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Rachel Frankenfield October 11, 2011 Test Study Guide Class Handouts and Quizlet Byzantium and Russia

The Rise of Christianity marks an important break with the dominant values of Ancient Rome. Views on God, human beings, and the world were very different than those of the Greeks and the Romans. Jesus Christ is Joshua ben Joseph, whose followers established Christianity . Monotheism is belief in a single god (one of the teachings of Jesus Christ) Judea is the land in the eastern Mediterranean region, populated by jews at the time of the Roman Empire. The Roman governer who sentenced Jesus Christs death was Pontius Pilot. The New Testament/Gospel is the second part of the bible which tells of the life and teachings of Jesus and his followers. Paul of Tarsus was a Jew from Asia Minor who played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity . Never met Jesus but once had a vision of speaking to him. The first Roman emperor to persecute Christians was Nero. The Nicene Creed is a formal creed summarizing Christian beliefs. Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire, moved capital from Italy to Byzantium, accepted Christians. The Edict of Milan was issued by Constantine in 313, ended great persecution, legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. The Fall of Rome was an event that occurred in 476 AD. Some factors were: a. Political: i. Army strangled the emperor ii. New leaders were selected based on how much money they had iii. Inferior technology b. Military: i. Pacifists made defense difficult ii. Army strangled emperor iii. Excessive $pending c. Social: i. Christianity made people pacifists, making defense fiddicult

ii. New emperors too often iii. Gladiator combats in the coloseeum iv. Lead Pipes, Alcohol use, wealthy peoples death rate increased. v. Slave Labor d. Economic: i. Lots of money used to build churches ii. Emperors wated money on parties where people got drunk and sick iii. Inflation iv. Unemployment Attempts to Reform Roman Society a. Emperor Diocletion b. Emperor Constantine c. Moving of Capital Attila the Hun was the leader of the huns. The last emperor of Western Rome was 14 yr old Romulus Augustus. Byzantium a. Bosporus Strait- great, made trading quite accessible b. Crossroad btwn Europe and Asia c. Greek Fire- substance that caused things to burst into flames d. Theme system- divided Byzantium into small sections, each section had its own ruler, allowed peasant soldiers to own a small part of the land they fought for, increased loyalty e. Emperors=Gods representatives f. Justinian was one of Byzantiums emperors i. Created Justinians Code, the body of Roman civil law ii. Reconqured terriroty previously ruled byt Rome iii. Initiated Building Program (incl Hagia Sophia, a church constructed in Constantinople) iv. Theodora, his wife, helped improve status of women in the BE and encouraged her husband to fight the Nika Revolt and stay in Constantinople. g. In 532, the Blues and Greens were unhappy with the govt so they rioted in the hippodrome, but Belsarius and his men broke in and killed 30,000 rebels. This was called the Nika Rebellion. h. Procopius, the historian of the BE, revealed the cruelty of the system in which the emperor ruled by divine providence in his Secret History. i. The Great Schism was the separation of many eastern churches from the western church, which created the religion of Roman Catholicism.

j. Roman Catholic vs. Eastern Orthodox churches

The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH did not allow marriage of priests, but allowed use of icons. They spoke Latin and the Church was separate from the state. Not tolerant of other religions.

EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS allowed marriage of priests, but did not initially allow use of icons. They spoke Greek, and the leader of the church and of the state were the same person. Tolerant of other religions.

k. Byzantium fell in 1453 when the Ottoman Turks invaded. Rome a. Rivers: Don, Volga, and Dnieper b. The Vikings/Varangians/Rus were people who were led by Rurik, the military leader of the Rus and first king of the Russians, who came to rule Kiev and Slavic Tribes along the Dnieper. c. Slavs were the groupo of people in SE Europe who were the same ethnic group as the Russians. d. Most of our information on the history of the Rus comes from the Primary Chronicles. e. Princess Olga, who ruled over Kiev, was among the first people to convert to Christianity , and went on to baptize many people. f. Vladimir, Olgas grandson, was a Russian ruler who chose Byzantine Christianity as the official religion of the Russian state. g. Boris and Gleb were mmurdered by their brother and became the first saints of the Russian Orthodox Church. h. Yaroslav the Wise was Vladimirs son who arranged political marriages, trading alliances, a legal code, and built churches and the first library. i. Cultural Diffusion is the spread of cultural elements btwn societys. j. Genghis Khan was one of the Mongols greatest leaders, founded Mongol Empire. His grandson, Batu Khan, demolished Kiev. k. The Mongols were a large collection of nomadic tribes, lived north of China. l. The Golden Horde was a Mongol Khanate founded by Genghis Khans grandson, Batu Khan. Based in S Russia, adopted Turkic language and Islam. m. Boyars were Russian Nobles n. Ivan I was made tax collector for helping put down Russian revolts against Mongols, later rules Moscow. o. Ivan III was known as Czar, and overthrew Mongols that were dominating Russia.