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THE BRAINGATE

2011

THE BRAINGATE-A BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFERENCE

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

ABSTRACT

The mind-to-movement system that allows a quadriplegic man to control a computer using only his thoughts is a scientific milestone. It was reached, in large part, through the brain gate system. This system has become a boon to the paralyzed. The Brain Gate System is based on Cyber kinetics platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The principle of operation behind the Brain Gate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs.The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate Brain Gate pathway to control a computer with thought,just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.

The 'Brain Gate' contains tiny spikes that will extend down about one millimetre into the brain after being implanted beneath the skull,monitoring the activity from a small group of neurons.It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs, as signals to an implanted sensor, which is then output as electronic impulses. These impulses enable the user to operate mechanical devices with the help of a computer cursor. Matthew Nagle,a 25-year-old Massachusetts man with a severespinal cord injury,has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001.After taking part in a clinical trial of this system,he has opened e-mail,switched TV channels, turned on lights. He even moved a robotic hand from his wheelchair. This marks the first time that neural movement signals have been recorded and decoded in a human withspinal cord injury.The system is also the first to allow a human to control his surrounding environment using his mind.

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION THE HUMAN BRAIN HOW DOES THE BRAIN CONTROL MOTOR FUNCTION? WHAT IS BRAINGATE? BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A GENERAL BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE BLOCK DIAGRAM PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION ABOUT THE BRAINGATE DEVICE IMPLANTING THE CHIP A PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE WORKING ANIMAL BCI RESEARCH CLINICAL TRIALS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

CONCLUSION REFERENCES

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

INTRODUCTION
Picture a time when humans see in the UV and IR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, or hear speech on the noisy flight deck of an aircraft carrier; or when soldiers communicate by thought alone. Imagine a time when the human brain has its own wireless modem so that instead of acting on thoughts, war fighters have thoughts that act. Imagine that one day we will be able to download vast amounts of knowledge directly to our brain! So as to cut the lengthy processes of learning everything from scratch. Instead of paying to go to university we could pay to get a "knowledge implant" and perhaps be able to obtain many lifetimes worth of knowledge and expertise in various fields at a young age. When we talk about high end computing and intelligent interfaces, we just cannot ignore robotics and artificial intelligence. In the near future, most devices would be remote/logically controlled. Researchers are close to breakthroughs in neural interfaces, meaning we could soon mesh our minds with machines. This technology has the capability to impact our lives in ways that have been previously thought possible in only sci-fi movies The concept of using thought to move a robotic device, a wheelchair, a prosthetic, or a computer was once strictly the stuff of science fiction, but no longer. BrainGate collects and analyzes the brainwaves of individuals with pronounced physical disabilities, turning thoughts into actions. The potential to better communicate, interact, and improve peoples way of life is about to explode Years of advanced research by world-renowned experts at prestigious universities including Brown, Harvard, Emory, MIT, Columbia, and the University of Utahhas resulted in the development of BrainGate, a life-changing technology and device that gives renewed hope to paraplegics, quadriplegics and others suffering from spinal cord injuries and strokes. Eventually, it has the potential to revolutionize the way all of our brains work BrainGate has been featured on broadcasts such as 60 Minutes and in publications including Popular Mechanics, Nature and Wired

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

THE HUMAN BRAIN


All of it happens in the brain. The brain is undoubtly the most complex organ found among the carbon-based life forms. So complex it is that we have only vague information about how it works. The average human brain weights around 1400 grams. The most relevant part of brain concerned is the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex can be divided into two hemispheres. The hemispheres are connected with each other via corpus callosum. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes. They are called frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. Cerebral cortex is responsible for many higher order functions like problem solving, language comprehension and processing of complex visual information. The cerebral cortex can be divided into several areas, which are responsible of different functions.

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

How does the brain control motor function?


The brain is "hardwired" with connections, which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated. The electrical patterns are called brain waves. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer, gathering and transmitting electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet. The brain encodes information not by relying on single neurons, but by spreading it across large populations of neurons, and by rapidly adapting to new circumstances . Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles, skin and glands of the body, while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system. Receptors sense things like chemicals, light, and sound and encode this information into electrochemical signals transmitted by the sensory neurons. And interneurons tie everything together by connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe. How does this communication happen? Muscles in the body's limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move. Other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement, the brain still makes neural signals. They're just not being sent to the arms, hands and legs.

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

What is a braingate?
BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the biotechcompany Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. Cyberkinetics describes that "such applications may include novel communications interfaces for motor impaired patients, as well as the monitoring and treatment of certain diseases which manifest themselves in patterns of brain activity, such as epilepsy and depression." The BrainGate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of internal and external sensors.The internal sensors detect the brain
dignal activity and external sensors digitise the dignal to feed into thecomputer.

In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy. The 'BrainGate' device can provide paralyzed or motorimpaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. The technology driving this breakthrough in the BrainMachine-Interface field has a myriad of potential applications, including the development of human augmentation for military and commercial purposes

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A GENERAL BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE

BLOCK DESCRIPTION
The BMI consists of several components: 1.the implant device, or chronic multi-electrode array, 2.the signal recording and processing section, 3.an external device the subject uses to produce and control motion and 4.a feedback section to the subject. The first component is an implanted array of microelectrodes into the frontal and parietal lobesareas of the brain involved in producing multiple output commands to control complex muscle movements. This device record action potentials of individual neurons and then represent the neural signal using a rate code .The second component consists of spike detection algorithms, neural encoding and decoding systems, data acquisition and real time processing systems etc .A high performance dsp architecture is used for this purpose. The external device that the subject uses may be a robotic arm, a wheel chair etc. depending upon the application. Feedback is an important factor in BCIs. In the BCIs based on the operant conditioning approach, feedback training is essential for the user to acquire the control of his or her EEG response. However, feedback can speed up the learning process and improve performance.

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The BrainGate System is based on Cyberkinetics' platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that analyzes brain signals. The principle of operation behind the BrainGate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate "BrainGate pathway" to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse

Dept of EC

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

ABOUT THE BRAINGATE DEVICE

The braingate pilot device consists of a Sensor of the size of a contact lens, a cable and pedestal, which connects the chip to the computer, a cart which consists the signal processing unit .

The BrainGate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of an internal neural signal sensor and external processors that convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control. The sensor consists of a tiny chip smaller than a baby aspirin, with one hundred electrode sensors each thinner than a hair that detect brain cell electrical activity. The chip is implanted on the surface of the brain in the motor cortex area that controls movement. In the pilot version of the device, a cable connects the sensor to an external signal processor in a cart that contains computers. The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software. Importantly, the entire BrainGate system was specifically designed for clinical use in humans and thus, its manufacture, assembly and testing are intended to meet human safety requirements

Dept of EC

10

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

IMPLANTING THE CHIP


There will be two surgeries, one to implant the BrainGate and one to remove it. Before surgery, there will be several precautionary measures in order to prevent infection; patients will have daily baths with antimicrobial soap and take antibiotics. In addition, MRI scans will be done to find the best place on the brain for the sensor. Under sterile conditions and general anesthesia, Doctor will drill a small hole into the skull and implant the sensor using the same methods as in the monkey studies. Patients will receive post-surgical care including a CT scan, some blood tests, and wound care in the hospital for 1 to 5 days after surgery. After surgery, one of the study doctors will see the patients at least once a week for six weeks, then monthly and as needed. A nurse will also check the patients regularly and will always carry a 24-hour pager. The skin around the pedestal will need to be carefully monitored during the study. Detailed instructions will be provided so that the patients daily care provider can help with skin care.

A PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE WORKING

Dept of EC

11

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

Dept of EC

12

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

Dept of EC

13

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

ANIMAL BCI RESEARCH

Several laboratories have managed to record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortexes in order to operate BCIs to carry out movement. Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and without any motor output. Other research on cats has decoded visual Signals

CLINICAL TRIALS
Dept of EC 14 canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

The first clinical trial was done on a person called Matthew Nagle, a 25-year-old

Massachusetts man who has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001, to control a cursor on a screen and to open and close the hand on a prosthetic limb just by thinking about the relevant actions. Mr. Nagle could read emails and play the computer game Pong. He was able to draw circular shapes using a paint program and could also change channel and turn up the volume on a television, even while talking to people around him. After several months, he could also operate simple robotic devices such as a prosthetic hand, which he used to grasp and move objects. Braingate is currently recruiting patients with a range of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in the United States The experiments that began with Mr. Nagle have, so far, been continued in three more patients . These experiments were success.

COMPETATIVE ADVANTAGES

Dept of EC

15

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

The BrainGate Neural Interface System is being designed to one day allow the user to interface with a computer and/or other devices at a level of speed, accuracy and precision that is comparable to, or even faster than, what is possible with the hands of a non-disabled person. The BrainGate System may offer substantial improvement over existing assistive technologies.Currently available assistive devices have significant limitations for both the person in need and the caregiver. For example, even simple switches must be adjusted frequently, a process that can be time consuming. In addition, these devices are often obtrusive and may prevent the user from being able to simultaneously use the device and at the same time establish eye contact or carry on conversations with others Potential advantages of the BrainGate System over other muscle driven or brain-based computer interface approaches include: its potential to interface with a computer without weeks or months of training; its potential to be used in an interactive environment, where the user's ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech, eye movements or ambient noise; and the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand movement and gestures

DISADVANTAGES
The disadvantage of the BrainGate System is that at this time, while still being perfected, the switches must be frequenly adjusted which is a time consuming process. As the device is perfected this will not be an issue. There is also a worry that devices such as this will normalize society. The BrainGate Neural Interface System has not been approved by the FDA, but has been approved for IDE status, which means that it has been approved for pre-market clinical trials. There are no estimates on cost or insurance at this time.

Dept of EC

16

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

CONCLUSION
The invention of Braingate is such a revolution in medical field. The remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralysed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs, computers or wheelchairs. WITH A BRAINGATE YOU CAN:

Turn on or off the lights on your room

Check and read E-mails Play games in computer Use your PC


Watch and control your Television Control a robotic arm

In the next two years, Cyberkinetics hopes to refine the chip to develop a wireless version No need for a plug Safe Less visible

Dept of EC

17

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

REFERENCES

http://www.cyberkineticsinc.com (12-3-2011) http://www.bbcnews.com (12-3-2011 ) http://www.wikipedia.org (12-3-2011 ) http://www.wired.com (13-3-2011) http://www.howstuffworks.com (13-3-2011)

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18

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE
.

2011

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19

canara engineering college

THE BRAINGATE

2011

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20

canara engineering college