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# APPLICATION OF PIGEON HOLE The pigeonhole principle arises in computer science.

For example, collisions are inevitable in a hash table because the number of possible keys exceeds the numb er of indices in the array. A hashing algorithm, no matter how clever, cannot av oid these collisions. The principle can also be used to prove that any lossless compression algorithm, provided it makes some inputs smaller (as the name compre ssion suggests), will also make some other inputs larger. Otherwise, the set of all input sequences up to a given length l could be mapped to the (much) smaller set of all sequences of length less than l, and do so without collisions (becau se the compression is lossless), which possibility the pigeonhole principle excl udes. APPLICATION OF GENERATING FUNCTION Find a closed formula for a sequence given in a recurrence relation. For example consider Fibonacci numbers. Find recurrence relations for sequences the form of a generating function may sugg est a recurrence formula. Find relationships between sequences if the generating functions of two sequences have a similar form, then the sequences themselves may be related. Explore the asymptotic behaviour of sequences. Prove identities involving sequences. Solve enumeration problems in combinatorics and encoding their solutions. Rook p olynomials are an example of an application in combinatorics. Evaluate infinite sums.

APPLICATION OF BIG O NOTATION Big O notation has two main areas of application. In mathematics, it is commonly used to describe how closely a finite series approximates a given function, esp ecially in the case of a truncated Taylor series or asymptotic expansion. In com puter science, it is useful in the analysis of algorithms. In both applications, the function g(x) appearing within the O(...) is typically chosen to be as simp le as possible, omitting constant factors and lower order terms. There are two f ormally close, but noticeably different, usages of this notation: infinite asymp totics and infinitesimal asymptotics. This distinction is only in application an d not in principle, however the formal definition for the "big O" is the same for both cases, only with different limits for the function argument.

APPLICATION OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 1)Two-valued logic Boolean algebra as the calculus of two values is fundamental to digital logic, c omputer programming, and mathematical logic, and is also used in other areas of mathematics such as set theory and statistics 2_Boolean operations The original application for Boolean operations was mathematical logic, where it

## combines the truth values, true or false, of individual formulas

iclusion exclusion 1)counting prime numbers 2)A well-known application of the inclusion exclusion principle is to the combinat orial problem of counting all derangements of a finite set 3)The principle of inclusion exclusion, combined with de Morgan's theorem, can be used to count the intersection of sets as well. SEMIGROUP 1)Transformation semigroups are of essential importance for the structure theory of finite state machines in automata theory 2)Krohn Rhodes theory, sometimes also called algebraic automata theory, gives powe rful decomposition results for finite transformation semigroups by cascading sim pler components REAL WORLD EXAMPLES 1) AND gate examples: Electronic door will only open if it detects a person and the switch is set to u nlocked. Microwave will only start if the start button is pressed and the door close swit ch is closed. 2) NOT gate examples: Microwave will stop if the door is not closed. House alarm will go off if the door is not closed. Traffic light will operate normally if it's not in maintenance mode. 3) XNOR gate: Now, that's a hard one. What will happen so long as it is not the case that exac tly one of two things are true? Children will be content unless one has gotten their allowance and the other has n't. Landing gear position okay light will extinguish if landing gear position and lo w engine speed sensor disagree.