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Stress Analysis of

Infinite Plate with


Circular hole Cutout
Abstract:
In this paper the
elastostatic problem for
homogeneous isotropic infinite
plate with the loading at infinity (in
X and Y ) for circular hole is
solved .For this we have used the
Schawarzs alternating technique
given by Sokolnicoff and
Ukadgaonkar. After that the
analytical solution is used for
generation of code in C++ to find
out the stress components at a
given particular point and also the
code for generating the stress
distribution around the hole.
Keywords: Circular Hole, stresses
around hole,
Introduction:
The presence of
circular hole in plates and
machined components which are
subjected to loading introduces
stress concentration in the vicinity
of holes. Sudden changes in cross
section lead to stress concentration
at a localized point. It is impossible
to estimate the rise of stresses in
neighborhood of hole using
elementary theory of strength of
materials. The stress concentration
depends on geometry of
components, size of hole, and
loading condition. A classical
example is plate loaded with
tension which contains centrally
located hole is considered here.
The solutions in form of simple
analytical equations from the
method of complex variable
approach can give us the check
against the effect of change in the
parameter in design process.
Theoretical Solution:
Problem Definition:-
-Infinite Plate (neglecting edge
effect)
-Hole of radius=R
-Boundary Condition:


;
0;
0;
x
y
xy
P

Sol:
The above problem can be solved by
various methods. The elasto plastic
problem for homogeneous isotropic
plate with loading at infinity for
circular, elliptical, triangular,
rectangular holes and cracks are
solved using a novel method called
Schwarzs Alternating Method given by
Sokolnikoff and Ukadgaonkar with
successive approximations. Initially a
plate without any hole is considered.
The boundary condition on the hole
boundary is found out. To nullify this,
the negative of this boundary
condition is applied on the hole .The
solution of this problem is
superimposed on the first solution
which give the required closed form
solution.
By the method we can superposition
the two problems to get the final
solution.
First Problem Second
Problem
To obtain the boundary condition
for first problem can be found out
as given by the formula
( ) ( ) '( ) ( ) f t z z z z + +
For second problem boundary
condition can be imposed as

= f(t)
2
f(t)
1
First problem:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) { } z
z z
Y X
'
' '
Re

4
2

+ +
Putting the given boundary
condition and integrating we get
the
0
( ) / 4 z Pz


;
Now,
( )

'

+ +

) (
' ' '
z z i
z XY X Y
2 2
We get ,
0
( ) / 2 z Pz


;
0
2
() () '() ()
=P*(t/4) +t*(P/4) -P*(t/2)
=P*(t/2) - P*R/(2t)
t t t t t
f
+ +
(t is boundary point lie on hole)
. (t.t =R2)
Second Problem:

f(t)
2
=
f(t)
1
( )
1
2
1 ( )
2
1 1
2 2 ( )
f t d
i
Ptdt PR dt
i t z i t t z


Solving cauchys integral,
( )
2
1
P*R /(2z)


( )
( )
'
1
2
'
1
2 2
3
1 ( )
( )
2
1
[ ] ( )
2 ( )
1
( )
2
f t dt
z z
i t z
Pt dt PR dt
Z z z
i t z t t z
PR R
z z

+

+

Finally we get
0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) z z z

+

2
4 2
Pz PR
z
+
0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) z z z

+

2 2
3
1
( )
2 2
Pz PR R
z z
+ +
Finding stresses:
( ) { }
'
2
4Re
4 2
X Y
z
P PR
z
+
1

1
]
Separating real and imaginary part
and converting in polar form we get
2
2
2
1 cos 2
r
R
P
r




+
' ;

.(1)
(1)
( )
'' ' 2
2 2 ( )
i
r r
i z z e
z



+ +
' ;

Separating real and imaginary part
2 2 4
2 2 4
2 3
( 1 ) cos2
r
PR R R
P
r r r



+
' ;

2 4
2 4
2 3
1 sin2
2
r
P R R
r r



+
' ;

Solving equation 1 and 2 we get
2 4
2 4
3
(1 ) (1 )cos2
2
P R R
r r



+ +
' ;

2 2 4
2 2 4
4 3
(1 ) (1 )cos2
2
r
P R R R
r r r


+ +
' ;

2 4
2 4
2 3
1 sin2
2
r
P R R
r r



+
' ;

2 2
( *cos ) ( *sin ) (2 sin cos )
x
r r


+
2 2
( *sin ) ( *cos ) (2 sin cos )
y
r r


+ +
2 2
( )*cos *sin ) 2 (cos sin )
xy
r r


+
2) Problem Definition:-
-Infinite Plate (neglecting edge
effect)
-Hole of radius=R
-Boundary Condition:

0;
;
0;
x
y
xy
P

Sol:
By the method we can superposition
the two problems to get the final
solution.
+
First Problem Second
Problem
To obtain the boundary condition
for first problem can be found out
as given by the formula
( ) ( ) '( ) ( ) f t z z z z + +
For second problem boundary
condition can be imposed as

= f(t)
2
f(t)
1
First problem:
( ) ( ) { }
( ) { } z
z z
Y X
'
' '
Re

4
2

+ +
Putting the given boundary
condition and integrating we get
the
0
( ) / 4 z Pz


;
Now,
( )

'

+ +

) (
' ' '
z z i
z XY X Y
2 2
We get ,
0
( ) / 2 z Pz


;
0
( ) ( ) '( ) ( ) t z z z z
f
+ +
=Pt/4 + tP/4 + Pt/2
(t is boundary point lie on hole)
=Pt/2+ PR2/(2Z) (t.t
=R2)
Second Problem:

f(t)
2
=
f(t)
1
( )
1
1 ( )
2
f t d
i

2
1 1
2 2
P dt Ptdt
i t z i t z
R

+


Solving cauchys integral,
( )
1

= -PR2/(2z)
( )
'
1
1 ( )
( )
2
f t dt
z z
i t z


2
'
2 2
3
1
[ ] ( )
2 ( )
1
( )
2
Pt dt PR dt
z z
i t z t t z
PR R
z z

Finally we get
0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) z z z

+

2
4 2
Pz PR
z

0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) z z z

+

2 2
3
1
( )
2 2
Pz PR R
z z
+
Finding stresses:
( ) { }
'
2
4Re
4 2
X Y
z
P PR
z
+
1
+
1
]
Separating real and imaginary part
and converting in polar form we get
2
2
2
1 cos 2
r
R
P
r




+ +
' ;

(1)
( )
'' ' 2
2 2 ( )
i
r r
i z z e
z





+ +
' ;

Separating real and imaginary part
2 4 2
2 4 2
3 2
(1 ) cos2
r
PR R R
P
r r r



+ +
' ;

2 4
2 4
2 3
1 sin2
2
r
P R R
r r



+
' ;

(3)
Solving equation 1 and 2 we get
2 4
2 4
3
(1 ) (1 )cos2
2
P R R
r r



+ ++
' ;

2 2 4
2 2 4
4 3
(1 ) ( 1 )cos2
2
r
P R R R
r r r


+
' ;

2 4
2 4
2 3
1 sin2
2
r
P R R
r r



+
' ;

Computer Code for the
Analytical solution:
The above analytical
expressions are used to find out
stress filed around the hole. Also it
generates the text result file of all
the nodes (in the region which is
four times the hole radius)
information (all stress
components).
Results:
By adopting the
computer code we can find out the
stress at any given particular point
in the neighborhood of circular
hole. The result file so as
generated can be used for visual
display of result so obtain such as
meshing and then contour plot for
the stress components. Consider Plate
of 200 x 200 x 20 and circular hole at the
centre of plate of radius 10 mm. The model
is constrained on opposite sides of plate and
load is applied so as to get boundary
conditions
x
=200 for first case and
y
=
200 for second case at edge of plate (we
have assumed the boundary conditions at
infinity)
Table 6.3
Comparison of
Stresses by analytical & FEM
Loading in X direction
Point
Stres
s
Analytic
al
FEM
1
(10,0)

x
0

y
-200
2
(0,10)

x
600 484

y
0 1.65
Loading in Y direction
Point Stress
Analytic
al
FEM
1
(10,0)

x
0 1.65

y
600 484
2
(0,10)

x
-200 -3

y
0 32
Stress Plots with exact solution
Normal Stress
x
plot
References:
Muskhelishvili N. I., Some Basic
Problems of the Mathematical
Theory of Elasticity, P. Noordoff
Ltd., (1963).
Jess Comer, Julie Bannantine;
Fundamentals of metal fatigue
analysis.
A.E.H Love I. S., Mathematical
Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
university press.
Ukadgaonkar V. G. and P. J.
Awasare; A Novel Method of Stress
Analysis of an Infinite Plate with
Elliptical Hole with Uniform Tensile
Stress, IE (I) Journal-ME, Vol. 73,
pp. 309-311.
Complex Analysis, Complex
Variables, Advance Mathematics
Mohammed Ameen Computational
Elasticity Narosa Pub.