June 2010, the central bank made a surprise weekend announcement that it would allow greater flexibility for the Yuan to appreciate against the dollar. Pundits see this buying China some time against Western critics who argue the currency's undervaluation gives China an unfair advantage in world trade.607

International trade
On 23 November 2010, at a meeting of the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, it was announced that Russia and China have decided to use their own national currencies for bilateral trade, instead of the U.S. dollar. The move is aimed to further improve the relations between Beijing and Moscow and to protect their domestic economies in the conditions of the world financial crisis. The trading of the Chinese yuan against the Russian rouble has started in the Chinese interbank market, while the yuan's trading against the ruble was expected to start on the Russian foreign exchange market in December 2010.608609

References
Krause, Chester L. and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 18011991 (18th ed. ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501. Pick, Albert (1990). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (6th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8. Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 087341-207-9.

Archimedes
Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: )

605"Obama prods China on currency rates in G20 letter". Reuters. 2010-06-18. . 606"Currency peg definition". . 607"China unshackles yuan ahead of G20". Reuters. 2010-06-21. . 608China, Russia quit dollar China Daily 609Chinese minister says China-Russia economic, trade co-op at new starting point Xinhua News

Archimedes Thoughtful by Fetti (1620) Born Died Residence Fields Known for c. 287 BCSyracuse, Sicily Magna Graecia c. 212 BC (aged around 75)Syracuse Syracuse, Sicily Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Astronomy, Invention Archimedes' Principle, Archimedes' screw, Hydrostatics, Levers, Infinitesimals

Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: ; c. 287 BC c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.610

610"Archimedes Death Ray: Testing with MythBusters". MIT. . Retrieved 2007-07-23.

Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time.611612 He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi.613 He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulae for the volumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere inscribed within a cylinder. Archimedes had proven that the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the cylinder (including the bases of the latter), and regarded this as the greatest of his mathematical achievements. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance,614 while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results.615

611Calinger, Ronald (1999). A Contextual History of Mathematics. Prentice-Hall. p. 150. ISBN 002-318285-7. "Shortly after Euclid, compiler of the definitive textbook, came Archimedes of Syracuse (ca. 287 212 BC), the most original and profound mathematician of antiquity." 612"Archimedes of Syracuse". The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. January 1999. . Retrieved 2008-06-09. 613O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. (February 1996). "A history of calculus". University of St Andrews. . Retrieved 2007-08-07. 614Bursill-Hall, Piers. "Galileo, Archimedes, and Renaissance engineers". sciencelive with the University of Cambridge. . Retrieved 2007-08-07. 615"Archimedes The Palimpsest". Walters Art Museum. . Retrieved 2007-10-14.

Biography
Archimedes was born c. 287 BC in the seaport city of Syracuse, Sicily, at that time a self-governing colony in Magna Graecia. The date of birth is based on a statement by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years.616 In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his father's name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to King Hiero II, the ruler of Syracuse.617 A biography of Archimedes was written by his friend Heracleides but this work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure.618 It is unknown, for instance, whether he ever married or had children. During his youth Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries. He referred to Conon of Samos as his friend, while two of his works (The Method of Mechanical Theorems and the Cattle Problem) have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes.[a] Archimedes died c. 212 BC during the Second Punic War, when Roman forces under General Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured the city of Syracuse after a two-year-long siege. According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. A Roman soldier commanded him to come and meet General Marcellus but he declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem. The soldier was enraged by this, and killed Archimedes with his sword. Plutarch also gives a lesser-known account of the death of Archimedes which suggests that he may have been killed while attempting to surrender to a Roman soldier. According to this story, Archimedes was carrying mathematical instruments, and was killed because the soldier thought that they were valuable items. General Marcellus was reportedly angered by the death of Archimedes, as he considered him a valuable scientific asset and had ordered that he not be harmed.619 The last words attributed to Archimedes are "Do not disturb my circles" (Greek: ), a reference to the circles in the mathematical drawing that he was supposedly studying when disturbed by the Roman soldier. This quote is often given in Latin as "Noli turbare circulos meos," but there is no reliable evidence that Archimedes uttered these words and they do not appear in the account given by Plutarch.620

616Heath, T. L., Works of Archimedes, 1897 617Plutarch. "Parallel Lives Complete e-text from Gutenberg.org". Project Gutenberg. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 618O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F.. "Archimedes of Syracuse". University of St Andrews. . Retrieved 2007-01-02. 619Rorres, Chris. "Death of Archimedes: Sources". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-01-02. 620

The tomb of Archimedes carried a sculpture illustrating his favorite mathematical proof, consisting of a sphere and a cylinder of the same height and diameter. Archimedes had proven that the volume and surface area of the sphere are two thirds that of the cylinder including its bases. In 75 BC, 137 years after his death, the Roman orator Cicero was serving as quaestor in Sicily. He had heard stories about the tomb of Archimedes, but none of the locals was able to give him the location. Eventually he found the tomb near the Agrigentine gate in Syracuse, in a neglected condition and overgrown with bushes. Cicero had the tomb cleaned up, and was able to see the carving and read some of the verses that had been added as an inscription.621 A tomb discovered in a hotel courtyard in Syracuse in the early 1960s was claimed to be that of Archimedes, but its location today is unknown.622 The standard versions of the life of Archimedes were written long after his death by the historians of Ancient Rome. The account of the siege of Syracuse given by Polybius in his Universal History was written around seventy years after Archimedes' death, and was used subsequently as a source by Plutarch and Livy. It sheds little light on Archimedes as a person, and focuses on the war machines that he is said to have built in order to defend the city.623

Discoveries and inventions

621Rorres, Chris. "Tomb of Archimedes: Sources". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-01-02. 622Rorres, Chris. "Tomb of Archimedes - Illustrations". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2011-03-15. 623Rorres, Chris. "Siege of Syracuse". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-07-23.

The Golden Crown


The most widely known anecdote about Archimedes tells of how he invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According to Vitruvius, a votive crown for a temple had been made for King Hiero II, who had supplied the pure gold to be used, and Archimedes was asked to determine whether some silver had been substituted by the dishonest goldsmith.624 Archimedes had to solve the problem without damaging the crown, so he could not melt it down into a regularly shaped body in order to calculate its density. While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown. For practical purposes water is incompressible,625 so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced, the density of the crown could be obtained. This density would be lower than that of gold if cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes then took to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying "Eureka!" (Greek: "!," meaning "I have found it!"). The test was conducted successfully, proving that silver had indeed been mixed in.626 The story of the golden crown does not appear in the known works of Archimedes. Moreover, the practicality of the method it describes has been called into question, due to the extreme accuracy with which one would have to measure the water displacement.627 Archimedes may have instead sought a solution that applied the principle known in hydrostatics as Archimedes' Principle, which he describes in his treatise On Floating Bodies. This principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.628 Using this principle, it would have been possible to compare the density of the golden crown to that of solid gold by balancing the crown on a scale with a gold reference sample, then immersing the apparatus in water. If the crown was less dense than gold, it would displace more water due to its larger volume, and thus experience a greater buoyant force than the reference sample. This difference in buoyancy would cause the scale to tip accordingly. Galileo considered it "probable that this method is the same that Archimedes followed, since, besides being very accurate, it is based on demonstrations found by Archimedes himself."629

624Vitruvius. "De Architectura, Book IX, paragraphs 912, text in English and Latin". University of Chicago. . Retrieved 2007-08-30. 625"Incompressibility of Water". Harvard University. . Retrieved 2008-02-27. 626HyperPhysics. "Buoyancy". Georgia State University. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 627Rorres, Chris. "The Golden Crown". Drexel University. . Retrieved 2009-03-24. 628Carroll, Bradley W. "Archimedes' Principle". Weber State University. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 629Rorres, Chris. "The Golden Crown: Galileo's Balance". Drexel University. . Retrieved 2009-0324.

The Archimedes Screw


A large part of Archimedes' work in engineering arose from fulfilling the needs of his home city of Syracuse. The Greek writer Athenaeus of Naucratis described how King Hieron II commissioned Archimedes to design a huge ship, the Syracusia, which could be used for luxury travel, carrying supplies, and as a naval warship. The Syracusia is said to have been the largest ship built in classical antiquity.630 According to Athenaeus, it was capable of carrying 600 people and included garden decorations, a gymnasium and a temple dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite among its facilities. Since a ship of this size would leak a considerable amount of water through the hull, the Archimedes screw was purportedly developed in order to remove the bilge water. Archimedes' machine was a device with a revolving screw-shaped blade inside a cylinder. It was turned by hand, and could also be used to transfer water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation canals. The Archimedes screw is still in use today for pumping liquids and granulated solids such as coal and grain. The Archimedes screw described in Roman times by Vitruvius may have been an improvement on a screw pump that was used to irrigate the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.631632633 The world's first seagoing steamship with a screw propeller was the SS Archimedes, which was launched in 1839 and named in honor of Archimedes and his work on the screw.634

The Claw of Archimedes


The Claw of Archimedes is a weapon that he is said to have designed in order to defend the city of Syracuse. Also known as "the ship shaker," the claw consisted of a crane-like arm from which a large metal grappling hook was suspended. When the claw was dropped onto an attacking ship the arm would swing upwards, lifting the ship out of the water and possibly sinking it. There have been modern experiments to test the feasibility of the claw, and in 2005 a television documentary entitled Superweapons of the Ancient World built a version of the claw and concluded that it was a workable device.635636

630Casson, Lionel (1971). Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03536-9. 631Dalley, Stephanie. Oleson, John Peter. "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient World". Technology and Culture Volume 44, Number 1, January 2003 (PDF). . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 632Rorres, Chris. "Archimedes screw Optimal Design". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 633An animation of an Archimedes screw 634"SS Archimedes". wrecksite.eu. . Retrieved 2011-01-22. 635Rorres, Chris. "Archimedes' Claw Illustrations and Animations a range of possible designs for the claw". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 636Carroll, Bradley W. "Archimedes' Claw watch an animation". Weber State University. . Retrieved 2007-08-12.

The Archimedes Heat Ray


The 2nd century AD author Lucian wrote that during the Siege of Syracuse (c. 214212 BC), Archimedes destroyed enemy ships with fire. Centuries later, Anthemius of Tralles mentions burning-glasses as Archimedes' weapon.637 The device, sometimes called the "Archimedes heat ray", was used to focus sunlight onto approaching ships, causing them to catch fire. This purported weapon has been the subject of ongoing debate about its credibility since the Renaissance. Ren Descartes rejected it as false, while modern researchers have attempted to recreate the effect using only the means that would have been available to Archimedes.638 It has been suggested that a large array of highly polished bronze or copper shields acting as mirrors could have been employed to focus sunlight onto a ship. This would have used the principle of the parabolic reflector in a manner similar to a solar furnace. A test of the Archimedes heat ray was carried out in 1973 by the Greek scientist Ioannis Sakkas. The experiment took place at the Skaramagas naval base outside Athens. On this occasion 70 mirrors were used, each with a copper coating and a size of around five by three feet (1.5 by 1 m). The mirrors were pointed at a plywood mock-up of a Roman warship at a distance of around 160 feet (50 m). When the mirrors were focused accurately, the ship burst into flames within a few seconds. The plywood ship had a coating of tar paint, which may have aided combustion.639 In October 2005 a group of students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology carried out an experiment with 127 one-foot (30 cm) square mirror tiles, focused on a mock-up wooden ship at a range of around 100 feet (30 m). Flames broke out on a patch of the ship, but only after the sky had been cloudless and the ship had remained stationary for around ten minutes. It was concluded that the device was a feasible weapon under these conditions. The MIT group repeated the experiment for the television show MythBusters, using a wooden fishing boat in San Francisco as the target. Again some charring occurred, along with a small amount of flame. In order to catch fire, wood needs to reach its autoignition temperature, which is around 300 C (570 F).640641

637Hippias, 2 (cf. Galen, On temperaments 3.2, who mentions pyreia, "torches"); Anthemius of Tralles, On miraculous engines 153 [Westerman]. 638John Wesley. "A Compendium of Natural Philosophy (1810) Chapter XII, Burning Glasses". Online text at Wesley Center for Applied Theology. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. . Retrieved 2007-09-14. 639"Archimedes' Weapon". Time Magazine. November 26, 1973. . Retrieved 2007-08-12. 640Bonsor, Kevin. "How Wildfires Work". HowStuffWorks. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 641Fuels and Chemicals Auto Ignition Temperatures

When MythBusters broadcast the result of the San Francisco experiment in January 2006, the claim was placed in the category of "busted" (or failed) because of the length of time and the ideal weather conditions required for combustion to occur. It was also pointed out that since Syracuse faces the sea towards the east, the Roman fleet would have had to attack during the morning for optimal gathering of light by the mirrors. MythBusters also pointed out that conventional weaponry, such as flaming arrows or bolts from a catapult, would have been a far easier way of setting a ship on fire at short distances.642 In December 2010, MythBusters again looked at the heat ray story in a special edition featuring Barack Obama, entitled President's Challenge. Several experiments were carried out, including a large scale test with 500 schoolchildren aiming mirrors at a mock-up of a Roman sailing ship 400 feet (120 m) away. In all of the experiments, the sail failed to reach the 210 C (410 F) required to catch fire, and the verdict was again "busted". The show concluded that a more likely effect of the mirrors would have been blinding, dazzling, or distracting the crew of the ship.643

Other discoveries and inventions


While Archimedes did not invent the lever, he gave an explanation of the principle involved in his work On the Equilibrium of Planes. Earlier descriptions of the lever are found in the Peripatetic school of the followers of Aristotle, and are sometimes attributed to Archytas.644645 According to Pappus of Alexandria, Archimedes' work on levers caused him to remark: "Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the Earth." (Greek: )646 Plutarch describes how Archimedes designed block-and-tackle pulley systems, allowing sailors to use the principle of leverage to lift objects that would otherwise have been too heavy to move.647 Archimedes has also been credited with improving the power and accuracy of the catapult, and with inventing the odometer during the First Punic War. The odometer was described as a cart with a gear mechanism that dropped a ball into a container after each mile traveled.648

642 643"TV Review: MythBusters 8.27 Presidents Challenge". . Retrieved 2010-12-18. 644Rorres, Chris. "The Law of the Lever According to Archimedes". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2010-03-20. 645Clagett, Marshall (2001). Greek Science in Antiquity. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-48641973-2. . Retrieved 2010-03-20. 646Quoted by Pappus of Alexandria in Synagoge, Book VIII 647Dougherty, F. C.; Macari, J.; Okamoto, C.. "Pulleys". Society of Women Engineers. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 648"Ancient Greek Scientists: Hero of Alexandria". Technology Museum of Thessaloniki. . Retrieved 2007-09-14.

Cicero (10643 BC) mentions Archimedes briefly in his dialogue De re publica, which portrays a fictional conversation taking place in 129 BC. After the capture of Syracuse c. 212 BC, General Marcus Claudius Marcellus is said to have taken back to Rome two mechanisms used as aids in astronomy, which showed the motion of the Sun, Moon and five planets. Cicero mentions similar mechanisms designed by Thales of Miletus and Eudoxus of Cnidus. The dialogue says that Marcellus kept one of the devices as his only personal loot from Syracuse, and donated the other to the Temple of Virtue in Rome. Marcellus' mechanism was demonstrated, according to Cicero, by Gaius Sulpicius Gallus to Lucius Furius Philus, who described it thus: Hanc sphaeram Gallus cum moveret, fiebat ut soli luna totidem conversionibus in aere illo quot diebus in ipso caelo succederet, ex quo et in caelo sphaera solis fieret eadem illa defectio, et incideret luna tum in eam metam quae esset umbra terrae, cum sol e regione. When Gallus moved the globe, it happened that the Moon followed the Sun by as many turns on that bronze contrivance as in the sky itself, from which also in the sky the Sun's globe became to have that same eclipse, and the Moon came then to that position which was its shadow on the Earth, when the Sun was in line.649650 This is a description of a planetarium or orrery. Pappus of Alexandria stated that Archimedes had written a manuscript (now lost) on the construction of these mechanisms entitled On Sphere-Making. Modern research in this area has been focused on the Antikythera mechanism, another device from classical antiquity that was probably designed for the same purpose. Constructing mechanisms of this kind would have required a sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing. This was once thought to have been beyond the range of the technology available in ancient times, but the discovery of the Antikythera mechanism in 1902 has confirmed that devices of this kind were known to the ancient Greeks.651652

Mathematics
While he is often regarded as a designer of mechanical devices, Archimedes also made contributions to the field of mathematics. Plutarch wrote: "He placed his whole affection and ambition in those purer speculations where there can be no reference to the vulgar needs of life."653

649Cicero. "De re publica 1.xiv 21". thelatinlibrary.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 650Cicero. "De re publica Complete e-text in English from Gutenberg.org". Project Gutenberg. . Retrieved 2007-09-18. 651Rorres, Chris. "Spheres and Planetaria". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 652"Ancient Moon 'computer' revisited". BBC News. November 29, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 653Plutarch. "Extract from Parallel Lives". fulltextarchive.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-10.

Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus. Through proof by contradiction (reductio ad absurdum), he could give answers to problems to an arbitrary degree of accuracy, while specifying the limits within which the answer lay. This technique is known as the method of exhaustion, and he employed it to approximate the value of (pi). He did this by drawing a larger polygon outside a circle and a smaller polygon inside the circle. As the number of sides of the polygon increases, it becomes a more accurate approximation of a circle. When the polygons had 96 sides each, he calculated the lengths of their sides and showed that the value of lay between 317 (approximately 3.1429) and 31071 (approximately 3.1408), consistent with its actual value of approximately 3.1416. He also proved that the area of a circle was equal to multiplied by the square of the radius of the circle. In On the Sphere and Cylinder, Archimedes postulates that any magnitude when added to itself enough times will exceed any given magnitude. This is the Archimedean property of real numbers.654 In Measurement of a Circle, Archimedes gives the value of the square root of 3 as lying between 265153 (approximately 1.7320261) and 1351780 (approximately 1.7320512). The actual value is approximately 1.7320508, making this a very accurate estimate. He introduced this result without offering any explanation of the method used to obtain it. This aspect of the work of Archimedes caused John Wallis to remark that he was: "as it were of set purpose to have covered up the traces of his investigation as if he had grudged posterity the secret of his method of inquiry while he wished to extort from them assent to his results."655 In The Quadrature of the Parabola, Archimedes proved that the area enclosed by a parabola and a straight line is 43 times the area of a corresponding inscribed triangle as shown in the figure at right. He expressed the solution to the problem as an infinite geometric series with the common ratio 14:
n=04n=1414243=34.

If the first term in this series is the area of the triangle, then the second is the sum of the areas of two triangles whose bases are the two smaller secant lines, and so on. This proof uses a variation of the series 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/256 + which sums to 13.

654Kaye, R.W.. "Archimedean ordered fields". web.mat.bham.ac.uk. . Retrieved 2009-11-07. 655Quoted in Heath, T. L. Works of Archimedes, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-42084-1.

In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes set out to calculate the number of grains of sand that the universe could contain. In doing so, he challenged the notion that the number of grains of sand was too large to be counted. He wrote: "There are some, King Gelo (Gelo II, son of Hiero II), who think that the number of the sand is infinite in multitude; and I mean by the sand not only that which exists about Syracuse and the rest of Sicily but also that which is found in every region whether inhabited or uninhabited." To solve the problem, Archimedes devised a system of counting based on the myriad. The word is from the Greek murias, for the number 10,000. He proposed a number system using powers of a myriad of myriads (100 million) and concluded that the number of grains of sand required to fill the universe would be 8 vigintillion, or 81063.656

Writings
The works of Archimedes were written in Doric Greek, the dialect of ancient Syracuse.657 The written work of Archimedes has not survived as well as that of Euclid, and seven of his treatises are known to have existed only through references made to them by other authors. Pappus of Alexandria mentions On Sphere-Making and another work on polyhedra, while Theon of Alexandria quotes a remark about refraction from the now-lost Catoptrica.[b] During his lifetime, Archimedes made his work known through correspondence with the mathematicians in Alexandria. The writings of Archimedes were collected by the Byzantine architect Isidore of Miletus (c. 530 AD), while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD helped to bring his work a wider audience. Archimedes' work was translated into Arabic by Thbit ibn Qurra (836901 AD), and Latin by Gerard of Cremona (c. 1114 1187 AD). During the Renaissance, the Editio Princeps (First Edition) was published in Basel in 1544 by Johann Herwagen with the works of Archimedes in Greek and Latin.658 Around the year 1586 Galileo Galilei invented a hydrostatic balance for weighing metals in air and water after apparently being inspired by the work of Archimedes.659

Surviving works
On the Equilibrium of Planes (two volumes)

656Carroll, Bradley W. "The Sand Reckoner". Weber State University. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 657Encyclopedia of ancient Greece By Wilson, Nigel Guy p. 77 ISBN 0-7945-0225-3 (2006) 658"Editions of Archimedes' Work". Brown University Library. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 659Van Helden, Al. "The Galileo Project: Hydrostatic Balance". Rice University. . Retrieved 200709-14.

The first book is in fifteen propositions with seven postulates, while the second book is in ten propositions. In this work Archimedes explains the Law of the Lever, stating, "Magnitudes are in equilibrium at distances reciprocally proportional to their weights." Archimedes uses the principles derived to calculate the areas and centers of gravity of various geometric figures including triangles, parallelograms and parabolas.660 On the Measurement of a Circle This is a short work consisting of three propositions. It is written in the form of a correspondence with Dositheus of Pelusium, who was a student of Conon of Samos. In Proposition II, Archimedes shows that the value of (pi) is greater than 22371 and less than 227. The latter figure was used as an approximation of throughout the Middle Ages and is still used today when only a rough figure is required. On Spirals This work of 28 propositions is also addressed to Dositheus. The treatise defines what is now called the Archimedean spiral. It is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over time of a point moving away from a fixed point with a constant speed along a line which rotates with constant angular velocity. Equivalently, in polar coordinates (r, ) it can be described by the equation 1. r=ab with real numbers a and b. This is an early example of a mechanical curve (a curve traced by a moving point) considered by a Greek mathematician. On the Sphere and the Cylinder (two volumes)

660Heath, T.L.. "The Works of Archimedes (1897). The unabridged work in PDF form (19 MB)". Archive.org. . Retrieved 2007-10-14.

In this treatise addressed to Dositheus, Archimedes obtains the result of which he was most proud, namely the relationship between a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder of the same height and diameter. The volume is 43r3 for the sphere, and 2r3 for the cylinder. The surface area is 4r2 for the sphere, and 6r2 for the cylinder (including its two bases), where r is the radius of the sphere and cylinder. The sphere has a volume two-thirds that of the circumscribed cylinder. Similarly, the sphere has an area two-thirds that of the cylinder (including the bases). A sculpted sphere and cylinder were placed on the tomb of Archimedes at his request. On Conoids and Spheroids This is a work in 32 propositions addressed to Dositheus. In this treatise Archimedes calculates the areas and volumes of sections of cones, spheres, and paraboloids. On Floating Bodies (two volumes) In the first part of this treatise, Archimedes spells out the law of equilibrium of fluids, and proves that water will adopt a spherical form around a center of gravity. This may have been an attempt at explaining the theory of contemporary Greek astronomers such as Eratosthenes that the Earth is round. The fluids described by Archimedes are not self-gravitating, since he assumes the existence of a point towards which all things fall in order to derive the spherical shape. In the second part, he calculates the equilibrium positions of sections of paraboloids. This was probably an idealization of the shapes of ships' hulls. Some of his sections float with the base under water and the summit above water, similar to the way that icebergs float. Archimedes' principle of buoyancy is given in the work, stated as follows:

Any body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid experiences an upthrust equal to, but opposite in sense to, the weight of the fluid displaced.

The Quadrature of the Parabola

In this work of 24 propositions addressed to Dositheus, Archimedes proves by two methods that the area enclosed by a parabola and a straight line is 4/3 multiplied by the area of a triangle with equal base and height. He achieves this by calculating the value of a geometric series that sums to infinity with the ratio 14. (O)stomachion This is a dissection puzzle similar to a Tangram, and the treatise describing it was found in more complete form in the Archimedes Palimpsest. Archimedes calculates the areas of the 14 pieces which can be assembled to form a square. Research published by Dr. Reviel Netz of Stanford University in 2003 argued that Archimedes was attempting to determine how many ways the pieces could be assembled into the shape of a square. Dr. Netz calculates that the pieces can be made into a square 17,152 ways.661 The number of arrangements is 536 when solutions that are equivalent by rotation and reflection have been excluded.662 The puzzle represents an example of an early problem in combinatorics. The origin of the puzzle's name is unclear, and it has been suggested that it is taken from the Ancient Greek word for throat or gullet, stomachos ().663 Ausonius refers to the puzzle as Ostomachion, a Greek compound word formed from the roots of (osteon, bone) and (mach fight). The puzzle is also known as the Loculus of Archimedes or Archimedes' Box.664 Archimedes' cattle problem

661Kolata, Gina (December 14, 2003). "In Archimedes' Puzzle, a New Eureka Moment". The New York Times. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 662Ed Pegg Jr. (November 17, 2003). "The Loculus of Archimedes, Solved". Mathematical Association of America. . Retrieved 2008-05-18. 663Rorres, Chris. "Archimedes' Stomachion". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-09-14. 664"Graeco Roman Puzzles". Gianni A. Sarcone and Marie J. Waeber. . Retrieved 2008-05-09.

This work was discovered by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in a Greek manuscript consisting of a poem of 44 lines, in the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbttel, Germany in 1773. It is addressed to Eratosthenes and the mathematicians in Alexandria. Archimedes challenges them to count the numbers of cattle in the Herd of the Sun by solving a number of simultaneous Diophantine equations. There is a more difficult version of the problem in which some of the answers are required to be square numbers. This version of the problem was first solved by A. Amthor665 in 1880, and the answer is a very large number, approximately 7.76027110206544.666 The Sand Reckoner In this treatise, Archimedes counts the number of grains of sand that will fit inside the universe. This book mentions the heliocentric theory of the solar system proposed by Aristarchus of Samos, as well as contemporary ideas about the size of the Earth and the distance between various celestial bodies. By using a system of numbers based on powers of the myriad, Archimedes concludes that the number of grains of sand required to fill the universe is 81063 in modern notation. The introductory letter states that Archimedes' father was an astronomer named Phidias. The Sand Reckoner or Psammites is the only surviving work in which Archimedes discusses his views on astronomy.667 The Method of Mechanical Theorems This treatise was thought lost until the discovery of the Archimedes Palimpsest in 1906. In this work Archimedes uses infinitesimals, and shows how breaking up a figure into an infinite number of infinitely small parts can be used to determine its area or volume. Archimedes may have considered this method lacking in formal rigor, so he also used the method of exhaustion to derive the results. As with The Cattle Problem, The Method of Mechanical Theorems was written in the form of a letter to Eratosthenes in Alexandria.

665Krumbiegel, B. and Amthor, A. Das Problema Bovinum des Archimedes, Historischliterarische Abteilung der Zeitschrift Fr Mathematik und Physik 25 (1880) pp. 121136, 153 171. 666Calkins, Keith G. "Archimedes' Problema Bovinum". Andrews University. . Retrieved 2007-0914. 667"English translation of The Sand Reckoner". University of Waterloo. . Retrieved 2007-07-23.

Apocryphal works
Archimedes' Book of Lemmas or Liber Assumptorum is a treatise with fifteen propositions on the nature of circles. The earliest known copy of the text is in Arabic. The scholars T. L. Heath and Marshall Clagett argued that it cannot have been written by Archimedes in its current form, since it quotes Archimedes, suggesting modification by another author. The Lemmas may be based on an earlier work by Archimedes that is now lost.668 It has also been claimed that Heron's formula for calculating the area of a triangle from the length of its sides was known to Archimedes.[c] However, the first reliable reference to the formula is given by Heron of Alexandria in the 1st century AD.669

Archimedes Palimpsest
The foremost document containing the work of Archimedes is the Archimedes Palimpsest. In 1906, the Danish professor Johan Ludvig Heiberg visited Constantinople and examined a 174-page goatskin parchment of prayers written in the 13th century AD. He discovered that it was a palimpsest, a document with text that had been written over an erased older work. Palimpsests were created by scraping the ink from existing works and reusing them, which was a common practice in the Middle Ages as vellum was expensive. The older works in the palimpsest were identified by scholars as 10th century AD copies of previously unknown treatises by Archimedes.670 The parchment spent hundreds of years in a monastery library in Constantinople before being sold to a private collector in the 1920s. On October 29, 1998 it was sold at auction to an anonymous buyer for $2 million at Christie's in New York.671 The palimpsest holds seven treatises, including the only surviving copy of On Floating Bodies in the original Greek. It is the only known source of The Method of Mechanical Theorems, referred to by Suidas and thought to have been lost forever. Stomachion was also discovered in the palimpsest, with a more complete analysis of the puzzle than had been found in previous texts. The palimpsest is now stored at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland, where it has been subjected to a range of modern tests including the use of ultraviolet and x-ray light to read the overwritten text.672 The treatises in the Archimedes Palimpsest are: On the Equilibrium of Planes, On Spirals, Measurement of a Circle, On the Sphere and the Cylinder, On Floating Bodies, The Method of Mechanical Theorems and Stomachion.

668"Archimedes' Book of Lemmas". cut-the-knot. . Retrieved 2007-08-07. 669O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. (April 1999). "Heron of Alexandria". University of St Andrews. . Retrieved 2010-02-17. 670Miller, Mary K. (March 2007). "Reading Between the Lines". Smithsonian Magazine. . Retrieved 2008-01-24. 671"Rare work by Archimedes sells for $2 million". CNN. October 29, 1998. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-01-15. 672"X-rays reveal Archimedes' secrets". BBC News. August 2, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-07-23.

Legacy
There is a crater on the Moon named Archimedes (29.7 N, 4.0 W) in his honor, as well as a lunar mountain range, the Montes Archimedes (25.3 N, 4.6 W).673 The asteroid 3600 Archimedes is named after him.674 The Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in mathematics carries a portrait of Archimedes, along with his proof concerning the sphere and the cylinder. The inscription around the head of Archimedes is a quote attributed to him which reads in Latin: "Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri" (Rise above oneself and grasp the world).675 Archimedes has appeared on postage stamps issued by East Germany (1973), Greece (1983), Italy (1983), Nicaragua (1971), San Marino (1982), and Spain (1963).676 The exclamation of Eureka! attributed to Archimedes is the state motto of California. In this instance the word refers to the discovery of gold near Sutter's Mill in 1848 which sparked the California Gold Rush.677 A movement for civic engagement targeting universal access to health care in the US state of Oregon has been named the "Archimedes Movement," headed by former Oregon Governor John Kitzhaber.678

Notes and references


Notes
a. In the preface to On Spirals addressed to Dositheus of Pelusium, Archimedes says that "many years have elapsed since Conon's death." Conon of Samos lived c. 280220 BC, suggesting that Archimedes may have been an older man when writing some of his works.

673Friedlander, Jay and Williams, Dave. "Oblique view of Archimedes crater on the Moon". NASA. . Retrieved 2007-09-13. 674"Planetary Data System". NASA. . Retrieved 2007-09-13. 675"Fields Medal". International Mathematical Union. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-07-23. 676Rorres, Chris. "Stamps of Archimedes". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-08-25. 677"California Symbols". California State Capitol Museum. . Retrieved 2007-09-14. 678"The Archimedes Movement". .

b. The treatises by Archimedes known to exist only through references in the works of other authors are: On Sphere-Making and a work on polyhedra mentioned by Pappus of Alexandria; Catoptrica, a work on optics mentioned by Theon of Alexandria; Principles, addressed to Zeuxippus and explaining the number system used in The Sand Reckoner; On Balances and Levers; On Centers of Gravity; On the Calendar. Of the surviving works by Archimedes, T. L. Heath offers the following suggestion as to the order in which they were written: On the Equilibrium of Planes I, The Quadrature of the Parabola, On the Equilibrium of Planes II, On the Sphere and the Cylinder I, II, On Spirals, On Conoids and Spheroids, On Floating Bodies I, II, On the Measurement of a Circle, The Sand Reckoner. c. Boyer, Carl Benjamin A History of Mathematics (1991) ISBN 0-471-54397-7 "Arabic scholars inform us that the familiar area formula for a triangle in terms of its three sides, usually known as Heron's formula k = (s(s a)(s b) (s c)), where s is the semiperimeter was known to Archimedes several centuries before Heron lived. Arabic scholars also attribute to Archimedes the 'theorem on the broken chord' Archimedes is reported by the Arabs to have given several proofs of the theorem."

Further reading
Boyer, Carl Benjamin (1991). A History of Mathematics. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-54397-7. Clagett, Marshall (1964-1984). Archimedes in the Middle Ages. 5 vols. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Dijksterhuis, E.J. (1987). Archimedes. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 0-691-08421-1. Republished translation of the 1938 study of Archimedes and his works by an historian of science. Gow, Mary (2005). Archimedes: Mathematical Genius of the Ancient World. Enslow Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7660-2502-0. Hasan, Heather (2005). Archimedes: The Father of Mathematics. Rosen Central. ISBN 978-1-4042-0774-5. Heath, T.L. (1897). Works of Archimedes. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-48642084-1. Complete works of Archimedes in English. Netz, Reviel and Noel, William (2007). The Archimedes Codex. Orion Publishing Group. ISBN 0-297-64547-1. Pickover, Clifford A. (2008). Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533611-5. Simms, Dennis L. (1995). Archimedes the Engineer. Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. ISBN 0-7201-2284-8. Stein, Sherman (1999). Archimedes: What Did He Do Besides Cry Eureka?. Mathematical Association of America. ISBN 0-88385-718-9.

The Works of Archimedes online


Text in Classical Greek: PDF scans of Heiberg's edition of the Works of Archimedes, now in the public domain In English translation: The Works of Archimedes, trans. T.L. Heath; supplemented by The Method of Mechanical Theorems, trans. L.G. Robinson

External links
Archimedes on In Our Time at the BBC. ( listen now) The Archimedes Palimpsest project at The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland The Mathematical Achievements and Methodologies of Archimedes Article examining how Archimedes may have calculated the square root of 3 at MathPages Archimedes On Spheres and Cylinders at MathPages Photograph of the Sakkas experiment in 1973 Testing the Archimedes steam cannon Stamps of Archimedes

Aristotle
, Aristotls

Marble bust of Aristotle. Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippus c. 330 BC. The alabaster mantle is modern

Full name Born Died Era Region School Main interests

, Aristotls 384 BC Stageira, Chalcidice 322 BC (age 61 or 62) Euboea Ancient philosophy Western philosophy Peripatetic school Aristotelianism Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, Zoology Golden mean, Reason, Logic, Syllogism, Passion

Notable ideas

Aristotle (Greek: , Aristotls) (384 BC 322 BC)679 was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.

679That these undisputed dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/3, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown already by August Boeckh (Kleine Schriften VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. Ingemar Dring, Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Gteborg, 1957, p. 253.

Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"),680 it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.681

Life
Aristotle was born in Stageira, Chalcidice, in 384 BC, about 55 km (34 mi) east of modern-day Thessaloniki.682 His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy. At about the age of eighteen, he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years before quitting Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure reports that he was disappointed with the direction the academy took after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus upon his death, although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian sentiments and left before Plato had died.683 He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias' death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander the Great in 343 BC.684

680Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). "flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles". Academica. . Retrieved 25-Jan-2007. 681Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 9. 682McLeisch, Kenneth Cole (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0415-92392-1. 683Carnes Lord, Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). 684Bertrand Russell, "A History of Western Philosophy", Simon & Schuster, 1972

Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. In his Politics, Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens put together. Tactfully, he included the young prince and his father in that category. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be 'a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants'.685 By 335 BC he had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an eromenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.686 It is during this period in Athens from 335 to 323 BC when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.687 Aristotle wrote many dialogues, only fragments of which survived. The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication, as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics. Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time.688 Near the end of Alexander's life, Alexander began to suspect plots against himself, and threatened Aristotle in letters. Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander's pretense of divinity, and the king had executed Aristotle's grandnephew Callisthenes as a traitor. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but there is little evidence for this.689
685Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.5859 686William George Smith,Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, p. 88 687 688Neill, Alex; Aaron Ridley (1995). The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern. McGraw Hill. p. 488. . 689Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.379,459

Upon Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. Aristotle fled the city to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, explaining, "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy,"690 a reference to Athens's prior trial and execution of Socrates. However, he died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC). Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.691

Logic
With the Prior Analytics, Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic. Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that Aristotle's theory of logic completely accounted for the core of deductive inference.

History
Aristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'".692 However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos, who was concerned by the correct use of words. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood the logical implications. Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deducting system, he could never actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic.693 Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises, hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist, where he introduced his division method.694

690Jones, W.T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 216. ., cf. Vita Marciana 41. 691Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase Aristotle's Will 692Bocheski, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. 693Bocheski, 1951. 694Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher.

Analytics and the Organon


What we today call Aristotelian logic, Aristotle himself would have labeled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, since it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD: 1. Categories 2. On Interpretation 3. Prior Analytics 4. Posterior Analytics 5. Topics 6. On Sophistical Refutations The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon, namely the fourth book of Metaphysics.695

Aristotle's scientific method


Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle, however, found the universal in particular things, which he called the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar. For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) to a contemplation of particular imitations of these. For Aristotle, "form" still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is "instantiated" in a particular substance (see Universals and particulars, below). In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive, while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles.696

695 696Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore.

In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role. Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method. In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. In the larger sense of the word, Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science". Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For Aristotle, "all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical" (Metaphysics 1025b25). By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics. If logic (or "analytics") is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics and Mathematics; (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy. In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at the Academy and the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today. In fact, most of Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. He did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, e.g., botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and several other sciences. Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed to quantitative. Beginning in the 16th century, scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate. His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and temperature. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers.

His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. For example, in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females.697 In a similar vein, John Philoponus, and later Galileo, showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.698 On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given "current astronomical demonstrations" that "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then...the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them."699 In places, Aristotle goes too far in deriving 'laws of the universe' from simple observation and over-stretched reason. Today's scientific method assumes that such thinking without sufficient facts is ineffective, and that discerning the validity of one's hypothesis requires far more rigorous experimentation than that which Aristotle used to support his laws. Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics, which was widely accepted up until the 16th century. From the 3rd century to the 16th century, the dominant view held that the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentrism). Since he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in this epoch.700 However, Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific fields. For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants.

Physics
The five elements
Concerning the make up of matter, Aristotle followed prior Greek philosophy with an adapted theory of elements. He was not an "atomist" like Democritus. In particular he proposed a fifth element, aether, in addition to the more common four.
697Aristotle, History of Animals, 2.3. 698"Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Plato.stanford.edu. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. 699Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J. Barnes. 700Burent, John. 1928. Platonism, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 61, 103104.

Fire, which is hot and dry. Earth, which is cold and dry. Air, which is hot and wet. Water, which is cold and wet. Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets). Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place; the earth at the centre of the universe, then water, then air, then fire. When they are out of their natural place they have natural motion, requiring no external cause, which is towards that place; so bodies sink in water, air bubbles rise up, rain falls, flame rises in air. The heavenly element has perpetual circular motion.

Motion
Motion in Aristotle is defined in his Physics in a way which is quite different from modern science, and Aristotle's understanding of motion is closely connected to his actuality-potentiality distinction (see below concerning metaphysics). Taken literally, Aristotle defines motion as the actuality of a potentiality as such.701 What Aristotle meant is the subject of several different interpretations, but because actuality and potentiality are normally opposites in Aristotle, interpreters either say that the wording which has come down to us is wrong, or that the addition of the "as such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.702

Causality, The Four Causes


Material cause describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel. It is not about action. It does not mean one domino knocks over another domino.

701Physics 201a10-11, 201a27-29, 201b4-5 702Sachs, Joe (2005), "Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

The formal cause is its form, i.e. the arrangement of that matter. It tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly put the formal cause is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter. Formal cause could only refer to the essential quality of causation. A more simple example of the formal cause is the blueprint or plan that one has before making or causing a human made object to exist. The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. More simply again that which immediately sets the thing in motion. So take the two dominos this time of equal weighting, the first is knocked over causing the second also to fall over. This is effectively efficient cause. The final cause is its purpose, or that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is. This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, and all that gives purpose to behavior. Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal. (Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect). Moreover, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event (not necessarily a mental goal). Taking our two dominos, it requires someone to intentionally knock the dominos over as they cannot fall themselves. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic. The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects. Essentially, causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect.

Optics
Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day. The earliest known written evidence of a camera obscura can be found in Aristotle's documentation of such a device in 350 BC in Problemata. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or aperture, to allow for sunlight to enter. Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object. In modern cameras, this is analogous to the diaphragm. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the aperture and the surface with the image increased, the image was magnified.703

Chance and spontaneity


According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things. It is "from what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance). For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place. For example: A person seeks donations. That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum. However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance. It must be unusual that something happens by chance. In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance. There is also more specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that can only apply to human beings, since it is in the sphere of moral actions. According to Aristotle, luck must involve choice (and thus deliberation), and only humans are capable of deliberation and choice. "What is not capable of action cannot do anything by chance".704

Metaphysics
Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being," or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science."

703Michael Lahanas. "Optics and ancient Greeks". Mlahanas.de. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. 704Aristotle, Physics 2.6

Substance, potentiality and actuality


Aristotle examines the concept of substance and essence (ousia) in his Metaphysics, Book VII and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form. As he proceeds to the book VIII, he concludes that the matter of the substance is the substratum or the stuff of which it is composed, e.g. the matter of the house are the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house. While the form of the substance, is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia (see also predicables). The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.705 With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption 319b-320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from: 1) growth and diminution, which is change in quantity; 2) locomotion, which is change in space; and 3) alteration, which is change in quality. The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise acting). Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do. "For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see."706 In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end. Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality.

705Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1043a 1030 706Aristotle, Metaphysics IX 1050a 510

With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, for example, "what is it that makes a man one"? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same thing.707

Universals and particulars


Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form. Bertrand Russell is a contemporary philosopher who agreed with Plato on the existence of "uninstantiated universals". Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated. Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time, then it does not exist. In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. As Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.

Biology and medicine


In Aristotelian science, most especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals but not humans; his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded.

707Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1045a-b

Empirical research program


Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos, and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. The works that reflect this research, such as History of Animals, Generation of Animals, and Parts of Animals, contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. His observations on catfish, electric fish (Torpedo) and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods, namely, Octopus, Sepia (cuttlefish) and the paper nautilus (Argonauta argo). His description of the hectocotyl arm was about two thousand years ahead of its time, and widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selach (selachians).708 Another good example of his methods comes from the Generation of Animals in which Aristotle describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to observe when visible organs were generated. He gave accurate descriptions of ruminants' four-chambered fore-stomachs, and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus.709

Classification of living things


Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the 19th century. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he was not to know that complex invertebrates do make use of haemoglobin, but of a different kind from vertebrates). Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish). Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled cephalopods and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of Linnaeus, who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms). For Charles Singer, "Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living things as a scala naturae"710 Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" (scala naturae), placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move.711

708Singer, Charles. A short history of biology. Oxford 1931. 709Emily Kearns, "Animals, knowledge about," in Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1996, p. 92. 710 711Aristotle, of course, is not responsible for the later use made of this idea by clerics.

Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, i.e., final causes, guided all natural processes. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design. Noting that "no animal has, at the same time, both tusks and horns," and "a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen," Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary. Noting that ruminants had multiple stomachs and weak teeth, he supposed the first was to compensate for the latter, with Nature trying to preserve a type of balance.712 In a similar fashion, Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man, the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.713 His system had eleven grades, arranged according "to the degree to which they are infected with potentiality", expressed in their form at birth. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the lowest bore theirs cold, dry, and in thick eggs. Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form, but not preordained by that form. Ideas like this, and his ideas about souls, are not regarded as science at all in modern times. He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed, asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul, responsible for reproduction and growth, animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul, responsible for mobility and sensation, and humans a vegetative, a sensitive, and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection.714 Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain.715 Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.716

Successor: Theophrastus
Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botanythe History of Plantswhich survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages. Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel.

712Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 4344 713Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 201202; see also: Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being 714Aristotle, De Anima II 3 715Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 45 716Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1 pp. 348

Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause. Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages.717

Influence on Hellenistic medicine


After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.718 It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found. The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not.719 Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance."720 Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.721

Practical philosophy
Ethics
Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nicomachean Ethics.

717Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 9091; Mason, A History of the Sciences, p 46 718Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy pp 252 719Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 56 720Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 9094; quotation from p 91 721Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy, p 252

Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (ergon) of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the psuch (normally translated as soul) in accordance with reason (logos). Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, eudaimonia, generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (thik aret), often translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence).722 Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (phronsis) and their intellect (nous) can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other words, a philosopher.723

Politics
In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".724 He is also famous for his statement that "man is by nature a political animal." Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.725 The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different to Aristotle's understanding. Although he was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires, the natural community according to Aristotle was the city (polis) which functions as a political "community" or "partnership" (koinnia). The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: "The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together." This is distinguished from modern approaches, beginning with social contract theory, according to which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences."726
722Nicomachean Ethics Book I. See for example chapter 7 1098a. 723Nicomachean Ethics Book VI. 724Politics 1253a19-24 725Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. p. 59. 726For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomachean Ethics and

Rhetoric and poetics


Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.727 For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.728 Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.729 While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books one on comedy and one on tragedy only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, spectacle, and lyric poetry.730 The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.731 Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.732

Politics see Polanyi, K. (1957) "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78115 727Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a 728Aristotle, Poetics III 729Aristotle, Poetics IV 730Aristotle, Poetics VI 731Aristotle, Poetics XXVI 732Temple, Olivia, and Temple, Robert (translators), The Complete Fables By Aesop Penguin Classics, 1998. ISBN 0140446494 Cf. Introduction, pp. xixii.

Loss and preservation of his works


Modern scholarship reveals that Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterization733 from the surviving Aristotelian corpus. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with an intent for subsequent publication, the surviving works do not appear to have been so.734 Rather the surviving works mostly resemble lectures unintended for publication.735 The authenticity of a portion of the surviving works as originally Aristotelian is also today held suspect, with some books duplicating or summarizing each other, the authorship of one book questioned and another book considered to be unlikely Aristotle's at all.736 Some of the individual works within the corpus, including the Constitution of Athens, are regarded by most scholars as products of Aristotle's "school," perhaps compiled under his direction or supervision. Others, such as On Colors, may have been produced by Aristotle's successors at the Lyceum, e.g., Theophrastus and Straton. Still others acquired Aristotle's name through similarities in doctrine or content, such as the De Plantis, possibly by Nicolaus of Damascus. Other works in the corpus include medieval palmistries and astrological and magical texts whose connections to Aristotle are purely fanciful and self-promotional.737

733Terence Irwin and Gail Fine, Cornell University, Aristotle: Introductory Readings. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. (1996), Introduction, pp. xixii. 734 735 736 737Lynn Thorndike, "Chiromancy in Medieval Latin Manuscripts," Speculum 40 (1965), pp. 674 706; Roger A. Pack, "Pseudo-Arisoteles: Chiromantia," Archives dhistoire doctrinale et littraire du Moyen ge 39 (1972), pp. 289320; Pack, "A Pseudo-Aristotelian Chiromancy," Archives dhistoire doctrinale et littraire du Moyen ge 36 (1969), pp. 189241.

According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself, his writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric" and the "esoteric".738 Most scholars have understood this as a distinction between works Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric), and the more technical works (esoteric) intended for the narrower audience of Aristotle's students and other philosophers who were familiar with the jargon and issues typical of the Platonic and Aristotelian schools. Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind. Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in dialogue form. (Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived.) Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as "a river of gold";739 it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us.740 However, some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works; a few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style found in Aristotle's extant works.741 The surviving texts of Aristotle are technical treatises from within Aristotle's school, as opposed to the dialogues and other "exoteric" texts he published more widely during his lifetime. In some cases, the Aristotelian texts were likely left in different versions and contexts (as in the overlapping parts of the Eudemian Ethics and Nicomachean Ethics), or in smaller units that could be incorporated into larger books in different ways. Because of this, a posthumous compiler and publisher may sometimes have played a significant role in arranging the text into the form we know.

738Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 12; Aristotle himself: Nicomachean Ethics 1102a2627. Aristotle himself never uses the term "esoteric" or "acroamatic". For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exterikoi logoi, see W. D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics (1953), vol. 2, pp. 408410. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to "discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school", rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own. 739Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). "flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles". Academica. . Retrieved 25 January 2007. 740Barnes, "Life and Work", p. 12. 741Barnes, "Roman Aristotle", in Gregory Nagy, Greek Literature, Routledge 2001, vol. 8, p. 174 n. 240.

One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now possess come to us?742 The story of the original manuscripts of the esoteric treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his Parallel Lives.743 The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus, who in turn willed them to Neleus of Scepsis. Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis, where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the 1st century BC, when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. According to the story, Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into the text. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied Athens in 86 BC, he carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome, where they were first published in 60 BC by the grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes.744745 Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides "the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century B.C."746 Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this story, however. First, the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair. Second, there is "incontrovertible evidence," Lord says, that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis. Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his. And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelian corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelian interpolations in the Politics, for example, but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact.

742The definitive, English study of these questions is Barnes, "Roman Aristotle". 743"Sulla." 744Ancient Rome: from the early Republic to the assassination of Julius Caesar Page 513, Matthew Dillon, Lynda Garland 745The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 22 Page 131, Grolier Incorporated Juvenile Nonfiction 746Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to the Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. p. 11.

As the influence of the falsafa grew in the West, in part due to Gerard of Cremona's translations and the spread of Averroism, the demand for Aristotle's works grew.747 William of Moerbeke translated a number of them into Latin. When Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke's translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe to the point where Renaissance philosophy could be equated with Aristotelianism.748

Legacy
More than twenty-three hundred years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee, "it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did".749 Aristotle was the founder of formal logic,750 pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.751752 Despite these achievements, the influence of Aristotle's errors is considered by some to have held back science considerably. Bertrand Russell notes that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive", and calls his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.753

747Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 748Aristotelianism in the Renaissance entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 749Magee, Bryan (2010). The Story of Philosophy. Dorling Kindersley. p. 34. 750W. K. C. Guthrie (1990). " A history of Greek philosophy: Aristotle : an encounter". Cambridge University Press. p.156. ISBN 0521387604 751"Aristotle (Greek philosopher) Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. 752Durant, Will (1926 (2006)). The Story of Philosophy. United States: Simon & Schuster, Inc.. p. 92. ISBN 9780671739164. 753

Later Greek philosophers


The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Meno, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"754

Influence on Christian theologians


Aristotle is referred to as "The Philosopher" by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas. See Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 3, etc. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages. It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods. The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having at his beddes heed Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed, Of aristotle and his philosophie,755 The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell, I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family, By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest.756

754Plutarch, Life of Alexander 755Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, Prologue, lines 295295 756vidi l maestro di color che sanno seder tra filosofica famiglia. Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno: quivi vido Socrate e Platone che nnanzi a li altri pi presso li stanno; Dante, LInferno (Hell), Canto IV. Lines 131135

Views on women
Aristotle's analysis of procreation is frequently criticized on the grounds that it presupposes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element; it is on these grounds that Aristotle is considered by some feminist critics to have been a misogynist.757 On the other hand, Aristotle gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his Rhetoric that a society cannot be happy unless women are happy too: In places like Sparta where the lot of women is bad, there can only be halfhappiness in society.(see Rhetoric 1.5.6)

Post-Enlightenment thinkers
The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.758 However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue or arete of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy. It is Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.759

List of works
The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through Medival manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organization of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica, Berlin, 18311870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.

Further reading
The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. The following references are only a small selection. Ackrill J. L. 2001. Essays on Plato and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA
757Harding, Sandra; Merrill B. Hintikka (31 December 1999). Discovering Reality,: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Springer. p. 372. . 758Durant, p. 86 759Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy, Polity Press, 2007, passim.

Ackrill, J. L. (1981). Aristotle the Philosopher. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle for Everybody. New York: Macmillan. A popular exposition for the general reader. Aristotle (1908-1952). The Works of Aristotle Translated into English Under the Editorship of WD Ross, 12 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Pless. Bakalis Nikolaos. 2005. Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 Barnes J. 1995. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle, Cambridge University Press Bocheski, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. Burnyeat, M. F. et al. 1979. Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy Cantor, Norman F.; Klein, Peter L., eds (1969). Ancient Thought: Plato and Aristotle. Monuments of Western Thought. vol. 1. Waltham, Mass: Blaisdell Publishing Co.. Chappell, V. 1973. Aristotle's Conception of Matter, Journal of Philosophy 70: 679696 Code, Alan. 1995. Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76 Ferguson, John (1972). Aristotle. New York: Twayne Publishers. Frede, Michael. 1987. Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press Fuller, B.A.G. (1923). History of Greek Philosophy. vol. 3, Aristotle. London: Cape. Gill, Mary Louise. 1989. Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton: Princeton University Press Guthrie, W. K. C. (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. Halper, Edward C. (2007) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha Delta, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6 Halper, Edward C. (2005) One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6 Irwin, T. H. 1988. Aristotle's First Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0198242905.

Jaeger, Werner (1948). Robinson, Richard. ed. Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of His Development (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Jori, Alberto. 2003. Aristotele, Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of Science") ISBN 88-424-9737-1 Kiernan, Thomas P., ed (1962). Aristotle Dictionary. New York: Philosophical Library. Knight, Kelvin. 2007. Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre, Polity Press. Lewis, Frank A. 1991. Substance and Predication in Aristotle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lloyd, G. E. R. 1968. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., ISBN 0-521-09456-9. Lord, Carnes. 1984. Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Loux, Michael J. 1991. Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics and . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press McKeon, Richard (1973). Introduction to Aristotle (2d ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Owen, G. E. L. 1965c. The Platonism of Aristotle, Proceedings of the British Academy 50 125150. Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R. R. K. Sorabji (eds.), Articles on Aristotle, Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth (1975). 1434 Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aristotle's conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of the history of philosophic thought on friendship. Allen, Harold Joseph; Wilbur, James B., eds (1979). The Worlds of Plato and Aristotle. Buffalo: Prometheus Books. Reeve, C. D. C. 2000. Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics. Indianapolis: Hackett. Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle (6th ed.). London: Routledge. A classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English translators, in print since 1923. Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle (6th ed.). London and New York: Routledge. Scaltsas, T. 1994. Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Strauss, Leo. "On Aristotle's Politics" (1964), in The City and Man, Chicago; Rand McNally.

Swanson, Judith (1992). The Public and the Private in Aristotle's Political Philosoophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology". Greek Biology and Medicine. Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. For the general reader. Woods, M. J. 1991b. "Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics." Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy supplement. 4156

External links
Aristotle entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (general article) Scholarly surveys of focused topics from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: articles on Aristotle, Aristotle in the Renaissance, Biology, Causality, Commentators on Aristotle, Ethics, Logic, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Natural philosophy, Non-contradiction, Political theory, Psychology, Rhetoric The Catholic Encyclopedia (general article) Diogenes Lartius, Life of Aristotle, translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925).

Works by Aristotle on Open Library at the Internet Archive Collections of works Massachusetts Institute of Technology primarily in English Project Gutenberg English texts Tufts University at the Perseus Project, in both English and Greek University of Adelaide primarily in English P. Remacle's collection Greek with French translation The 11-volume 1837 Bekker edition of Aristotle's Works in Greek ( PDF| DJVU) Bekker's Prussian Academy of Sciences edition of the complete works of Aristotle at Archive.org: volume 1, volume 2, volume 3, volume 4, volume 5 Other Works by or about Aristotle in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Timeline of Aristotle's life This article incorporates material from Aristotle on PlanetMath, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

Socrates
Socrates ()

Socrates Full name Born Died Era Region School Main interests Notable ideas Socrates () c. 469 / 470 BC760 399 BC (age approx. 71) Ancient philosophy Western Philosophy Classical Greek Epistemology, ethics Socratic method, Socratic irony

Socrates (Greek: , Ancient Greek pronunciation: [skrats], Skrts; c. 469 BC399 BC,761 pronounced /skrtiz/ in English) was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.762

760"Socrates". 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1911. . Retrieved 2007-11-14. 761 762Sarah Kofman, Socrates: Fictions of a Philosopher (1998) ISBN 0-8014-3551-X

Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. It is Plato's Socrates that also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains strong in providing a foundation for much western philosophy that followed. As one recent commentator has put it, Plato, the idealist, offers "an idol, a master figure, for philosophy. A Saint, a prophet of the 'Sun-God', a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic."763

Biography
The Socratic problem
An accurate picture of the historical Socrates and his philosophical viewpoints is problematic, an issue known as the Socratic problem. As Socrates did not write philosophical texts, the knowledge of the man, his life, and his philosophy is entirely based on writings by his students and contemporaries. Foremost among them is Plato; however, works by Xenophon, Aristotle, and Aristophanes also provide important insights.764 The difficulty of finding the real Socrates arises because these works are often philosophical or dramatic texts rather than straightforward histories. Aside from Thucydides (who makes no mention of Socrates or philosophers in general) and Xenophon, there are in fact no straightforward histories contemporary with Socrates that dealt with his own time and place. A corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan (those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament). Historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various texts that come from these men to create an accurate and consistent account of Socrates' life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, merely consistent.

763Martin Cohen, Philosophical Tales (2008) ISBN 1405140372 764Many other writers added to the fashion of Socratic dialogues (called Skratikoi logoi) at the time. In addition to Plato and Xenophon, each of the following is credited by some source as having added to the genre: Aeschines of Sphettus, Antisthenes, Aristippus, Bryson, Cebes, Crito, Euclid of Megara, and Phaedo. It is unlikely Plato was the first in this field (Vlastos, p. 52).

Plato is frequently viewed as the most informative source about Socrates' life and philosophy.765 At the same time, however, many scholars believe that in some works Plato, being a literary artist, pushed his avowedly brightened-up version of "Socrates" far beyond anything the historical Socrates was likely to have done or said; and that Xenophon, being an historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. Parsing which Socratesthe "real" one, or Plato's own mouthpiecePlato is using at any given point is a matter of much debate. It is also clear from other writings and historical artifacts, however, that Socrates was not simply a character, or an invention, of Plato. The testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes' work (especially The Clouds), is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Plato's work.

Life
Details about Socrates can be derived from three contemporary sources: the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon (both devotees of Socrates), and the plays of Aristophanes. He has been depicted by some scholars, including Eric Havelock and Walter Ong, as a champion of oral modes of communication, standing up at the dawn of writing against its haphazard diffusion.766 Aristophanes' play The Clouds portrays Socrates as a clown who teaches his students how to bamboozle their way out of debt. Most of Aristophanes' works, however, function as parodies. Thus, it is presumed this characterization was also not literal. According to Plato, Socrates' father was Sophroniscus767 and his mother Phaenarete,768 a midwife. Though characterized as unattractive in appearance and short in stature, Socrates married Xanthippe,769 who was much younger than he. She bore for him three sons,770 Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus. His friend Crito of Alopece criticized him for abandoning his sons when he refused to try to escape before his execution.771

765There are several reasons this is the case. For one, Socrates is credited as an intellectual by almost every existing primary source. It is more likely then, that a fellow intellectual (i.e., Plato) would be more capable of understanding Socrates's ideas than a comic playwright, like Aristophanes. Furthermore, Socrates - as he is depicted by Xenophon's works - does nothing that would lead one to conclude he was a revolutionary or a threat to Athens (both Socrates and Xenophon served in military forces). Plato's Socrates behaves in ways that would explain why he was condemned for impiety (May, On Socrates). 766Ong, pp. 7879. 767Plato, Laches 180d [15], Euthydemus 297e [16], Hippias Major 298c [17] 768Plato, Theaetetus 149a [18], Alcibiades 1 131e [19] 769Xenophon, Symposium 2.10 770Plato, Phaedo 116b 771Plato, Crito 45c-45e

It is unclear how Socrates earned a living. Ancient texts seem to indicate that Socrates did not work. In Xenophon's Symposium, Socrates is reported as saying he devotes himself only to what he regards as the most important art or occupation: discussing philosophy. In The Clouds Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon, while in Plato's Apology and Symposium and in Xenophon's accounts, Socrates explicitly denies accepting payment for teaching. More specifically, in the Apology Socrates cites his poverty as proof he is not a teacher. According to Timon of Phlius and later sources, Socrates took over the profession of stonemasonry from his father. There was a tradition in antiquity, not credited by modern scholarship, that Socrates crafted the statues of the Three Graces, which stood near the Acropolis until the 2nd century AD.772 Several of Plato's dialogues refer to Socrates' military service. Socrates says he served in the Athenian army during three campaigns: at Potidaea, Amphipolis, and Delium. In the Symposium Alcibiades describes Socrates' valour in the battles of Potidaea and Delium, recounting how Socrates saved his life in the former battle (219e-221b). Socrates' exceptional service at Delium is also mentioned in the Laches by the General after whom the dialogue is named (181b). In the Apology, Socrates compares his military service to his courtroom troubles, and says anyone on the jury who thinks he ought to retreat from philosophy must also think soldiers should retreat when it looks like they will be killed in battle. In 406 he was a member of the Boule, and his tribe the Antiochis held the Prytany on the day the Generals of the Battle of Arginusae, who abandoned the slain and the survivors of foundered ships to pursue the defeated Spartan navy, were discussed. Socrates was the Epistates and resisted the unconstitutional demand for a collective trial to establish the guilt of all eight Generals, proposed by Callixeinus. Eventually, Socrates refused to be cowed by threats of impeachment and imprisonment and blocked the vote until his Prytany ended the next day, whereupon the six Generals were condemned to death. In 404 the Thirty Tyrants sought to ensure the loyalty of those opposed to them by making them complicit in their activities. Socrates and four others were ordered to bring a certain Leon of Salamis from his home for unjust execution. Socrates quietly refused, his death averted only by the overthrow of the Tyrants soon afterwards.

772The ancient tradition is attested in Pausanias, 1.22.8; for a modern denial, see Kleine Pauly, "Sokrates" 7; the tradition is a confusion with the sculptor, Socrates of Thebes, mentioned in Pausanias 9.25.3, a contemporary of Pindar.

Trial and death


Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian hegemony to its decline with the defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War. At a time when Athens sought to stabilize and recover from its humiliating defeat, the Athenian public may have been entertaining doubts about democracy as an efficient form of government. Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy, and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting. Claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society.773 He praises Sparta, archrival to Athens, directly and indirectly in various dialogues. But perhaps the most historically accurate of Socrates' offenses to the city was his position as a social and moral critic. Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of what he perceived as immorality within his region, Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that he felt was common in Greece during this period. Plato refers to Socrates as the "gadfly" of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness.774 His attempts to improve the Athenians' sense of justice may have been the source of his execution.

773Here it is telling to refer to Thucydides ( 3.82.8): "Reckless audacity came to be considered the courage of a loyal ally; prudent hesitation, specious cowardice; moderation was held to be a cloak for unmanliness; ability to see all sides of a question inaptness to act on any. Frantic violence, became the attribute of manliness; cautious plotting, a justifiable means of self-defense. The advocate of extreme measures was always trustworthy; his opponent a man to be suspected." 774Waterfield,Robin. Why Socrates Died:Dispelling the Myths. New York:W.W.Norton and Company, 2009

According to Plato's Apology, Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates; the Oracle responded that none was wiser. Socrates believed that what the Oracle had said was a paradox, because he believed he possessed no wisdom whatsoever. He proceeded to test the riddle by approaching men considered wise by the people of Athensstatesmen, poets, and artisansin order to refute the Oracle's pronouncement. Questioning them, however, Socrates concluded that, while each man thought he knew a great deal and was wise, in fact they knew very little and were not wise at all. Socrates realized that the Oracle was correct, in that while so-called wise men thought themselves wise and yet were not, he himself knew he was not wise at all, which, paradoxically, made him the wiser one since he was the only person aware of his own ignorance. Socrates' paradoxical wisdom made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. Socrates defended his role as a gadfly until the end: at his trial, when Socrates was asked to propose his own punishment, he suggests a wage paid by the government and free dinners for the rest of his life instead, to finance the time he spends as Athens' benefactor.775 He was, nevertheless, found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of "not believing in the gods of the state",776 and subsequently sentenced to death by drinking a mixture containing poison hemlock. According to Xenophon's story, Socrates purposefully gave a defiant defense to the jury because "he believed he would be better off dead". Xenophon goes on to describe a defense by Socrates that explains the rigors of old age, and how Socrates would be glad to circumvent them by being sentenced to death. It is also understood that Socrates also wished to die because he "actually believed the right time had come for him to die." Xenophon and Plato agree that Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. He chose to stay for several reasons: 1. He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he believed no true philosopher has. 2. If he fled Athens his teaching would fare no better in another country as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly incur their displeasure. 3. Having knowingly agreed to live under the city's laws, he implicitly subjected himself to the possibility of being accused of crimes by its citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have caused him to break his "social contract" with the state, and so harm the state, an act contrary to Socratic principle. The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito.

775Brun (1978). 776Plato. Apology, 24 - 27.

Socrates' death is described at the end of Plato's Phaedo. Socrates turned down the pleas of Crito to attempt an escape from prison. After drinking the poison, he was instructed to walk around until his legs felt numb. After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot. Socrates could no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart. Shortly before his death, Socrates speaks his last words to Crito: "Crito, we owe a rooster to Asclepius. Please, don't forget to pay the debt." Asclepius was the Greek god for curing illness, and it is likely Socrates' last words meant that death is the cureand freedom, of the soul from the body. Additionally, in Why Socrates Died: Dispelling the Myths, Robin Waterfield adds another interpretation of Socrates' last words. He suggests that Socrates was a voluntary scapegoat; his death was the purifying remedy for Athens misfortunes. In this view, the token of appreciation for Asclepius would represent a cure for the ailments of Athens.777

Philosophy
Socratic method
Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the scientific method, in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy. To illustrate the use of the Socratic method; a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. In fact, Socrates once said, "I know you won't believe me, but the highest form of Human Excellence is to question oneself and others."778

777 778Coppens.

Philosophical beliefs
The beliefs of Socrates, as distinct from those of Plato, are difficult to discern. Little in the way of concrete evidence exists to demarcate the two. The lengthy theories given in most of the dialogues are those of Plato, and some scholars think Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary character and the philosopher himself impossible to distinguish. Others argue that he did have his own theories and beliefs, but there is much controversy over what these might have been, owing to the difficulty of separating Socrates from Plato and the difficulty of interpreting even the dramatic writings concerning Socrates. Consequently, distinguishing the philosophical beliefs of Socrates from those of Plato and Xenophon is not easy and it must be remembered that what is attributed to Socrates might more closely reflect the specific concerns of these thinkers. The matter is complicated because the historical Socrates seems to have been notorious for asking questions but not answering, claiming to lack wisdom concerning the subjects about which he questioned others.779 If anything in general can be said about the philosophical beliefs of Socrates, it is that he was morally, intellectually, and politically at odds with his fellow Athenians. When he is on trial for heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his method of elenchos to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral values are wrong-headed. He tells them they are concerned with their families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to be worried about the "welfare of their souls". Socrates' belief in the immortality of the soul, and his conviction that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to provoke, if not ridicule, at least annoyance. Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete (virtue) can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers (such as the prominent military general Pericles) did not produce sons of their own quality. Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons. Socrates frequently says his ideas are not his own, but his teachers'. He mentions several influences: Prodicus the rhetor and Anaxagoras the scientist. Perhaps surprisingly, Socrates claims to have been deeply influenced by two women besides his mother: he says that Diotima, a witch and priestess from Mantinea, taught him all he knows about eros, or love; and that Aspasia, the mistress of Pericles, taught him the art of rhetoric.780 John Burnet argued that his principal teacher was the Anaxagorean Archelaus but his ideas were as Plato described them; Eric A. Havelock, on the other hand, considered Socrates' association with the Anaxagoreans to be evidence of Plato's philosophical separation from Socrates.

779Plato, Republic 336c & 337a, Theaetetus 150c, Apology 23a; Xenophon, Memorabilia 4.4.9; Aristotle, Sophistical Refutations 183b7. 780Plato, Menexenus 235e

Socratic Paradoxes
Many of the beliefs traditionally attributed to the historical Socrates have been characterized as "paradoxal" because they seem to conflict with common sense. The following are among the so-called Socratic Paradoxes:781 No one desires evil. No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly. Virtueall virtueis knowledge. Virtue is sufficient for happiness. The phrase Socratic paradox can also refer to a self-referential paradox, originating in Socrates' phrase, "I know that I know nothing noble and good".782

Knowledge
One of the best known sayings of Socrates is "I only know that I know nothing". The conventional interpretation of this remark is that Socrates' wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance. Socrates believed wrongdoing was a consequence of ignorance and those who did wrong knew no better. The one thing Socrates consistently claimed to have knowledge of was "the art of love", which he connected with the concept of "the love of wisdom", i.e., philosophy. He never actually claimed to be wise, only to understand the path a lover of wisdom must take in pursuing it. It is debatable whether Socrates believed humans (as opposed to gods like Apollo) could actually become wise. On the one hand, he drew a clear line between human ignorance and ideal knowledge; on the other, Plato's Symposium (Diotima's Speech) and Republic (Allegory of the Cave) describe a method for ascending to wisdom.

781p. 14, Terence Irwin, The Development of Ethics, vol. 1, Oxford University Press 2007; p. 147, Gerasimos Santas, "The Socratic Paradoxes", Philosophical Review 73 (1964), pp. 147-64. 782Apology of Socrates 21d.

In Plato's Theaetetus (150a), Socrates compares himself to a true matchmaker ( promnestiks), as distinguished from a panderer ( proagogos). This distinction is echoed in Xenophon's Symposium (3.20), when Socrates jokes about his certainty of being able to make a fortune, if he chose to practice the art of pandering. For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not himself a teacher (Apology). His role, he claims, is more properly to be understood as analogous to a midwife ( maia). Socrates explains that he is himself barren of theories, but knows how to bring the theories of others to birth and determine whether they are worthy or mere "wind eggs" ( anemiaion). Perhaps significantly, he points out that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed. To judge this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is judging.

Virtue
Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on selfdevelopment rather than the pursuit of material wealth. He always invited others to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, for Socrates felt this was the best way for people to grow together as a populace. His actions lived up to this: in the end, Socrates accepted his death sentence when most thought he would simply leave Athens, as he felt he could not run away from or go against the will of his community; as mentioned above, his reputation for valor on the battlefield was without reproach. The idea that humans possessed certain virtues formed a common thread in Socrates' teachings. These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues. Socrates stressed that "virtue was the most valuable of all possessions; the ideal life was spent in search of the Good. Truth lies beneath the shadows of existence, and it is the job of the philosopher to show the rest how little they really know."

Politics
It is often argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand", making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others. In Plato's dialogue the Republic, Socrates was in no way subtle about his particular beliefs on government. He openly objected to the democracy that ran Athens during his adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates objected to any form of government that did not conform to his ideal of a perfect republic led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that. It is, however, possible that the Socrates of Plato's Republic is colored by Plato's own views. During the last years of Socrates' life, Athens was in continual flux due to political upheaval. Democracy was at last overthrown by a junta known as the Thirty Tyrants, led by Plato's relative, Critias, who had been a student of Socrates. The Tyrants ruled for about a year before the Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it declared an amnesty for all recent events. Socrates' opposition to democracy is often denied, and the question is one of the biggest philosophical debates when trying to determine exactly what Socrates believed. The strongest argument of those who claim Socrates did not actually believe in the idea of philosopher kings is that the view is expressed no earlier than Plato's Republic, which is widely considered one of Plato's "Middle" dialogues and not representative of the historical Socrates' views. Furthermore, according to Plato's Apology of Socrates, an "early" dialogue, Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics; he often stated he could not look into other's matters or tell people how to live their lives when he did not yet understand how to live his own. He believed he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not claim to know it fully. Socrates' acceptance of his death sentence, after his conviction by the Boule (Senate), can also be seen to support this view. It is often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his teacher. In any case, it is clear Socrates thought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was at least as objectionable as Democracy; when called before them to assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian, Socrates refused and narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown. He did however fulfill his duty to serve as Prytanis when a trial of a group of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged; even then he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws, despite intense pressure.783 Judging by his actions, he considered the rule of the Thirty Tyrants less legitimate than the Democratic Senate that sentenced him to death.

783Kagen (1978).

Mysticism
In the Dialogues of Plato, Socrates often seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions; however, this is generally attributed to Plato. Regardless, this cannot be dismissed out of hand, as we cannot be sure of the differences between the views of Plato and Socrates; in addition, there seem to be some corollaries in the works of Xenophon. In the culmination of the philosophic path as discussed in Plato's Symposium and Republic, one comes to the Sea of Beauty or to the sight of the form of the Good in an experience akin to mystical revelation; only then can one become wise. (In the Symposium, Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher, the priestess Diotima, who is not even sure if Socrates is capable of reaching the highest mysteries.) In the Meno, he refers to the Eleusinian Mysteries, telling Meno he would understand Socrates' answers better if only he could stay for the initiations next week. Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher, whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor again the lifelong scholar. Plato himself was a playwright before taking up the study of philosophy. His works are, indeed, dialogues; Plato's choice of this, the medium of Sophocles, Euripides, and the fictions of theatre, may reflect the interpretable nature of his writings. What is more, the first word of nearly all Plato's works is a, or the, significant term for that respective study, and is used with the commonly approved definition in mind. Finally, the Phaedrus and the Symposium each allude to Socrates' coy delivery of philosophic truths in conversation; the Socrates of the Phaedrus goes so far as to demand such dissembling and mystery in all writing. The mysticism we often find in Plato, appearing here and there and couched in some enigmatic tract of symbol and irony, is often at odds with the mysticism Plato's Socrates expounds in some other dialogue. These mystical resolutions to hitherto rigorous inquiries and analyses fail to satisfy caring readers, without fail. Whether they would fail to satisfy readers who understood them is another question, and will not, in all probability, ever be resolved. Perhaps the most interesting facet of this is Socrates' reliance on what the Greeks called his "daemonic sign", an averting ( apotreptikos) inner voice Socrates heard only when he was about to make a mistake. It was this sign that prevented Socrates from entering into politics. In the Phaedrus, we are told Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry, mysticism, love, and even philosophy itself. Alternately, the sign is often taken to be what we would call "intuition"; however, Socrates' characterization of the phenomenon as "daemonic" suggests its origin is divine, mysterious, and independent of his own thoughts.

Satirical playwrights
He was prominently lampooned in Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds, produced when Socrates was in his mid-forties; he said at his trial (according to Plato) that the laughter of the theater was a harder task to answer than the arguments of his accusers. Sren Kierkegaard believed this play was a more accurate representation of Socrates than those of his students. In the play, Socrates is ridiculed for his dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays by Callias, Eupolis, and Telecleides. Other comic poets who lampooned Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates and the Sophists were criticised for "the moral dangers inherent in contemporary thought and literature".

Prose sources
Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle are the main sources for the historical Socrates; however, Xenophon and Plato were direct disciples of Socrates, and presumably, they idealize him; however, they wrote the only continuous descriptions of Socrates that have come down to us. Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to Socrates in his writings. Almost all of Plato's works center around Socrates. However, Plato's later works appear to be more his own philosophy put into the mouth of his mentor.

The Socratic dialogues


The Socratic Dialogues are a series of dialogues written by Plato and Xenophon in the form of discussions between Socrates and other persons of his time, or as discussions between Socrates' followers over his concepts. Plato's Phaedo is an example of this latter category. Although his Apology is a monologue delivered by Socrates, it is usually grouped with the Dialogues. The Apology professes to be a record of the actual speech Socrates delivered in his own defense at the trial. In the Athenian jury system, an "apology" is composed of three parts: a speech, followed by a counter-assessment, then some final words. "Apology" is a transliteration, not a translation, of the Greek apologia, meaning "defense"; in this sense it is not apologetic according to our contemporary use of the term. Plato generally does not place his own ideas in the mouth of a specific speaker; he lets ideas emerge via the Socratic Method, under the guidance of Socrates. Most of the dialogues present Socrates applying this method to some extent, but nowhere as completely as in the Euthyphro. In this dialogue, Socrates and Euthyphro go through several iterations of refining the answer to Socrates' question, "...What is the pious, and what the impious?"

In Plato's Dialogues, learning appears as a process of remembering. The soul, before its incarnation in the body, was in the realm of Ideas (very similar to the Platonic "Forms"). There, it saw things the way they truly are, rather than the pale shadows or copies we experience on earth. By a process of questioning, the soul can be brought to remember the ideas in their pure form, thus bringing wisdom. Especially for Plato's writings referring to Socrates, it is not always clear which ideas brought forward by Socrates (or his friends) actually belonged to Socrates and which of these may have been new additions or elaborations by Plato this is known as the Socratic Problem. Generally, the early works of Plato are considered to be close to the spirit of Socrates, whereas the later works including Phaedo and the Republic are considered to be possibly products of Plato's elaborations.

Legacy
Immediate influence
Immediately, the students of Socrates set to work both on exercising their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing many new philosophical schools of thought. Some of Athens' controversial and antidemocratic tyrants were contemporary or posthumous students of Socrates including Alcibiades and Critias. Critias' cousin, Plato would go on to found the Academy in 385 BC, which gained so much notoriety that 'Academy' became the base word for educational institutions in later European languages such as English, French, and Italian. Plato's protege, another important figure of the Classical era, Aristotle went on to tutor Alexander the Great and also to found his own school in 335 BC- the Lyceum, whose name also now means an educational institution. While Socrates was shown to demote the importance of institutional knowledge like mathematics or science in relation to the human condition in his Dialogues, Plato would emphasize it with metaphysical overtones mirroring that of Pythagoras - the former who would dominate Western thought well into the Renaissance. Aristotle himself was as much of a philosopher as he was a scientist with rudimentary work in the fields of biology and physics. Socratic thought along the lines of challenging conventions, especially in stressing a simplistic way of living, became divorced from Plato's more detached and philosophical pursuits but was inherited heavily by one of Socrates' older and diehard students, Antisthenes who became another originator of a philosophy in the years after Socrates' death - Cynicism. Antisthenes attacked Plato and Alcibiades over what he deemed as their betrayal of Socrates' tenets in his writings.

The idea of asceticism being hand in hand with an ethical life or one with piety, ignored by Plato and Aristotle and somewhat dealt with by the Cynics, formed the core of another philosophy in 281 BC - Stoicism when Zeno of Citium would discover Socrates' works and then learn from Crates, a Cynic philosopher. None of the schools however, would inherit his tendency to openly associate with and respect women or the regular citizen.

Later historical effects


While some of the later contributions of Socrates to Hellenistic Era culture and philosophy as well as the Roman Era have been lost to time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the Islamic Middle East alongside those of Aristotle and Stoicism. Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and rabbi Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the Khazar king about Judaism. al-Kindi, a well-known Arabic philosopher, introduced and tried to reconcile Socrates and Hellenistic philosophy to an Islamic audience. Socrates' stature in Western philosophy returned in full force with the Renaissance and the Age of Reason in Europe when political theory began to resurface under those like Locke and Hobbes. Voltaire even went so far as to write a satirical play about the Trial of Socrates. There were a number of paintings about his life including Socrates Tears Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure by Jean-Baptiste Regnault and The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David in the later 18th century. To this day, the Socratic Method is still used in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in both subject and the speaker. He has been rewarded with accolades ranging from numerous mentions in pop culture such as the movie Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure and a Greek rock band to numerous busts in academic institutions in recognition of his contribution to education.

Criticism
Evaluation and reaction to Socrates has been undertaken with both historical and philosophical inquiry from the time of his death to the present day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives. One of the initial criticisms levied against the philosopher was presented at his trial - that he was not the proponent of a philosophy but an individual with a method of undermining the fabric of Athenian society, a charge carried by the 500-man jury of Athenians that sentenced him to death. Although he was not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants, he was seen as a controversial figure, who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and undermined Athenian democracy. The Sophist establishment he railed at in life survived him, but by the 3rd century BC, was rapidly overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates influenced.

Socrates' death is considered iconic and his status as a martyr of philosophy overshadowed most contemporary and posthumous criticism at the time. However, Xenophon attempts to explain that Socrates purposely welcomed the hemlock due to his old age using the arguably self-destructive testimony to the jury as evidence. Direct criticism of Socrates almost disappears at this point, but there is a noticeable preference for Plato or Aristotle over the elements of Socratic philosophy distinct from those of his students, even into the Middle Ages. Modern scholarship holds that, with so much of the philosopher obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a clear picture of Socrates amidst all the seeming contradictions. That both Cynicism and Stoicism, which carried heavy influence from Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to Platonism further illustrates this. The ambiguity and lack of reliability serves as the modern basis of criticism - that it is near impossible to know the real Socrates. Some controversy also exists about claims of Socrates exempting himself from the homosexual customs of ancient Greece and not believing in the Olympian gods to the point of being monotheistic or if this was an attempt by later Medieval scholars to reconcile him with the morals of the era. However, it is still commonly taught and held with little exception that Socrates is the founder of modern Western philosophy, to the point that philosophers before him are referred to as pre-Socratic.

Ahmadiyya Viewpoint
Mirza Tahir Ahmad (the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community) argued in his book Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth that Socrates was a prophet of the ancient Greeks. The apparent prophetic qualities of Socrates are indeed a subject for debate.784 His constant reference to the oracle and how it performs the active function of a moral compass by preventing him from unseemly acts could easily be taken as a reference to - or substitute for revelation. Similarly, Socrates often refers to God in the singular as opposed to the plural and actively rejected the Greek pantheon of Gods and Goddesses unless citing them as examples of their falseness. [20].

References
Brun, Jean (1978 (sixth edition)). Socrate. Presses universitaires de France. pp. 3940. ISBN 2-13-035620-6. (French) Coppens, Philip, "Socrates, thats the question" Feature Articles - Biographies, PhilipCoppens.com. May, Hope (2000). On Socrates. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 0534576044.

784Hughes, Bettany. Socrates: The Hemlock Cup. (Random House, 2009)

Ong, Walter (2002). Orality and Literacy. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415281296. Kagan, Donald. The Fall of the Athenian Empire. First. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1987. Pausanias, Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones (translator). Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. (1918). Vol. 1. Books III: ISBN 0-674-99104-4. Vol. 4. Books VIII.22X: ISBN 0-674-99328-4. Thucydides; The Peloponnesian War. London, J. M. Dent; New York, E. P. Dutton. 1910.[21] Vlastos, Gregory (1991). Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801497876.

Further reading
Bernas, Richard, cond. Socrate. By Erik Satie. LTM/Boutique, 2006 Bruell, C. (1994). On Platos Political Philosophy, Review of Politics, 56: 26182. Bruell, C. (1999). On the Socratic Education: An Introduction to the Shorter Platonic Dialogues, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Grube, G.M.A.(2002). "Plato, Five Dialogues". Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. Hanson, V.D. (2001). "Socrates Dies at Delium, 424 B.C.", What If? 2, Robert Cowley, editor, G.P. Putnam's Sons, NY. Egan, K. The educated mind : how cognitive tools shape our understanding. (1997) University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-19036-6 p. 137-144 Kierkegaard, Sren (1968). The Concept of Irony: with Constant Reference to Socrates. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253201119. Levinson, Paul (2007). The Plot to Save Socrates. New York: Tor Books. ISBN 0765311976. Luce, J.V. (1992). An Introduction to Greek Philosophy, Thames & Hudson, NY. Maritain, J. (1930, 1991). Introduction to Philosophy, Christian Classics, Inc., Westminster, MD. Robinson, R (1953). Plato's Earlier Dialectic. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198247777. Ch. 2: "Elenchus", Ch. 3: "Elenchus: Direct and Indirect" Taylor, C.C.W. , Hare, R.M. & Barnes, J. (1998). Greek Philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, NY. Taylor, C.C.W. (2001). Socrates: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

External links
Socrates on In Our Time at the BBC. ( listen now) Socrates entry by Debra Nails in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Greek Philosophy: Socrates Diogenes Lartius, Life of Socrates, translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925).

Original Fresque of Socrates in Archaeological Museum of Ephesus Socrates Narrates Plato's The Republic Apology of Socrates, by Plato. Project Gutenberg e-texts on Socrates, amongst others: 1. The Dialogues of Plato (see also Wikipedia articles on Dialogues by Plato) 2. The writings of Xenophon, such as the Memorablia and Hellenica. 3. The satirical plays by Aristophanes 4. Aristotle's writings 5. Voltaire's Socrates A free audiobook of the Socratic dialogue Euthyphro at LibriVox Socratic Method Research Portal Video on Socratic method

Plato
Plato ()

Plato: copy of portrait bust by Silanion

Full name Born Died Era Region School Main interests

Plato () c. 428427 BC785Athens c. 348347 BC (age approx 80)Athens Ancient philosophy Western Philosophy Platonism Rhetoric, Art, Literature, Epistemology, Justice, Virtue, Politics, Education, Family, Militarism Platonic realism

Notable ideas

Plato (English pronunciation: /pleto/; Greek: , Pltn, "broad"786; 428/427 BC[a] 348/347 BC), was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.787 In the famous words of A.N. Whitehead: The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. I do not mean the systematic scheme of thought which scholars have doubtfully extracted from his writings. I allude to the wealth of general ideas scattered through them.788

Plato's sophistication as a writer is evident in his Socratic dialogues; thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters have been ascribed to him. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts. Plato's dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, and mathematics.

Biography
Early life
785St-Andrews.ac.uk, St. Andrews University 786Diogenes Laertius 3.4; p. 21, David Sedley, Plato's Cratylus, Cambridge University Press 2003 787"Plato". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2002. 788Process and Reality p. 39

Birth and family


The definite place and time of Plato's birth are not known, but what is certain is that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina[b] between 429 and 423 BC.[a] His father was Ariston. According to a disputed tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus, and the king of Messenia, Melanthus.789 Plato's mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker and lyric poet Solon.790 Perictione was sister of Charmides and niece of Critias, both prominent figures of the Thirty Tyrants, the brief oligarchic regime, which followed on the collapse of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War (404-403 BC).791 Besides Plato himself, Ariston and Perictione had three other children; these were two sons, Adeimantus and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus (the nephew and successor of Plato as head of his philosophical Academy).792 According to the Republic, Adeimantus and Glaucon were older than Plato.793 Nevertheless, in his Memorabilia, Xenophon presents Glaucon as younger than Plato.794 Ariston tried to force his attentions on Perictione, but failed in his purpose; then the ancient Greek god Apollo appeared to him in a vision, and, as a result of it, Ariston left Perictione unmolested.795 Another legend related that, while he was sleeping as an infant, bees had settled on the lips of Plato; an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse philosophy.796

789Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, III * D. Nails, "Ariston", 53 * U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Plato, 46 790Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, I 791W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy', IV, 10 * A.E. Taylor, Plato, xiv * U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Plato, 47 792 793Plato, Republic, 2. 368a * U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Plato, 47 794Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.6. 1 795Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, 1 * Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, I "Plato". Suda. 796Cicero, De Divinatione, I, 36

Ariston appears to have died in Plato's childhood, although the precise dating of his death is difficult.797 Perictione then married Pyrilampes, her mother's brother,798 who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, the leader of the democratic faction in Athens.799 Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, Demus, who was famous for his beauty.800 Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes' second son, Antiphon, the halfbrother of Plato, who appears in Parmenides.801 In contrast to his reticence about himself, Plato used to introduce his distinguished relatives into his dialogues, or to mention them with some precision: Charmides has one named after him; Critias speaks in both Charmides and Protagoras; Adeimantus and Glaucon take prominent parts in the Republic.802 From these and other references one can reconstruct his family tree, and this suggests a considerable amount of family pride. According to Burnet, "the opening scene of the Charmides is a glorification of the whole [family] connection ... Plato's dialogues are not only a memorial to Socrates, but also the happier days of his own family".803

Name
According to Diogenes Lartius, the philosopher was named Aristocles after his grandfather, but his wrestling coach, Ariston of Argos, dubbed him "Platon", meaning "broad," on account of his robust figure.804 According to the sources mentioned by Diogenes (all dating from the Alexandrian period), Plato derived his name from the breadth (platyts) of his eloquence, or else because he was very wide (plats) across the forehead.805 In the 21st century some scholars disputed Diogenes, and argued that the legend about his name being Aristocles originated in the Hellenistic age.[c]

797D. Nails, "Ariston", 53 * A.E. Taylor, Plato, xiv 798Plato, Charmides, 158a * D. Nails, "Perictione", 53 799Plato, Charmides, 158a * Plutarch, Pericles, IV 800Plato, Gorgias, 481d and 513b * Aristophanes, Wasps, 97 801Plato, Parmenides, 126c 802W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, IV, 11 803C.H. Kahn, Plato and the Socratic Dialogue, 186 804Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, IV 805Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, IV * A. Notopoulos, The Name of Plato, 135

Education
Apuleius informs us that Speusippus praised Plato's quickness of mind and modesty as a boy, and the "first fruits of his youth infused with hard work and love of study".806 Plato must have been instructed in grammar, music, and gymnastics by the most distinguished teachers of his time.807 Dicaearchus went so far as to say that Plato wrestled at the Isthmian games.808 Plato had also attended courses of philosophy; before meeting Socrates, he first became acquainted with Cratylus (a disciple of Heraclitus, a prominent pre-Socratic Greek philosopher) and the Heraclitean doctrines.809

Later life
Plato may have traveled in Italy, Sicily, Egypt and Cyrene.810 Said to have returned to Athens at the age of forty, Plato founded one of the earliest known organized schools in Western Civilization on a plot of land in the Grove of Hecademus or Academus.811 The Academy was "a large enclosure of ground that was once the property of a citizen at Athens named Academus... some, however, say that it received its name from an ancient hero",812 and it operated until AD 529, when it was closed by Justinian I of Byzantium, who saw it as a threat to the propagation of Christianity. Many intellectuals were schooled in the Academy, the most prominent one being Aristotle.813 Throughout his later life, Plato became entangled with the politics of the city of Syracuse. According to Diogenes Laertius, Plato initially visited Syracuse while it was under the rule of Dionysus. During this first trip Dionysus's brother-in-law, Dion of Syracuse, became one of Plato's disciples, but the tyrant himself turned against Plato. Plato was sold into slavery and almost faced death in Cyrene, a city at war with Athens, before an admirer bought Plato's freedom and sent him home. After Dionysius's death, according to Plato's Seventh Letter, Dion requested Plato return to Syracuse to tutor Dionysus II and guide him to become a philosopher king. Dionysius II seemed to accept Plato's teachings, but he became suspicious of Dion, his uncle. Dionysus expelled Dion and kept Plato against his will. Eventually Plato left Syracuse. Dion would return to overthrow Dionysus and ruled Syracuse for a short time before being usurped by Calippus, a fellow disciple of Plato.

806Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, 2 807Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, IV * W. Smith, Plato, 393 808Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, V 809Aristotle, Metaphysics, 1. 987a 810McEvoy, James (1984). "Plato and The Wisdom of Egypt". Irish Philosophical Journal (Belfast: Dept. of Scholastic Philosophy, Queen's University of Belfast) 1 (2). ISSN 0266-9080. . Retrieved 2007-12-03. 811Huntington Cairns, Introduction to Plato: The Collected Dialogues, p. xiii. 812Robinson, Arch. Graec. I i 16. 813"Biography of Aristotle". ClassicNote. GradeSaver LLC. . Retrieved 2007-12-03.

Plato and Socrates


The precise relationship between Plato and Socrates remains an area of contention among scholars. Plato makes it clear, especially in his Apology of Socrates, that he was Socrates' most devoted young follower. In that dialogue, Socrates is presented as mentioning Plato by name as one of those youths close enough to him to have been corrupted, if he were in fact guilty of corrupting the youth, and questioning why their fathers and brothers did not step forward to testify against him if he was indeed guilty of such a crime (33d-34a). Later, Plato is mentioned along with Crito, Critobolus, and Apollodorus as offering to pay a fine of 30 minas on Socrates' behalf, in lieu of the death penalty proposed by Meletus (38b). In the Phaedo, the title character lists those who were in attendance at the prison on Socrates' last day, explaining Plato's absence by saying, "Plato was ill" (Phaedo 59b). Plato never speaks in his own voice in his dialogues. In the Second Letter, it says, "no writing of Plato exists or ever will exist, but those now said to be his are those of a Socrates become beautiful and new" (341c); if the Letter is Plato's, the final qualification seems to call into question the dialogues' historical fidelity. In any case, Xenophon and Aristophanes seem to present a somewhat different portrait of Socrates than Plato paints. Some have called attention to the problem of taking Plato's Socrates to be his mouthpiece, given Socrates' reputation for irony.814 Aristotle attributes a different doctrine with respect to the ideas to Plato and Socrates (Metaphysics 987b111). Putting it in a nutshell, Aristotle merely suggests that his idea of forms can be discovered through investigation of the natural world, unlike Plato's Forms that exist beyond and outside the ordinary range of human understanding.

Philosophy

814Leo Strauss, The City and Man (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 501.

Recurrent themes
Plato often discusses the father-son relationship and the "question" of whether a father's interest in his sons has much to do with how well his sons turn out. A boy in ancient Athens was socially located by his family identity, and Plato often refers to his characters in terms of their paternal and fraternal relationships. Socrates was not a family man, and saw himself as the son of his mother, who was apparently a midwife. A divine fatalist, Socrates mocks men who spent exorbitant fees on tutors and trainers for their sons, and repeatedly ventures the idea that good character is a gift from the gods. Crito reminds Socrates that orphans are at the mercy of chance, but Socrates is unconcerned. In the Theaetetus, he is found recruiting as a disciple a young man whose inheritance has been squandered. Socrates twice compares the relationship of the older man and his boy lover to the father-son relationship (Lysis 213a, Republic 3.403b), and in the Phaedo, Socrates' disciples, towards whom he displays more concern than his biological sons, say they will feel "fatherless" when he is gone. In several dialogues, Socrates floats the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection, and not of learning, observation, or study.815 He maintains this view somewhat at his own expense, because in many dialogues, Socrates complains of his forgetfulness. Socrates is often found arguing that knowledge is not empirical, and that it comes from divine insight. In many middle period dialogues, such as the Phaedo, Republic and Phaedrus Plato advocates a belief in the immortality of the soul, and several dialogues end with long speeches imagining the afterlife. More than one dialogue contrasts knowledge and opinion, perception and reality, nature and custom, and body and soul. Several dialogues tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness (drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming) in the Phaedrus (265ac), and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetry, and laughter as well. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literature that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. On politics and art, religion and science, justice and medicine, virtue and vice, crime and punishment, pleasure and pain, rhetoric and rhapsody, human nature and sexuality, love and wisdom, Socrates and his company of disputants had something to say.

815Baird, Forrest E.; Walter Kaufmann (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6.

Metaphysics
"Platonism" is a term coined by scholars to refer to the intellectual consequences of denying, as Socrates often does, the reality of the material world. In several dialogues, most notably the Republic, Socrates inverts the common man's intuition about what is knowable and what is real. While most people take the objects of their senses to be real if anything is, Socrates is contemptuous of people who think that something has to be graspable in the hands to be real. In the Theaetetus, he says such people are "eu a-mousoi", an expression that means literally, "happily without the muses" (Theaetetus 156a). In other words, such people live without the divine inspiration that gives him, and people like him, access to higher insights about reality. Socrates's idea that reality is unavailable to those who use their senses is what puts him at odds with the common man, and with common sense. Socrates says that he who sees with his eyes is blind, and this idea is most famously captured in his allegory of the cave, and more explicitly in his description of the divided line. The allegory of the cave (begins Republic 7.514a) is a paradoxical analogy wherein Socrates argues that the invisible world is the most intelligible ("noeton") and that the visible world ("(h)oraton") is the least knowable, and the most obscure. Socrates says in the Republic that people who take the sun-lit world of the senses to be good and real are living pitifully in a den of evil and ignorance. Socrates admits that few climb out of the den, or cave of ignorance, and those who do, not only have a terrible struggle to attain the heights, but when they go back down for a visit or to help other people up, they find themselves objects of scorn and ridicule. According to Socrates, physical objects and physical events are "shadows" of their ideal or perfect forms, and exist only to the extent that they instantiate the perfect versions of themselves. Just as shadows are temporary, inconsequential epiphenomena produced by physical objects, physical objects are themselves fleeting phenomena caused by more substantial causes, the ideals of which they are mere instances. For example, Socrates thinks that perfect justice exists (although it is not clear where) and his own trial would be a cheap copy of it. The allegory of the cave (often said by scholars to represent Plato's own epistemology and metaphysics) is intimately connected to his political ideology (often said to also be Plato's own), that only people who have climbed out of the cave and cast their eyes on a vision of goodness are fit to rule. Socrates claims that the enlightened men of society must be forced from their divine contemplations and be compelled to run the city according to their lofty insights. Thus is born the idea of the "philosopher-king", the wise person who accepts the power thrust upon him by the people who are wise enough to choose a good master. This is the main thesis of Socrates in the Republic, that the most wisdom the masses can muster is the wise choice of a ruler.

The word metaphysics derives from the fact that Aristotle's musings about divine reality came after ("meta") his lecture notes on his treatise on nature ("physics"). The term is in fact applied to Aristotle's own teacher, and Plato's "metaphysics" is understood as Socrates' division of reality into the warring and irreconcilable domains of the material and the spiritual. The theory has been of incalculable influence in the history of Western philosophy and religion.

Theory of Forms
The Theory of Forms (Greek: ) typically refers to the belief expressed by Socrates in some of Plato's dialogues, that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only an image or copy of the real world. Socrates spoke of forms in formulating a solution to the problem of universals. The forms, according to Socrates, are roughly speaking archetypes or abstract representations of the many types of things, and properties we feel and see around us, that can only be perceived by reason (Greek: ); (that is, they are universals). In other words, Socrates sometimes seems to recognise two worlds: the apparent world, which constantly changes, and an unchanging and unseen world of forms, which may be a cause of what is apparent.

Epistemology
Many have interpreted Plato as stating that knowledge is justified true belief, an influential view that informed future developments in modern analytic epistemology. This interpretation is based on a reading of the Theaetetus wherein Plato argues that belief is to be distinguished from knowledge on account of justification. Many years later, Edmund Gettier famously demonstrated the problems of the justified true belief account of knowledge. This interpretation, however, imports modern analytic and empiricist categories onto Plato himself and is better read on its own terms than as Plato's view. Really, in the Sophist, Statesman, Republic, and the Parmenides Plato himself associates knowledge with the apprehension of unchanging Forms and their relationships to one another (which he calls "expertise" in Dialectic). More explicitly, Plato himself argues in the Timaeus that knowledge is always proportionate to the realm from which it is gained. In other words, if one derives one's account of something experientially, because the world of sense is in flux, the views therein attained will be mere opinions. And opinions are characterized by a lack of necessity and stability. On the other hand, if one derives one's account of something by way of the non-sensible forms, because these forms are unchanging, so too is the account derived from them. It is only in this sense that Plato uses the term "knowledge".

In the Meno, Socrates uses a geometrical example to expound Plato's view that knowledge in this latter sense is acquired by recollection. Socrates elicits a fact concerning a geometrical construction from a slave boy, who could not have otherwise known the fact (due to the slave boy's lack of education). The knowledge must be present, Socrates concludes, in an eternal, non-experiential form.

The state
Plato's philosophical views had many societal implications, especially on the idea of an ideal state or government. There is some discrepancy between his early and later views. Some of the most famous doctrines are contained in the Republic during his middle period, as well as in the Laws and the Statesman. However, because Plato wrote dialogues, it is assumed that Socrates is often speaking for Plato. This assumption may not be true in all cases. Plato, through the words of Socrates, asserts that societies have a tripartite class structure corresponding to the appetite/spirit/reason structure of the individual soul. The appetite/spirit/reason stand for different parts of the body. The body parts symbolize the castes of society.816 Productive, which represents the abdomen. (Workers) the labourers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, merchants, farmers, ranchers, etc. These correspond to the "appetite" part of the soul. Protective, which represents the chest. (Warriors or Guardians) those who are adventurous, strong and brave; in the armed forces. These correspond to the "spirit" part of the soul. Governing, which represents the head. (Rulers or Philosopher Kings) those who are intelligent, rational, self-controlled, in love with wisdom, well suited to make decisions for the community. These correspond to the "reason" part of the soul and are very few. According to this model, the principles of Athenian democracy (as it existed in his day) are rejected as only a few are fit to rule. Instead of rhetoric and persuasion, Plato says reason and wisdom should govern. As Plato puts it: "Until philosophers rule as kings or those who are now called kings and leading men genuinely and adequately philosophise, that is, until political power and philosophy entirely coincide, while the many natures who at present pursue either one exclusively are forcibly prevented from doing so, cities will have no rest from evils,... nor, I think, will the human race." (Republic 473c-d) Plato describes these "philosopher kings" as "those who love the sight of truth" (Republic 475c) and supports the idea with the analogy of a captain and his ship or a doctor and his medicine. According to him, sailing and health are not things that everyone is qualified to practice by nature. A large part of the Republic then addresses how the educational system should be set up to produce these philosopher kings.
816Gaarder, Jostein (1996). Sophie's World. New York City: Berkley. pp. 91.

However, it must be taken into account that the ideal city outlined in the Republic is qualified by Socrates as the ideal luxurious city, examined to determine how it is that injustice and justice grow in a city (Republic 372e). According to Socrates, the "true" and "healthy" city is instead the one first outlined in book II of the Republic, 369c372d, containing farmers, craftsmen, merchants, and wage-earners, but lacking the guardian class of philosopherkings as well as delicacies such as "perfumed oils, incense, prostitutes, and pastries", in addition to paintings, gold, ivory, couches, a multitude of occupations such as poets and hunters, and war. In addition, the ideal city is used as an image to illuminate the state of one's soul, or the will, reason, and desires combined in the human body. Socrates is attempting to make an image of a rightly ordered human, and then later goes on to describe the different kinds of humans that can be observed, from tyrants to lovers of money in various kinds of cities. The ideal city is not promoted, but only used to magnify the different kinds of individual humans and the state of their soul. However, the philosopher king image was used by many after Plato to justify their personal political beliefs. The philosophic soul according to Socrates has reason, will, and desires united in virtuous harmony. A philosopher has the moderate love for wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge about the Good or the right relations between all that exists. Wherein it concerns states and rulers, Plato has made interesting arguments. For instance he asks which is bettera bad democracy or a country reigned by a tyrant. He argues that it is better to be ruled by a bad tyrant, than be a bad democracy (since here all the people are now responsible for such actions, rather than one individual committing many bad deeds.) This is emphasised within the Republic as Plato describes the event of mutiny onboard a ship.817 Plato suggests the ships crew to be in line with the democratic rule of many and the captain, although inhibited through ailments, the tyrant. Plato's description of this event is parallel to that of democracy within the state and the inherent problems that arise. According to Plato, a state made up of different kinds of souls will, overall, decline from an aristocracy (rule by the best) to a timocracy (rule by the honorable), then to an oligarchy (rule by the few), then to a democracy (rule by the people), and finally to tyranny (rule by one person, rule by a tyrant).

817The Republic; p282

Unwritten doctrine
For a long time Plato's unwritten doctrine818819820 had been considered unworthy of attention. Most of the books on Plato seem to diminish its importance. Nevertheless the first important witness who mentions its existence is Aristotle, who in his Physics (209 b) writes: "It is true, indeed, that the account he gives there [i.e. in Timaeus] of the participant is different from what he says in his socalled unwritten teaching ( )." The term literally means unwritten doctrine and it stands for the most fundamental metaphysical teaching of Plato, which he disclosed only to his most trusted fellows and kept secret from the public. The reason for not revealing it to everyone is partially discussed in Phaedrus (276 c) where Plato criticizes the written transmission of knowledge as faulty, favoring instead the spoken logos: "he who has knowledge of the just and the good and beautiful ... will not, when in earnest, write them in ink, sowing them through a pen with words, which cannot defend themselves by argument and cannot teach the truth effectually." The same argument is repeated in Plato's Seventh Letter (344 c): "every serious man in dealing with really serious subjects carefully avoids writing." In the same letter he writes (341 c): "I can certainly declare concerning all these writers who claim to know the subjects that I seriously study ... there does not exist, nor will there ever exist, any treatise of mine dealing therewith." Such secrecy is necessary in order not "to expose them to unseemly and degrading treatment" (344 d). It is however said that Plato once disclosed this knowledge to the public in his lecture On the Good ( ), in which the Good ( ) is identified with the One (the Unity, ), the fundamental ontological principle. The content of this lecture has been transmitted by several witnesses, among others Aristoxenus who describes the event in the following words: "Each came expecting to learn something about the things that are generally considered good for men, such as wealth, good health, physical strength, and altogether a kind of wonderful happiness. But when the mathematical demonstrations came, including numbers, geometrical figures and astronomy, and finally the statement Good is One seemed to them, I imagine, utterly unexpected and strange; hence some belittled the matter, while others rejected it." Simplicius quotes Alexander of Aphrodisias who states that "according to Plato, the first principles of everything, including the Forms themselves are One and Indefinite Duality ( ), which he called Large and Small ( ) ... one might also learn this from Speusippus and Xenocrates and the others who were present at Plato's lecture on the Good"
818Rodriguez- Grandjean, Pablo. Philosophy and Dialogue: Plato's Unwritten Doctrines from a Hermeneutical Point of View, Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, in Boston, Massachusetts from August 1015, 1998. 819Reale, Giovanni, and Catan, John R., A History of Ancient Philosophy, SUNY Press, 1990. ISBN 0-7914-0516-8. Cf. p.14 and onwards. 820Krmer, Hans Joachim, and Catan, John R., Plato and the Foundations of Metaphysics: A Work on the Theory of the Principles and Unwritten Doctrines of Plato with a Collection of the Fundamental Documents, (Translated by John R. Catan), SUNY Press, 1990. ISBN 0-7914-0433-1, Cf. pp.38-47

Their account is in full agreement with Aristotle's description of Plato's metaphysical doctrine. In Metaphysics he writes: "Now since the Forms are the causes of everything else, he [i.e. Plato] supposed that their elements are the elements of all things. Accordingly the material principle is the Great and Small [i.e. the Dyad], and the essence is the One ( ), since the numbers are derived from the Great and Small by participation in the One" (987 b). "From this account it is clear that he only employed two causes: that of the essence, and the material cause; for the Forms are the cause of the essence in everything else, and the One is the cause of it in the Forms. He also tells us what the material substrate is of which the Forms are predicated in the case of sensible things, and the One in that of the Forms - that it is this the duality (the Dyad, ), the Great and Small ( ). Further, he assigned to these two elements respectively the causation of good and of evil" (988 a). The most important aspect of this interpretation of Plato's metaphysics is the continuity between his teaching and the neoplatonic interpretation of Plotinus821 or Ficino822 which has been considered erroneous by many but may in fact have been directly influenced by oral transmission of Plato's doctrine. A modern scholar who recognized the importance of the unwritten doctrine of Plato was Heinrich Gomperz who described it in his speech during the 7th International Congress of Philosophy in 1930.823 All the sources related to the have been collected by Konrad Gaiser and published as Testimonia Platonica.824 These sources have subsequently been interpreted by scholars from the German Tbingen School such as Hans Joachim Krmer or Thomas A. Szlezk.825
821Plotinus describes this in the last part of his final Ennead (VI, 9) entitled On the Good, or the One ( ). Jens Halfwassen states in Der Aufstieg zum Einen (2006) that "Plotinus' ontologywhich should be called Plotinus' henology - is a rather accurate philosophical renewal and continuation of Plato's unwritten doctrine, i.e. the doctrine rediscovered by Krmer and Gaiser." 822In one of his letters (Epistolae 1612) Ficino writes: "The main goal of the divine Plato ... is to show one principle of things, which he called the One ( )", cf. Marsilio Ficino, Briefe des Mediceerkreises, Berlin, 1926, p. 147. 823H. Gomperz, Plato's System of Philosophy, in: G. Ryle (ed.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Philosophy, London 1931, pp. 426-431. Reprinted in: H. Gomperz, Philosophical Studies, Boston, 1953, pp. 119-24. 824K. Gaiser, Testimonia Platonica. Le antiche testimonianze sulle dottrine non scritte di Platone, Milan, 1998. First published as Testimonia Platonica. Quellentexte zur Schule und mndlichen Lehre Platons as an appendix to Gaiser's Platons Ungeschriebene Lehre, Stuttgart, 1963. 825For a bried description of the problem see for example K. Gaiser, Plato's enigmatic lecture "On the Good", Phronesis 25 (1980), pp. 5-37. A detailed analysis is given by Krmer in his Plato and the Foundations of Metaphysics: A Work on the Theory of the Principles and Unwritten Doctrines of Plato With a Collection of the Fundamental Documents, Albany: SUNY Press, 1990. Another good description is by Giovanni Reale: Toward a New Interpretation of Plato, Washington, D.C.: CUA Press, 1997. Reale summarizes the results of his research in A History of Ancient Philosophy: Plato and Aristotle, Albany: SUNY Press, 1990. However the most complete analysis of the consequences of such an approach is given by Thomas A. Szlezak in his fundamental Reading Plato, New York: Routledge, 1999. Another supporter of this interpretation is the german philosopher Karl Albert, cf. Griechische Religion und platonische Philosophie, Hamburg, 1980 or Einfhrung in die philosophische Mystik, Darmstadt, 1996. Hans-Georg Gadamer is also sympathetic towards it, cf. J. Grondin, Gadamer and the Tbingen School and Gadamer's 1968 article Plato's Unwritten Dialectic reprinted in his Dialogue and Dialectic. Gadamer's final position on the subject is stated in his introduction to La nuova interpretazione di

Works

Part of the series on:

The Dialogues of Plato


Early dialogues: Apology Charmides Crito Euthyphro First Alcibiades Hippias Major Hippias Minor Ion Laches Lysis Transitional & middle dialogues: Cratylus Euthydemus Gorgias Menexenus Meno Phaedo Protagoras Symposium Later middle dialogues: Republic Phaedrus Parmenides Theaetetus Late dialogues: Clitophon Timaeus Critias Sophist Statesman Philebus Laws Of doubtful authenticity: Axiochus Demodocus Epinomis Epistles Eryxias Halcyon Hipparchus Minos On Justice On Virtue Rival Lovers Second Alcibiades Sisyphus Theages

Platone. Un dialogo tra Hans-Georg Gadamer e la scuola di Tubinga, Milano 1998.

Thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters have traditionally been ascribed to Plato, though modern scholarship doubts the authenticity of at least some of these. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts. The usual system for making unique references to sections of the text by Plato derives from a 16th century edition of Plato's works by Henricus Stephanus. An overview of Plato's writings according to this system can be found in the Stephanus pagination article. One tradition regarding the arrangement of Plato's texts is according to tetralogies. This scheme is ascribed by Diogenes Laertius to an ancient scholar and court astrologer to Tiberius named Thrasyllus. In the list below, works by Plato are marked (1) if there is no consensus among scholars as to whether Plato is the author, and (2) if most scholars agree that Plato is not the author of the work. Unmarked works are assumed to have been written by Plato.826 I. Euthyphro, (The) Apology (of Socrates), Crito, Phaedo II. Cratylus, Theaetetus, Sophist, Statesman III. Parmenides, Philebus, (The) Symposium, Phaedrus IV. First Alcibiades (1), Second Alcibiades (2), Hipparchus (2), (The) (Rival) Lovers (2) V. Theages (2), Charmides, Laches, Lysis VI. Euthydemus, Protagoras, Gorgias, Meno VII. (Greater) Hippias (major) (1), (Lesser) Hippias (minor), Ion, Menexenus VIII. Clitophon (1), (The) Republic, Timaeus, Critias IX. Minos (2), (The) Laws, Epinomis (2), Epistles (1). The remaining works were transmitted under Plato's name, most of them already considered spurious in antiquity, and so were not included by Thrasyllus in his tetralogical arrangement. These works are labelled as Notheuomenoi ("spurious") or Apocrypha. Axiochus (2), Definitions (2), Demodocus (2), Epigrams (2), Eryxias (2), Halcyon (2), On Justice (2), On Virtue (2), Sisyphus (2).

Composition of the dialogues


No one knows the exact order Plato's dialogues were written in, nor the extent to which some might have been later revised and rewritten.
826The extent to which scholars consider a dialogue to be authentic is noted in John M. Cooper, ed., Complete Works, by Plato (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997), vvi.

Lewis Campbell was the first827 to make exhaustive use of stylometry to prove objectively that the Critias, Timaeus, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, and Statesman were all clustered together as a group, while the Parmenides, Phaedrus, Republic, and Theaetetus belong to a separate group, which must be earlier (given Aristotle's statement in his Politics828 that the Laws was written after the Republic; cf. Diogenes Laertius Lives 3.37). What is remarkable about Campbell's conclusions is that, in spite of all the stylometric studies that have been conducted since his time, perhaps the only chronological fact about Plato's works that can now be said to be proven by stylometry is the fact that Critias, Timaeus, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, and Statesman are the latest of Plato's dialogues, the others earlier.829 Increasingly in the most recent Plato scholarship, writers are skeptical of the notion that the order of Plato's writings can be established with any precision,830 though Plato's works are still often characterized as falling at least roughly into three groups.831 The following represents one relatively common such division.832 It should, however, be kept in mind that many of the positions in the ordering are still highly disputed, and also that the very notion that Plato's dialogues can or should be "ordered" is by no means universally accepted. Among those who classify the dialogues into periods of composition, Socrates figures in all of the "early dialogues" and they are considered the most faithful representations of the historical Socrates. They include The Apology of Socrates, Charmides, Crito, Euthyphro, Ion, Laches, Less Hippias, Lysis, Menexenus, and Protagoras (often considered one of the last of the "early dialogues"). Three dialogues are often considered "transitional" or "pre-middle": Euthydemus, Gorgias, and Meno. Whereas those classified as "early dialogues" often conclude in aporia, the socalled "middle dialogues" provide more clearly stated positive teachings that are often ascribed to Plato such as the theory of forms. These dialogues include Cratylus, Phaedo, Phaedrus, Republic, Symposium, Parmenides, and Theaetetus. Proponents of dividing the dialogues into periods often consider the Parmenides and Theaetetus to come late in this period and be transitional to the next, as they seem to treat the theory of forms critically (Parmenides) or not at all (Theaetetus).
827p. 9, John Burnet, Platonism, University of California Press 1928. 8281264b24-27 829p. xiv, J. Cooper (ed.), Plato: Complete Works, Hackett 1997. 830Richard Kraut, "Plato", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, accessed 24 June 2008; Malcolm Schofield (1998, 2002), "Plato", in E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge.com, accessed 24 June 2008; Christopher Rowe, "Interpreting Plato", in H. Benson (ed.), A Companion to Plato, Blackwell 2006. 831T. Brickhouse & N. Smith, "Plato", The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, accessed 24 June 2008. 832See W. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 4, Cambridge University Press 1975; G. Vlastos, Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher, Cambridge University Press 1991; T. Penner, "Socrates and the Early Dialogues", in R. Kraut (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, Cambridge University Press 1992; C. Kahn, Plato and the Socratic Dialogue, Cambridge University Press 1996; G. Fine, Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, Oxford University Press 1999.

The remaining dialogues are classified as "late" and are generally agreed to be difficult and challenging pieces of philosophy. This grouping is the only one proven by stylometic analysis.833 While looked to for Plato's "mature" answers to the questions posed by his earlier works, those answers are difficult to discern. Some scholars say that the theory of forms is absent from the late dialogues, its having been refuted in the Parmenides, but there isn't total consensus that the Parmenides actually refutes the theory of forms.834 The so-called "late dialogues" include Critias, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, Statesman, and Timaeus.

Narration of the dialogues


Plato never presents himself as a participant in any of the dialogues, and with the exception of the Apology, there is no suggestion that he heard any of the dialogues firsthand. Some dialogues have no narrator but have a pure "dramatic" form (examples: Meno, Gorgias, Phaedrus, Crito, Euthyphro), some dialogues are narrated by Socrates, wherein he speaks in first person (examples: Lysis, Charmides, Republic). One dialogue, Protagoras, begins in dramatic form but quickly proceeds to Socrates' narration of a conversation he had previously with the sophist for whom the dialogue is named; this narration continues uninterrupted till the dialogue's end. Two dialogues Phaedo and Symposium also begin in dramatic form but then proceed to virtually uninterrupted narration by followers of Socrates. Phaedo, an account of Socrates' final conversation and hemlock drinking, is narrated by Phaedo to Echecrates in a foreign city not long after the execution took place.835 The Symposium is narrated by Apollodorus, a Socratic disciple, apparently to Glaucon. Apollodorus assures his listener that he is recounting the story, which took place when he himself was an infant, not from his own memory, but as remembered by Aristodemus, who told him the story years ago. The Theaetetus is a peculiar case: a dialogue in dramatic form imbedded within another dialogue in dramatic form. In the beginning of the Theaetetus (142c143b), Euclides says that he compiled the conversation from notes he took based on what Socrates told him of his conversation with the title character. The rest of the Theaetetus is presented as a "book" written in dramatic form and read by one of Euclides' slaves (143c). Some scholars take this as an indication that Plato had by this date wearied of the narrated form.836 With the exception of the Theaetetus, Plato gives no explicit indication as to how these orally transmitted conversations came to be written down.

833 834Constance Chu Meinwald, Plato's Parmenides (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991). 835"The time is not long after the death of Socrates; for the Pythagoreans [Echecrates & co.] have not heard any details yet" (J. Burnet, Plato's Phaedo, Oxford 1911, p. 1. 836sect. 177, J. Burnet, Greek Philosophy, MacMillan 1950.

Trial of Socrates
The trial of Socrates is the central, unifying event of the great Platonic dialogues. Because of this, Plato's Apology is perhaps the most often read of the dialogues. In the Apology, Socrates tries to dismiss rumors that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of disbelief in the gods and corruption of the young. Socrates insists that long-standing slander will be the real cause of his demise, and says the legal charges are essentially false. Socrates famously denies being wise, and explains how his life as a philosopher was launched by the Oracle at Delphi. He says that his quest to resolve the riddle of the oracle put him at odds with his fellow man, and that this is the reason he has been mistaken for a menace to the city-state of Athens. If Plato's important dialogues do not refer to Socrates' execution explicitly, they allude to it, or use characters or themes that play a part in it. Five dialogues foreshadow the trial: In the Theaetetus (210d) and the Euthyphro (2ab) Socrates tells people that he is about to face corruption charges. In the Meno (94e95a), one of the men who brings legal charges against Socrates, Anytus, warns him about the trouble he may get into if he does not stop criticizing important people. In the Gorgias, Socrates says that his trial will be like a doctor prosecuted by a cook who asks a jury of children to choose between the doctor's bitter medicine and the cook's tasty treats (521e522a). In the Republic (7.517e), Socrates explains why an enlightened man (presumably himself) will stumble in a courtroom situation. The Apology is Socrates' defense speech, and the Crito and Phaedo take place in prison after the conviction. In the Protagoras, Socrates is a guest at the home of Callias, son of Hipponicus, a man whom Socrates disparages in the Apology as having wasted a great amount of money on sophists' fees.

Unity and diversity of the dialogues


Two other important dialogues, the Symposium and the Phaedrus, are linked to the main storyline by characters. In the Apology (19b, c), Socrates says Aristophanes slandered him in a comic play, and blames him for causing his bad reputation, and ultimately, his death. In the Symposium, the two of them are drinking together with other friends. The character Phaedrus is linked to the main story line by character (Phaedrus is also a participant in the Symposium and the Protagoras) and by theme (the philosopher as divine emissary, etc.) The Protagoras is also strongly linked to the Symposium by characters: all of the formal speakers at the Symposium (with the exception of Aristophanes) are present at the home of Callias in that dialogue. Charmides and his guardian Critias are present for the discussion in the Protagoras. Examples of characters crossing between dialogues can be further multiplied. The Protagoras contains the largest gathering of Socratic associates.

In the dialogues Plato is most celebrated and admired for, Socrates is concerned with human and political virtue, has a distinctive personality, and friends and enemies who "travel" with him from dialogue to dialogue. This is not to say that Socrates is consistent: a man who is his friend in one dialogue may be an adversary or subject of his mockery in another. For example, Socrates praises the wisdom of Euthyphro many times in the Cratylus, but makes him look like a fool in the Euthyphro. He disparages sophists generally, and Prodicus specifically in the Apology, whom he also slyly jabs in the Cratylus for charging the hefty fee of fifty drachmas for a course on language and grammar. However, Socrates tells Theaetetus in his namesake dialogue that he admires Prodicus and has directed many pupils to him. Socrates' ideas are also not consistent within or between or among dialogues.

Platonic scholarship
Plato's thought is often compared with that of his most famous student, Aristotle, whose reputation during the Western Middle Ages so completely eclipsed that of Plato that the Scholastic philosophers referred to Aristotle as "the Philosopher". However, in the Byzantine Empire, the study of Plato continued. The Medieval scholastic philosophers did not have access to the works of Plato, nor the knowledge of Greek needed to read them. Plato's original writings were essentially lost to Western civilization until they were brought from Constantinople in the century of its fall, by George Gemistos Plethon. It is believed that Plethon passed a copy of the Dialogues to Cosimo de' Medici when in 1438 the Council of Ferrara, called to unify the Greek and Latin Churches, was adjourned to Florence, where Plethon then lectured on the relation and differences of Plato and Aristotle, and fired Cosimo with his enthusiasm. Medieval scholars knew of Plato only through translations into Latin from the translations into Arabic by Persian and Arab scholars. These scholars not only translated the texts of the ancients, but expanded them by writing extensive commentaries and interpretations on Plato's and Aristotle's works (see Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Averroes). Only in the Renaissance, with the general resurgence of interest in classical civilization, did knowledge of Plato's philosophy become widespread again in the West. Many of the greatest early modern scientists and artists who broke with Scholasticism and fostered the flowering of the Renaissance, with the support of the Plato-inspired Lorenzo de Medici, saw Plato's philosophy as the basis for progress in the arts and sciences. By the 19th century, Plato's reputation was restored, and at least on par with Aristotle's.

Notable Western philosophers have continued to draw upon Plato's work since that time. Plato's influence has been especially strong in mathematics and the sciences. He helped to distinguish between pure and applied mathematics by widening the gap between "arithmetic", now called number theory and "logistic", now called arithmetic. He regarded logistic as appropriate for business men and men of war who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops," while arithmetic was appropriate for philosophers "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being."837 Plato's resurgence further inspired some of the greatest advances in logic since Aristotle, primarily through Gottlob Frege and his followers Kurt Gdel, Alonzo Church, and Alfred Tarski; the last of these summarised his approach by reversing the customary paraphrase of Aristotle's famous declaration of sedition from the Academy (Nicomachean Ethics 1096a15), from Amicus Plato sed magis amica veritas ("Plato is a friend, but truth is a greater friend") to Inimicus Plato sed magis inimica falsitas ("Plato is an enemy, but falsehood is a greater enemy"). Albert Einstein drew on Plato's understanding of an immutable reality that underlies the flux of appearances for his objections to the probabilistic picture of the physical universe propounded by Niels Bohr in his interpretation of quantum mechanics. Conversely, thinkers that diverged from ontological models and moral ideals in their own philosophy, have tended to disparage Platonism from more or less informed perspectives. Thus Friedrich Nietzsche attacked Plato's moral and political theories, Martin Heidegger argued against Plato's alleged obfuscation of Being, and Karl Popper argued in The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) that Plato's alleged proposal for a government system in the Republic was prototypically totalitarian. Leo Strauss is considered by some as the prime thinker involved in the recovery of Platonic thought in its more political, and less metaphysical, form. Deeply influenced by Nietzsche and Heidegger, Strauss nonetheless rejects their condemnation of Plato and looks to the dialogues for a solution to what all three thinkers acknowledge as 'the crisis of the West.'

Text history
The oldest surviving manuscript for about half of Plato's dialogues is the Clarke Plato (MS. E. D. Clarke 39), which was written in Constantinople in 895 and acquired by Oxford University in 1809.838

837Boyer, Carl B. (1991). "The age of Plato and Aristotle". A History of Mathematics (Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 86. ISBN 0471543977. "Plato is important in the history of mathematics largely for his role as inspirer and director of others, and perhaps to him is due the sharp distinction in ancient Greece between arithmetic (in the sense of the theory of numbers) and logistic (the technique of computation). Plato regarded logistic as appropriate for the businessman and for the man of war, who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops." The philosopher, on the other hand, must be an arithmetician "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being."" 838Manuscripts - Philosophy Faculty Library

Criticism
Carl Sagan said of Plato: "Science and mathematics were to be removed from the hands of the merchants and the artisans. This tendency found its most effective advocate in a follower of Pythagoras named Plato." and: "He (Plato) believed that ideas were far more real than the natural world. He advised the astronomers not to waste their time observing the stars and planets. It was better, he believed, just to think about them. Plato expressed hostility to observation and experiment. He taught contempt for the real world and disdain for the practical application of scientific knowledge. Plato's followers succeeded in extinguishing the light of science and experiment that had been kindled by Democritus and the other Ionians."839840

Notes
a. The grammarian Apollodorus argues in his Chronicles that Plato was born in the first year of the eighty-eighth Olympiad (427 BC), on the seventh day of the month Thargelion; according to this tradition the god Apollo was born this day.841 According to another biographer of him, Neanthes, Plato was eighty-four years of age at his death.842 If we accept Neanthes' version, Plato was younger than Isocrates by six years, and therefore he was born in the second year of the 87th Olympiad, the year Pericles died (429 BC).843 According to the Suda, Plato was born in Aegina in the 88th Olympiad amid the preliminaries of the Peloponnesian war, and he lived 82 years.844 Sir Thomas Browne also believes that Plato was born in the 88th Olympiad.845 Renaissance Platonists celebrated Plato's birth on November 7.846 Wilamowitz-Moellendorff estimates that Plato was born when Diotimos was archon eponymous, namely between July 29 428 BC and July 24 427 BC.847 Greek philologist Ioannis Kalitsounakis believes that the philosopher was born on May 26 or 27 427 BC, while Jonathan Barnes regards 428 BC as year of Plato's birth.848 For her part, Debra Nails asserts that the philosopher was born in 424/423 BC.849

839Cosmos, "The Backbone of Night", episode 7 840http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NQg6W4SUaM&feature=player_embedded#! 841Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, II 842 843F.W. Nietzsche, Werke, 32 844"Plato". Suda. 845T. Browne, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, XII 846D. Nails, The Life of Plato of Athens, 1 847U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Plato, 46 848"Plato". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2002. | birth_place = *"Plato". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios Volume V (in Greek). 1952. 849

b. Diogenes Laertius mentions that Plato "was born, according to some writers, in Aegina in the house of Phidiades the son of Thales". Diogenes mentions as one of his sources the Universal History of Favorinus. According to Favorinus, Ariston, Plato's family, and his family were sent by Athens to settle as cleruchs (colonists retaining their Athenian citizenship), on the island of Aegina, from which they were expelled by the Spartans after Plato's birth there.850 Nails points out, however, that there is no record of any Spartan expulsion of Athenians from Aegina between 431-411 BC.851 On the other hand, at the Peace of Nicias, Aegina was silently left under Athens' control, and it was not until the summer of 411 that the Spartans overran the island.852 Therefore, Nails concludes that "perhaps Ariston was a cleruch, perhaps he went to Aegina in 431, and perhaps Plato was born on Aegina, but none of this enables a precise dating of Ariston's death (or Plato's birth).853 Aegina is regarded as Plato's place of birth by Suda as well.854 c. Plato was a common name, of which 31 instances are known at Athens alone.855

References
Primary sources (Greek and Roman)
Apuleius, De Dogmate Platonis, I. See original text in Latin Library. Aristophanes, The Wasps. See original text in Perseus program. Aristotle, Metaphysics. See original text in Perseus program. Cicero, De Divinatione, I. See original text in Latin library. Diogenes Lartius, Life of Plato, translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925). Plato: Charmides on Wikisource. See original text in Perseus program. Plato: Gorgias on Wikisource. See original text in Perseus program.

Plato, Parmenides. See original text in Perseus program. Plato: The Republic on Wikisource. See original text in Perseus program.

850Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato, III 851D. Nails, "Ariston", 54 852Thucydides, 5.18 | birth_place = * Thucydides, 8.92 853 854 855W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, IV, 10 * L. Tarn, Plato's Alleged Epitaph, 61

Plutarch, Pericles. See original text in Perseus program. Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War on Wikisource, V, VIII. See

original text in Perseus program. Xenophon, Memorabilia. See original text in Perseus program.

Secondary sources
Browne, Sir Thomas (1646-1672). Pseudodoxia Epidemica. Guthrie, W.K.C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy: Volume 4, Plato: The Man and His Dialogues: Earlier Period. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52131101-2. Kahn, Charles H. (2004). "The Framework". Plato and the socratic dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-64830-0. Nails, Debra (2006). "The Life of Plato of Athens". A Companion to Plato edited by Hugh H. Benson. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-405-11521-1. Nails, Debra (2002). "Ariston/Perictione". The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-872-20564-9. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1967). "Vorlesungsaufzeichnungen". Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe (in German). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-110-13912-X. Notopoulos, A. (April 1939). "The Name of Plato". Classical Philology (The University of Chicago Press) 34 (2): 135145. doi:10.1086/362227. "Plato". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2002. "Plato". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios Volume XVI (in Greek). 1952. " Plato". Suda. 10th century. Smith, William (1870). "Plato". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Tarn, Leonardo (2001). Collected Papers 1962-1999. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9-004-12304-0.. Taylor, Alfred Edward (2001). Plato: The Man and his Work. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41605-4. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von (2005 (first edition 1917)). Plato: his Life and Work (translated in Greek by Xenophon Armyros. Kaktos. ISBN 960-382-6642.

Further reading
Allen, R. E. (2006). Studies in Plato's Metaphysics II. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-18-6 Ambuel, David (2006). Image and Paradigm in Plato's Sophist. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-004-9 Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 Barrow, Robin (2007). Plato: Continuum Library of Educational Thought. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-8408-5. Cadame, Claude (1999). Indigenous and Modern Perspectives on Tribal Initiation Rites: Education According to Plato, pp. 278312, in Padilla, Mark William (editor), "Rites of Passage in Ancient Greece: Literature, Religion, Society", Bucknell University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8387-5418-X Cooper, John M. & Hutchinson, D. S. (Eds.) (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-87220-349-2. Corlett, J. Angelo (2005). Interpreting Plato's Dialogues. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-02-5 Durant, Will (1926). The Story of Philosophy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-67169500-2. Derrida, Jacques (1972). La dissmination, Paris: Seuil. (esp. cap.: La Pharmacie de Platon, 69-199) ISBN 2-02-001958-2 Field, G.C. (Guy Cromwell) (1969). The Philosophy of Plato (2nd ed. with an appendix by R. C. Cross. ed.). London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198880405. Fine, Gail (2000). Plato 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0-19-875206-7 Garvey, James (2006,). Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books. Continuum. ISBN 0826490530. Guthrie, W. K. C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy (Plato - The Man & His Dialogues - Earlier Period), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31101-2 Guthrie, W. K. C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy (Later Plato & the Academy) Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-31102-0 Havelock, Eric (2005). Preface to Plato (History of the Greek Mind), Belknap Press, ISBN 0-674-69906-8 Hamilton, Edith & Cairns, Huntington (Eds.) (1961). The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters. Princeton Univ. Press. ISBN 0-691-09718-6. Irwin, Terence (1995). Plato's Ethics, Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0-19508645-7

Jackson, Roy (2001). Plato: A Beginner's Guide. London: Hoder & Stroughton. ISBN 0-340-80385-1. Kochin, Michael S. (2002). Gender and Rhetoric in Platos Political Thought. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-80852-9. Kraut, Richard (Ed.) (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43610-9. Krmer, Hans Joachim (1990). Plato and the Foundations of Metaphysics. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-791-40433-1. Lilar, Suzanne (1954), Journal de l'analogiste, Paris, ditions Julliard; Reedited 1979, Paris, Grasset. Foreword by Julien Gracq Lilar, Suzanne (1963), Le couple, Paris, Grasset. Translated as Aspects of Love in Western Society in 1965, with a foreword by Jonathan Griffin London, Thames and Hudson. Lilar, Suzanne (1967) A propos de Sartre et de l'amour , Paris, Grasset. Lundberg, Phillip (2005). Tallyho - The Hunt for Virtue: Beauty,Truth and Goodness Nine Dialogues by Plato: Pheadrus, Lysis, Protagoras, Charmides, Parmenides, Gorgias, Theaetetus, Meno & Sophist. Authorhouse. ISBN 1-41844977-6. Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-19-517510-7. Meinwald, Constance Chu (1991). Plato's Parmenides. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506445-3. Miller, Mitchell (2004). The Philosopher in Plato's Statesman. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-16-2 Mohr, Richard D. (2006). God and Forms in Plato - and other Essays in Plato's Metaphysics. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-01-8 Moore, Edward (2007). Plato. Philosophy Insights Series. Tirril, HumanitiesEbooks. ISBN 978-1-84760-047-9 Nightingale, Andrea Wilson. (1995). "Genres in Dialogue: Plato and the Construct of Philosophy", Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48264-X Reale, Giovanni (1990). A History of Ancient Philosophy: Plato and Aristotle. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-791-40516-8. Reale, Giovanni (1997). Toward a New Interpretation of Plato. CUA Press. ISBN 0-813-20847-5. Sallis, John (1996). Being and Logos: Reading the Platonic Dialogues. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21071-2. Sallis, John (1999). Chorology: On Beginning in Plato's "Timaeus". Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21308-8. Sayre, Kenneth M. (2006). Plato's Late Ontology: A Riddle Resolved. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-09-4

Seung, T. K. (1996). Plato Rediscovered: Human Value and Social Order. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8112-2 Szlezak, Thomas A. (1999). Reading Plato. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18984-5. Taylor, A. E. (2001). Plato: The Man and His Work, Dover Publications, ISBN 0486-41605-4 Vlastos, Gregory (1981). Platonic Studies, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691-10021-7 Vlastos, Gregory (2006). Plato's Universe - with a new Introducution by Luc Brisson, Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-13-1 Zuckert, Catherine (2009). Plato's Philosophers: The Coherence of the Dialogues, The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-99335-5 Oxford University Press publishes scholarly editions of Plato's Greek texts in the Oxford Classical Texts series, and some translations in the Clarendon Plato Series. Harvard University Press publishes the hardbound series Loeb Classical Library, containing Plato's works in Greek, with English translations on facing pages. Thomas Taylor has translated Plato's complete works. Smith, William. (1867 original). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. University of Michigan/Online version. Aspects of antiquity: Discoveries and Controversies by M.I. Finley, issued 1969 by The Viking Press, Inc. Interpreting Plato: The Dialogues as Drama by James A. Arieti, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-8476-7662-5

External links
Works available on-line: 1. Works by Plato at Perseus Project - Greek & English hyperlinked text 2. Works of Plato (Jowett, 1892) 3. Works by Plato at Project Gutenberg 1. Spurious and doubtful works at Project Gutenberg 4. Plato complete works, annotated and searchable, at ELPENOR 5. Euthyphro LibriVox recording 6. Ion LibriVox recording 7. The Apology of Socrates (Greek), LibriVox recording

8. Quick Links to Plato's Dialogues (English, Greek, French, Spanish) 9. The Dialogues of Plato -5 vols (mp3) tr. by B. Jowett at archive.org Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: 1. Plato 2. Plato's Ethics 3. Friendship and Eros 4. Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology 5. Plato on Utopia 6. Rhetoric and Poetry Other Articles: 1. Excerpt from W.K.C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. IV, Plato: the man and his dialogues, earlier period, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 8-38 2. Website on Plato and his works: Plato and his dialogues by Bernard Suzanne 3. Reflections on Reality and its Reflection: comparison of Plato and Bergson; do forms exist? 4. "Plato and Totalitarianism: A Documentary Study" 5. "Plato and Platonism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. Online library "Vox Philosophiae" Comprehensive Research Materials: 1. Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues 2. Works by or about Plato in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Other sources: Interview with Mario Vegetti on Plato's political thought. The interview, available in full on video, both in Italian and English, is included in the series Multi-Media Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.