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When wr|t|ng an essay fo||ow these e|ght bas|c steps

O e|ect a top|c
8e sure Lhe Loplc ls narrow enough Lo make lL manageable wlLhln Lhe space of an essay
O Wr|te a thes|s sentence
8e sure Lhe Lhesls sLaLemenL(or senLence) expresses a conLrolllng ldea LhaL ls nelLher Loo
broad nor Loo speclflc Lo be developed effecLlvely
O e|ect a method of deve|opment
Check Lhrough all Lhe meLhods before you flnally seLLle on Lhe one whlch wlll besL serve your Lhesls
deflnlLlon example
compare and conLrasL cause and effecL
classlflcaLlon process analysls
O rgan|ze the essay
8egln by llsLlng Lhe ma[or dlvlslons whlch Lhe body paragraphs ln your essay wlll dlscuss Lhen flll ln Lhe prlmary supp
LhaL each body paragraph of Lhe essay wlll conLaln
O Wr|te top|c sentences for the body paragraphs of the essay
lor each body paragraph furnlsh a Loplc senLence LhaL dlrecLly relaLes Lo Lhe Lhesls senLence
O Wr|te the body paragraphs of the essay
Lach body paragraph should develop Lhe prlmary supporL covered ln LhaL paragraphs Loplc senLence
O rn|sh a paragraph of |ntrodct|on
An lnLroducLory paragraph should sLaLe Lhe Lhesls of Lhe essay lnLroduce Lhe dlvlslons ln Lhe body paragraphs of Lhe
essay and galn Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe reader
O Wr|te a paragraph of conc|s|on
esLaLe Lhe Lhesls and dlvlslons of Lhe essay
8rlng Lhe essay Lo an approprlaLe and effecLlve close
Avold dlgresslng lnLo new lssues

How to Write a Descriptive Essay
by WriteExpress StaII Writers
More than many other types oI essays, descriptive essays
strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience Ior
the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this aIIect not
through Iacts and statistics but by using detailed
observations and descriptions.
How to Write an Essay
O Essay Writing
O Descriptive Essay
O arrative Essay
O !ersuasive Essay
What do you want to describe?
As you get started on your descriptive essay, it's important
Ior you to identiIy exactly what you want to describe.
OIten, a descriptive essay will Iocus on portraying one oI
the Iollowing:
O a person
O a place
O a memory
O an experience
O an object
Ultimately, whatever you can perceive or experience can be
the Iocus oI your descriptive writing.
Why are you writing your descriptive essay?
It's a great creative exercise to sit down and simply describe
what you observe. However, when writing a descriptive
essay, you oIten have a particular reason Ior writing your
description. Getting in touch with this reason can help you
Iocus your description and imbue your language with a
particular perspective or emotion.
Example. Imagine that you want to write a
descriptive essay about your grandIather.
You've chosen to write about your
grandIather's physical appearance and the
way that he interacts with people. However,
rather than providing a general description oI
these aspects, you want to convey your
admiration Ior his strength and kindness.
This is your reason Ior writing the
descriptive essay. To achieve this, you might
Iocus one oI your paragraphs on describing
the roughness oI his hands, roughness
resulting Irom the labor oI his work
throughout his liIe, but you might also
describe how he would hold your hands so
gently with his rough hands when having a
conversation with you or when taking a
O The Essay

How should you write your description?
II there's one thing you should remember as you write your
descriptive essay, it's the Iamous saying: show don't tell.
But what's the diIIerence between showing and telling?
Consider these two simple examples:
O I grew tired aIter dinner.
O As I leaned back and rested my head
against the top oI the chair, my
eyelids began to Ieel heavy, and the
edges oI the empty plate in Iront oI
me blurred with the white tablecloth.
The Iirst sentence 9ells readers that you grew tired aIter
dinner. The second sentence shows readers that you grew
tired. The most eIIective descriptive essays are loaded with
such showing because they enable readers to imagine or
experience something Ior themselves.
As you write your descriptive essay, the best way to create a
vivid experience Ior your readers is to Iocus on the Iive
O sight
O sound
O smell
O touch
O taste
When you Iocus your descriptions on the senses, you
provide vivid and speciIic details that show your readers
rather than 9ell your readers what you are describing.
"uick Tips for Writing Your Descriptive Essay
Writing a descriptive essay can be a rich and rewarding
experience, but it can also Ieel a bit complicated. It's
helpIul, thereIore, to keep a quick checklist oI the essential
questions to keep in mind as you plan, draIt, and revise your

!lanning your descriptive essay:
O What or who do you want to describe?
O What is your reason Ior writing your description?
O What are the particular qualities that you want to
Iocus on?

DraIting your descriptive essay:
O What sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures are
important Ior developing your description?
O Which details can you include to ensure that your
readers gain a vivid impression imbued with your
emotion or perspective?

Revising your descriptive essay:
O Have you provided enough details and descriptions to
enable your readers to gain a complete and vivid
O Have you leIt out any minor but important details?
O Have you used words that convey your emotion or
O Are there any unnecessary details in your description?
O Does each paragraph oI your essay Iocus on one
aspect oI your description?
O Are you paragraphs ordered in the most aIIective

eflnlLlon ln Lhls klnd of essay we noL only glve lnformaLlon buL also presenL an argumenL wlLh Lhe
(supporLlng ldeas) and C- (opposlng ldeas) of an argumenLaLlve lssue We should clearly
Lake our sLand and wrlLe as lf we are Lrylng Lo persuade an opposlng audlence Lo adopL new bellefs
or behavlor 1he prlmary ob[ecLlve ls Lo persuade people Lo change bellefs LhaL many of Lhem do noL
wanL Lo change

Chooslng an argumenLaLlve Loplc ls noL an easy Lask 1he Loplc should be such LhaL
lL should be narrowed down
O Marl[uana should be consldered lllegal (-oL a good Loplc because lL ls Loo general ln some
medlcal cases marl[uana ls prescrlbed by Lhe docLors and Lhe paLlenLs are encouraged Lo use lL ln
case of sufferlng from Loo much paln)
v elllng and uslng marl[uana ln publlc places should be consldered lllegal

lL should conLaln an argumenL
O We should declde wheLher we wanL a blcycle or a car (our sLand ls noL clear do we supporL havlng
blcycles or cars?)
v lf we are under Lhe age of 30 and wanL a healLhy llfe we should deflnlLely geL a blcycle lnsLead of a

O Are you one of Lhose who Lhlnks cheaLlng ls noL good for sLudenLs? (a quesLlon cannoL be an
v CheaLlng helps sLudenLs learn

O Conslderlng lLs geologlcal poslLlon 1urkey has an lmporLanL geopollLlcal role ln Lhe Lu (facLs
cannoL be argumenLs)
v Conslderlng lLs geopollLlcal role we can clearly say LhaL Lhe Lu cannoL be wlLhouL 1urkey

lL should be a Loplc LhaL can be adequaLely supporLed (wlLh sLaLlsLlcs ouLslde source clLaLlons eLc)
O l feel LhaL wrlLlng an argumenLaLlve essay ls deflnlLely a challenglng Lask (feellngs cannoL be
supporLed we cannoL persuade oLher people)

lf you belleve LhaL you can flnd enough evldence Lo supporL your ldea and refuLe oLhers effecLlvely
you can choose challenglng Loplcs as well ?ou can en[oy wrlLlng abouL such Loplcs
CheaLlng ls beneflclal for sLudenLs
MuraL 124 ls a very good cholce for consclenLlous drlvers
Lress ls good for Lhe human body
olygamy ls qulLe naLural
lor women Lhere ls no need for men

rganlzaLlon All argumenLaLlve Loplcs have s and C-s 8efore sLarLlng wrlLlng lL ls lmperaLlve
Lo make a llsL of Lhese ldeas and choose Lhe mosL sulLable ones among Lhem for supporLlng and

1here are Lhree posslble organlzaLlon paLLerns
aLLern 1
1hesls sLaLemenL

ldea 1
ldea 2
C-(s) + efuLaLlon(s)


aLLern 2
1hesls sLaLemenL

C-(s) + efuLaLlon(s)
ldea 1
ldea 2


aLLern 3
1hesls sLaLemenL

C- ldea 1 efuLaLlon
C- ldea 2 efuLaLlon
C- ldea 3 efuLaLlon


1he sample essay has been wrlLLen accordlng Lo Lhe Lhlrd paLLern

1hesls o elkl lnsLead of Laklng medlclne

CounLer argumenLs

eople should LrusL medlclne slnce lL ls effecLlve and sclenLlflcally proven

elkl ls also sclenLlflcally proven and does noL have slde effecLs (refuLaLlon meLhod lnsufflclenL
erlous lllnesses such as Plv/Al and cancer cannoL be LreaLed wlLhouL medlclne

Medlclne also cannoL LreaL serlous lllnesses lf noL dlagnosed aL an early sLage (refuLaLlon meLhod
opponenLs are parLlally correcL)
elkl llke alLernaLlve heallng meLhods requlres a loL of Llme

elkl requlres less Llme lf done regularly (refuLaLlon meLhod opponenLs are compleLely wrong)

upporLlng our ldeas 1hls ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL parL when persuadlng oLhers We are asklng some
people Lo change Lhelr bellefs or acLlons We should be supporLlng our ldeas wlLh such facLs
sLaLlsLlcs and/or auLhorlLles LhaL Lhere should noL be room for any doubLs Pere are some faulLy
supporLs we should avold

1hesls Leavlng Lhe unlverslLy and sLarLlng Lo work ls good for Lhe adolescenL because

leellngs emoLlonal argumenLs ( lL makes one feel much beLLer)
lrrelevanL examples (wanderlng off Lhe Loplc) ( he would Lhen be able Lo Lake hls glrlfrlend Lo
expenslve resLauranLs)
verslmpllflcaLlon ( only Lhen would he undersLand whaL lL means Lo be an adulL)
PasLy generallzaLlons ( lL ls a wldely known facL LhaL all adolescenLs look forward Lo earnlng
unrellable even false ouLslde sources ( accordlng Lo wwwdoubLmecom 80 of worklng men
wlsh Lhey qulL school when Lhey were aL unlverslLy and sLarLed worklng aL an earller age)

lor more mlsLakes ln Lhe loglc of argumenLs see lallacles

efuLlng opposlng argumenLs 8efore we sLarL saylng LhaL Lhe opponenLs are wrong we should
speclfy Lhelr opposlng ldeas Lherwlse lL would be llke hlLLlng Lhe oLher person wlLh eyes closed
We should see clearly whaL we are hlLLlng and be prepared beforehand so LhaL he cannoL hlL us
back We can do Lhls by knowlng whaL we are refuLlng

eg O ome people may say LhaL adolescenLs should noL leave unlverslLy educaLlon however Lhey
are wrong (whaL Lhey say ls noL wrong Maybe Lhelr supporLlng ldea ls wrong /lrrelevanL
/lnsufflclenL We should sLaLe Lhelr supporLlng ldea speclflcally Lo be able Lo refuLe lL)
v ome people may say LhaL adolescenLs should noL leave unlverslLy educaLlon because Lhey are noL
physlcally and psychologlcally maLure enough Lo cope wlLh Lhe problems of Lhe real world Powever
Lhey forgeL one facL adolescenLs can voLe or sLarL drlvlng aL Lhe age of 18 (ln some counLrles even
before LhaL age!) whlch proves LhaL Lhey are consldered physlcally and psychologlcally maLure aL
LhaL age

Language lgnposLs galn lmporLance ln Lhe argumenLaLlve essay 1hey enable Lhe readers Lo follow
our argumenLs easlly

When polnLlng ouL opposlng argumenLs (C-s)
pponenLs of Lhls ldea clalm / malnLaln LhaL
1hose who dlsagree / are agalnsL Lhese ldeas may say / asserL LhaL
ome people may dlsagree wlLh Lhls ldea

When sLaLlng speclflcally why Lhey Lhlnk llke LhaL
1he puL forward Lhls ldea because
1hey clalm LhaL slnce

eachlng Lhe Lurnlng polnL
n Lhe oLher hand

When refuLlng Lhe opposlng ldea we may use Lhe followlng sLraLegles
compromlse buL prove LhaL Lhelr argumenL ls noL powerful enough
1hey have a polnL ln Lhlnklng llke LhaL
1o a cerLaln exLenL Lhey are rlghL

compleLely dlsagree
AfLer seelng Lhls evldence Lhere ls no way we can agree wlLh whaL Lhey say

say LhaL Lhelr argumenL ls lrrelevanL Lo Lhe Loplc
WhaL we are dlscusslng here ls noL whaL Lhey are Lrylng Lo prove
1helr argumenL ls lrrelevanL

ample argumenLaLlve essay

PLAL1P A- PLALl- A1 ?u ll-L1l

1hrow ouL Lhe boLLles and boxes of drugs ln your house A new Lheory suggesLs LhaL medlclne could
be bad for your healLh whlch should aL leasL come as good news Lo people who cannoL afford Lo buy
expenslve medlclne Powever lL ls a blow Lo Lhe medlclne lndusLry and an even blgger blow Lo our
confldence ln Lhe progress of sclence 1hls new Lheory argues LhaL heallng ls aL our flngerLlps we can
be healLhy by dolng elkl on a regular basls

upporLers of medlcal LreaLmenL argue LhaL medlclne should be LrusLed slnce lL ls effecLlve and
sclenLlflcally proven 1hey say LhaL Lhere ls no need for splrlLual meLhods such as elkl ?oga 1al Chl
1hese wasLe our Llme someLhlng whlch ls qulLe preclous ln our maLerlal world 1here ls medlclne
LhaL can klll our paln xrays LhaL show us our fracLured bones or Ml LhaL scans our braln for
Lumors We musL admlL LhaL Lhese meLhods are very effecLlve ln Lhe examples LhaL Lhey provlde
Powever Lhere are some every day complalnLs" such as back palns headaches lnsomnla whlch
are LreaLed currenLly wlLh medlclne When you have a headache you Lake an Asplrln or vermldon
when you cannoL sleep you Lake Oanax wlLhouL Lhlnklng of Lhe slde effecLs of Lhese When you use
Lhese pllls for a long perlod you become addlcLed Lo Lhem you cannoL sleep wlLhouL Lhem We pay
huge amounLs of money and become addlcLed lnsLead of geLLlng beLLer Pow abouL a safer and
more economlcal way of heallng? When dolng elkl Lo yourself you do noL need anyLhlng excepL
your energy so lL ls very economlcal As for lLs hlsLory lL was dlscovered ln !apan ln Lhe early 1900s
and lLs popularlLy has spread parLlcularly LhroughouL Amerlca and WesLern Lurope ln quanLum
physlcs energy ls recognlzed as Lhe fundamenLal subsLance of whlch Lhe unlverse ls composed elkl
depends on Lhe energy wlLhln our bodles lL ls a slmple and effecLlve way of resLorlng Lhe energy
flow 1here are no slde effecLs and lL ls sclenLlflcally explalned

pponenLs of alLernaLlve heallng meLhods also clalm LhaL serlous lllnesses such as Plv/Al and
cancer cannoL be LreaLed wlLhouL drugs 1hey Lhlnk so because Lhese paLlenLs spend Lhe resL of Lhelr
llves ln Lhe hosplLal Laklng medlclne Pow can elkl make Lhese people healLhy agaln? lL ls very
unforLunaLe LhaL Lhese paLlenLs have Lo llve ln Lhe hosplLal loslng Lhelr halr because of
chemoLherapy loslng welghL because of Lhe slde effecLs of Lhe medlclne Lhey Lake AcLually lL ls
common knowledge LhaL excepL for when Lhe cancer ls dlagnosed aL an early sLage drugs also
cannoL LreaL Al or cancer MosL of Lhe medlclne Lhese paLlenLs use are Lo ease Lhelr paln and Lhelr
sufferlngs because of Lhe medlcal LreaLmenL Lhey undergo lnsLead of drugs whlch are expenslve and
have many slde effecLs you can use your energy Lo overcome Lhe hardshlps of llfe flnd an emoLlonal
balance leave Lhe sLress of everyday llfe and leL go of Lhe everyday worrles MosL of Lhe chronlc
condlLlons such as eczema or mlgralne are known Lo have causes such as poor dleL and sLress eep
rooLed anger or oLher sLrong emoLlons can conLrlbuLe Lo vlral lnfecLlons as well lnce balanclng our
emoLlons and conLrolllng our LhoughLs are very lmporLanL for our wellbelng we should deflnlLely
sLarL learnlng elkl and avold lllnesses before lL ls Loo laLe

ome people may sLlll malnLaln LhaL ln our maLerlal world everyLhlng depends on Llme lL ls even
lacklng Llme" LhaL causes much of Lhe sLress LhaL leads Lo Lhe lllnesses we menLloned Pow would lL
be posslble Lo flnd Llme Lo do elkl Lo ourselves and Lhe people around us when we cannoL even flnd
Llme Lo go Lo Lhe LheaLer? 1hls ls one good Lhlng abouL elkl lL does noL requlre more Lhan 13
mlnuLes of our Llme 1here ls no need for changlng cloLhes or speclal equlpmenL lL ls a wonderfully
slmple heallng arL an effecLlve meLhod of relaxaLlon and sLressrellef MosL lmporLanL of all lL ls less
Llme consumlng Lhan medlclne lf we Lhlnk of all Lhe Llme we spend Laklng medlclne for some
complalnLs and Laklng some more for Lhe slde effecLs as well

Pavlng sald Lhese reslsLance Lo elkl would be qulLe llloglcal elkl ls naLural and drugfree WhaL ls
more lL ls easy Lo learn by anyone regardless of age and experlence lL can be used anywhere
anyLlme lL also enhances physlcal menLal emoLlonal and splrlLual wellbelng and Lhe beneflLs lasL a
llfeLlme lL ls deflnlLely hlgh Llme Lo geL away from Lhe drug boxes we sLore ln our drug cablneL!
WrlLLen by ya zagac epLember 2004
Expository Essay
The purpose of an expository essay is to present, completely and fairly, other people's views or to
report about an event or a situation. Expository writing, or exposition, presents a subject in detail,
apart from criticism, argument, or development; i.e., the writer elucidates a subject by analyzing
it. Such writing is discourse designed to convey information or explain what is difficult to
understand. Exposition usually proceeds by the orderly analysis of parts and the use of familiar
illustrations or analogies.
Such an analysis requires
1. reading with understanding the ideas developed in an article by clearly stating another's thesis,
outlining the facts used by the author to support that thesis, and the "values" underlying the
2. putting what is read into a larger context by relating another's article or book to other work in
the field
3. clearly and effectively communicating this information to a defined audience. In other words,
you must write clearly and fully enough for your readers to know how you have arrived at your
analyses and conclusions. They should never have to guess what you mean; give your readers
everything they need to know to follow your reasoning

WhaL ls an exposlLory essay?
(pr|nter fr|end|y vers|on)
What Is an Lxpos|tory Lssay?
An essay ls a plece of wrlLlng LhaL makes a polnL abouL a sub[ecL problem lssue or quesLlon An
essay ls exposlLory lnsofar as lL cenLers on explalnlng raLher Lhan slmply descrlblng someLhlng or
narraLlng an evenL (LxposlLlon essenLlally means explanaLlon) Lrong essays explaln WnsomeLhlng
ls as lL ls or nW someLhlng comes abouL Lrong essays show Lhe connecLlons beLween speclflc
concreLe facLs or evenLs and broader ldeas LhaL allow us Lo make sense of Lhe world

What Is a "Ma|n o|nt"?
A maln polnL ls Lhe wrlLer's polnL of vlew perspecLlve oplnlon or argumenL abouL lLs sub[ecL 1he
maln polnL LhaL wrlLers make ls commonly referred Lo as Lhelr Lhesls sLaLemenLs lnce Lhe Lhesls
sLaLemenL ls Lhe essay's cenLral ldea everyLhlng ln Lhe body of Lhe essay ls Lhere Lo explaln Lhe
Lhesls Lo supporL lL Lo explore lLs complexlLles and Lo drlve lL home

What Is a Good Ma|n o|nt?
ome maln polnLs are beLLer Lhan oLhers LudenL wrlLers ofLen come up wlLh sLronger maln polnLs
when Lhey have a genulne sense of purpose a reason why Lhey wanL Lo convey someLhlng Lo Lhelr
readers A weaker maln polnL ls ofLen Loo mechanlcal (Lhe wrlLer ls ofLen Lhlnklng only abouL
compleLlng Lhe asslgnmenL because lL's requlred noL abouL whaL she or he genulnely Lhlnks abouL
Lhe sub[ecL) Weaker maln polnLs are also ofLen Loo general LrlLe or cllche (predlcLable and
overused) or slmpllsLlc Lronger maln polnLs are preclse welldeflned and acknowledge Lhe
complexlLy of Lhe sub[ecL

now Do I Come p w|th a Ma|n o|nt?
unless you're glven an asslgnmenL LhaL asks you Lo wrlLe abouL a Loplc you've already glven a loL of
LhoughL lL's ofLen hard Lo come up wlLh a maln polnL rlghL away uccessful wrlLers ofLen wrlLe a falr
amounL Lo explore Lhelr ldeas and Lo dlscover whaL Lhey Lhlnk abouL a sub[ecL wlLhouL aLLempLlng Lo
creaLe a focused sLrucLured drafL ln order Lo come up wlLh a LenLaLlve maln polnL fLen Lhese
wrlLers wlll dlscover a posslble maln polnL aL Lhe end of Lhelr exploraLory wrlLlng because Lhe
process of wrlLlng helps Lhem flgure ouL whaL Lhey Lhlnk

8ecause sLudenL wrlLers ofLen wrlLe only one drafL Lhe essays Lhey Lurn ln ofLen are referred Lo as
dlscovery drafLs" because Lhe maln polnL may lndeed come aL Lhe very end and as a resulL ls noL
developed sufflclenLly

nce you have a LenLaLlve maln polnL (and dependlng on Lhe Loplc geLLlng Lo one can
lnvolve many pages of exploraLory wrlLlng) you can Lry wrlLlng a sLrucLured drafL LhaL focuses on
presenLlng LhaL polnL 1hrough subsequenL drafLs keep reconslderlng wheLher Lhe polnL you're
wrlLlng abouL ls really Lhe polnL you wanL Lo make (you may wrlLe your way lnLo a beLLer more
complex more lnLeresLlng one) and wheLher everyLhlng ln Lhe paper helps develop LhaL polnL

Narrat|ve Lssay
As a mode of exposlLory wrlLlng Lhe narraLlve approach more Lhan any oLher offers wrlLers a
chance Lo Lhlnk and wrlLe abouL Lhemselves We all have experlences lodged ln our memorles whlch
are worLhy of sharlng wlLh readers ?eL someLlmes Lhey are so fused wlLh oLher memorles LhaL a loL
of Lhe Llme spenL ln wrlLlng narraLlve ls ln Lhe prewrlLlng sLage
When you wrlLe a narraLlve essay you are Lelllng a sLory -arraLlve essays are Lold from a deflned
polnL of vlew ofLen Lhe auLhors so Lhere ls feellng as well as speclflc and ofLen sensory deLalls
provlded Lo geL Lhe reader lnvolved ln Lhe elemenLs and sequence of Lhe sLory 1he verbs are vlvld
and preclse 1he narraLlve essay makes a polnL and LhaL polnL ls ofLen deflned ln Lhe openlng
senLence buL can also be found as Lhe lasL senLence ln Lhe openlng paragraph
lnce a narraLlve relles on personal experlences lL ofLen ls ln Lhe form of a sLory When Lhe wrlLer
uses Lhls Lechnlque he or she musL be sure Lo lnclude all Lhe convenLlons of sLoryLelllng ploL
characLer seLLlng cllmax and endlng lL ls usually fllled wlLh deLalls LhaL are carefully selecLed Lo
explaln supporL or embelllsh Lhe sLory All of Lhe deLalls relaLe Lo Lhe maln polnL Lhe wrlLer ls
aLLempLlng Lo make
-arraLlve essay examples can be found wherever Lhere ls a good sLory ln a narraLlve essay you Lell
a sLory buL you also make a polnL o lL ls llke a sLory Lold for a reason
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1here are four Lypes of composlLlon
O LxposlLlon glves lnformaLlon abouL varlous Loplcs Lo Lhe reader
O escrlpLlon descrlbes ln deLall characLerlsLlcs and LralLs
O ArgumenL you Lry Lo convlnce Lhe reader by demonsLraLlng Lhe LruLh or falslLy of a Loplc
O -arraLlon Lhe Lelllng of a sLory usually from one person's vlewpolnL -arraLlve essay
examples wlll lnclude a beglnnlng and endlng ploL characLers cllmax and seLLlng
1he focus of a narraLlve essay ls Lhe ploL whlch ls Lold uslng enough deLalls Lo bulld Lo a cllmax lL ls
usually Lold chronologlcally and has a purpose whlch ls usually sLaLed ln Lhe openlng senLence lL
may use dlalogue and lL wrlLLen wlLh sensory deLalls and vlvld descrlpLlons Lo lnvolve Lhe reader All
Lhese deLalls relaLe ln some way Lo Lhe maln polnL Lhe wrlLer ls maklng
Narrat|ve Lssay Lxamp|es
-arraLlve essays can be qulLe long so lnsLead of a full lengLh example of an enLlre essay so a few
examples of Lhe beglnnlngs of essays wlll sufflce 1he flrsL excerpL from layground Memory" has
very good sensory deLalls
Looklng back on a chlldhood fllled wlLh evenLs and memorles l flnd lL raLher dlfflculL Lo plck on LhaL
leaves me wlLh Lhe fabled warm and fuzzy feellngs" As Lhe daughLer of an Alr lorce Ma[or l had
Lhe pleasure of Lravellng across Amerlca ln many movlng Lrlps l have vlslLed Lhe monsLrous Lrees of
Lhe equola -aLlonal loresL sLood on Lhe edge of Lhe rande Canyon and have [umped on Lhe beds
aL Caesar's alace ln Lake 1ahoe Powever l have dlscovered LhaL when reflecLlng on my chlldhood
lL ls noL Lhe Lrlps LhaL come Lo mlnd lnsLead Lhere are deLalls from everyday dolngs a deck of cards
a sllver bank or an lce cream flavor ne memory LhaL comes Lo mlnd belongs Lo a day of no
parLlcular lmporLance lL was laLe ln Lhe fall ln Merced Callfornla on Lhe playground of my old
elemenLary school an overcasL day wlLh Lhe wlnd blowlng sLrong l sLood on Lhe blackLop pulllng my
hoodle over my ears 1he wlnd was causlng mlnlaLure Lornados we called Lhem dlrL devlls" Lo
swarm around me"
Chr|stmas Cook|es
1he second of Lhe Lwo narraLlve essay examples ls an excerpL from ChrlsLmas Cookles"
AlLhough l have grown up Lo be enLlrely lnepL aL Lhe arL of cooklng as Lo make even Lhe mosL
wreLched chef rldlcule my sad baklng aLLempLs my chlldhood would have lndlcaLed oLherwlse l was
always on Lhe counLerLop nexL Lo my moLher's cooklng bowl addlng and mlxlng lngredlenLs LhaL
would doubLlessly creaLe a dellclous food When l was younger cooklng came lnLrlnslcally wlLh Lhe
hollday season whlch made LhaL Llme of year Lhe prlme occaslon for me Lo unlLe wlLh ounces and
ounces of saLln dark chocolaLe varlous oLher messy and gooey lngredlenLs numerous cooklng
uLenslls and Lhe asslsLance of my moLher Lo cook whaL would soon be an edlble masLerplece 1he
mosL memorable of Lhe hollday works of arL were our ChocolaLe Crlnkle Cookles whlch my moLher
and l flrsL made when l was abouL slx and are now made annually"
Wr|t|ng a Narrat|ve Lssay
When wrlLlng a narraLlve essay remember LhaL you are sharlng sensory and emoLlonal deLalls wlLh
Lhe reader ?our words need Lo be vlvld and colorful Lo help Lhe reader feel Lhe same feellngs LhaL
you felL LlemenLs of Lhe sLory need Lo supporL Lhe polnL you are maklng and you need Lo remember
Lo make reference Lo LhaL polnL ln Lhe flrsL senLence ?ou should make use of confllcL and sequence
llke ln any sLory ?ou may use flashbacks and flash forwards Lo help Lhe sLory bulld Lo a cllmax lL ls
usually wrlLLen ln Lhe flrsL person buL Lhlrd person may be used
AuLhor ChrlsLy akoczy

Compar|son Lssay
1o wrlLe a comparlson or conLrasL essay LhaL ls easy Lo follow flrsL declde whaL Lhe slmllarlLles or
dlfferences are by wrlLlng llsLs on scrap paper Whlch are more slgnlflcanL Lhe slmllarlLles or Lhe
dlfferences? lan Lo dlscuss Lhe less slgnlflcanL flrsL followed by Lhe more slgnlflcanL lL ls much
easler Lo dlscuss -L? Lhe slmllarlLles or -L? Lhe dlfferences buL you can also do boLh
1hen for organlzlng your essay choose one of Lhe plans descrlbed below whlchever besL flLs your
llsL llnally and Lhls ls lmporLanL whaL maln polnL (Lhesls) mlghL you make ln Lhe essay abouL Lhe
Lwo people/Lhlngs belng compared? o noL begln wrlLlng unLll you have a polnL LhaL Lhe slmllarlLles
or dlfferences you wanL Lo use help Lo prove ?our polnL should help shape Lhe resL of whaL you say
lor example lf you see LhaL one of your slmllarlLles or dlfferences ls unrelaLed Lo Lhe polnL Lhrow lL
ouL and Lhlnk of one LhaL ls relaLed r revlse your polnL 8e sure Lhls maln polnL ls clearly and
promlnenLly expressed somewhere ln Lhe essay

Compar|son and contrast essay
Comparlson and conLrasL essay ls one of Lhe mosL common asslgnmenLs ln Amerlcan hlgh schools
and unlverslLles ln Lhls Lype of an essay Lhe sLudenLs have Lo compare Lwo (ln some essays several)
Lhlngs problems evenLs or ldeas and evaluaLe Lhelr resemblances and dlfferences 1hls Lype of an
essay advances and develops your crlLlcal Lhlnklng as well as your argumenLaLlon and undersLandlng
of Lhe lmporLance of Lhe evenLs and Lhlngs LhaL you compare

1here ls an example of Lhe headlngs of some of Lhe compare/conLrasL asslgnmenLs

O Compare and conLrasL Lhe weaLher condlLlons for Lhe growlng of Lhe coLLon beLween 1exas
and Callfornla
O Compare Lhe approach Lo Lhe ovleL unlon of l oosevelL and P 1ruman WhaL are Lhe
slmllarlLles/Lhe dlfferences of Lhelr pollcy?
O Compare and conLrasL Lhe movles od larLher" and nce upon a Llme ln Amerlca"
O omeLlmes you may be asked Lo compare someLlmes you can be requesLed Lo conLrasL
and on several occaslons boLh acLlons menLloned should be performed
O ?eL aL Lhe same Llme comparlson/conLrasL can be a parL of some essay as well ln Lhls case
you compare and conLrasL some evenLs or Lhlngs ln order Lo develop an argumenL laLer
Pere are Lhe examples of several Loplcs where compare/conLrasL parLs should be lncluded

O PaLred and love how Lhese Loplcs are LreaLed ln PamleL?
O Pow Lwo maln hlsLorlans we have sLudled deflne Lhe Lerm d`eLenLe?
O Compare Lhe programs Lo reduce Lhe level of polluLlon ln -ew ?ork and Los Angeles Whlch
one ls more effecLlve?
O Comparlson/conLrasL ln dlfferenL pro[ecLs
ome sLudenLs use comparlson/conLrasL Lechnlques ln Lhelr works ln order Lo develop argumenL ln
laLer sLages of Lhelr wrlLlng asslgnmenLs lor example lf you asserL LhaL Lhe approach Lo Lhe u
was more effecLlve durlng 1rumans presldency Lhan durlng oosevelLs presldency Lhen Lhe
comparlson/conLrasLlng Lechnlque wlll help you Lo develop your conLenLlon

Compar|son]contract|ng techn|qes

ne of Lhe mosL effecLlve ways of comparlson/conLracLlng Lechnlques ls Lhe drawlng of venn
dlagram rawlng Lhls dlagram allows you Lo compare and conLrasL Lwo or even several Lhlngs or
evenLs 1o deslgn a venn dlagram draw several overlapplng clrcles each should represenL some
evenL or ldea LhaL you research ln Lhe space of overlapplng wrlLe down Lhe slmllarlLles LhaL Lwo
ob[ecLs have ln Lhe space LhaL does noL overlap llsL Lhe feaLures LhaL make Lhlngs/evenL dlfferenL

ln order Lo draw a charL you should undersLand Lhe feaLures of Lhe Lhlngs Lo be compared

1he lefL slde ls asslgned Lo one crlLerlon 1he names of Lhe lLems are llsLed across Lhe Lop Lach box
rlghL now corresponds Lo one crlLerla WrlLe down exlsLlng facLs ln Lhe boxes LhaL help you
undersLand whaL feaLures you have dlscovered

nce all ma[or polnLs of comparlson/ conLrasL have been llsLed one should concenLraLe on Lhe maln
alm of Lhe conLrasL/comparlson asslgnmenL n Lhls sLage of Lhe wrlLlng you should have clear ldea
of Lhe purpose of Lhls essay

1ry Lo answer Lhe followlng quesLlons Why was Lhls Lype of an essay asslgned Lo you? oes Lhls Lype
of asslgnmenL have any slmllarlLles wlLh Lhe ones you have compleLed before? WhaL should be
emphaslzed ln Lhls Lype of an essay?

1he followlng ls Lhe llsL of some quesLlons on several Loplcs LhaL mlghL be helpful ln Lhe deslgnlng of
your comparlson/conLrasL essay CerLalnly you should use Lhem as Lhe gulde only 1ry Lo formulaLe
your own quesLlons and argumenLs afLer you have sLudled Lhe llsLed quesLlons

llrsL ask several Lyplcal quesLlons such as Who? Pow? Where? WhaL? Why? lf you research some
ob[ecLs you mlghL Lry Lo concenLraLe on lLs physlcal feaLures such as slze welghL and helghL ?ou are
asslgned Lo compare Lwo hlsLorlcal evenLs

ne should ask Lhe followlng quesLlons When dld lL happen? Who was lnvolved ln lL? Why dld lL
happen? Pow dld lL lnfluence furLher evenLs? Why ls Lhls evenL lmporLanL?

If yo are ass|gned to compare two |deas 1wo |deas or theor|es

WhaL are Lhese ldeas? Who comes up wlLh Lhem? Why are Lhey defended? Pow have Lhey
lnfluenced people? Pow are Lhey used? Whlch one ls more credlble?

AfLer you have compleLed your llsL of dlfferences and slmllarlLles you should evaluaLe whlch ls more
lnLeresLlng and lmporLanL ln order Lo faclllLaLe Lhls process you should ask Lhese quesLlons

WhaL dlfferences and slmllarlLles are relevanL Lo my asslgnmenL?

ln your oplnlon whaL ls more lmporLanL slmllarlLles or dlfferences?

lf you are asslgned Lo compare and conLrasL Lwo novels you should cauLlously evaluaLe Lhe
lmporLance of dlfferenL facLs and feaLures ome physlcal feaLures of Lhe characLers would be of less
lmporLance for Lhls Lype of asslgnmenL emphaslze on psychologlcal dlfferences and slmllarlLles of
Lhe characLers Lhe dlfferences of Lhe ploLs and aLLempLs of Lhe wrlLer Lo research and lnvesLlgaLe
some problems or evenLs

lor some essays sLress on some parLlcular polnLs of comparlson lf you are asslgned Lo compare
some novels of Charles lckens and Wllkle Colllns for example you should noL emphaslze LhaL boLh
of Lhese auLhors are classlcal Lngllsh wrlLers 1hls facL apparenLly ls wellknown Lo your LuLor and
sLudenLs 1alklng abouL dlfferenL analysls approaches Lo human mlnds ls more lnLeresLlng and shows
your undersLandlng of Lhe novels of Lhese wrlLers


1hesls ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL parLs of your comparlson/conLrasL essay lL ls Lhe cenLral feaLure
of your essay Lhe gulde of your wrlLlng process unllke Lhesls ln oLher Lypes of essays Lhesls of
compare and conLrasL essay should be more speclflc and should be backed up wlLh hlghly
argumenLaLlve analysls 1e mosL common quesLlon LhaL should be asked ln Lhe deslgnlng of Lhls Lype
of Lhe Lhesls ls why? ?ou should show Lhe lmporLance of Lhe Lhlngs and evenLs LhaL you compare

1he p|an of yor essay

As we have menLloned earller Lhe conLrasL/compare essay ls a speclflc Lype of an essay 1haL ls why
composlng Lhls Lype of an essay mlghL dlffer from oLher ones 1he followlng are several meLhods of
organlzlng and deslgnlng Lhls Lype of an essay

Item by |tem

llrsL llsL all lnformaLlon on Lhe flrsL sub[ecL of comparlson 1hen you should go furLher and llsL all
polnLs of anoLher sub[ecL of comparlson 1hen you should do Lhe same wlLh Lhe Lhlrd sub[ecL (and so
forLh dependlng on Lhe number of sub[ecLs of comparlson)

CerLalnly lf your paper ls noL long one paragraph mlghL comprlse several lLems however lL ls beLLer
Lo devoLe one paragraph Lo one lLem of comparlson 1he danger of such comparlson ls LhaL your
paper mlghL be Lransformed lnLo a slmple llsL of polnLs of comparlson o noL succumb Lo Lhls
mlsLake emember your LuLor would llke you Lo compare and conLrasL Lhese sub[ecLs noL [usL
provldlng hlm wlLh Lhe llsL of dlfferences and slmllarlLles ln oLher words he expecLs some analyLlcal
work from you ln order Lo compleLe Lhls Lype of an essay one should develop and deslgn analyLlcal
Lhesls and paragraph (one or several of Lhem dependlng on Lhe Loplc of your essay) LhaL can
comblne your several polnLs LogeLher

1hls lLemLolLem comparlson ls frequenLly used when you deslgn so called lens comparlson ln Lhls
asslgnmenL you are asked Lo use one Lhlng for a beLLer undersLandlng of anoLher ln Lhls case you
should descrlbe ln nuLshell Lhe maln polnLs on Lhe flrsL Lhlng and Lhen move on dlscusslng how Lhe
polnLs menLloned are slmllar/dlfferenL Lo anoLher Lhlng


1hls meLhod ls used Lo compare each polnL of Lhe ob[ecLs raLher Lhan descrlbe one Lhlng aL a Llme
lor example lf you are asslgned Lo compare Lwo sporL venues your flrsL paragraph mlghL comprlse
Lhe comparlson of Lhelr locaLlons ?our second one can be devoLed Lo Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe deslgns
of Lhe venues ln Lhe Lhlrd paragraph you may descrlbe sporL evenLs LhaL Lhese venues hosL

1here ls noL any unlversal rule ln Lhe deslgnlng of compare/conLrasL essay CerLalnly lL should have
loglcal comprehenslve and conslsLenL sLrucLure emember LhaL Lhe lasL polnL ls of parLlcular
lmporLance because your reader wlll [udge your essay by lL lf for example you aLLempLed Lo prove
LhaL Lhe sLadlum unlversal" ls much beLLer Lhan Lhe sLadlum Albano" you should wlnd up by
sLresslng Lhe facL LhaL sLadlum unlversal" ls beLLer raLher Lhan leavlng reader wlLh Lhe sLaLemenL
LhaL Albano" mlghL look beLLer as well lf you Lhlnk LhaL dlfferences raLher Lhan slmllarlLles are
more lmporLanL for your essay you should end up wlLh sLresslng dlfferences and vlsa versa
A 8r|ef G|de to Wr|t|ng A Compar|son]Contrast Lssay
WrlLlng a comparlson/conLrasL paper lnvolves comparlng and conLrasLlng Lwo sub[ecLs A
comparlson shows how Lwo Lhlngs are allke A conLrasL shows how Lwo Lhlngs are dlfferenL
Choos|ng a 1op|c
When you choose a Loplc be sure noL Lo choose Lwo LoLally unrelaLed sub[ecLs ?ou musL sLarL wlLh
sub[ecLs LhaL have some baslc slmllarlLles lor lnsLance you could choose Lo compare/conLrasL Lwo
movles Lwo auLhors Lwo modes of LransporLaLlon or Lwo sporLs flgures buL you would noL wanL Lo
Lry Lo compare Lraln Lravel and 8abe uLh!
1he flrsL Lhlng you wanL Lo do ls bralnsLorm everyLhlng you know abouL each sub[ecL and Lhen go
back and look for connecLlons LhaL show slmllarlLles and dlfferences whlch mlghL look someLhlng
llke Lhls
Atmn pr|ng
cooler warmer
leaves change flowers bloom
brllllanL colors Lrees bloom
precedes wlnLer precedes summer
deaLh blrLh
Deve|op|ng a 1hes|s
1he Lhesls sLaLemenL wlll evolve from Lhe bralnsLormlng Look aL your llsL and ask yourself some
Is there someth|ng |mportant s|gn|f|cant or |nterest|ng |n the s|m||ar|t|es and d|fferences on my
What have I d|scovered abot atmn and spr|ng?
AfLer looklng aL Lhe llsL a Lhesls sLaLemenL mlghL be
A|thogh there |s exq|s|te beaty |n the seasons of atmn and spr|ng there are a|so d|st|nct|ons
wh|ch a||ow each season to stand on |ts own
rgan|z|ng the Lssay
1he lnLroducLlon of your essay should menLlon boLh sub[ecLs and end wlLh a sLrong and clearly
deflned Lhesls sLaLemenL
1here are Lwo prlmary ways Lo organlze Lhe body of your paper Lhe dlvlded paLLern and Lhe
alLernaLlng paLLern
1o follow Lhe dlvlded paLLern glve all supporLlng deLalls for one sub[ecL and Lhen glve all supporLlng
deLalls for Lhe oLher sub[ecL
aragraphs 13 ln 8ody lscuss and glve supporLlng deLalls for sub[ecL 1 (AuLumn)
aragraphs 46 ln 8ody lscuss and glve supporLlng deLalls for sub[ecL 2 (prlng)
1o follow Lhe alLernaLlng paLLern alLernaLe Lhe deLalls from one slde of Lhe comparlson or conLrasL
Lo Lhe oLher

aragraph 1 ln 8ody lscuss and glve supporLlng deLalls for sub[ecL 1 (AuLumn)
aragraph 2 ln 8ody lscuss and glve supporLlng deLalls for sub[ecL 2 (prlng)
aragraph 3 ln 8ody lscuss and glve furLher supporLlng deLalls for sub[ecL 1 (AuLumn)
aragraph 4 ln 8ody lscuss and glve furLher supporLlng deLalls for sub[ecL 2 (prlng)
1he concluslon of your paper should lnclude flnal correlaLlons abouL Lhe Lwo sub[ecLs and a
resLaLemenL of your Lhesls
8e sure as you wrlLe Lhe paper LhaL you follow Lhe organlzed sLrucLure of comparlson and conLrasL
and glve deLalls and examples Lo supporL Lhe slmllarlLles and dlfferences you have chosen