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Chemistry
Paper 2
Sepuoos
Z%jam

,No.Karl Pengenalan: Angka Giliran: .

Nama : Tingkatan: .

PERSIDANGAN KEBANGSAAN PENGETUA-PENGETUA


SEKOLAH MENENGAH
NEGERI KEDAR DARUL AMAN

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM 2008

CHEMISTRY

Paper 2

Two hours and thirty minutes

JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU


I. Kertassoalan in; adalah dalam Untuk Kegunaan Pemeriksa
dwibahasa.
Markah Markah
Bahagian Soalan
Penuh Diperoleh
2. Soalan dalam Bahasa Inggeris
I
mendahului soalanyang sepadan
dalam Bahasa Melayu. 2
3
3. Colondibenarkan menjawab 4
keseluruhan atau sebahagian soalan A
sama ada dalam BahasaInggerisatau 5
Bahasa Melayu. 6
7
4. Calondikehendaki membaca 8
maklumat di halaman belakang kertas
soalan ini. 9
B
10
11
C
12
Jumlah

Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 20 halaman bercetak

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Section A

[60 marks]

Answer all questions (Jawabsemua soalan)

1. Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up for the neutralisation reaction between a
strong acid and a strong alkali. .
Rajah J menunjukkan susunan radas untuk tindak balaspeneutralan amara satu
asid kuat don satu alkali kuat.

Hydrochloric acid, 0.1 mol dm"


Asid hidroklorik; 0.1 mol dm-J

25 em3 sodium hydroxide


solution + phenolphthalein
25 c~ larutan natrium hidroksida +
C=:=~~--fenolftaJein

DIAGRAM 1
3
25.0 em of sodium hydroxide solution is poured into a conical flask. A few drops
of phenolphthalein are added into the solution. The solution in the conical flask is
titrated with 0.1 mol dm,3 hydrochloric acid.
25.0 eM' lanaan natrium hidroksida dimasukkan Ire dalam sebuah kelalang Icon.
Beberapa tlttkfenolftalein ditambah Ire daJam larutan itu. Larutan dalam kelalang
Icon dititratkan dengan O. J mol dm-J asid hidroklorik:

<a> Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. What is meant by a strong acid?


Asid hidroklorik adalah asid kuat. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan asid
k:uaJ?

[2 marb]

(b) Suggest an apparatus that can be used to measure 25.0 em J of sodium

hydroxide solution accurately.

Cadangkan satu radas yang dapat digunakan untuk menyukat 25.0 cmJ larutan
natrium hidroksida dengan tepat.

[1 mark]

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(c) State the colour change of the solution in the conical flask at the end point.
Nyatakan perubahan warna larutan dalam kelalang leonpada takat akhir.

[1 mark]

(d) (i) Write a chemical equation for the above reaction.


Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di atas.

[1 mark]

(ii) In this experiment, 20.0 cm3 hydrochloric acid is needed to neutralise


25.0 cm 3 of sodium hydroxide solution. Calculate the molarity of the
sodium hydroxide solution.
Dalam eksperimen ini, 20.0 cm 3 asid hidroklorik diperlukan untuk
meneutralkan 25.0 cm 3 larutan natrium hidroksida. Hitungkan
kemolaran lanaan natrium hidroksida itu.

[2 markr]

(e) (i) The experiment is repeated with 0.1 mol dm' sulphuric acid to replace
hydrochloric acid. Predict the volume of sulphuric acid needed to
neutralise 25.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution.
Eksperimen itu diulang dengan menggunakan O. J mol dm'3 asid sulfurik
bag; menggantikan asid hidroklorik: Ramalkan isipadu asid sulfunk yang
diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 25.0 cm 3 larutan natrium hidroksida.

[1 mark]

(ii) Explain your answer in (e) (i).


Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (e)(i).

[2 marks]

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2. Diagram 2 shows the apparatus set-up to determine the empirical formula of oxide
metal M.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi oksido
logam M M oxide
OlcsidaM

-Gni",..""
Combustion tube heat Asbestos paper
Tiub pembakaran panaskan Kertas asbestos

DIAGRAM 2

(a) (i) Name two chemicals used to prepare hydrogen gas in the laboratory.
Namakan dua bahanyang digunakan untuk menyediakan gas hidrogen
dalam makmal.

[2 marks]

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction in (a)(i).


Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di (a)(;).

[1 mark]

(b) Table 2 shows the result of the experiment:


Jadual 2 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen itu:
Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper
39.25 g
Jistm tiub pembakaran + kertas asbestos
Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper + M oxide before heating
Jisim tiub pembakaran + kertas asbestos + oksida M sebelum 47.95 g
pembakaran
Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper + product after heating
44.75g
Jisim tiub pembakaran + kertas asbestos + hasil selepas pembakaran
[Relative atomic mass of 0=16. M=55]
(i) Determine the empirical formula of M oxide.
Tentukan formula empirik bagi oksida M

[3 marks]
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(ii) Write 8 chemical equation for the reduction of M oxide by hydrogen gas.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi penurunan oksida M oleh gas hidrogen.

[1 mark]

(c) State one precaution that must be taken when carrying out the experiment.
Nyatakan satu langkah berjaga-jaga yang mesti diambil semasa menjalankan
eksperimen itu.

[1 mark]

(d) Can the empirical formula of magnesium oxide be determined by the same method?
Explain your answer.
Bolehkah formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida ditentukan dengan kaedah yang
sama? Terangkanjawapan anda.

[2marb]

3.
Polymers are long chained molecules made by joining together
thousands of smaller molecules called monomers .
Polimer adalah molekul berantai panjang yang terhasil daripada
cantuman beribu-ribu molekul kecil yang dipanggil monomer.

(a) Polypropene and polyvinyl chloride are examples of polymers. State the name of
their monomers.
Polipropena dan polivinil klorida adalah contoh polimer. Nyatakan nama
monomer mereta.

Polypropene: .
Polipropena

Polyvinyl chloride: ..
Polivinil klorida
[2 marks]

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(b) Plastic bag used in our daily life is a type of synthetic polymer. State ODe
advantage and one disadvantage of plastic bag.
Beg plastik yang digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian ialah sejenis poJimer
sintetik: Nyatakan satu kebaikan dan satu keburukan beg plastik:
Advantage:
Kebaikan:

Disadvantage:
Keburukan:

[2 marks]

(c) Bronze is an alloy formed from copper and tin.


Gangsa adalan suatu aloi yang terbentuk daripada kuprum dan timah.

(i) State one aim of alloying.


Nyatakan satu tujuan pengaloian.

[1 mark]

(ii) State one use of bronze.


Nyatakan satu kegunaan gangsa.

[1 mark]

(iii) Draw the arrangement of particles in bronze.


Lukiskan susunan zarah-zarah dalam gangsa.

[1 mark]

(iv) Bronze is harder than copper. Explain why.


Gangsa adalah lebih keras daripada kuprum. Terangkan mengapa.

[3 marks]

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4. Table 4 shows the proton number of two elements X and Y.


Jadual 4 menunjukkan nombor proton bagi unsur X dan Y.

Element Proton number


X 6
Y 11

TABLE 4

(a) Draw the atomic structure of atom X.


Lukis struktur atom bagi atom X

[J mark]

(b) (i) \. Atom of element X has isotopes. What is meant by isotopes?


Atom unsur X mempunyai isotop. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan
isotop?

[1 mark]

(ii) State one example of an isotope.


Nyatakan satu contoh isotop.

[1 mark]

(c) (i) Atom of element Y has a nucleon number of23. Calculate the number of
neutrons in atom Y.
Atom unsur Y mempunyai nombor nukleon 23. Hitungkan bi/angan
neutron bagi atom Y.

[1 mark]

(ii) Write the standard representation of atom Y.


Tuliskan simbol atom Y.

[1 mark]

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(d) Methanol is an organic compound with melting point of -97 DC and boiling
point of 6S DC. '
Etanol ialah satu sebatianorganikdengantakat lebur - 97 DC dan talcat didih
65 DC.

(i) What is the physical state of methanol at room temperature?


Apakah keadaan fizik bag; metanolpada suhu bilik?

[1 mark]

(ii) Draw the arrangement ofparticles of methanol at 100 DC.


Lukiskan susunanzarah metanolpada 100 DC.

[1 mark]

(iii) State how the movement of methanol particles changes when heated
from room temperature to 100 DC.
Nyatakan bagaimana pergerakanzarah-zarah metanol berubahapablla
dipanaskandari suhu bilik Ire 100 "c.

[1 mark]

(iv) Sketch the graph of temperature against time when methanol is heated
from room temperature to 100 DC.
Lakarkan grafsuhu melawanmasa apabilametanoldipanaskan daripada
suhu bilik Ire 100°C.
Temperature! °c
Suhul"C

Time/min
Malcalmin

[2 marks]
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5. An experiment is conducted to determine the rate of reaction between 25 em) of


hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm" and 10.0 g of marble chips. The gas evolved is
collected into a burette by water displacement technique. Diagram 5 shows the
incomplete apparatus set-up for this experiment. Table 5 shows the result of the
experiment.
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk menentukan kadar tindak balas antara 25
em 3 asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-) dan 10.0 g ketulan kalsium karbonat. Gas yang
terbebas dikumpulkan ke dalam sebuah buret menggunakan kaedah sesaran air.
Rajah 5 menunjukkan susunan radas yang tidak lengkap yang digunakan dalam
eksperimen itu. Jadual 5 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen itu.

Time/s
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
Masals
Volume of gas/em'
3 0 16 32 48 58 60 60 60
Isipadu f!as/cm
TABLE 5

[Relative atomic mass: Ca=40; C=12; 0=16. Molar volume of gas = 24 dnr' mol" at
room condition]

Burrette
Buret

Hydrochloric acid Water


Asid hidroklorik Air

Marble chips
Ketulan marmar
DIAGRAM 5

(a) Complete the diagram above with a suitable apparatus.


Lengkapkan gambarajah di atas dengan radas yang sesuai.
[1 mark]
(b) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and
calcium carbonate.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara asid hidrokIorik dengan
kalsium karbonat.

[1 mark]

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(c) Calculate the average rate of reaction in the first 50 seconds.


Hitungkan kadar tindak balas purata dalam 50 saat yang pertama.

[1 mark]

(d) (i) Plot a graph of volume of gas against time on the graph paper provided.
Lukiskan grajisipadu gas melawan masa menggunakan kertas grajyang
dibekalkan.
[4marb]

(ii) Calculate the rate of reaction at 100 seconds.


Hitungkan kadar tindak balas pada 100 saat .

[3 marks]

Graph of volume of gas against time

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Graph of volume of gas against time

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6. Diagram 6 shows the flow chart of a series of conversion of carbon compounds.


Rajah 6 menunjukkan carta a/ir bagi suatu sir;penukaran sebatian karbon.

fl
I
I Etana
&bane I .,.-- Ethene
Etena
,. . Ethanol
Etanol

IV
Oxidation

V
Ethyl etanoate
etil etanoat SubstanceQ
CH3COOC2HS Bahan Q

DIAGRAM 6

Based on Diagram 6 answer the following questions:

Berdasarkan Rajah 6. jawab soalan-soalan berikut:

(a) Name the reaction in conversion I.


Namakan tindak balas dalam perubahan J.

[1 mark}

(b) Ethanol is produced by hydration of ethene in II.


Etanol dihasilkan melalui penghidratan elena di /1

(i) State the catalyst used in this reaction.


Nyatakan mangkinyang digunakan dalam tindak balas ini.

[1 mark}

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction in II.


Tuliskanpersamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di /1

[1 mark}

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(iii) Name the reaction that converts glucose to ethanol in the laboratory.
Namakan tindak balas yang menukarkanglukosa kepada etanol di dalam
makmal.

[1 mark]

(c) (i) Name substance Q.


Namakan bahan Q.

[1 mark]

(ii) Suggest an oxidising agent that can be used in reaction IV.


Cadangkan satu agen pengoksidaan yang dapat digunakan dalam tindale
balas IV.

[1 mark]

(d) Write a chemical equation for the reaction in III.


Tuliskan persamaan Idmiauntuk tindakbalas di III

[1 mark]

(e) Ethanol and substance Q react to produce substance X with a molecular formula
of CH3COOC2Hs.
Etanol dan bahan Q bertindak balas untuk menghasilkan bahan X dengan
formula molelcul CHJCOOC2H,.

(i) Name the reaction in V to produce substance X.


Namakan tindak balas di V untuk menghasilkanbahan X

[1 mark]

(ii) State one physical property of substance X.


Nyatakan satu sifat fizik bahan X

[1 mark]

(iii) Draw the structural formula of substance X.


Lukiskan formula struktur untuk bahan X

[1 mark]

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SectionB
[20 marks]
Answer anyone question.
(Jawab mana-mana satu soalan)

7. (a) Dilute ethanoic acid (vinegar) is electrolysed using carbon electrodes. What is
produced at the cathode? Write a half-equation for the reaction.
Elekirolists asid etanoik cair telah dijalankan menggunakan elelctrod ­
elelctrod karbon. Apakah yang terhasil di katod. Tuliskan setengahpersamaan
bagi tindak balas tersebut.
[2 markJ]

(b) Diagram 7 shows two types of cells.


Rajah 7 menunjukkanduajenis sel.

Magnesium-
---- Copper
....,r--~ Copper
t
Magnesium
. -'-':=" Copper(ll)
-
chloride .- "ill:..: :~..­. "- Copper(II) -­
--­-- --
nitrate
solution
solution - " ­ oitrate
solution
CellA Cell B
DIAGRAM 7

Compare and contrast cell A and cell B. Include in your answer the
observations and half equations for the reactions at the electrodes in both
cells.
Banding dan bezakan sel A dan sel B. Sertakandalamjawapan anda
pemerhatian dan setengahpersamaan bagi tindakbalasdl eleksrod-eleksrod
kedua-dua sel.
[8 markJ]

(c) A student intends to electroplate an iron ring with silver.


Seorang pelajar ingin menyadurcincin besi dengan argentum.

(i) State two purposes of electroplating the iron ring.


Nyatakan dua tujuan menyadurcincin besi tersebut.
[2 marks]

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(ii)' Design a laboratory experiment to electroplate the iron ring.


Rancangkan satu eksperimenmakmaluntuk menyadurcincin besi
tersebut.

Your answer should consist of the following


• Procedures of the experiment.
• A labelled diagram showing the set up of apparatus.
• Half equations for the reactions at both electrodes.
• Observations at both electrodes.

Jawapan anda hendaldah termasukperkara-perkaraberikut:


• Langkah-langkah eksperimen:
• Gamber rajah susunanradas berlabel.
• Selengah persamaan bagi lindale bolas di kedua-duaelektrod:
• Pemerhatian di kedua-dua elektrod.
[8 marks]

8. Figure 8 shows the electron arrangement for atoms P, Q and R.


Rajah8 menunjulclcan susunan elektron bagi atom-atom P. Q dan R.

AtomP AtomQ AtomR

Based on figure 8. answer the following questions:

Berdasarkanrajah 8. jawab soalan-soalan berikut:

(8) (i) State the location of atom R in the Periodic Table of Elements.
Nyalalran kedudukan atom R dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.

(ii) Explain how you determine the group and the period of atom R.
Terangkanbagaimanaanda menentukan kumpulandon kala bagi atom
R.
[S marks]

(b) Atoms P and Q can form chemical bonds with atom R.


Atom P don Q boleh membentukikaran kimia dengan atom R.

State the type ofchemical bond and explain how the bond is formed between:
Nyatakanjenis lkatan kimia don terangkan bagaimana ilratan terbentuk
antara:
(i) Atoms P and R
(ii) Atoms Q and R
[11 marks]
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(c) State one physical property of the compound formed in (b) (i) and the
compound formed in (b) (ii), Explain the differences in the physical property
stated.
Nyatakan sam sifat fizik bagi sebatianyang terbentulc di (b)(i) dan bagl
sebatian yang terbemuk di (b)(ii). Terangkan perbezaan bagl sifatfizilcyang
dinyatakan:
[4marb]

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Section C
[20 marks]
Answer anyone question.
(Jawab mana-manasatu soalan)

9. (a) An oxidising agent in a reaction can also become a reducing agent in


another reaction. Discuss this statement based on the reactions represented
by the following equations :
Satu agen pengoksidaan dalam suatu tindak balas boleh juga menjadi
agen penurunan dalam tindak balas yang lain. Bincangkanpemyataan ini
berdasarkan tindak balas yang ditunjukkandalam persamaan berikut:
i) 2Fe 2+(aq) + Br2(aq) -+ 2Fe3+(aq) + 2Br-(aq)
ii) Fe 2+ (aq) + Zn(s) -+ Fe(s) + Zn 2+ (aq)
[4 marks]

(b) Displacement reaction between magnesium and copper(II) sulphate


solution can also be classified as a redox reaction. With the aid of half­
equations, explain the above statement in terms of change in oxidation
number.
Tindak balas penyesaran antara magnesiumdan larutan leuprum(/I) sulfat
bolehjuga dikelaskan sebagai satu tindak balas redoks. Dengan bantuan
setengah persamaan,jelaskan pernyataan di atas dari segi perubahan
dalam nombor pengoksidaan:
[4 marks]

(c) (i) State the meaning of oxidation and reduction in terms ofelectron transfer.
Nyatakan maksud pengo/csidaan dan penurunan dari segi pemindahon
elektron.
[2marh]

(ii) A student intends to investigate the redox reaction on the transfer of


electrons at a distance. Diagram 9 shows the set up of apparatus used by
the student.
Seorang pelajar ingin menyiasat tentang tindak bolas redoks melalui
pemindahan elektron pada satu jaraJc. Rajah 9 menunjulrkan SUSU1Ul1I
radas yang telah digunakan oleh pelajar tersebta.

Carbon electrode Carbon electrode


Negative terminal Positive terminal

Iron(lI)sulphate
. Bromine water
solution
: Air bromin
Lannan jerum(II)
sulfat Dilute sulphuric acid
Asid sulfurik cair

DIAGRAM 9
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Describe the oxidation and reduction processes in tenus of electron transfer


that occur at the negative and positive terminals. Write the half equation
for the reaction that takes place at each terminal. State the changes that can
be observed after 10 minutes.
Terangkan proses pengoksidaan dan penurunan yang berlaku di terminal
negatifdan terminal positifdari segi pemindahan elekiron. Tuliskan
setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di setiap terminal.
Nyatalean perubahan yang dapat diperhatikan selepas 10 minit.

[10 marks]

10 (a) What is meant by exothermic and endothermic reaction?


Explain the changes in the energy content of the reactants and products for
both the reactions.
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan tindak balas eksotermik dan
endotermik?
Huraikan perubahan kandungan tenaga bahan tindak balas dan hasil
tindak balas bagi kedua-dua tindak balas tesebut?
[4 marks]

(b) Figure 10 represents an energy level diagram for a chemical reaction.


Rajah 10 mewakili gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi satu tindak balas kimia.

Energy
A+B
tenaga

l\H = -X kJ mol"

C+D

FIGURE 10

State four information that can be obtained from the energy level diagram.
Nyatakan empat maklumat yang dapat diperolehi daripada gambar rajah
aras tenaga itu.

[4 marks]

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(c) Describe an experiment to determine the heat of combustion of ethanol.


Your explanation should include the following:
Terangkan sam eksperimen untukmenentukan habapembakaranetanol.
Penerangan anda perlu mengandungi perkara berikut:

• procedure of experiment
prosedu1' eksperimen
• result and calculations
lreputusan dan pengiraan
[ 12 marks]

END OF QUESTION PAPER


KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT

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PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM 2008


NEGERI KEDAH DARUL AMAN
MARKING SCHEME
CHEMISTRY PAPER 2

Section A

1. (a) An acid that dissociates/ ionises completely in water 1


to form a high concentration of hydrogen ions 1
(b) pipette 1
(c) From pink to colourless 1
(d) (i) HCl + NaOH Æ NaCl + H2O 1
(ii) 0.1 x 20 = 1 1
Mb x 25 1

25 Mb = 2
Mb = 0.08 mol dm-3 1
(e) (i) 10 cm3 // half the volume of hydrochloric acid 1
(ii) Sulphuric acid is a diprotic acid whereas hydrochloric acid is a 1
monoprotic acid.
So, the sulphuric acid used has twice the number of hydrogen ions 1
compared to hydrochloric acid .

Total 10

2. (a) (i) Zinc 1


hydrochloric acid / suphuric acid 1
(ii) Zn + 2HCl Æ ZnCl2 + H2 1
(b) (i)
1

Empirical formula is MO2 1

(ii) MO2 + 2H2 Æ M + 2H2O 1


( c) The air in the combustion tube must be displaced before lighting the 1
hydrogen gas// The heating, cooling and weighing is repeated until a
constant mass is obtained

(d) No. 1
Magnesium is more reactive than hydrogen. 1

Total 10

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3 (a) Propene 1
Vinyl chloride // Chloroethene 1

(b) Advantage: Light // Cheap // convenient 1

Disadvantage: Non-biodegradable // produces toxic gas when burnt 1


(c) i Increase hardness // reduce corrosion / rusting // improve the 1
appearance//to make it more attractive

ii To make Medals // swords // statues // bells 1

iii 1
Copper

Tin

iv Atoms/particles in copper are arranged in an orderly manner in layers. 1

The presence of tin atoms disturbs the orderly arrangement of copper


atoms. 1
This will make it difficult for the layers of tin atoms to slide on each
other. 1

Total 10

4 (a) 1

(b) i Isotopes are atoms (of the same element) with the same number of
protons/proton number but different number of neutrons/nucleon
number. 1

ii Any example of isotope 1

Sample answer; carbon-14,cobalt-60, sodium-24 etc


(c) i 12 1

ii 23 1
Y
11
(d) i Liquid 1

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(ii) 1

iii Becomes faster/ more active 1

iv correct curve 1
o
Temperature / C boiling point 1

65

Time / min

Total 10

5 (a)

The stopper is drawn in the correct position(half in, half out)


refer the diagram

(b) 2HCl + CaCO3 Æ CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 1


3
(c) 32 cm 1
50 s
= 0.64 cm3s-1
(d) (i) Both axes are labelled with the correct units 1
scales are suitable(cover ½ graph paper) 1
All points are transferred correctly 1
Smooth curve 1

(ii) A tangent is drawn on the graph 1


Calculation 1
0.246 cm3s-1 + 0.024 // range [0.222 - 0.270] 1

Total 10

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6 (a) Hydrogenation// addition (of hydrogen) 1


(b) (i) Phosphoric acid // H3PO4 1
(ii) C2H4 + H2O Æ C2H5OH 1
(iii)Fermentation 1
(c) (i) Ethanoic acid 1
(ii) Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution // Acidified potassium 1
manganate(VII) solution
(d) C2H5OH Æ C2H4 + H2O 1
(e) (i) Esterification 1
(ii) - has a sweet smell// fruity smell 1
- a neutral compound
- colourless liquid
- slightly soluble in water
- readily soluble in organic compounds
[ Choose any one ]
(iii) 1
H O H H

H–C–C–O –C–C–H

H H H

Total 10

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Section B

7 (a) Hydrogen(gas) 1
2H+(aq) + 2e Æ H2(g) 1 2
(b) Properties Cell A Cell B
1. Type of cell Voltaic cell Electrolytic cell
2. Energy change Chemical Æ electrical Electrical Æ chemical 1
3. Electrodes Positive terminal: Anode: Copper 1
Copper Cathode: Copper
Negative terminal: 1
Magnesium
4. Ions in electrolyte Cu2+, SO42-, H+ and OH- Cu2+, SO42-, H+ and OH-
ions ions
5. Half equation Positive terminal: Anode: 1
Cu2+ + 2e Æ Cu Cu Æ Cu2+ + 2e
Negative terminal Cathode: 1
Mg Æ Mg2+ + 2e Cu2+ + 2e Æ Cu
6. Observation Positive terminal: Anode: 1
Copper plate becomes Copper
thicker dissolves//become 1
thinner
Magnesium becomes Cathode:
thinner/dissolve Copper becomes thicker 1 8

(c) (i) Improve the appearance//to make it more attractive 1


To prevent/ reduce corrosion/ rusting 1 2
(ii) Procedure:
1. Iron ring is then connected to the negative plate on the battery
while the silver plate is connected to the positive terminal of the 1
battery//Iron ring is made as cathode while silver plate is made
as anode
2. Both plates are immersed into the silver nitrate solution.
3. The circuit is completed 1
1

Functio
nal apparatus set-up 1
Label correctly: 1
silver plate
Silver nitrate solution
Iron ring 1
Cathode: Ag+ + e Æ Ag 1
Observation: Grey /silvery solid is deposited
Anode : Ag Æ Ag+ + e 1 max
Observation: Anode/silver become thinner//dissolve 1 8/9
Total 20

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8 (a) (i) Atom R is located in Group 17, Period 3 1


1
(ii) Electron arrangement of atom R is 2.8.7. 1
It is located in Group 17 because it has seven valence
electron. 1
It is in Period 3 because it has three shells filled with 1 5
electron
(b) (i) Atoms P and R form covalent bond. 1
To achieve the stable electron arrangement, 1
atom P needs 4 electrons while atom R needs one electron. 1
Thus, atom P shares 4 pairs of electrons with 4 atoms of
R, 1
forming a molecule with the formula PR4 // diagram
1

R
R P

(ii) Atom Q and atom R form ionic bond. 1


Atom Q has the electron arrangement 2.8.1. and atom R
has the electron arrangement 2.8.7. 1
To achieve a stable (octet )electron arrangement,
atom Q donates 1 electron to form a positive ion// 1
equation
Q Q+ + e

Atom R receives an electron to form ion R-//equation and 1


achieve a stable octet electron arrangement. 1
R+e R-

Ion Q+ and ion R- are pulled together by the strong 1


electrostatic forces to form a compound with the formula
QR// diagram

Q R

11

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(c) The ionic compound/ (b)(ii) dissolves in water 1


while the covalent compound / (b)(i)does not dissolve in water. 1
Water is a polar solvent that can cause the ionic compound to
dissociate into ions. 1
Covalent compounds are non-polar and can only dissolve in
organic solvents. 1 4

OR

The melting point of the ionic compound/ (b)(ii) is higher than


that of the covalent compound/ (b)(i) . 1
This is because in ionic compounds ions are held by strong
electrostatic forces. 1
High energy is needed to overcome these forces.
In covalent compounds, molecules are held by weak 1
intermolecular forces.
Only a little energy is required to overcome the attractive forces. 1 max
1 4/5
OR

The ionic compound/(b)(ii) conducts electricity in the molten or


aqueous state
whereas the covalent compound/(b)(i) does not conduct 1
electricity.
This is because in the molten or aqueous state, ionic compounds 1
consist of freely moving ions.
Covalent compounds are made up of molecules only 1

1 4
Total 20

9 (a) (i) Based on the equation, iron(II) ion is oxidised to


iron(III) ion 1
So, iron(II) ion acts as a reducing agent 1
(ii) Based on the equation, iron(II) ion is reduced to 1
iron
So, iron(II) ion acts as an oxidising agent 1 4

(b) Mg → Mg 2 + + 2e 1
Oxidation number of magnesium increases from 0 to +2, So
magnesium undergoes oxidation 1
Cu 2 + + 2e → Cu 1
oxidation number of copper decreases from +2 to 0, so copper(II)
ion undergoes reduction 1 4

(c) (i) Reduction is a reaction that involves gain of electron. 1


Oxidation is a reaction that involves loss of electron. 1 2

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(ii) At the negative terminal:


Iron(II) ion releases one / loses one electron and 1
is oxidised to iron(III) ion. 1
Fe2+ Æ Fe3+ + e 1
The green coloured solution of iron(II) sulphate turns brown. 1
The electron flows from the negative terminal// carbon 1
immersed in iron(II) sulphate solution to the positive
terminal// carbon immersed in bromine water.

At the positive terminal:


Bromine accepts electron and 1
is reduced to bromide ions, Br- 1
Br2 + 2e Æ 2Br- 1
The brown coloured bromine water turns colourless. 1
The deflection of the galvanometer needle shows that there is 1 10
a flow of current

Total 20

10 (a) Exothermic reaction is a reaction that releases heat to the 1


surrounding
The energy content of the products is lower than the energy 1
content of the reactants
Endothermic reaction is a reaction that absorbs heat from the 1
surrounding
The energy content of the products is higher than the energy 1 4
content of the reactants
(b) A reacts with B to form C and D 1
A and B are the reactants while C and D are the products 1
Heat energy is released //The reaction is exothermic 1
Total energy content of A and B/reactants is higher than total 1 4
energy content of C and D/products

(c)

thermometer

Copper container

water

Spirit lamp
+
ethanol

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250 cm3 of water is measured using a measuring cylinder and is 1


then poured into a copper container.
The copper container is placed on a tripod stand. 1
The initial temperature of the water is measured and recorded. 1
A spirit lamp containing ethanol is weighed and recorded. 1
The spirit lamp is placed directly below the copper container(as 1
in the diagram.)
The wick of the spirit lamp is lighted. 1
The water is stirred using a thermometer. 1
When the increase in water temperature is 30 oC, the flame is put 1
off and the highest temperature reached is recorded.
The spirit lamp is weighed again. 1
Results:
Initial temperature of water = t1 oC
Highest temperature of water = t2 oC
Rise in temperature = (t2 - t1)oC = T oC 1

Mass of lamp + ethanol before combustion = m1 g


Mass of lamp + ethanol after combustion = m2 g
Mass of ethanol burnt = (m2 – m1) g 1

Number of mol of ethanol = (m2 – m1) = n 1


46

Heat change = 250 x 4.2 x T 1


= qJ

Heat of combustion = - q kJ mol-1 1


n x 1000 Max
12/14

Total 20

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