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A teaching methou compiises the piinciples anu methous useu foi instiuction.

Commonly useu teaching

methous may incluue class paiticipation, uemonstiation, iecitation, memoiization, oi combinations of these.
The choice of an appiopiiate teaching methou uepenus laigely on the infoimation oi skill that is being taught,
anu it may also be influenceu by the aptituue anu enthusiasm of the stuuents.
Nethous of instiuction
Explaining, oi lectuiing, is the piocess of teaching by giving spoken explanations of the subject that is to be
leaineu. Lectuiing is often accompanieu by visual aius to help stuuents visualize an object oi pioblem.
Bemonstiation (teaching)
Bemonstiating is the piocess of teaching thiough examples oi expeiiments. Foi example, a science teachei
may teach an iuea by peifoiming an expeiiment foi stuuents. A uemonstiation may be useu to piove a fact
thiough a combination of visual eviuence anu associateu ieasoning.
Bemonstiations aie similai to wiitten stoiytelling anu examples in that they allow stuuents to peisonally
ielate to the piesenteu infoimation. Nemoiization of a list of facts is a uetacheu anu impeisonal expeiience,
wheieas the same infoimation, conveyeu thiough uemonstiation, becomes peisonally ielatable.
Bemonstiations help to iaise stuuent inteiest anu ieinfoice memoiy ietention because they pioviue
connections between facts anu ieal-woilu applications of those facts. Lectuies, on the othei hanu, aie often
geaieu moie towaius factual piesentation than connective leaining.
Collaboiation allows stuuents to actively paiticipate in the leaining piocess by talking with each othei anu
listening to othei points of view. Collaboiation establishes a peisonal connection between stuuents anu the
topic of stuuy anu it helps stuuents think in a less peisonally biaseu way. uioup piojects anu uiscussions aie
examples of this teaching methou. Teacheis may employ collaboiation to assess stuuents abilities to woik as
a team, leaueiship skills, oi piesentation abilities.
Collaboiative uiscussions can take a vaiiety of foims, such as fishbowl uiscussions. Aftei some piepaiation
anu with cleaily uefineu ioles, a uiscussion may constitute most of a lesson, with the teachei only giving shoit
feeuback at the enu oi in the following lesson.
Leaining by teaching
Nain aiticle: Leaining by teaching
In this teaching methou, stuuents assume the iole of teachei anu teach theii peeis. Stuuents who teach otheis
as a gioup oi as inuiviuuals must stuuy anu unueistanu a topic well enough to teach it to theii peeis. By
having stuuents paiticipate in the teaching piocess, they gain self-confiuence anu stiengthen theii speaking
anu communication skills.
Evolution of teaching methous
Ancient euucation
About BC, with the auvent of wiiting, euucation became moie conscious oi self-ieflecting, with
specializeu occupations iequiiing paiticulai skills anu knowleuge on how to be a sciibe, an astionomei, etc.
Philosophy in ancient uieece leu to questions of euucational methou enteiing national uiscouise. In his
Republic, Plato uesciibes a system of instiuction that he felt woulu leau to an iueal state. In his Bioloques,
Plato uesciibes the Sociatic methou.
It has been the intent of many euucatois since then, such as the Roman euucatoi Quintilian, to finu specific,
inteiesting ways to encouiage stuuents to use theii intelligence anu to help them to leain.
Neuieval euucation
Comenius, in Bohemia, wanteu all chiluien to leain. In his Tbe WorlJ in Pictures, he gave the fiist illustiateu
textbook containing much that chiluien woulu be familiai with in eveiyuay life, anu useu it to teach the
acauemic subjects they neeueu to know. Rabelais uesciibeu how the stuuent uaigantua leaineu about the
woilu, anu what is in it.
Nuch latei, }ean-}acques Rousseau in his Fmile, piesenteu methouology to teach chiluien the elements of
science anu moie. In it, he famously escheweu books, saying the woilu is ones book.
|citotion neeJeJj

Buiing Napoleonic waifaie, the teaching methouology of }ohann Beiniich Pestalozzi of Switzeilanu enableu
iefugee chiluien, of a class believeu to be unteachable, to leain anu love to leain. Be uesciibes this in his
account of the euucational expeiiment at Stanz. Be felt the key to have chiluien leain is foi them to be loveu,
but his methou has been thought
|by wbom?j
too uncleai to be taught touay.
9th centuiy - compulsoiy euucation
Nain aiticle: Piussian euucation system
The Piussian euucation system was a system of manuatoiy euucation uating to the eaily 9th centuiy. Paits
of the Piussian euucation system have seiveu as mouels foi the euucation systems in a numbei of othei
countiies, incluuing }apan anu the 0niteu States. The Piussian mouel iequiieu classioom management skills
to be incoipoiateu into the teaching piocess.

th centuiy
In the th centuiy, the philosophei Eli Siegel positeu that the puipose of euucation is to like the woilu
thiough knowing it. Teacheis in New Yoik founu that stuuent peifoimance impioveu when this piinciple
was employeu in theii teaching methous.
|citotion neeJeJj

Nany cuiient teaching philosophies aie aimeu at fulfilling the piecepts of a cuiiiculum baseu on Specially
Besigneu Acauemic Instiuction in English (SBAIE).
|citotion neeJeJj

Accoiuing to Bi. Shaikh Imian, the teaching methouology in euucation is a new concept in the teaching
leaining piocess
|clorificotion neeJeJj
. New methous involveu in the teaching leaining piocess aie television, iauio,
computei, etc.
0thei euucatois
believe that the use of technology, while facilitating leaining to some uegiee, is not a
substitute foi euucational methou that biings out ciitical thinking anu a uesiie to leain. Anothei mouein
teaching methou is inquiiy leaining anu the ielateu inquiiy-baseu science.
The Inteiuisciplinaiy Effect of Banus 0n Science, a thiee-yeai stuuy of Tennessee miuule school stuuents,
inuicateu that stuuents who hau hanus-on science tiaining hau highei stanuaiuizeu test scoies in science,
math anu social stuuies.
|citotion neeJeJj

Biveisity in Teaching in the Classioom
Foi effective teaching to take place, an appiopiiate teaching methou must be employeu. A teachei may
uevelop lesson plans oi use lesson plans that have been uevelopeu by othei teacheis. When ueciuing the
teaching methous to use, a teachei consiueis the stuuents backgiounu knowleuge, enviionment, anu leaining
goals. Stuuents have uiffeient ways of absoibing infoimation anu of uemonstiating theii knowleuge.
Teacheis often use techniques which catei to multiple leaining styles to help stuuents ietain infoimation anu
stiengthen unueistanuing. A vaiiety of stiategies anu methous aie useu to ensuie that all stuuents have equal
oppoitunities to leain. A lesson plan may be caiiieu out in seveial ways: Questioning, explaining, moueling,
collaboiating, anu uemonstiating.
A teaching methou that incluues questioning is similai to testing. A teachei may ask a seiies of questions to
collect infoimation of what stuuents have leaineu anu what neeus to be taught. Testing is anothei application
of questioning. A teachei tests the stuuent on what was pieviously taught in oiuei to ueteimine whethei a
stuuent has leaineu the mateiial. Stanuaiuizeu testing is often useu (e.g., 0hio uiauuation Test (0uT),
Pioficiency Test, College entiance Tests (ACT anu SAT).
Leaining can be uone in thiee ways- Auuitoiy, visual, anu Kinaesthetic.

lnsLlLuLlons of hlgher learnlng across Lhe naLlon are respondlng Lo pollLlcal economlc soclal and Lechnologlcal
pressures Lo be more responslve Lo sLudenLs needs and more concerned abouL how well sLudenLs are prepared Lo
assume fuLure socleLal roles laculLy are already feellng Lhe pressure Lo lecLure less Lo make learnlng
envlronmenLs more lnLeracLlve Lo lnLegraLe Lechnology lnLo Lhe learnlng experlence and Lo use collaboraLlve
learnlng sLraLegles when approprlaLe
Some oI the more prominent strategies are outlined below. For more inIormation about the use oI these and other
pedagogical approaches, contact the Program in Support oI Teaching and Learning.
Lecture. For many years, the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms.
Nearly 80 oI all U.S. college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some Iorm oI the lecture method to teach
students (Cashin, 1990). Although the useIulness oI other teaching strategies is being widely examined today, the
lecture still remains an important way to communicate inIormation.
Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies, the traditional lecture can be an eIIective way to
achieve instructional goals. The advantages oI the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large
amount oI inIormation to many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The
disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes Ieedback Irom students, assumes an unrealistic level oI student
understanding and comprehension, and oIten disengages students Irom the learning process causing inIormation to
be quickly Iorgotten.
The Iollowing recommendations can help make the lecture approach more eIIective (Cashin, 1990):
llL Lhe lecLure Lo Lhe audlence
locus your Loplc remember you cannoL cover everyLhlng ln one lecLure
3 repare an ouLllne LhaL lncludes 39 ma[or polnLs you wanL Lo cover ln one lecLure
4 Crganlze your polnLs for clarlLy
3 SelecL approprlaLe examples or lllusLraLlons
6 resenL more Lhan one slde of an lssue and be senslLlve Lo oLher perspecLlves
7 8epeaL polnLs when necessary
8 8e aware of your audlence noLlce Lhelr feedback
9 8e enLhuslasLlc you don'L have Lo be an enLerLalner buL you should be exclLed by your Loplc
(from Cashln 990 pp 606%
,8e Method. Providing an opportunity Ior students to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-liIe
experiences has proven to be an eIIective way oI both disseminating and integrating knowledge. The case
method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems
inherent in practical application. It can highlight Iundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a
Iormat Ior role playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios.
Course content cases can come Irom a variety oI sources. Many Iaculty have transIormed current events or
problems reported through print or broadcast media into critical learning experiences that illuminate the
complexity oI Iinding solutions to critical social problems. The case study approach works well in
cooperative learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness oI multiple
8cu88on. There are a variety oI ways to stimulate discussion. For example, some Iaculty begin a lesson
with a whole group discussion to reIresh students` memories about the assigned reading(s). Other Iaculty
Iind it helpIul to have students list critical points or emerging issues, or generate a set oI questions
stemming Irom the assigned reading(s). These strategies can also be used to help Iocus large and small
group discussions.
Obviously, a successIul class discussion involves planning on the part oI the instructor and preparation on
the part oI the students. Instructors should communicate this commitment to the students on the Iirst day oI
class by clearly articulating course expectations. Just as the instructor careIully plans the learning
experience, the students must comprehend the assigned reading and show up Ior class on time, ready to
Act;e Le,rnng. Meyers and Jones (1993) deIine active learning as learning environments that allow
'students to talk and listen, read, write, and reIlect as they approach course content through problem-
solving exercises, inIormal small groups, simulations, case studies, role playing, and other activities -- all
oI which require students to apply what they are learning (p. xi). Many studies show that learning is
enhanced when students become actively involved in the learning process. Instructional strategies that
engage students in the learning process stimulate critical thinking and a greater awareness oI other
perspectives. Although there are times when lecturing is the most appropriate method Ior disseminating
inIormation, current thinking in college teaching and learning suggests that the use oI a variety oI
instructional strategies can positively enhance student learning. Obviously, teaching strategies should be
careIully matched to the teaching objectives oI a particular lesson. For more inIormation about teaching
strategies, see the list oI college teaching reIerences in Appendix N.
Assessing or grading students' contributions in active learning environments is somewhat problematic. It is
extremely important that the course syllabus explicitly outlines the evaluation criteria Ior each assignment
whether individual or group. Students need and want to know what is expected oI them. For more
inIormation about grading, see the Evaluating Student Work section contained in this Guide.
ooper,t;e Le,rnng. Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small
groups oI students to work together Ior the achievement oI a common goal. The term 'Collaborative
Learning' is oIten used as a synonym Ior cooperative learning when, in Iact, it is a separate strategy that
encompasses a broader range oI group interactions such as developing learning communities, stimulating
student/Iaculty discussions, and encouraging electronic exchanges (BruIIee, 1993). Both approaches stress
the importance oI Iaculty and student involvement in the learning process.
When integrating cooperative or collaborative learning strategies into a course, careIul planning and
preparation are essential. Understanding how to Iorm groups, ensure positive interdependence, maintain
individual accountability, resolve group conIlict, develop appropriate assignments and grading criteria, and
manage active learning environments are critical to the achievement oI a successIul cooperative learning
experience. BeIore you begin, you may want to consult several helpIul resources which are contained in
Appendix N. In addition, the Program in Support oI Teaching and Learning can provide Iaculty with
supplementary inIormation and helpIul techniques Ior using cooperative learning or collaborative learning
in college classrooms.
Integr,tng Technology. Today, educators realize that computer literacy is an important part oI a student's
education. Integrating technology into a course curriculum when appropriate is proving to be valuable Ior
enhancing and extending the learning experience Ior Iaculty and students. Many Iaculty have Iound
electronic mail to be a useIul way to promote student/student or Iaculty/student communication between
class meetings. Others use listserves or on-line notes to extend topic discussions and explore critical issues
with students and colleagues, or discipline- speciIic soItware to increase student understanding oI diIIicult
Currently, our students come to us with varying degrees oI computer literacy. Faculty who use technology
regularly oIten Iind it necessary to provide some basic skill level instruction during the Iirst week oI class.
In the Iuture, we expect that need to decline. For help in integrating technology into a course curriculum
contact the Program in Support oI Teaching and Learning or the Instructional Development OIIice (IDO) at
703-993-3141. In addition, watch Ior inIormation throughout the year about workshops and Iaculty
conversations on the integration oI technology, teaching and learning.
8t,nce Le,rnng. Distance learning is not a new concept. We have all experienced learning outside oI a
structured classroom setting through television, correspondence courses, etc. Distance learning or distance
education as a teaching pedagogy, however, is an important topic oI discussion on college campuses today.
Distance learning is deIined as 'any Iorm oI teaching and learning in which the teacher and learner are not
in the same place at the same time' (Gilbert, 1995).
Obviously, inIormation technology has broadened our concept oI the learning environment. It has made it
possible Ior learning experiences to be extended beyond the conIines oI the traditional classroom. Distance
learning technologies take many Iorms such as computer simulations, interactive collaboration/discussion,
and the creation oI virtual learning environments connecting regions or nations. Components oI distance
learning such as email, listserves, and interactive soItware have also been useIul additions to the
educational setting.
For more inIormation about distance learning contact the Instructional Development OIIice at 703-993-
3141 (FairIax Campus) and watch Ior workshops and Iaculty discussions on the topic throughout the year.
Learner-Centered vs. Curriculum-Centered Teacbers: Wbicb Type Are You?

age of
The diIIerence between learner-centered and curriculum-centered classrooms is philosophical. Philosophy drives
behavior, so when it comes to your teaching style, it is important to have a deep understanding oI your own belieI
system. Your view oI learning, students' roles, and teachers' roles determine the method by which you teach. Use
this article to place yourselI on the pedagogical continuum by considering:
O @he Lypes of acLlvlLles you creaLe
O @he layouL of your classroom
O @he way sLudenLs learn wlLh you
O ow you prepare for class
O ow Lo make Lhe mosL of your sLyle
Teachers who adhere to learner-centered classrooms are inIluenced strongly by constructivism. Constructivism
holds that prior knowledge Iorms the Ioundation by which new learning occurs (Piaget and Inhelder, 1969). Because
people and their experiences are diIIerent, they arrive at school with varying levels oI proIiciency. A student is
challenged according to his or her individual zone oI proximal development (Vygotsky, 1986). The diIIerence
between a student's actual developmental level and his or her potential is the zone oI proximal development (ZPD).
Good instruction matches each child's ZPD.
Teachers who adhere to curriculum-centered classrooms are inIluenced greatly by the standards-based movement.
All students are taught the same body oI knowledge. Regardless oI variations in developmental levels, all children
are exposed to the same content in the same time period. The objective is to ensure that there will be no academic
gaps in what is taught.
earnercentered c|assrooms
Learner-centered classrooms Iocus primarily on individual students' learning. The teacher's role is to Iacilitate
growth by utilizing the interests and unique needs oI students as a guide Ior meaningIul instruction. Student-centered
classrooms are by no means characterized by a Iree-Ior-all.
These classrooms are goal-based. Students' learning is judged by whether they achieve predetermined,
developmentally-oriented objectives. In essence, everyone can earn an A by mastering the material. Because people
learn best when they hear, see, and manipulate variables, the method by which learning occurs is oItentimes
Learn more about the structure oI learner-centered classrooms.
rr|c|mcentered c|assrooms
Curriculum-centered classrooms Iocus essentially on teaching the curriculum. The teacher determines what ought to
be taught, when, how, and in what time Irame. The curriculum that must be covered throughout the year takes
precedence. These classes oIten require strict discipline because children's interests are considered only aIter content
requirements are established.
In this Iramework students are compared with one another. Student success is judged in comparison with how well
others do. A Iixed standard oI achievement is not necessarily in place. In these classrooms grades resemble the
Iamiliar bell curve.
Learn more about the structure oI curriculum-centered classrooms.

ener,l Te,chng Method8
O Learner-Centered vs. Curriculum-Centered
Teachers: Which Type Are You?
The diIIerence between learner-centered and curriculum-
centered classrooms is philosophical. Constructivists
adhere to learner-centered classrooms. Standards-based
teachers adhere to curriculum-centered classrooms.
O Lesson Methodologies
There are many diIIerent ways in which you can
eIIectively teach your students. Learn about many
diIIerent methodologies here. New teachers will Iind this
resource particularly valuable when they're determining
which method is most eIIective Ior them.
O Standards Ior Good Teaching
Learn the ten basic standards Ior good teaching and how
you can be a successIul, eIIective teacher.
O Authentic Assessment
An overview oI authentic assessments.
O Textbooks: Advantages and Disadvantages
One oI the most common resources in the classroom is the
textbook; learn the advantages oI this tool plus way to
integrate other resources into your teaching. New teachers
will Iind this resource particularly valuable.
O Levels oI Questions in Bloom's Taxonomy
Challenge your students with all levels oI questions as
deIined by Bloom's Taxonomy. They will be doing
higher-level thinking and you will have a more interesting
classroom! New teachers will Iind this resource
particularly valuable.
O Your Secret Weapon: Wait Time
Give your students time to think about your questions
beIore asking Ior an answer; this is called "wait time."
This proIessional development advice will prove
especially useIul to new teachers.
O Problem-Solving
Learn about the beneIits oI problem-solving and how to
include it in your teaching. Problem-solving is the ability
to identiIy and solve problems by applying appropriate
skills systematically.
ooper,t;e Le,rnng
O Teaching with Cooperative Learning
Learn the basics oI successIully teaching your class with
the cooperative learning method. Group projects are an
excellent way to help your students build important
communication and teamwork skills. New teachers will
Iind this resource particularly valuable.
&8ng Technology
O Assistive Technology Ior Students with Mild
These simple adaptations can improve the learning
experience oI many children.
O Stages to Technology Integration
Get advice on integrating technology into your classroom.
O Technology Strategies Ior Music Education
Use technology strategies and activities to attract students
into music curriculum. Pages organized by the National
Music Standards.
O Integrating Technology
Find ways to integrate technology such as the Internet,
DVDs, and TV programs into your language arts
Addre88ng Spec,l Need8
O Teaching Students with Special Needs
Prepare to teach the students with special needs you may
have in your classroom using this advice on
accommodating and modiIying your lessons to meet the
needs oI everyone. New teachers will Iind this resource
particularly valuable.
O EIIective Accommodations Ior IEPs
A complete chart to help IEP teams Iind speciIic
accommodations in instruction, assessment, classroom
management, organization, and more. This printable
resource will be especially valuable to new teachers who
are becoming accustomed to IEP's.
O Educating Children Who Are DeaI or Hard-oI-
Tips to help you ensure deaI and hard-oI-hearing students
are learning in your classroom.
O Universal Design Ior Learning
A deIinition oI universal design Ior learning.
O More Special Needs Teacher Resources
Le,rnng From Soc,l Inter,cton8
O Student-to-Student Learning
Experiment with several kinds oI student-to-student
learning with these sample activities.
O Use Service-Learning to Enhance Your
InIormation on beneIits and implementation oI service-
learning projects Ior students, including case studies.
O Adult Mentors
Mentor relationships give young people valuable
O What Is Cooperative Learning, and What Does It
Cooperative learning is a successIul teaching strategy in
which small teams, each with students oI diIIerent ability
levels, use a variety oI learning activities to improve their
understanding oI a subject. By using this method, each oI
your students will Ieel that he or she is an important
member oI the class.
O Cooperative Learning
Get inIormation on cooperative learning, an instructional
strategy in which small groups oI students work together
on a common task. This teaching method is an excellent
way to allow students to think critically without relying
on you Ior answers.
O More Cooperative Learning Teaching Strategies
O Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and
Science Ior the Inclusive Classroom
A list oI steps that provide a suggested Iramework Ior
making decisions about using material adaptations
O Adapting Reading and Math Materials in the
Inclusive Classroom
Descriptions oI eight principles Ior making reading and
math adaptations in the inclusive classroom.
O Teaching Strategies Ior Using Materials in an
Inclusive Classroom
Two well-deIined strategies are described Ior helping
special needs students become independent learners.
O Adapt Lessons to Reach All Students
An overview oI six curricular design issues that help
ensure appropriate inclusive teaching.
O More Inclusion Resources
Te,chng M,them,tc8
O Discovering Math in Literature
Find useIul tips on how to pull math concepts out oI
literature. Provided by Penguin Putnam.
O Planning Pyramid Ior Multi-Level Mathematics
Organize you teaching by Iocusing on what all, most, and
some oI your students will learn in math lessons.
O Teaching Mathematics to GiIted Students in a
Mixed-Ability Classroom
Tips on how to teach math to giIted students in your
regular classrooms.
O Math & Science Teaching Strategies
These strategies will help to improve your students' math
and science skills. Included are articles to teach you about
each concept and lesson plans with which you can
implement the strategies.
Te,chng Re,dng & L,ngu,ge Art8
O Teaching Strategies Ior Reading
Use these strategies to improve your students' reading
comprehension skills. Included are articles to teach you
about each concept and lesson plans with which you can
educational and social support that helps them achieve
their goals.
The l,88room En;ronment
O Learning Centers
A learning center is a selI-contained section oI the
classroom in which students engage in independent and
selI-directed learning activities. Get inIormation on
learning centers and how to incorporate them in to your
instructional routine using this advice.
O Creating an EIIective Physical Classroom
Some useIul suggestions on the physical aspects and
considerations oI a classroom.
O ConIlict Resolution Lessons
Find a variety oI conIlict-resolution lessons Irom
Educators Ior Social Responsibility. You'll learn how to
create a peaceable classroom, prevent bullying, and more.
O The Basics oI Centers
Centers give teachers the opportunity to Iocus on speciIic
areas oI study. This article describes how you can
eIIortlessly set up centers in your classroom.
Multple Intellgence8
O Multiple Intelligences: An Overview
An overview oI Multiple Intelligences theory.
O Using Multiple Intelligences in Testing &
InIormation on using Howard Gardner's theory oI
multiple intelligences (MI) in student assessments is
Iound here. New teachers, who are just getting acquainted
with MI will Iind this resource particularly valuable.
O Multiple Intelligences: A Three Part Series
Tracy Heibeck, an expert in child development, describes
how to enhance students' multiple intelligences in this
three-part series.
O Multiple Intelligences Chart
Here is a list oI activities that speak to each intelligence.
Rel,ted Re8ource8
O Back-to-School Headquarters
Return to school this Iall prepared to conquer any
questions you or your students might have about the
school year. Our resources range Irom teaching students
the school's layout to assessment tips.
O ProIessional Development Resources Ior
Discover a wide range oI proIessional development
resources Ior educators. You can improve your teaching
skills with these articles, lesson plans, and resources.
O New Teacher Resources
Discover everything a beginning teacher will need Ior a
successIul school year, Irom tips Ior your Iirst day, to
classroom-management advice, to printables and lesson
plans that will support your curriculum all year long.
O Personalizing the Secondary Classroom
Find ideas and activities Ior personalizing your secondary
classroom. These articles, printables, and guides will aid
implement the strategies.
O Teaching Strategies Ior Language Arts
Use these strategies to improve your students' language
arts skills. Included are articles to teach you about each
concept and lesson plans with which you can implement
the strategies.
O Journaling Teaching Strategies
Use these journaling strategies in your classroom to
expand the learning capabilities oI your students. Included
are articles to teach you about each concept and lesson
plans with which you can implement the strategies.
teachers in making their classroom saIe and inviting Ior
grades 9-12.

Tbe Future of Unline Teacbing and Learning in Higber Education: Tbe Survey Says.
survey subsLanLlaLes some ldeas abouL onllne learnlng and refuLes oLhers
8y yongIee |m and rt|s I 8onk
Institutions oI higher education have increasingly embraced online education, and the number oI students enrolled in
distance programs is rapidly rising in colleges and universities throughout the United States. In response to these
changes in enrollment demands, many states, institutions, and organizations have been working on strategic plans to
implement online education. At the same time, misconceptions and myths related to the diIIiculty oI teaching and
learning online, technologies available to support online instruction, the support and compensation needed Ior high-
quality instructors, and the needs oI online students create challenges Ior such vision statements and planning
In part, this conIusion swells as higher education explores dozens oI e-learning technologies (Ior example, electronic
books, simulations, text messaging, podcasting, wikis, blogs), with new ones seeming to emerge each week. Such
technologies conIront instructors and administrators at a time oI continued budget retrenchments and rethinking.
Adding to this dilemma, bored students are dropping out oI online classes while pleading Ior richer and more
engaging online learning experiences.
Given the demand Ior online learning, the plethora oI online technologies to
incorporate into teaching, the budgetary problems, and the opportunities Ior innovation, we argue that online
learning environments are Iacing a "perIect e-storm," linking pedagogy, technology, and learner needs.

Considering the extensive turbulence created by the perIect storm surrounding e-learning, it is not surprising that
opinions are mixed about the beneIits oI online teaching and learning in higher education. As illustrated in numerous
issues oI the Chronicle of Higher Education during the past decade, excitement and enthusiasm Ior e-learning
alternate with a pervasive sense oI e-learning gloom, disappointment, bankruptcy and lawsuits, and myriad other
Appropriately, the question arises as to where online learning is headed. Navigating online education
requires an understanding oI the current state and the Iuture direction oI online teaching and learning.
The study described here surveyed instructors and administrators in postsecondary institutions, mainly in the United
States, to explore Iuture trends oI online education. In particular, the study makes predictions regarding the changing
roles oI online instructors, student expectations and needs related to online learning, pedagogical innovation, and
projected technology use in online teaching and learning.
Re;ew of Lter,ture
We began this project with a review oI past studies oI the issues and trends in online teaching and learning in higher
Onlne Te,chng ,nd Le,rnng
A recent survey oI higher education in the United States reported that more than 2.35 million students enrolled in
online courses in Iall 2004.
This report also noted that online education is becoming an important long-term
strategy Ior many postsecondary institutions. Given the rapid growth oI online education and its importance Ior
postsecondary institutions, it is imperative that institutions oI higher education provide quality online programs.
The literature addresses student achievement and satisIaction as two means to assess the quality oI online education.
Studies Iocused on academic achievement have shown mixed reviews,
but some researchers point out that online
education can be at least as eIIective as traditional classroom instruction.
Several research studies on student
satisIaction in online courses or programs reported both satisIied and dissatisIied students.

Faculty training and support is another critical component oI quality online education. Many researchers posit that
instructors play a diIIerent role Irom that oI traditional classroom instructors when they teach online courses,
well as when they teach residential courses with Web enhancements.
Such new roles Ior online instructors require
training and support. Some case studies oI Iaculty development programs indicate that such programs can have
positive impacts on instructor transitions Irom teaching in a Iace-to-Iace to an online setting.

!ed,gogy ,nd Technology for Onlne Educ,ton
Several research studies have covered eIIective pedagogical strategies Ior online teaching. Partlow and Gibbs, Ior
instance, Iound Irom a Delphi study oI experts in instructional technology and constructivism that online courses
designed Irom constructivist principles should be relevant, interactive, project-based, and collaborative, while
providing learners with some choice or control over their learning.
Additionally, Keeton investigated eIIective
online instructional practices based on a Iramework oI eIIective teaching practices in Iace-to-Iace instruction in
higher education. In this study, Keeton interviewed Iaculty in postsecondary institutions, who rated the eIIectiveness
oI online instructional strategies. These instructors gave higher ratings to online instructional strategies that "create
an environment that supports and encourages inquiry," "broaden the learner's experience oI the subject matter," and
"elicit active and critical reIlection by learners on their growing experience base."

In another study oI pedagogical practices, Bonk Iound that only 2345 percent oI online instructors surveyed
actually used online activities related to critical and creative thinking, hands-on perIormances, interactive labs, data
analysis, and scientiIic simulations, although 40 percent oI the participants said those activities were highly
important in online learning environments.
In eIIect, a signiIicant gap separated preIerred and actual online
instructional practices.
Technology has played and continues to play an important role in the development and expansion oI online
education. Accordingly, many universities have reported an increase in the use oI online tools. Over the past decade,
countless eIIorts have sought to integrate emerging Internet technologies into the teaching and learning process in
higher education. Several studies have reported cases related to the use oI blogs to promote student collaboration
and reIlection.
Some researchers also have promoted the plausibility oI using wikis Ior online student
and podcasting is beginning to garner attention Irom educators Ior its instructional use.
some discussions in the literature relate to eIIective practices in the use oI emerging technologies Ior online
education, empirical evidence to support or reIute the eIIectiveness oI such technologies, or, perhaps more
importantly, guidance on how to use such tools eIIectively based on empirical evidence, is lacking.
This study was based on a survey oI individuals believed to have relevant experience with and insights into the
Iactors aIIecting the present and Iuture state oI online education.
An online survey was conducted oI college instructors and administrators who were members oI either the
Multimedia Educational Resource Ior Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT) or the Western Cooperative Ior
Educational Telecommunications (WCET), both premier associations Ior online education. MERLOT is a Iree and
open resource Ior higher education with membership that, at the time oI this study, included more than 12,000
college proIessors, instructional designers, and administrators who share and peer-evaluate their Web resources and
materials (today, MERLOT has more than 35,000 members). WCET is an organization with 500600 members that
provides resources and inIormation regarding the eIIective use oI telecommunications technology in learning. Also
surveyed were those who had posted one or more course syllabi at the World Lecture Hall (WLH), which has
approximately 2,000 members and was developed by the University oI Texas Ior Iaculty to share syllabi.
This study is a part oI a longitudinal eIIort to understand the use oI technology in teaching, within both higher
education and corporate training settings. The second author had previously surveyed MERLOT and WLH members
on the state oI online learning
as well as corporate trainers on online training
and blended learning.
Using an online survey service, SurveyShare, we developed an online questionnaire as an instrument Ior this survey
study. The questionnaire consisted oI 42 questions grouped into three sections related to the current status and Iuture
trends oI online education in higher education. The Iirst section included 10 questions regarding respondents'
demographic inIormation. The second section included seven questions about the current status oI online learning at
the respondents' organizations. The third section included items regarding predictions about online teaching and
learning. The survey used various types oI questions, including Likert-type, multiple-choice, and open-ended
,t, ollecton ,nd An,ly88
The survey took place Irom late November 2003 to early January 2004. An invitation was sent by e-mail to the
sample oI instructors, instructional designers, and administrators described earlier. The e-mail included inIormation
about the study as well as the URL to the survey site. OI more than 12,000 who received the e-mail request, 562
completed the survey. The participants responded to the survey anonymously, and the data were stored in the hosted
online survey service. Descriptive data analyses (such as Irequencies) were conducted using the data analysis tool
provided in the online survey site.
Our study conIirmed some commonly held belieIs about online education, reIuted others, and provided a range oI
predictions about the Iuture oI technology-enabled education.
emogr,phc8 of Onlne In8tructor8
Sixty-six percent oI the survey respondents held teaching positions (proIessors, instructors, or lecturers), while
nearly one-Iourth were administrators or instructional designers. Respondents represented institutions oI various
types: approximately halI were employed by public, Iour-year colleges or universities; 23 percent by community
colleges or vocational institutes; and 16 percent by private postsecondary institutions. A large majority (87 percent)
said their institutions oIIer online courses, and about 70 percent oI them had taught online courses.
As shown in Figure 1, respondents' experience with online teaching varied Irom none to more than 10 years.
Although not every respondent had online teaching experience, more than 95 percent had experience integrating
computer or Web technology into their Iace-to-Iace teaching.

Survey results show that women appear to be teaching online in Iar greater numbers than just a Iew years ago. In
Iact, more than halI oI the respondents (53 percent) were women. Such Iindings were surprising because a similar
study conducted a Iew years earlier was dominated by male instructors who were Iull proIessors at tier-one
Perhaps Iemale instructors had become more comIortable teaching and sharing activities online
during the Iew years that elapsed between surveys, or perhaps support Ior instructors had improved on college
campuses, or both.
Emergng Technology
When asked about several emerging technologies Ior online education, 27 percent oI respondents predicted that use
oI course management systems (CMSs) would increase most drastically in the next Iive years. Those surveyed also
said that video streaming, online testing and exam tools, and learning object libraries would Iind signiIicantly
greater use on campus during this time. Between 5 and 10 percent oI respondents expected to see increases in
asynchronous discussion tools, videoconIerencing, synchronous presentation tools, and online testing.
The survey also asked what technology would most impact the delivery oI online learning during the next Iive years.
Respondents could select one oI 14 key technologies. About 18 percent oI respondents predicted that reusable
content objects and wireless technologies would have the most signiIicant impact. Smaller percentages (Irom 7 to
almost 14 percent) selected peer-to-peer collaboration, digital libraries, simulations and games, assistive
technologies, and digital portIolios. In contrast, less than 5 percent predicted that e-books, intelligent agents, Tablet
PCs, virtual worlds, language support, and wearable technologies would have signiIicant impact on the delivery oI
online learning. These Iindings seem to reIlect the perceived importance oI online technologies Ior sharing and using
preexisting content.
Additionally, respondents predicted that advances in Internet technology (Ior example, greatly extended bandwidth
and wireless Internet connections) are likely to increase the use oI multimedia and interactive simulations or games
in online learning during the next Iive to 10 years. Only about one in 10, however, predicted that advances in
Internet technology would enhance videoconIerencing or international collaboration, and just one in 16 thought it
might oIIer greater chances to interact with Iield experts or practitioners. Again, the Iocus was on enhancing content
and associated content delivery, not on the social interactions, cross-cultural exchanges, or new Ieedback channels
that wider bandwidth could oIIer. Such responses indicate that respondents still see learning as content-driven, not
based on social interactions and distributed intelligence. The emphasis remains on a knowledge-transmission
approach to education, not one rich in peer Ieedback, online mentoring, or cognitive apprenticeship.
Enormou8 Le,rner em,nd8
Our study revealed a number oI trends related to areas oI growth in online education, Iuture needs Ior online
instructors, and the dominance oI online versus Iace-to-Iace instruction.
Growth oI Online Programs/Degrees. Comparing current online oIIerings and projected Iuture online oIIerings at
respondents' institutions yields predictions about the areas oI growth in online programs and degrees. Most
respondents expected considerable growth in online certiIication and recertiIication programs in the next Iew years,
as well as in associate's degrees. Yet, our survey respondents predicted little growth in the number oI institutions
that oIIer online master's or doctoral programs in the Iuture. Although more than halI oI the respondents (54 percent)
expected that their institutions would oIIer online master's or doctoral programs in the coming years, almost the
same number oI respondents (53 percent) reported that their institutions were presently oIIering online master's or
doctoral programs. In contrast, respondents predicted that certiIication and recertiIication programs would see 1020
percent growth Irom present oIIerings. Such responses indicate that higher education institutions might be wise to
explore certiIicate and short-program oIIerings rather than Iull degree programs.
Online Instructors' Readiness. Will online instructors be ready to meet the challenges brought by the projected
increases in learner demands Ior online education? About halI oI the respondents predicted that monetary support
Ior and pedagogical competency oI online instructors would most signiIicantly aIIect the success oI their online
programs (see Table 1). In addition, instructors' technical competency was the third most pressing Iactor.
Nevertheless, as illustrated in Table 2, pedagogical skill was deemed more important than technological skill Ior
eIIective online teaching. With regard to the needs Ior pedagogical competency oI online instructors, a majority oI
the respondents expected that online instructors would typically have received some sort oI training in online
teaching either internally or externally by the year 2010.

Click image Ior larger view.
The Rise oI Blended Learning. The survey asked respondents Ior their predictions related to the growth oI online
education in the next Iew years. Respondents indicated that more emphasis is expected on blended learning
instruction that combines Iace-to-Iace with online oIIeringsthan on Iully online courses. Those surveyed predicted
a distinct shiIt Irom about one-quarter oI classes being blended today to perhaps the vast majority oI courses having
some Web component by the end oI the decade (see Figure 2).

Click image Ior larger view.
Enh,nced !ed,gogy
Although the use oI CMSs in higher education has increased rapidly and is likely the Ioundation Ior the rapid
increase in the number oI online learners during the past decade,
some researchers argue that CMSs are promoted
as ways to manage learners rather than to promote rich, interactive experiences.
As a result, enhancing pedagogy is
perhaps the most important Iactor in navigating the perIect e-storm. In the present study, respondents made
predictions about the quality oI online education in the near Iuture and about how online courses would be taught
and evaluated.
The Quality oI Future Online Education. Survey respondents generally agreed with recent Sloan reports that the
quality oI online education will improve in the Iuture.
Sixty percent oI respondents expected that the quality oI
online courses would be identical to traditional instruction by the year 2006 (see Figure 3). Also, a majority oI the
respondents predicted that the quality oI online courses would be superior to (47 percent) or the same as (39 percent)
that oI traditional instruction by 2013. Only 8 percent predicted that the quality oI online courses would be inIerior
in 2013.

Click image Ior larger view.
Similarly, a large majority oI respondents predicted that learning outcomes oI online students would be either the
same as (39 percent) or superior to (42 percent) those oI traditionally taught students by 2013. In eIIect, the trend is
Ior course quality and learner outcomes to steadily and signiIicantly improve during the coming decade. Although
we did not ask about reasons Ior the increase in quality, such numbers should be interesting and valuable to
administrators, instructors, students, and other online learning stakeholders.
In terms oI Iactors that can improve online learners' success, respondents said that training students to selI-regulate
their learning (22 percent) was needed most, Iollowed by better measures oI student readiness (17 percent), better
evaluation oI student achievement (17 percent), and better CMSs to track student learning. Nine percent said
additional technology training is needed. This concern about learner selI-regulation is ironic in a world dominated
and driven by learning management systems that are primarily used to manage students, as alluded to earlier.
Follow-up surveys might address whether learners perceive this mixed message and whether they preIer to be
managed online or engage in more selI-directed online environments.
As Carmean and HaeIner argued, there is a need Ior CMS environments that Ioster deeper student learning and
They noted that such environments might Ioster student choice among various activities, reIlection,
apprenticeship, synthesis, real-world problem solving, and rich, timely Ieedback. More recently, Weigel added to
this argument by suggesting that the next-generation CMS should Ioster a more learner-centered environment that
rich in critical thinking, student exploration, peer learning and knowledge construction, interdisciplinary experiences
incorporating a community oI educators (practitioners, business leaders, alumni, and others), and educational

Online Teaching Skills. Instructors' abilities to teach online are critical to the quality oI online education. Unlike our
earlier study related to the state oI online learning in 2001, which included many questions about online learning
tools and Ieatures, the present study Iocused more on learning outcomes and pedagogical skills. For instance, this
study Iound that the most important skills Ior an online instructor during the next Iew years will be how to moderate
or Iacilitate learning and how to develop or plan Ior high-quality online courses (see Table 2). Being a subject-
matter expert was the next most important skill. In eIIect, the results indicate that planning and moderating skills are
perhaps more important than actual "teaching" or lecturing skills in online courses. As Salmon pointed out, online
instructors are moderators or Iacilitators oI student learning.

Click image Ior larger view.
Pedagogical Techniques. Over halI oI the survey respondents predicted that online collaboration, case-based
learning, and problem-based learning (PBL) would be the preIerred instructional methods Ior online instructors in
the coming decade. In contrast, Iew respondents expected that instructors would rely on lectures, modeling, or
Socratic instruction Ior their online teaching in the Iuture (see Table 3). In other words, survey respondents predicted
that more learner-centered techniques would be used in the Iuture, indicating a marked shiIt Irom traditional teacher-
directed approaches.

Click image Ior larger view.
Existing research indicates that online instructors tend to use easy-to-implement tools, resources, and strategies
rather than complex PBL, virtual teaming, cross-cultural collaboration, simulations, and other Iorms oI rich
interactive media.
II the prediction Ior more learner-centered pedagogies online is realized, it would be interesting
to study whether those teaching online transIer such pedagogical skills to their Iace-to-Iace instructional activities.
Our Iindings also indicated that, in general, respondents envisioned the Web in the next Iew years more as a tool Ior
virtual teaming or collaboration, critical thinking, and enhanced student engagement than as an opportunity Ior
student idea generation and expression oI creativity. This is not surprising, given that most instruction in higher
education is Iocused on consumption and evaluation oI knowledge, not on the generation oI it. Perhaps online
training departments and units need to oIIer more examples oI how to successIully embed creative and generative
online tasks and activities.
Evaluation and Assessment oI Online Courses. Evaluation is an important part oI ensuring the quality oI online
courses and programs. Table 4 summarizes respondents' predictions about Iuture trends concerning the evaluation oI
online learning. When asked how the quality oI online education will be most eIIectively measured during the
coming decade, 44 percent answered that a comparison oI online student achievement with that oI students in Iace-
to-Iace classroom settings would be the most eIIective, Iollowed by student perIormance in simulated tasks oI real-
world activities (15 percent), calculations oI return on investment (10 percent), and student course evaluations (9
percent). Clearly, respondents believe that Iace-to-Iace instruction provides a valid benchmark Ior teaching and
learning outcomes and that online perIormance should at least equal its eIIectiveness. Such views, while politically
important, seem to Iorget that much oI the learning that occurs online could not take place in a Iace-to-Iace delivery
mode (Ior example, asynchronous online discussions or online mentoring). It also assumes that Iace-to-Iace
instruction is superior. What iI institutions took the opposite stance and measured Iace-to-Iace courses based on
whether they could accomplish all that online instruction can?

As Ior the Iorms oI evaluation that will be used during the next Iew years, respondents predicted that online practice
quizzes and exams would be most highly used, Iollowed by online surveying and polling, course evaluations, and
online quizzes and exams. In particular, more than 90 percent oI the respondents predicted that online surveys would
be used as an important student research tool or as a teaching device in addition to student assessment and course
evaluation. This Iinding aIIirms our belieI that online surveys oIIer the chance to be learner-centered because they
allow students to collect, analyze, and report on real-world data and projects.
Discussion and Conclusion
As institutions oI higher education continue to embrace and debate online learning, it is important to envision where
the Iield is headed. What might the next generation oI online learning environments look like? Will they move Irom
warehousing students in online environments to engaging them in interactive and motivational activities? What
technological and pedagogical advantages will they oIIer? Current studies provide a glimpse oI the pedagogical and
technological possibilities. Clearly, we are entering a unique and exciting era in online teaching and learning. And
perhaps the perIect e-storm is becoming less cloudy and ominous.
Implc,ton8 of the Fndng8
Institutions oI higher education need to consider whether they are ready to meet growing learner demands in the
coming years. First oI all, most respondents agreed that blended learning would have greater signiIicance in higher
education in the Iuture. Although some institutions have already embraced blended learning, many others are slower
at adopting it Ior various reasons. Perhaps leadership Irom the institution is crucial Ior Iaculty to receive adequate
support to implement changes in the teaching process.
II the quality oI online education is to improve as projected Irom this study, campuses must also look at the
pedagogical issues in online learning. Collaboration, case learning, and PBL are likely to be the preIerred methods
oI online instructors, with Iew relying solely on traditional methods. The data presented here also indicate that the
continued explosion in online learning will bring increased attention to workshops, courses, and degree programs in
how to moderate or mentor with online learning. Given that many respondents expect to receive some sort oI
training and support Irom their institutions to be ready Ior online teaching, colleges and universities need to consider
how they will respond to these needs.
In addition, our study indicates that postsecondary institutions are Iinally Iocusing on how online learning can
develop student collaboration and evaluation skills. In Iact, most now see the potential oI the Web in the coming
years as a tool Ior virtual teaming or collaboration, critical thinking, and enhanced student engagement, though not
necessarily as a tool Ior creative and individual expression. Do current CMSs provide tools to realize the potentials
oI the Web Ior innovative teaching and learning? Perhaps recent developments in open source courseware will Iorce
CMS vendors to develop and market more pedagogically engaging tools and resources.
This survey also Iorecasts enormous growth in online certiIication and recertiIication programs, as well as some
growth in associate's and master's degree programs during the coming decade. In terms oI technology, the study
reveals interest among online instructors in wireless technologies, simulations, digital libraries, and reusable content
objects. Perhaps we are entering a world where learning objects will be at our Iingertips. Learning objects on
diIIerent topics will likely be something you can grab like magazines and newspapers on the way into a plane, bus,
or train. In addition, as bandwidth increases with the next-generation Internet technologies and capabilities,
simulation and gaming tasks that online students engage in will be more realistic and authentic.

,ary or Dagther
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lm ready Lo sLarL
l swear Lo you wlLh all of my hearL

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Well pay Lhem wlLh love LonlghL

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Just shoot Ior the stars
II it Ieels right
And aim Ior my heart
II you Ieel like
And take me away and make it OK
I swear I'll behave

You wanted control
So we waited
I put on a show
Now I make it
You say I'm a kid
My ego is big
I don't give a shit
And it goes like this

Take me by the tongue
And I'll know you
Kiss me 'til you're drunk
And I'll show you

All the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger

I don't need to try to control you
Look into my eyes and I'll own you

With them moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger

'erse 2.]
Maybe it's hard
When you Ieel like you're broken and
Nothing Ieels right
But when you're with me
I'll make you believe
That I've got the key

So get in the car
We can ride it
Wherever you want
Get inside it
And you want to steer
But I'm shiIting gears
I'll take it Irom here (Oh! Yeah yeah!)
And it goes like this (Uh)

Take me by the tongue
And I'll know you (Uh)
Kiss me 'til you're drunk
And I'll show you

All the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger

I don't need to try to control you (Oh, yeah)
Look into my eyes and I'll own you

With them moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger (Yeah yeah)
I've got the moves like Jagger

You wanna know how to make me smile
Take control, own me just Ior the night
And iI I share my secret
You're gonna have to keep it
Nobody else can see this

So watch and learn
I won't show you twice
Head to toe, oooh baby rub me right
But iI I share my secret
You're gonna have to keep it
Nobody else can see this (Ay! Ay! Ay!

And it goes like this

Take me by the tongue (Take me by the
And I'll know you
Kiss me 'til you're drunk
And I'll show you (Yeah yeah yeah!)

All the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger
(Oh, yeah)
I don't need to try to control you
Look into my eyes and I'll own you

With them moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger
I've got the moves like Jagger