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Quadratic formula:

Pascals Triangle

Multiplied together the gradients of perpendicular lines is -1 Sin Tan = Cos S C T

Area of triangle (with height): A= b x h Area of triangle (without height): A= Sine Rule: Cosine Rule: a2 = b2 +c2 -2bc Cos (A)

cos2 = 1-sin2 1- cos2 = sin2 To work out the gradient in by drawing a simple triangle (with whole number points) is: How far it goes up divided by how far it goes across. Remembering if it goes down to put numbers, and if it goes to the left to put numbers as well. y2 y1 The gradient between two points: x2 x1

Distance between the points: Midpoint:

(x2-x1)2 + (y2-y1)2

Equation of a line: y - y1 = m (x - x1) Equation of a circle: Centre (a,b) (opposite sign before it to what is in the formula) Radius2: (x-a)2 + (y-b)2 To work out the crossing points of two lines you make them equal, put them over to one side, factorise/ use the formula. Solid lines are Included , Broken / dotted lines are not included < , > We use a process called differentiation to work out a rule for the gradient of a curve. We use dy/dx for the gradient not M When you differentiate what happens? Old power times the number before the thing. Then take 1 off the power. e.g. y = 12x14 dy/dx = 168x13 A normal meets a curve at a right angle so is perpendicular A tangent just touches the curve Stationary points are also known as turning points At a stationary point dy/dx = 0 To fund out the nature of a curve you differentiate again. If the nature is less than 0 then it is a maximum. If the nature is more than 0 then its a minimum If the nature is equal to 0 then you cant tell

When you integrate what happens? Power goes up. Divide by new power e.g. Y = x2 dy/dx = (x3)/3 When you integrate you need to remember the + C To find C you need a point on the curve What is the formula for finding the area underneath a curve?
b

Area = a y dx
3

y = x2

= 1 x2 dx
3 =[ ] x3

(substitute in the x values)


33 3

] 3[ ]
26
2 3

13

=3

= 8 u2 If there are two areas to find out then you: Find one, add it to the other. If the line does not cross the x-axis twice then..: Find the area underneath the top curve, then the area underneath the lower curve. Take the area underneath the top curve away from the area underneath the bottom curve. Kinematics formulas: 1. v = u + at 2. s =
(u + v) t 2

3. s = ut + a(t)2 4. v2 = u2 + 2as

What do these stand for and what are their units What it is S = Displacement (distance) U = Initial velocity V = Final velocity A = Acceleration T = Time units metres metres per second metres per second Metres per second2 Seconds m/s m/s m/s2 ms-1 ms-1 ms-2

What does (in mathematical terms) retardation mean? Slowing down negative acceleration What does uniform acceleration mean? Constant acceleration Differentiate Differentiate S (distance) V (final velocity) A (acceleration) Integrate Integrate