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International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 06

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EFFECTS OF COMBED AND CARDED YARN ON WEFT KNITTED FINISHED FABRIC QUALITY
Nasrin Akter, 2Nahida Akter Department of Textile Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology 141-142, Love Road, Tejgaon I/A, Dhaka 1208, Bangladesh
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Abstract: Yarn is the fundamental unit of fabric. Yarn contains a lot of properties (variables) which can affect knitted fabrics finished quality. Carded and combed yarns of same count have many different properties because of different manufacturing process. Combed yarn is of superior quality and carded yarn is of inferior quality. The main purpose of this paper is to find out or investigate carded and combed yarn effect on knitted fabric finished quality such as G.S.M, Shrinkage, Spirality, Pilling properties and Color fastness properties. Keywords: Combed, Carded, Single jersey, Rib, Interlock, G.S.M, Spirality, Shrinkage, Color fastness etc.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Yarns are the raw materials manipulated during knitting [2].An experienced knitter will describe many yarn properties and knitting variable, all of which, from his experience, affect the characteristics of knitted fabrics. Any of these he may find it necessary to adjust or control in order to obtain a finished fabric of the required physical properties [6]. The main yarn properties are yarn count and yarn twist. Both are of prime importance in the design of textile structures and, to a large extent, they govern the appearance and behavior of the various types of yarns and fabrics [1]. Yarn Count is the numerical expression of fineness. According to Textile Institute the number indicating the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn is called count [1]. Generally combed yarn strength is higher than carded yarn of the same count [3]. Yarn twist is the spiral turns given to the yarn in order to hold constituent fibres threads together. Highly twisted yarn is Lively and tends to twist upon it and produce Snarls fabrics produces from highly twisted yarns will possess a lively handle. An increase in the amount of twist produces an increase in the yarn strength, if yarn strength is increase, the fabric strength will be increased [1]. Normally combed yarns are stronger, less hairy, more uniform and more lustrous than carded yarns [4]. Knit fabric strength is depends upon yarn strength and stitch length. Fabric quality means different properties of finished fabric which depends on yarn properties and fabrics construction [2]. The properties which are important for knitted fabric and maintained in the industries from grey stage to finished stage are G.S.M, dimensional stability, pilling properties and color fastness properties. In this research, these fabric properties were compared after finishing for a same count carded and combed yarn and the possibility of uses carded yarn in place of combed yarn was analyzed. Carded yarn production process is easier than combed yarn production process and carded yarn is also cheaper than combed yarn [3].

II.

SAMPLE PREPARATION

Same count of combed and carded yarn was collected from spinning mill considering other properties. Yarn evenness was tested by Premier 9000 (Hairiness, CV%, Um%, Thick place, Thin place, Neps etc). Collected 26 Ne carded and combed yarn for producing single jersey fabric. 28 Ne and 30 Ne carded and combed yarn was taken for producing rib and interlock structure fabric. Knitting machine parameters such as stitch length, number of feeders, take-down tension and cam arrangement were individually set for single jersey, rib and interlock structure fabric. Same structure fabrics were produced in same knitting parameters in same machine by using same count carded and combed yarn. Here 2.67mm stitch length was used for producing single jersey fabric. Two single jersey specimens were found with different grey G.S.M. The

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samples were delivered for dyeing after measuring grey G.S.M. Dyeing process was done in same bath in same dyeing condition and same dyeing recipe for comparing finished fabric properties. Samples were finished in same procedure and same finishing parameters after completing dyeing and obtained two samples with different finished G.S.M. Then rib and interlock structure fabric were produced by using 2.52mm and 1.8mm stitch length, in rib knitting machine and interlock knitting machine. Equal knitting parameters were used for carded and combed yarn of same count (individual for rib and interlock structure). As a result four samples were obtained of rib and interlock structure. Then the samples were dyeing in equal dyeing condition and same bath in same dyeing recipe (individual for rib and interlock fabric). Final samples were found for rib and interlock structure after finishing (in same finishing parameter, individual for rib and interlock).

III.

EXPERIMENTAL

Knitting requires a relatively fine, smooth, strong yarn with good elastic recovery properties. The carded yarn is particularly used for knitwear, underwear and socks and combed yarn is used for underwear, sportswear and socks. Four primary structures-Plain, Rib, Interlock and Purl are the base structures from which all weft knitted fabrics and garments are derived [2]. In this work study single jersey (Plain), rib and interlock structure fabric were produced by using same count carded and combed yarn. A same count carded and combed yarns have many different properties which influence fabric quality. Here this yarn effect was observed on fabric physical properties like G.S.M, shrinkage, spirality and fabric pilling resistance as well as some chemical properties like color fastness to wash, color fastness to light and color fastness to rubbing. The resistance to the loss of color of any dyed or printed material during washing is referred to as its color fastness to wash. If dye molecule have not penetrated inside the inter polymer chain space of fibre with strong attractive force poor color fastness to wash result is found [5]. For color fastness to wash test ISO 105 C06 (C2S) method was followed. Color fastness to light measures the resistance to fading of dyed textiles materials when exposed to day light [5]. Mercury-Tungsten Lamp was used for light fastness test by ISO 105 B01 method. Color fastness to rubbing /crocking was designed to determine the degree of color which may be transferred to a specific pressure applied by crock meter .This test was done in both dry and wet state. The crocking cloth against which the test sample would be rubbed was a white, unbleached, undyed cotton fabric. In crocking cloth, 100% pick-up was maintained for wet rubbing. Color fastness to rubbing has little effect on carded and combed yarn because the hairiness of carded yarn is more than combed yarn. Color fastness to rubbing was tested by Crock meter in ISO105 X12:1992 method. Pills are formed in fabric by entangling the loose fibres or hairy fibres. When the garment undergoes wear & washing these pills are formed on the fabric surface. Pilling is a fabric surface fault which gives the garment unsightly appearance [1]. Carded and combed yarns have great effect for forming pills on fabric surface. Pilling is tested by Martindale Abrasion & Pilling Tester by using SN 198525 method and 11000 cycles were used for every specimen. Every sample when undergoes washing most of the cases they change their dimension. In general sense the changes in length or width of a fabric specimen subjected to specify condition is known as dimensional changes. The dimensional changes resulting in an increase of length or width is called stretched condition if the dimensional changes result in decrease of length or width is called shrinkage [1]. At first all the samples were conditioned for 4 hours in a standard temperature & RH% and the length and width of the samples were measured before washing. After wash, again the length and width of the samples were measured for identify the stretch or shrinkage%. More hairy and more twisted carded yarn produced higher fabric shrinkage than that of combed yarn. Spirality is a particularly serious problem for plain knitted fabrics due to asymmetric loops. Spirality is described by the size of the angle made between the Wales and a line drawn perpendicular to the courses. Spirality in a fabric is caused by the relaxation of torsion forces in the yarn which causes the individual fibres twisted round each other during spinning, to try and returns to their original untwisted state. It is known that a fabric knitted with a highly twisted yarn will have higher spirality [7]. Carded yarn T.P.I is more than combed yarn. AATCC 179 method was used for measuring spirality. The term G.S.M of fabric means the weight of the fabric in grams per square meter (Weight per unit area) [1]. G.S.M is the most important parameter which is maintained in the factory or industry. It is maintained in the all stages in the processing of knit fabric. It is also measured

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after dyeing, before dyeing and every stages of finishing process like stentering, compacting etc. G.S.M. is measured by G.S.M cutter. Here grey G.S.M were measured in the knitting stages and finished G.S.M were measured after finishing for comparing them.

IV.

DATA ANALYSIS
Table 1: Data for color fastness to wash (Color change) Combed interlock 4-5 Carded interlock 4-5

Fabric type Rating

Combed s/j 4-5

Carded s/j 4-5

Carded rib 4-5

Carded rib 4-5

Table 2: Data for color fastness to wash (Staining) Fibre composition Rating for combed s/j Rating for carded s/j Rating for combed rib Rating for carded rib Rating for combed interlock Rating for carded interlock
[[[

Di-acetate 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

Bleached Cotton 4-5 4-5 4 4 4 4

Polyester 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

Polyamide 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

Acrylic 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

Wool 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

Table 3: Data for color fastness to light Fabric type Rating Combed s/j 4-5 Carded s/j 4-5 Combed rib 4-5 Carded rib 4-5 Combed Interlock 4-5 Carded Interlock 4-5

Table 4: Data for color fastness to rubbing (Staining) Fabric type Rating for dry rub Rating for wet rub Combed s/j 4-5 3-4 Carded s/j 4-5 3 Combed rib 4-5 3-4 Carded rib 4 3-4 Combed Interlock 4-5 4-5 Carded Interlock 4-5 4-5

Table 5: Data for pilling test (11000 cycles were used for every sample) Fabric type Rating Combed s/j 4 Carded s/j 3-4 Combed rib 3-4 Carded rib 3 Combed Interlock 4 Carded Interlock 3-4

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Table 6: Data for Shrinkage% Fabric type Length wise Shrinkage% Width wise Shrinkage% Combed s/j -5 1.8 Carded s/j -6.5 2 Combed rib -4 10.5 Carded rib -2 8.5 Combed Interlock -4.6 4.8 Carded Interlock -4.3 5.1

Table 7: Data for G.S.M. Fabric type Grey G.S.M Finished G.S.M Combed s/j 156 189 Carded s/j 154 179 Combed rib 168 229 Carded rib 165 220 Combed Interlock 220 260 Carded Interlock 216 250

Table 8: Data for Spirality (single jersey fabric) Fabric type Degree Combed s/j 6 Carded s/j 7

V.

RESULTS

Figure-01: Carded and combed yarn effect on color fastness to wash (color change)

Figure-02: Carded and combed yarn effect on color fastness to wash (staining on bleached Cotton)

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Figure-03: Carded and combed yarn effect on color fastness to light

Figure-04: Carded and combed yarn effect on color fastness to rubbing In figure-01, 02 and 03, it is clearly observed that the finished knit fabrics made by carded yarn and combed yarn have no significant change due to color fastness to wash and color fastness to light. But in case of color fastness to rubbing, a little effect is found on finished knit fabric made by a same count carded and combed yarn. Some cases combed yarn shows better result than carded yarn. In figure-04, gives the clear conception about the color fastness to rubbing.

Figure-05: Carded and combed yarn effect on pilling In figure: 05, it is easily observed that the overall pilling test effect of single jersey, rib and interlock fabric produced by combed yarn gives better result than same count carded yarn.

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Figure-06: Carded and combed yarn effect on shrinkage In figure: 06, it is clearly observed that shrinkage of all types of fabric produced from carded yarn is more than that produced from combed yarn. While the yarn count is same.

Figure-07: Carded and combed yarn effect on spirality In figure-07, it is clearly observed that spirality in the fabric produced from combed yarn is lower than that produced from carded yarn.

Figure-08: Carded and combed yarn effect on G.S.M. In figure-08, it is clearly observed that combed yarn produces higher G.S.M. fabric than carded yarn while using the same count for both the yarn types.

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VI.

CONCLUSION

The analytical result reveals that carded yarn can easily be used in place of combed yarn by changing some knitting parameters. For this, production cost will be decreased because carded yarn production cost is generally lower than combed yarn. Carded and combed yarns of same count have many different properties which affect on fabric properties. This study work was analyzed a few number of yarn properties and fabric properties. There are further scopes to work on the comfort characteristics like absorption characteristics, thermal conductivity, fabric handle properties etc. The result of our simple bar diagram shows that using same count of carded yarn and combed yarn fabric have no change occur in terms of color fastness to wash and light. There is a little effect on color fastness to rubbing, pilling resistance, shrinkage properties and spirality. Combed yarns are stronger, less hairy and more uniform than carded yarns. That is why, combed yarns shows better result on color fastness to rubbing, pilling resistance and shrinkage properties than carded yarns. Spirality is particularly measured for single jersey fabric. Carded yarn single jersey fabric shows more spirality than combed yarn single jersey fabric because of high twist. Carded yarn and combed yarn have great effect on G.S.M. More loose hairy fibres are removed from carded yarn by knitting process and pretreatment process than combed yarn. As a result fabric produced from combed yarn shows more G.S.M than fabric produced from carded yarn after finishing. In our analysis, G.S.M differences of carded yarn fabric and combed yarn fabric in grey and finished stage vary from 2 to 10 respectively. From this discussion, it can be said that in case of producing fabric from carded yarn should maintain higher G.S.M. than combed yarn fabric to achieve same finished G.S.M.

VII.

REFERENCE

[1] J.E. Booth Principles of Textile Testing, India: CBS publishers and Distributors, 1996, pp.209-235 [2] David. J. Spencer Knitting Technology, Cambridge: Woodhead, 2008, pp.1-61 [3] Klein. W. Manual of Textile Technology, UK: The Textile Institute, 2008, pp, 286-289. [4] D.B. Ajgaonkar Knitting Technology, .New Delhi: Universal Publishing Corporation, 2006, pp.180181 [5] E.R. Trotman Dyeing and chemical Technology of Textile Fibres, London: Charles Griffin and Company Ltd., 1975, pp, 616-626 [6] Munden, D.L. The Geometry and Dimensional Properties of Plain Knit Fabrics Journal of the Textile Institute,50,1959.T448-471. [7] Banerjee, P.K. and Alaiban, T.S. Geometry and Dimensional Properties of Plain Loops, Made of Rotor Spun Cotton Yarns Textile Res. J. 58(5): 287-290 (1988).

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