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Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Akio YAMAMOTO

1, +

, Masato TABUCHI

1,f

, Naoki SUGIMURA

2

,

Tadashi USHIO

2

and Masaaki MORI

2

1

Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan

2

Nuclear Engineering, Ltd., 1-3-7 Tosabori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0001, Japan

(Received September 1, 2006 and accepted in revised form November 30, 2006)

In this paper, dedicated polar angle quadrature sets for the method of characteristics (MOC) are developed, based

on the equivalence between MOC and the collision probability method. The discretization error of polar angle in MOC

can be considered as an approximation error of the Bickley function used in the collision probability method; the Bick-

ley function is numerically integrated in MOC using a quadrature set for polar direction (i.e., a set of polar angles and

weights). Therefore, by choosing an appropriate quadrature set, the approximation error of the Bickley function which

appears in MOC can be reduced, thus the calculation accuracy of MOC increases. Quadrature sets from one to three

polar angle divisions are derived by minimizing the maximum approximation error of the Bickley function. The newly

derived polar angle quadrature set (Tabuchi-Yamamoto or the TY quadrature set) is tested in the C5G7 and 4-loop

PWR whole core problems and its accuracy is compared with other quadrature sets, e.g., Gauss-Legendre. The cal-

culation results indicate that the TY quadrature set that is newly developed in the present paper provides better accu-

racy than the other methods. Since the number of polar angle divisions is proportional to computation time of MOC,

utilization of the TY quadrature set will be computationally ecient.

KEYWORDS: method of characteristics, collision probability method, Bickley function, quadrature set, polar

direction, C5G7, PWR

I. Introduction

The method of characteristics (MOC) has been widely ap-

plied to lattice physics calculations in industrial areas.

111)

Though MOC can appropriately handle complicated hetero-

geneous geometry of fuel assemblies and can provide accu-

rate angular ux distributions for a given cross section set,

detail spatial and angular discretizations are necessary to

obtain a converged (accurate) solution. Thus requirement

for computational resources (e.g., computation time and

memory storages) of MOC is generally larger than that of

other transport methods. Since computation time is crucial

in production in-core fuel management calculations, reduc-

tion of computation time for MOC is important.

In general, if performances of discretization parameters

(e.g., accuracy obtained by an angular quadrature set) are in-

creased, the coarser parameters can be used while keeping

the same calculation accuracy.

12)

Utilization of the coarser

discretization parameters can contribute to reduce computa-

tion time of MOC.

The present paper is devoted to develop angular quadra-

ture sets (i.e., sets of angles and weights) for polar direction

that are utilized in MOC. There are two common quadrature

sets for discretization of polar angle of MOC, i.e., the Gauss-

Legendre (GL) and the Leonards optimum (LO).

13)

The GL

quadrature set is commonly used in numerical integration

and has good accuracy when integrand is a smooth function.

Since the distribution of angular ux for polar direction is

smoother than that for azimuthal direction, application of

the GL quadrature set is reasonable. The second one, i.e.,

the LO quadrature set, is a dedicated angles and weights

set for polar direction of MOC. The LO quadrature set is

widely used in common MOC codes and shows good accu-

racy.

8,13)

However, the authors recent practice suggests

that the LO quadrature set shows considerable discretization

errors in some calculation congurations. The above obser-

vation is our motivation to develop a new quadrature set

for polar direction. The LO quadrature set is derived based

on the equivalence between the collision probability method

and MOC, i.e., it is generated by reducing dierence

between the collision probability method and MOC by

choosing an appropriate quadrature set for polar angle.

Though our approach is similar with that of Leonards,

derivation strategy of the quadrature set is dierent.

In Chap. II, a discretization error of polar angle in MOC is

estimated by comparison between the collision probability

method and MOC. This discussion shows that a discretiza-

tion error of polar angle in MOC is considered as an approx-

imation error of the Bickley function. Therefore, the polar

angle quadrature set is derived to minimize the approxima-

tion error for the Bickley function in MOC. Dierence be-

tween the Leonards and our approaches to obtain the quad-

rature set is also discussed in detail. In Chap. III, two test

problems are analyzed to conrm validity of the newly de-

rived quadrature set for polar angle. The calculation results

indicate that the discretization error of the newly derived

Atomic Energy Society of Japan

+

Corresponding author,

E-mail: a-yamamoto@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp

f

Present address: Nuclear Engineering, Ltd., 1-3-7 Tosabori,

Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0001, Japan

Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 44, No. 2, p. 129136 (2007)

129

ARTICLE

quadrature set is smaller than those of the other quadrature

sets, e.g., the Gauss-Legendre or the Leonards optimum. Fi-

nally, concluding remarks are shown in Chap. IV.

II. Optimum Polar Angle Quadrature Set

1. Estimation of Discretization Error for Polar An-

gle

1315)

In order to evaluate a discretization error of MOC for po-

lar angle, the collision probability from region i to j is eval-

uated by MOC. Let us consider a narrow strip in Fig. 1,

which passes through both regions i and j. The average an-

gular ux of region j on the strip is expressed as follows:

1,2)

"

j,m

=

Q

j,m

t, j

sin

m

t, j

j

_

in

j,m

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

Q

j,m

t, j

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

_

, (1)

where,

"

j,m

: the average angular ux of region j, the m-th polar di-

rection,

Q

j,m

: the neutron source of region j, the m-th polar direc-

tion,

t, j

: the total cross section of region j,

j

: the length of strip (distance between intersects of strip

and region boundaries) in region j,

m

: the m-th polar direction measured from z-axis,

in

j,m

: the in-coming angular ux into region j, the m-th polar

direction,

t

j

: the optical length of region j along the strip, which is

given by t

j

=

t, j

j

.

Equation (1) can be re-written as follows;

"

j,m

=

sin

m

t, j

in

j,m

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

C

j,m

, (2)

where, C

j,m

is a summation of independent terms from

in

j,m

and given as follows:

C

j,m

=

Q

j,m

t, j

sin

m

t, j

j

Q

j,m

t, j

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

. (3)

The neutron source in region i (Q

i,m

) contributes to

"

j,m

through

in

j,m

. Therefore, C

j,m

is also independent from Q

i,m

.

By substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (2), we can obtain

Eq. (5):

in

j,m

=

out

j1,m

=

in

j1,m

exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _

Q

j1,m

t, j1

1 exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _ _ _

, (4)

"

j,m

=

sin

m

t, j

j

_

in

j1,m

exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _

Q

j1,m

t, j1

1 exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _ _ _

_

(5)

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

C

j,m

.

Here we assume i - j. Equation (5) can be re-written as

follows:

"

j,m

=

sin

m

t, j

in

j1,m

exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

C

j1,m

C

j,m

, (6)

where, C

j1,m

is a summation of independent terms from

in

j1,m

and given as follows:

C

j1,m

=

sin

m

t, j

j

Q

j1,m

t, j1

1 exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _ _ _

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

. (7)

By repeating the above formulation,

"

j,m

can be expressed

as follows:

"

j,m

=

sin

m

t, j

j

_

in

i,m

exp

t

i

sin

m

_ _

Q

i,m

t,i

1 exp

t

i

sin

m

_ _ _ _

_

exp

t

i1

sin

m

_ _

exp

t

i2

sin

m

_ _

exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

C

i1,m

C

i2,m

C

j1,m

C

j,m

=

sin

m

t, j

j

Q

i,m

t,i

1 exp

t

i

sin

m

_ _ _ _

exp

t

i1

sin

m

_ _

exp

t

i2

sin

m

_ _

exp

t

j1

sin

m

_ _

1 exp

t

j

sin

m

_ _ _ _

j

k=i

C

k,m

.

(8)

Note that C

i,m

is independent from Q

i,m

and given as fol-

lows:

C

i,m

=

sin

m

t, j

in

i,m

exp

t

i

sin

m

_ _

. (9)

Equation (8) can be reduced to the following form:

region i

region j

i

j

Fig. 1 Geometry of collision probability estimation

130 A. YAMAMOTO et al.

JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

"

j,m

=

sin

m

t, j

j

Q

i,m

t,i

exp

j1

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j1

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

_

_

_

j

k=i

C

k,m

. (10)

Part of the total (scalar) ux in region j, which is generated by the neutron source in region i, is expressed as follows:

"

ij

=

m

o

m

sin

m

t, j

j

Q

i,m

t,i

exp

j1

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j1

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

_

_

_

_

, (11)

where,

"

ij

: part of scalar ux in region j, which is generated by the neutron source in region i,

o

m

: the weight for the m-th polar direction and whose summation is 1.

Now we remind the neutron balance on the strip based on the collision probability method:

P

ij

m

Q

i,m

i

=

t, j

"

ij

j

, (12)

where,

P

ij

: collision probability from region i to j.

By substituting Eq. (11) into Eq. (12) and assuming an isotropic neutron source, we can obtain the following equation:

2P

ij

Q

i

i

=

Q

i

t,i

m

o

m

sin

m

exp

j1

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j1

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

_

_

_

_

. (13)

where,

Q

i

: the neutron source in region i and Q

i

=

m

o

m

Q

i,m

= Q

i,m

m

o

m

= Q

i,m

under the assumption of an isotropic neutron

source.

Note that symmetry on polar direction is assumed in Eq. (13), i.e., a summation on m is carried out in upper hemisphere.

So the coecient appeared in the left hand side of Eq. (13) is 2 instead of 4 which appears in an assumption of an isotropic

neutron source.

Finally, estimation of the collision probability from region i to j is given by Eq. (14) based on MOC.

P

ij

=

1

2

t,i

m

o

m

sin

m

exp

j1

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j1

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i1

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

exp

j

k=i

t

k

_

sin

m

_ _

_

_

_

_

. (14)

Equation (14) can be re-written as follows:

P

ij

=

1

2

t,i

i

Ki

A3

j1

k=i1

t

k

_ _

Ki

A3

j1

k=i

t

k

_ _

Ki

A3

j

k=i1

t

k

_ _

Ki

A3

j

k=i

t

k

_ _

_

_

_

_

, (15)

where,

Ki

An

(x)

m=1

o

m

sin

n2

m

exp

x

sin

m

_ _

, (16)

and

N

Equation (15) will be compared with that obtained by the

collision probability method. In the collision probability

method, the collision probability from region i to j is given

as follows.

16)

P

ij

=

1

2

t,i

V

i

Ki

3

j1

k=i1

t

k

_ _

Ki

3

j1

k=i

t

k

_ _

Ki

3

j

k=i1

t

k

_ _

Ki

3

j

k=i

t

k

_ _

_

_

_

_

, (17)

where, Ki

n

(x) is the Bickley function given by the following

relation,

Ki

n

(x) =

_

,2

0

d sin

n1

exp

x

sin

_ _

. (18)

Comparison of Eqs. (15) and (17) claries the source of

discretization error of MOC in polar direction; in MOC,

Derivation of Optimum Polar Angle Quadrature Set for the Method of Characteristics 131

VOL. 44, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007

Eq. (16) is used as an approximation of the Bickley function,

which is given by Eq. (18). In other words, Eq. (16) is a dis-

cretized integration form of the Bickley function. When the

number of polar angle divisions is large enough, the value of

Eq. (16) is close to that of Eq. (18). In such a case, MOC and

the collision probability method is considered to be equiva-

lent.

The above discussion is used in the derivation of optimum

polar angle quadrature sets for MOC.

2. Derivation of Optimum Polar Angle Quadrature Set

The discussion in the previous section reveals that the dis-

cretization error for polar angle in MOC is expressed by the

dierence between MOC and the collision probability meth-

od under the assumption of an isotropic neutron source.

Here, we dene a function Ki

En

(x), which represents dis-

cretization error of the Bickley function:

Ki

En

(x) = Ki

n

(x) Ki

An

(x). (19)

By subtracting Eq. (15) from Eq. (17), we can obtain the

following formula that is proportional to the discretization

error of MOC for polar angle.

E

ij

= Ki

E3

j1

k=i1

t

k

_ _

Ki

E3

j1

k=i

t

k

_ _

Ki

E3

j

k=i1

t

k

_ _

Ki

E3

j

k=i

t

k

_ _

, (20)

where, E

ij

is the function of angles (

m

) and weights (o

m

) in

Ki

An

(x).

Therefore, when the dierence between Eqs. (16) and

(18) is reduced by a appropriate set of angles (

m

) and

weights (o

m

), the discretization error of MOC will be small.

The GL quadrature set is commonly used in numerical in-

tegration since it gives an accurate result for a smooth func-

tion. Actually, the N-th order GL quadrature set gives an ex-

act result up to polynomials of order 2N-1. Since behavior of

the Bickley function is fairly smooth, application of the GL

quadrature set generally gives favorable results for MOC.

The LO quadrature set was derived based on the equiva-

lence between the collision probability and MOC and uti-

lizes the following relation:

[E

ij

[ _ 2E

2 max

, (21)

where,

E

n max

max

x

[Ki

En

(x)[.

We can minimize the value of E

2 max

by choosing an ap-

propriate set of angles and weights which appear in Eq. (16).

The LO quadrature set is obtained through this procedure.

13)

The meaning of the relation (21) could be supposed as fol-

lows. From Eqs. (16) and (18), it is obvious that Ki

E2

(x) is

obtained through dierentiation of Ki

E3

(x). Therefore, when

the value of Ki

E2

(x) is suppressed to minimum, variation of

Ki

E3

(x) becomes small, i.e., Ki

E3

(x) may behave as a con-

stant. In such a condition, cancellation of the each term in

Eq. (20) may be expected. Consequently, the value of E

ij

would become small.

The LO quadrature set usually gives sucient accuracy

for cell or assembly calculations with the reective boundary

condition. However, practices on the LO quadrature set sug-

gest that accuracy of the LO quadrature set decreases in

some calculation cases as will be shown in the next section.

The basic optimization strategy used in the present study

is similar to the Leonards one, i.e., minimize the value of

E

ij

. However, the approach to achieve the goal is dierent.

In the present study, the absolute value of each term in

Eq. (20) is directly suppressed to minimum. In other words,

we improve accuracy of Ki

A3

(x) function of Eq. (16) by

choosing an appropriate set of polar angles and weights. In

concrete, we minimize the value of E

3 max

rather than

E

2 max

in the Leonards approach. Possibility of our approach

is briey suggested in Ref. 13), but no result is given. The

similar approach has been studied in Ref. 14), in which inte-

gral of [Ki

E3

(x)]

2

is minimized. Unfortunately, since the de-

rived quadrature set is not described in Ref. 14), detail com-

parison with our approach would be dicult.

In the following sections, the polar angle quadrature set

generated by the present approach (i.e., by minimizing

E

3 max

) will be called as the Tabuchi and Yamamotos opti-

mum quadrature set or the TY quadrature set.

3. Results

E

3 max

is a complicated non-linear function of polar angles

(

m

) and weights (o

m

) which appear in Eq. (16). Therefore,

an optimization of angles and weights is carried out by the

steepest descend search starting from adequate initial guess.

Evaluation results for one to three polar angle divisions are

shown in Table 1. Note that the LO quadrature sets for

one and three polar angle divisions in Table 1 are derived

by the authors by minimizing E

2 max

.

Figures 2 to 4 depict behavior of Ki

E3

(x) function with

one, two and three polar angle divisions, respectively.

Figures 2 to 4 contain results with the various quadrature

sets as follows:

UD: Uniform distributed angles and weights, which utilize

equally divided polar angles and its associated weights

GL: Gauss-Legendre

LO: Leonards optimum

TY: Tabuchi and Yamamotos optimum

From Figs. 2 to 4, we can see that the TY quadrature set

gives the smallest value of E

3 max

. Maximum absolute values

of Ki

E3

(x) (i.e., E

3 max

) obtained by the GL and LO quadra-

ture sets are similar, but behavior of Ki

E3

(x) with the LO

quadrature set is much more moderate than that with the

GL quadrature set. Since the LO quadrature set is obtained

by minimizing the variation of Ki

E3

(x), the above results

are reasonable. The UD quadrature set gives the worst re-

sults. This deviation supports the fact that ne polar angle di-

vision is necessary to obtain accurate results with the UD

quadrature set.

17)

The weights and angles of the GL quadra-

ture set are determined to give accurate integration result for

polynomials. Contrary, the TY and LO quadrature sets are

evaluated to reproduce the original Bickley function as accu-

rate as possible, i.e., the TY and LO quadrature sets are the

dedicated ones for the Bickley function. Since the behavior

of the Bickley function cannot be accurately captured by

132 A. YAMAMOTO et al.

JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

the low-order polynomials, the TY and LO quadrature sets

give better accuracy than GL. In other words, since the

weights and angles of the GL quadrature set are dedicated

one for polynomials, freedom in the TY and LO quadrature

sets to reproduce the original Bickley function is larger than

that of GL. This would be another reason for the better per-

formance of the TY and LO quadrature sets.

We can also observe the eect of the number of polar an-

gle divisions on calculation accuracy from Figs. 2 to 4. Ac-

tually, scale of vertical axes in Figs. 2 to 4 is ten times dif-

ferent in each gure. In other words, the discretization error

of polar angle can be reduced approximately by a factor of

ten by increasing the number of polar angle divisions by one.

Figures 2 to 4 also suggest that accuracy of the quadrature

sets may depend on the optical length of a spatial mesh since

accuracy of the approximated Bickley function varies as the

optical length. Therefore, in the next section, various spatial

mesh sizes are tested to conrm the validity of the newly de-

rived quadrature set.

III. Verication Calculations

The discussion in the previous section suggests that calcu-

lation accuracy with the TY quadrature set would be high

since the approximation error of Ki

3

(x) function is small.

In the present section, accuracy of MOC results with the

TY quadrature set will be veried through numerical bench-

mark calculations in two dimensional geometry with isotrop-

ic scattering.

1. C5G7 Benchmark Problem

The C5G7 benchmark problem is analyzed to verify the

eect of polar angle quadrature set.

18)

The C5G7 benchmark

problem consists of two UO

2

and two MOX PWR fuel as-

semblies with water reector as shown in Fig. 5. The cell

pitch is 1.26 cm. The pellet, gap and cladding inside a fuel

rod are homogenized and outer radius of fuel rod is

-1.0E-02

-5.0E-03

0.0E+00

5.0E-03

1.0E-02

0 5

x[-]

K

i

E

3

(

x

)

UD

GL

TY

LO

4 3 2 1

Fig. 3 Behavior of Ki

E3

(x) with two polar angle divisions

-1.0E-01

-5.0E-02

0.0E+00

5.0E-02

1.0E-01

0

x[-]

K

i

E

3

(

x

)

UD

GL

TY

LO

5 4 3 2 1

Fig. 2 Behavior of Ki

E3

(x) with one polar angle division

-1.0E-03

-5.0E-04

0.0E+00

5.0E-04

1.0E-03

0 2 3 4 5

x[-]

K

i

E

3

(

x

)

UD

GL

TY

LO

1

Fig. 4 Behavior of Ki

E3

(x) with three polar angle divisions

Table 1 Polar angle quadrature set for MOC

Number of

Leonard (LO) Tabuchi and Yamamoto (TY)

polar divisions

sin

a)

o sin o

1 0.752244 1.000000 0.798184 1.000000

2

0.273658

b)

0.139473 0.363900

c)

0.212854

0.865714 0.860527 0.899900 0.787146

0.103840 0.020530 0.166648 0.046233

3 0.430723 0.219161 0.537707 0.283619

0.905435 0.760309 0.932954 0.670148

a)

Angle () is measured from z-axis.

b)

Taken from Ref. 13).

c)

Slightly dierent from Ref. 15) since the multi-stage Monte-Carlo optimization

19)

was used in Ref. 15).

Derivation of Optimum Polar Angle Quadrature Set for the Method of Characteristics 133

VOL. 44, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007

0.54 cm. Note that water reector consists of ve dummy as-

semblies, whose cell pitch is also 1.26 cm. The present

benchmark problem is suitable for evaluation of heterogene-

ous transport solver since heterogeneity from the viewpoint

of neutronics property is large. Note that two-dimensional

conguration is analyzed in this paper.

The calculation was carried out by the AEGIS code,

which is a lattice physics code based on MOC.

11)

The cross

section set of seven energy groups given in the C5G7 bench-

mark was used in the calculations. The number of azimuthal

divisions is 64 and width of ray trace is set to be less than

0.05 cm using the material region macroband method.

12)

In

order to investigate accuracy of the quadrature sets for var-

ious spatial mesh sizes, three types of mesh divisions are

tested, i.e., fuel and reector cells are sub-divided into 20

20, 5 5 and 2 2 orthogonal (XY) background meshes.

The number of polar angles is set to be two or three using

the four dierent quadrature sets, i.e., the uniform distribut-

ed angle (UD), the Gauss-Legendre (GL), the Leonards op-

timum (LO) and the Tabuchi and Yamamotos optimum

(TY). Note that one polar angle division is not tested since

it gives a larger error that is not suitable for practical calcu-

lations.

The reference result is obtained by the ne (16) polar

angle divisions with the GL quadrature set. The dierence

of k-eective, root mean square (RMS) dierence and max-

imum dierence of pin-by-pin ssion rate distribution are

evaluated through comparison with the reference result.

Note that convergence behavior, i.e., the number of transport

sweeps to reach convergence, is almost the same among the

various quadrature set.

Summaries of dierences are shown in Tables 2 to 7.

These tables indicate that the TY quadrature set gives the

most accurate result among the various quadrature sets. Then

the GL quadrature set follows TY. Though the LO quadra-

ture set gives accurate results in pin-cell or assembly geom-

etry with a reective boundary condition,

8)

its performance

is not very good in the present benchmark problems. The

UD quadrature set is worst among the four methods thus it

is not recommended for MOC calculations.

Tables 2 to 7 also indicate that accuracy of the quadrature

set does not show major dependency on the spatial mesh

size. Therefore, the above discussion would be applicable

to various spatial mesh sizes.

Table 3 Summary of dierences of k-eective and pin-by-pin s-

sion rate distribution from reference results in the C5G7 bench-

mark problem (20 20 meshes/cell, 3 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Pin-by-pin ssion rate

RMS Maximum

UD 0.157% 0.583% 2.189%

GL 0.012% 0.089% 0.174%

LO 0.022% 0.086% 0.245%

TY 0.001% 0.003% 0.010%

Note: Sixteen polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Table 2 Summary of dierences of k-eective and pin-by-pin s-

sion rate distribution from reference results in the C5G7 bench-

mark problem (20 20 meshes/cell, 2 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Pin-by-pin ssion rate

RMS Maximum

UD 0.324% 1.273% 4.596%

GL 0.010% 0.178% 0.366%

LO 0.098% 0.448% 1.245%

TY 0.006% 0.077% 0.147%

Note: Sixteen polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Table 4 Summary of dierences of k-eective and pin-by-pin s-

sion rate distribution from reference results in the C5G7 bench-

mark problem (5 5 meshes/cell, 2 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Pin-by-pin ssion rate

RMS Maximum

UD 0.327% 1.263% 4.528%

GL 0.011% 0.174% 0.355%

LO 0.098% 0.444% 1.223%

TY 0.005% 0.076% 0.147%

Note: Sixteen polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Table 5 Summary of dierences of k-eective and pin-by-pin s-

sion rate distribution from reference results in the C5G7 bench-

mark problem (5 5 meshes/cell, 3 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Pin-by-pin ssion rate

RMS Maximum

UD 0.159% 0.580% 2.163%

GL 0.012% 0.087% 0.171%

LO 0.022% 0.085% 0.241%

TY 0.001% 0.003% 0.010%

Note: Sixteen polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

UO2

UO2

Reflective

MOX

Vacuum

Vacuum

Reflective

Reflector (water)

MOX

Fig. 5 Geometry of C5G7 benchmark problems

134 A. YAMAMOTO et al.

JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Some additional sensitivity calculations reveal that accu-

racy of the TY quadrature set with two polar angle division

(2TY) is almost equivalent to the GL quadrature set with

four polar divisions (4GL) and 3TY is approximately equiv-

alent to 12GL. Actually, the result with 3TY is almost equiv-

alent to the reference result. Since calculation time of MOC

is roughly proportional to the number of polar angle divi-

sions, calculation time can be reduced by using the TY quad-

rature set.

2. PWR Whole Core Problem

The second problem is a PWR whole core calculation in

two-dimensional geometry.

11)

The rst core of a latest 4-loop

PWR is modeled in this problem with explicit geometry of

fuel assembly (i.e., pellet, gap, cladding, moderator) and baf-

e-reector. The present core is characterized by the large

enrichment splitting from 2.0 wt% to 4.1 wt% and heavy

burnable poison loading. Thus heterogeneity from the view-

point of neutronics property is large like the C5G7 bench-

mark problem in the previous section. Cross section set of

16 energy groups is used in the calculation. The AEGIS code

is also used for MOC calculations. The azimuthal angle is

divided into 32 and width of ray trace is set to be less than

0.1 cm using the material region macroband.

12)

The modera-

tor region of fuel cell is annularly divided into two and azi-

muthally divided into eight background meshes. The number

of polar angles is set to be two or three using the UD, GL,

LO and TY quadrature sets. In the reference calculation,

the polar angle is divided into 12 with the GL quadrature set.

The dierence of k-eective and RMS and maximum dif-

ference of assembly-wise power distribution are summarized

in Tables 8 and 9. These tables indicate that the TY quadra-

ture set gives the most accurate result among the four meth-

ods. Then the GL quadrature set follows TY. The LO quad-

rature set is not very good especially in case of the two polar

angle divisions, which is originally developed by Leonard.

As described in Introduction, the dierence observed in

Table 8 is our primary motivation to develop a new quadra-

ture set and we believe that our goal has been achieved by

the TY quadrature set. Table 9 also indicates that the TY

quadrature set with three polar angle divisions is almost

equivalent to the reference. The whole core calculation of

LWRs is now one of the major applications of MOC.

7)

Since

LWR whole core calculation is very time consuming, appli-

cation of the TY quadrature set realizes signicant reduction

in computation time.

Note that our other test calculation results indicate that the

TY quadrature set is accurate not only for leakage congu-

rations that are treated in the present paper, but also for

non-leakage ones, e.g., pin-cell and assembly calculations.

Therefore, the TY quadrature set will be also useful for

MOC that is used in production level lattice calculations.

IV. Conclusions

In the present paper, the new quadrature set for polar an-

gle division of MOC, i.e., the Tabuchi-Yamamotos opti-

mum (TY) quadrature set, is developed and its validity is

veried through the benchmark problems.

When the number of polar angle divisions is sucient,

MOC is equivalent to the collision probability method under

the assumption of an isotropic neutron source. Based on this

Table 6 Summary of dierences of k-eective and pin-by-pin s-

sion rate distribution from reference results in the C5G7 bench-

mark problem (2 2 meshes/cell, 2 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Pin-by-pin ssion rate

RMS Maximum

UD 0.330% 1.260% 4.469%

GL 0.011% 0.163% 0.341%

LO 0.097% 0.431% 1.171%

TY 0.004% 0.074% 0.143%

Note: Sixteen polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Table 8 Summary of dierences of k-eective and assembly-

wise power distribution from reference results in the PWR whole

core problem (2 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Assembly power

RMS Maximum

UD 0.062% 3.536% 6.678%

GL 0.061% 0.088% 0.211%

LO 0.017% 0.946% 1.897%

TY 0.010% 0.018% 0.033%

Note: Twelve polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Table 7 Summary of dierences of k-eective and pin-by-pin s-

sion rate distribution from reference results in the C5G7 bench-

mark problem (2 2 meshes/cell, 3 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Pin-by-pin ssion rate

RMS Maximum

UD 0.160% 0.582% 2.141%

GL 0.011% 0.082% 0.159%

LO 0.022% 0.083% 0.230%

TY 0.001% 0.003% 0.010%

Note: Sixteen polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Table 9 Summary of dierences of k-eective and assembly-

wise power distribution from reference results in the PWR whole

core problem (3 polar divisions)

Method k-eective

Assembly power

RMS Maximum

UD 0.024% 1.729% 3.464%

GL 0.025% 0.024% 0.061%

LO 0.036% 0.037% 0.071%

TY 0.003% 0.005% 0.010%

Note: Twelve polar divisions with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set

are used for reference calculation.

Derivation of Optimum Polar Angle Quadrature Set for the Method of Characteristics 135

VOL. 44, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007

fact, the discretization error for polar angle in MOC can be

considered as an approximation error of the Bickley function

that appears in the collision probability method. The TY

quadrature set is derived to minimize the approximation er-

ror of Bickley function by choosing an appropriate set of po-

lar angles and weights. The TY quadrature set from one to

three polar angle divisions is generated through the above

strategy.

Accuracy of the TY quadrature set is veried by the C5G7

benchmark and the 4-loop PWR whole core problems. Dif-

ferences of k-eective and pin- or assembly-wise power dis-

tribution are compared with the reference results that are cal-

culated using suciently ne polar angle divisions. Two or

three polar angle divisions with various angular quadrature

sets, i.e., the uniform distributed angle (UD), the Gauss-Leg-

endre (GL), the Leonard optimum (LO) and the Tabuchi-

Yamamotos optimum (TY) are tested. The calculation re-

sults in the both benchmark problems show that accuracy

of the TY quadrature set is superior to that of other methods.

Furthermore, the TY quadrature set with three polar angle

divisions provides almost equivalent results to the refer-

ences, which are obtained by the GL quadrature set with

16 or 12 polar angle divisions.

In the present study, validity of the TY quadrature set is

veried through the problems with isotopic scattering. Since

one of the advantages of MOC is direct treatment of higher

order anisotropic scattering, verication calculations with

anisotropic scattering will be desirable in the future study.

Since calculation time of MOC is proportional to the num-

ber of polar angle divisions, utilization of the TY quadrature

set is useful from the viewpoint of computational eciency.

Utilization of the TY quadrature set in current MOC codes is

easy; just input polar angles and associated weights. There-

fore, the TY quadrature set will be a nice candidate of quad-

rature set for polar angle division of MOC.

References

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Neutron Transport Equation in Complicated Geometries,

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