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CHAPTER 3 : SAFETY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Keselamatan semasa melakukan kerja dan semua peralatan seperti mesin, kimpalan dan juga barangan kimia sentiasa terdedah kepada jenis bahaya jika peralatan penyalahgunaan atau kerana yang cuai apabila menggunakan peralatan dan menjalankan kerja-kerja di kilang.Keselamatan dan undang-undang di sebuah kilang yang sangat wajib dan semua pekerja mesti berjaga-jaga dengan kaedahkaedah masa untuk mengambil keselamatan penjagaan sendiri untuk pekerja. Risiko yang melibatkan kemalangan, kehilangan nyawa dan kecederaan boleh dikurangkan jika kita mengikut peraturan-peraturan keselamatan.Ini juga boleh mencegah kerosakan mesin atau peralatan lain. Oleh itu, apa-apa kemalangan hendaklah dilaporkan dengan segera kepada orang-orang yang yang bertanggungjawab sama ada ia kemalangan kecil atau besar.

3.1.1 Step To Prevent General Accident

Their are four main factor to prevent any accident to happen inside a factory: 1. Working behavior

2. Own safety 3. Safety during operating machine equipment

4. Tidy work place

3.1.2 Working Behavior

Worker must have the spirit or power and a good working behavior when at the factory .This attitude can prevent accident. The example of good behavior is: 1. Clean and good appearance 2. Responsible 3. Tolerate with other worker 4. Concentrate and focuse when doing

3.1.3 Own Safety

1. Kemalangan biasanya berlaku kerana kecuaian kami dan tidak mengambil berat tentang aspek keselamatan sehingga kemalangan berlaku. Ini boleh menghalang jika kita mengikut peraturan-peraturan dan contoh kaedahkaedah: 1. Pakai kain yang sesuai dengan persekitaran kerja atau suitible dengan apa peralatan yang kita gunakan (Rajah 3.1.3). Pakaian keselamatan di bengkel kimpalan tidak sama dengan pakaian keselamatan yang kita gunakan di bengkel mesin pelarik. 2. Mesti kemas dan pendek. Berambut panjang adalah sangat berisiko kerana ia boleh menyebabkan rambut tersangkut di mesin contohnya di mesin pelarik atau mesin lain yang berputar. 3. Jangan bermain apabila di bengkel sama ada dengan rakan atau pekerja lain terutamanya apabila menggunakan mesin. Jangan gunakan barang kemas seperti cincin, kalung dan kerana boleh tersangkut pada peralatan mesin atau lain-lain 2. .

Figure 3.1.3 Safety Attire

2.1.4

Safety During Operating Machine Equipment

Their are many kind of safety rules and all of its depend on where is the place and what is the work. This chapter will only explain some of the main safety rules. Mainly, the accident when using a machine can be prevent with:

1. Every machine must have good or perfect earth connection to prevent short circuit and electric shock. This is ussually for welding machine. 2. Do not touch or play with sharp equipment like tool bit, grinding machine

. Figure 3.1.4 Safety Attire in welding

2.1.5

Tidy work place

A tidy and clean working enviroment not just can prevent accident from happen but increase the quality of work and even can save time to finish the work. A good working enviroment also make the worker more comfortable doing his or her work. Thus, this step must be taken:

1. Put back the equipment to its original or proper place after use. 2. Prevent the oil or slippery liquid to leak on the floor . If it leak, wipe it with a cloth until it cleans and not slippery. 3. Do not let the chip or metal scrap on the floor or area near the machine. 4. The workshop must have a proper ventilation and a workshop must also have a mark area to work mark with a lines or call safety line to divide walk way and work place. 5. A workshop must have a emergency exit. 6. A fire extinguisher also important and must be put at a location that easy to be seen and achieve.

Figure 3.1.5A Example of a slippery floor

Figure 3.1.5B Fire Extinguisher

3.2

THE IMPORTANCE ENVIROMENT

USING

SAFETY

EQUIPMENT

AND

CLEAN

Using a safety equipment like goggles, safety spectacles and clean enviroment is important to prevent any unwanted accident happen like:

3.2.1 Goggle

Goggle is a eye shield that is very important because It protect the eye from the spark of the weld during welding

Figure 3.2.1 A goggle

Use of goggle: 1. Prevent the eye to damage because the bright light that emites during the welding process. 2. Prevent from spark of the weld get into the eye or also during using a lathe machine because the chip from the work piece also can damage. 3. Save the eye from injury when an equipment or sharp tool get into our eye.

3.2.2

Safety Spectacle

Figure 3.2.2 The Use of safety spectacles during cutting process

The uses: 1. Safety spectacles uses is almost the same as goggle but safety spectacle is not suitable for welding. 2. Use to protect eye.

3.2.3 Clean Enviroment

Clean and tidy environment

of a working place will give a more comfortable

situation and also safe . For example, if the floor at the working areas is full with oil leak then this will cause danger and accident to happen . But,in a clean situation , we can prevent accident better because we know all the equipment is arrange in order and tidy.

3.2.4 Misuse of Safety Equipment

Cloth and safety equipment must be wear properly and also correctly . Besides that, it must be wear suitable with the work we do.If we do not use the safety attire properly than we have risk to get injure for example when we using a machine.

3.2.5 Gloves

Their are many kind of glove and a glove have many kind of shape , size and type that different arrange according to the uses. For example , gas welding glove is made from a rough material or leather but the sizes is small and thin . But as for arc welding gloves is made from hard material and bigger in size . The glove for the general use is made from rough thread. Therefore, when someone use the gas welding glove to do arc welding work the probability to get injure is high. This situation can happen because that glove is big enough to cover his or her wrist and the spark are able to touch the skin. The glove that not suitable is easy to get burn during the welding or when holding a hot material. Besides that, a gloves also easyly to stuck in grinding machine when it is use to sharpen the tool bit.

Figure 3.2.5 Glove that use for arc welding

3.2.6 Wiping Cloth

Wiping cloth should be use at suitable place like wiping the oil on tyhe floor , to wipe our hand and other. But sometime, this equipment can cause injury when it did not use properly and wrongly. For example, if it is use to wipe the chip at the lathe machine or the chip at the drill machine, the chip will stuck in the wiping cloth and the sharp chip can injure our hand. Wiping the work piece during lathe machine or drilling machine is spinning can cause injuries because the wiping cloth can get stuck and cause injuries.

3.2.7 Grinding Machine Without It Shield

The shield of the grinding machine is use to prevent the spark from the grinding wheel hit the user. Beside that, it also use to protection from flying work piece. The grinding machine without it shield is very dangerous.

3.2.8 Uncomplete Safety Attire

Safety attire must be wear properly and neatly . this is important to make sure safety is at it maximum level when a unwanted accident happen. If we use uncomplete safety attire, injury can happen. For example, if we wear apron not properly and we did not tied the apron , it can cause the apron the get stuck in a spinning machine and others.

Figure 3.2.8 Apron

3.2.9 Safety Boot

Safety boot is use to protect our foot from injuries from a sharp material for example nail.It also to design to resist a heavy load . It has a rubber base and usually made in leather. It has a steel material to cover our toes.

Figure 3.2.9 Safety Boot

3.2.10 Hard hat

A hard hat is compulsory when working in a construction industries. The use of this safety equipment is to protect our head from any falling object above us. It is very important because its protect our head and our head is the most important part of our body.

Figure 3.2.10 Hard Hat

3.2.11 Chemical Substance

The chemical can couse injuries if we inhale it or swallow it. This is some of the safety rules involving chemical substances: 1. If contact with eye, immediately wash with a lot clean water and get a medical help. 2. If contact with skin , wash it immediately with water. 3. If swallow , get medical attention immediately. 4. Use a suitable attire when facing with chemical work.

Figure 3.2.11 High Quality Rubber Glove for Chemical Industries

8.3 THE DIFFERENCE OF THE SAFETY FACTOR

The difference between own safety , equipment , arc welding machine, gas welding machine:

ARC BIL OWN SAFETY EQUIPMENT WELDING MACHINE

GAS WELDING MACHINE

To prevent 1. physically injuries

To prevent damage

To prevent damage

To prevent fire and explode

Make sure it is 2. Suitable attire in a good condition

Make sure it is in a good condition

Make sure it is in a good condition

Make sure it is 3. Wear safety attire in a good condition

Good ventilation system to prevent inhale of poison gas

Good ventilation system

The safety Good earth 4. Wear safety attire barrier is not connection broken

Check the equipment before uses and make no leakage

3.3

CONCLUSION

As the conclusion, safety rule is very important because it can save us from injuries and even save us from death. Therefore , follow the safety procedure to keep ourself in a safe condition. Remember the world definition for safety that is safety means no accident.