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ENAMEL

Enamel is the hardest calcified tissue of the body covering the Anatomic crown of the tooth Enamel Dentin Ectodermal Ectomesenchymal NonCollagenous Collagenous

2 types of specimen used for studying are:A. Decalcified section

B. Ground section
CHARACTERSTICS OF ENAMEL: They are Ectodermal in origin It is totally Acellular Organic matrix of enamel is unique Composed of enamel protein and is Non collagenous Enamel is produced as a result of both the secretory activity and resorptive activity(resorption of ameloblast) of epithelial cells which is lost in erupted tooth enamel Enamel do not have capacity to Regenerate/Repair Enamel is Avascular and Noninnervated

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ENAMEL:1. COLOUR: Colour ranges from Yellowish white to Greyish white Enamel is Transclucent;Transclucency is mainly attributed to High mineral content and Homogenity Greyish white teeth have more Opaque Enamel 2. HARDNESS: Hardness is 343 KHN Enamel is hard bcoz of high mineral content and Crystalline arrangement Hardness is maximum at Cusp tip and Incisal region and it decreases while Moving towards cervical region Surface enamel is harder than the enamel in deeper portion 3. BRITTLENESS:Enamel is highly brittle bcoz of its low Tensile strength Resilient dentin support is essential for Integrity of enamel

4. THICKNESS:
It varies over different parts of crown Maximum thickness (2-2.5mm) is observed at cusp tip/Incisal edge and thinnest at the Cervical portion where it ends as Feather edge Enamel is thicker in the lingual portion of maxillary molara and buccal portion of mandibular molar

5. PERMEABILITY:
Enamel is selectively permeable as it allows passage of selective molecules

6. DENSITY:
Density varies in different parts Density varies from surface to DEJ and from Incisal to Cervical Region

7. SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
Specific gravity of enamel is 2.8-3.1g/ml

8. REFRACTIVE INDEX:

1.62
9. MODULUS ELASTICITY:
It has higher modulus of elasticity

10.SOLUBILITY:
Surface enamel is less soluble Enamel is soluble in presence of acids

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:
It is Highly mineralized tissue Component By weight Inorganic 96% Organic 1% Water 3% Overall- 96% Inorganic & 4% organic INORGANIC COMPONENT: Basic inorganic component is Hydroxyappatite crystal Ca10 (PO4)6 .10H2O (HA) By Volume 89% 2% 9%

Other inorganic component are Calcium carbonate,Mg,K,Na, & F ORGANIC COMPONENT:Organic component of enamel is divided into 2 groups a. Amelogenin-90% b. NonAmelogenin-10%

AMELOGENESIS
The process of formation of enamel involves 2 steps:A. Matrix deposition B. Mineralization

A. ENAMEL MATRIX DEPOSITION: The secretory ameloblast are best suited for Synthesis and secretion of enamel protein ,starts the secretory function after a layer of dentin is deposited Enamel deposition begins in the cusp tips and incisal edges from which it progresses outward and cervically As the matrix deposition the ameloblast move Outwards always away from matrix In the Early stages of amelogenesis enamel matrix consist of 20-30% of proteins and the proportion of proteion gradually decreases during the process of mineralization Ameloblast synthesize and secrete enamel matrix which is composed of Enamel proteins such as AMELOGENIN( 3 % of enamel protein) and NON AMELOGENIN The Non amelogenin protein includes Enamelin Tuftelin Ameloblastin & Enzymes like Proteinases Amelogenin are located in the intercrystalline spaces and control the crystal growth Enamelins are closely attached to crystal surface and forms an envelope around indivivual crystals These Non amelogenin are thought to be regulating the nucleation of enamel crystals Thus Enamel proteins are participating in mineralization by promoting Nucleation /by regulating crystal growth Enamel secretion Takes place through two sites in tomes process 1. INTER-ROD growth region fromed by proximal ends of tomes process .This site is located adjacent to distal terminal bars all around the the cell and these results

in accumulation of enamel matrix b/w Adjacent tomes process to produce inter rod enamel 2. The other site of growth located at distal portion of tomes process is ASSOCIATED WITH FORMATION OF ENAMEL ROD At the border b/w ROD and the INTER ROD enamel is sheath like zone( PRISM SHEATH) Thus Tomes process is responsible for rod structure of enamel

B. MINERALIZATION OF ENAMEL MATRIX:


Its takes place in 2 steps Immediate partial mineralization Maturation Mineralization of enamel occurs extracellulary by the deposition of minerals in the secreted protein matrix During Enamel formation ameloblast are directly involved in both production of enamel matrix and mineralization The calcium required for enamel formation reaches through the circulation to the tissue fluid Ca from tissue fluid is actively transported into the cells (ameloblast) where it gets attached to the calcium binding protein Mineral deposition takes place in 4 Phases Primary mineralization Secondary Mineralisation Tertiary stages Hypermineralisation

a. b. c. d. e.

IMMEDIATE PARTIAL MINERALISATION


I. II. III. IV. The enamel matrix undergoes Immediate partial mineralization as soon as it is laid down During immediate partial mineralization 25-30% of total mineral content is deposited into the matrix Mineralization of enamel begins at DEJ where the Tuftelin,Ameloblastin and /or Enamelin are deposited on layer of dentin The initial enamel crystallites froms a needle or ribbon of minerals generally oriented perpendicular to DEJ

MATURATION:
I. II. III. Characterised by gradual completion of mineralization During maturation a massive reabsorption takes place by ameloblast together with rapid growth of Crytallites which grows in width and thickness to make large Enamel crystals The maturation process starts at DEJ and progresses towards the surface ,similarly it proceeds from cusp tips ,incisal edges to the cervical regions

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

STRUCTURE OF ENAMEL Enamel rods Dentinoenamel junction Enamel lamellae Enamel cuticle Enamel tufts Enamel spindles Hunter-schreger bands Neonatal lines and Incremental lines of Retzius Gnarled Enamel Surface structure of Enamel

ENAMEL RODS The fundamental units of enamel are rods and interrod enamel The rod and interrod enamel is built from closely packed and long ribbon like hydroxyapatite crystals The rod is shaped like a cylinder with a wide head portion, a neck and a thinner tail portion Each rod is formed by four ameloblasts Enamel rods are connected to one another in such a way that they appear like KEY HOLES /PADDLE SHAPED Head of one rod nestling against the necks of two neighbouring rods

Rods are formed nearly perpendicular to DEJ and curve slightly towards the cusp tip The follow a wavy course as the traverse from the DEJ to the surface of the crown The length of most rods is much longer than the thickness of enamel bcoz of Wavy course and of the rods and Oblique direction The diameter of the rod at the outer surface is double the diameter at DEJ(1:2)

Average diameter of rod is 3-4m but it varies since outer surface of enamel is greater than the dentinal surface of enamel where the rod originate Crystals that surround each rod are called interrod enamel Rod and interrod enamel is formed from the Tomes process of Ameloblasts

The boundary between rod and interrod enamel is marked by a narrow space filled with organic materials known as rod sheath They have crystalline appearance,Permitting Light to pass through them In Cross section they appear as FISH SCALES Body of enamel rod is toward Incisal/occlusal surface ,while tails points toward cervical region In the Innermost portion of enamel close to DEJ enamel does not have Rod structure similarly in the outermost 30 thick enamel the rod structureis absent/irregular D/T Absence of Tomes process during formation of Innermost and Outermost Enamel Appatite Crystals are parallel to long axis of the rods in their bodies and deviate about 650 to the tail of the prism In deciduous teeth at cervical and central parts they are in Horizontal direction,Near the Incisal edge /tip of the cusp they are in oblique direction In permanent teeth at Occlusal2/3rd they are Horizontal direction and Cervically they are in Apical direction Apatite crystals are Hexagonal structure with a length ranging from 600-1000 ,width of 400 and Thickness of 250 STRIATIONS: Each enamel rod is built up of segments separated by dark lines that gives it a striated appearance The striations are pronounced in enamel i.e they are insufficiently calcified These cross striations demarcate Rod segments

The Enamel rods are segmented bcoz Enamel matrix is formed in Rhythmic manner

DIRECTIONS OF ENAMEL RODS: The direction of movement of secretory ameloblast dictates the orientation of enamel rod in mature enamel Generally rods are oriented at Right angle to the dentin surface The enamel rods are arranged as: a. Horizontally in the mid portions