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Konsep Dasar Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja

Hendra H d

Pokok Bahasan
Definisi SMK3 Tujuan SMK3 Factor contributing and Barriers to effective FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffective OHSMS Elemen Umum SMK3

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Latar belakang sejarah g j


OHSMSmenjadi kunci sebagai strategi pencegahan pada pertengahan tahun 80an 80 an Dimulai pada Desember 1984,Tragedi Bhopal:Kebocoran tanki bahan kimia methylisocyanate yangmembunuh sekitar 2500 orang. Hasil investigasi mengindikasikan faktor yangberkontribusi g g y g terhadap kejadian tersebut adalahkurangnya perhatian terhadap:
disain dan proses plant Maintenancedan planttestingserta Maintenance dan plant testing serta alat pengaman Trainingdan emergencyplanning Sistem proteksi terhadap lingkungan penduduk di sekitar pabrik

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Definisi
Manajemen dapat didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan atau k t t keterampilan untuk memperoleh sesuatu h il il t k l h t hasil dalam rangka pencapaian tujuan melalui kegiatan kegiatan orang lain. lain. Manajemen merupakan suatu proses pencapaian tujuan secara efisien dan efektif,melalui pengarahan, penggerakan dan pengendalian kegiatankegiatan yang dilakukan oleh orangorang yangtergabung dalam suatu bentuk kerja sama.

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Definisi
OccupationalHealthandSafetyManagementSystem (OHSMS) (OHSMS) Sistem Manajemen K3 OHSMS as a combination of the planning and review, the OHSMSas acombinationoftheplanningandreview,the managementorganizationalarrangements,theconsultative arrangements,andthespecificprogramelementsthatwork togetherinanintegratedwaytoimprovehealthandsafety together in an integrated way to improve health and safety performance(Gallagher,2000)

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Definisi
Occupationalhealthandsafetymanagement system(OHSMS)
Thatpartoftheoverallmanagementsystem whichincludesorganizationalstructure,planning activities,responsibilities,practices,procedures, processesandresourcesfordeveloping, processes and resources for developing implementing,achieving,reviewingand maintainingtheOHSpolicy,andsomanagingthe maintaining the OHS policy and so managing the risksassociatedwiththebusinessofthe organization.
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Definisi
Occupationalhealthandsafetymanagement system(OHSMS) t (OHSMS)
Partoftheoverallmanagementsystemthat facilitatesthemanagementoftheOH&Srisks facilitates the management of the OH&S risks associatedwiththebusinessoftheorganization. Thisincludestheorganizationalstructure, planningactivities,responsibilities,practices, procedures,processesandresourcesfor developing,implementingachieving,reviewing developing implementing achieving reviewing andmaintainingtheorganizationsOH&Spolicy. (BSI011999/OHSAS180011999)
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Definisi
Occupationalhealthandsafetymanagementsystem (OHSMS)
Sistem Manajemen K3(SMK3)adalah bagian dari sistem manajemen secara k l h yangmeliputi struktur j keseluruhan li ti t kt organisasi,perencanaan,tanggung jawab,pelaksanaan, p prosedur,proses dan sumber daya yangdibutuhkan bagi ,p y y g g pengembangan,penerapan,pencapaian,pengkajian dan pemeliharaan kebijakan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja dalam rangka pengendalian risiko yangberkaitan dengan kegiatan kerja guna terciptanya tempat kerja yangaman, efisien,dan efektif.(Permen efisien dan efektif (Permen 05/MEN/1996)
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Definisi
Pada dasarnya SMK3merupakan implementasi ilmu dan fungsi manajemen dalam melakukan perencanaan perencanaan, implementasi,maupun evaluasi programK3di tempat kerja dalam suatu sistem.

Manajemen

K3

+
Manajemen K3 Sistem Manajemen K3 Sistem

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TujuandansasaranSMK3 j
Menciptakan suatu sistem keselamatan dan kesehatan k j di tempat k j d k h kerja kerja dengan melibatkan lib k unsur manajemen,tenaga kerja,kondisi dan lingkungan kerja yang terintegrasi dlam rangka yangterintegrasi mencegah dan mengurangi kecelakaan dan penyakit akibat kerja serta terciptanya tempat kerja yang j p y p j y g aman,efisien,dan efektif.

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SystemTypes y yp
SafetyPersonControlStrategy
Preventionstrategyfocusedonthecontrolof employeebehavior

SafePlaceControlStrategy
Preventionstrategyfocusedonthecontrolof hazardsatsourcethroughattentionatthedesign stageandapplicationofhazardidentification assessmentandcontrolprinciples

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SystemTypes y yp
TraditionalManagement
Thekeypersonsinhealthandsafetyarethesupervisorand/orOHSspecialist yp y p / p Alowlevelofintegrationofhealthandsafetyintobroadermanagement systemsandpractices(forexample,integrationofOHSwithingeneral proceduresorinterfunctionalactivities) Employee may be but their involvement is not viewed as critical for the Employeemaybebuttheirinvolvementisnotviewedascriticalforthe operationoftheOHSMS,oralternativelyatraditionalhealthandsafety committeeinplace.

InnovativeManagement
Seniorandlinemanagershavethekeyroleinhealthandsafety Ahighlevelofintegrationofhealthandsafetyintobroadermanagement systemsandpractices(withconnectOHStobusinessplanning,orquality/best systems and practices (with connect OHS to business planning or quality/best practicemanagementinitiatives) Employeeinvolvementisviewedascriticaltosystemoperationandthereare mechanisminplacetogiveeffecttoahighlevelofinvolvement.

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing A.TypeofSystem Customised to organisations needs toorganisation s Offtheshelfsystem imposedwithout Off the shelf system imposed without modification Barriers

Developedwithsupportandinvolvementofall Imposed byseniormanagementwithout organisation stakeholders consultation Safeplace/innovative system B.InternalOrganisational Factors (i)ManagementCommitment (i) Management Commitment Strongseniormanagementinvolvement O S S t oduced to p o e O S OHSMSintroducedtoimproveOHS Provisionofadequateresources OHSintegraltomanagement performance appraisals Leadingbyexample
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Safeperson/traditionalsystem

DelegatingofOHSresponsibilitytoline&OHS managementpositions Introduced&supportedfornonOHSreasons t oduced & suppo ted o o O S easo s Inadequateresources Limitedaccountabilitymechanisms Wordsunsupportedbypractice
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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing (ii)IntegrationintoManagementSystems Allorganisational functionsincorporate All organisational functions incorporate OHS (iii)EmployeeInvolvement Allemployeesencouragedandcapableof participation Independentrepresentationofemployees encouraged andsupported (iv)WorkforceCharacteristics Stableworkforce Highlabour turnover,extensivecasualandpart timeworkforce Relianceuponandexclusionoflabour the employeesfromOHSMS OHSrestrictedtotechnicalexperts Inadequatetraining ofemployeesinOHS&in Inadequate training of employees in OHS & in consultation Selectiveemployeeinvolvementat managementsdiscretion OHSMSactivitiesmarginalised OHSMS activities marginalised Barriers

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing C.NatureofOrganisation Largerorganisation familiarwithsystemand Larger organisation familiar with system and withadequate resources Sableworkplace Smallbussiness,withlimitedresourcesand Small bussiness with limited resources and unfamiliarwithsystemconcept Laborhirecompanywithemployeesworking betweenmultipleclientsites Disorganisation ofworkassociatedwith presenceoflabour hireemployeeand contractors Principalcontractorsmply requires subcontractortohaveOHSMS Principalcontractorsimplyimposestheir OHSMSonsubcontractor SubcontractorsOHSMSinconsistentwith principalsOHSMS Barriers

D.ContractorRelations D. Contractor Relations Principalcontractorworkswithsubcontractor todevelopcompatibleOHSMS

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FactorcontributingandBarrierstoeffectiveOHSMS
Factors Contributing E.AuditsandAuditTools Appropriatelyusedauditscanverifyand Appropriately used audits can verify and validateOHSMSandfacilitatecontinuous improvement Adequateaudittoolsaretailoredto organisational needsandreflectkeyOHSMS successfactors Auditprocessesarerobustandauditorsare technicallycompetent technically competent Auditsareintegratedwithinacomprehensive approachtomeasurement Inappropriatelyusedauditsencouragepaper Inappropriately used audits encourage paper systemsandan instrumentalistapproachto OHASMS Inadequateaudittoolssupportmediocare OHSMS Qualitystyle auditprocessesandinadequate auditorskilllimitauditcomprehensiveness auditor skill limit audit comprehensiveness Useofauditsastheprimarymeasurementtool Barriers

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Elemen ofOHSMS
DemingCycle
Plan

Action

Do

Check

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MainelementsoftheOSHmanagementsystem

Policy

Organizing

Action for improvement

Planning & implementation

Evaluation

ILO
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OH&S Management System Elements g

Continuousimprovement

OH&Spolicy Management review

Planning

Checkingand Checking and correctiveaction

Implementation l andoperation

BSI 1999
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Wassalam.

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