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Fuller Theological Seminary

Adult Ministry Evangelism Plan

A Paper

Presented in Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Course

EV514 Urban Evangelism

Dr. Ralph Watkins


Jack Hakimian

Fall 2006
Table Contents

Introduction 2

Urban Context: Research of the City 2

Population 2

Target Age 3

Economics 4

Housing 5

Education 5

Historical & Spiritual Background 6

Survey Questions 8

Outreach Plan: Based on Context & Theology 8

Works: Tangible Love 8

Contextual & Socratic 9

Kingdom Initiation 9

Conclusion 10

Bibliography 11


I am currently the college and career youth pastor (18-24) at Christian Outreach

for Armenians Church, in the city of Burbank. After taking this Urban Evangelism

class I have come to realize how our church is not effectively engaging the needs

of the city and reaching young adults ages 25 to 44. Due to the challenge of this

“Evangelism Plan” project I felt compelled to focus my research and outreach

towards the unchurched English speaking Armenian populace who make up this

age range. In this plan, I will combine demographic research, historical facts,

spiritual mapping, survey results, and evangelism principles learned in my course

of study to formulate a practical and workable plan for the church.

Urban Context: Research of the City


During the 2000 census, the city population was 194,973. According to the State

of California the estimates are now 206,308.1 Since 1980 there has been an

increase of over 55,000 people.2 This makes Glendale the third largest city in Los

Angeles County and the seventeenth largest city in the state of California.3 Out of

a population of about 206,308 people 26% of them are Armenian. That equals

about 53, 640 persons. According to the LA Times:

“Glendale is home to 85,000 Armenian Americans. The surge in immigration began

in the 1970s and has fundamentally altered the city”.


The rest of the ethnicities are as follows: Mexican (11%), Korean (7%), Filipino

(6%), German (6%), Irish (5 %), English (5%), Iranian, Italian (3%) and so on. 5

Concerning the density, the city website writes:

“The population density in the city has also increased over time as available
land has been developed. The overall density for the city is 6,373 people per
square mile, but this varies widely--hillside areas have densities as low as
1,133 people per square mile while some Census tracts near downtown
exceed 30,000 people per square mile.”6

The city is experiencing amazing growth, most likely due to its closeness to

Downtown Los Angeles and the job opportunities the city provides. Additionally,

most Armenians don’t want to experience what Cashin calls “integration

exhaustion”, so they keep moving into Glendale where they sense a greater

feeling of community.7 The church can capitalize on this density by providing

ministries that are close to the downtown area and provide an entertaining,

refreshing experience. Also, the church can capitalize on the homogenous nature

of the Armenian through contextualization.

Target Age

The target age range of this young adults evangelism plan is ages 25 to 44. Out

of the population of 206,308 people 32.2% of them are in the age range of 25 to

44. That means 62,866 of the population make up this target range. In fact the

average age of the city is 38.17. That means if we really want to make a

difference for Christ we need to target this age range that pretty much dominates

Sheryll Cashin. The Failures of Integration: How Race and Class Are
Undermining the American Dream. New York, NY: Public Affairs, 2004, pg 9.

the city.8 If a church wants to grow it must attract this age group of adults to

Christ and His church.


In Glendale 96,399 (61.2%) of the population who are 16 and over are in the

labor force. These workers spend about 25 minutes on average traveling back

and forth to work. 9 People ages 25 to 34 make around 41,642. In comparison

to the state average which is 44,424 and the national average which is 41,414

their income is lacking because the cost of living in most states is much less

expensive. People ages 35-44 make around 47,322. In comparison to the state

average which is 54,365 and the national average which is 50,654, there

income is greatly lacking. City states, “The median household income for

Glendale lags behind that of other local cities and even the County”.10 Churches

have to consider how they establish programs that relieve people from paying

high prices for service. Also churches have to work with the city and private

business sector to change the financial climate for the good. By doing this the

church will become “good news” to this age group.11

Galatians 2:10; Acts 9:36; Acts 10:31; Luke 18:22


The total housing units in Glendale are 73,713. Renter-occupied housing units

are 44,263, which makes up 60.0% of the cities housing. That California average

of renter-occupied housing in a city is 40.6%. The nation is 30.8%. That means

Glendale in comparison to other cities has an extremely high number of renters.

My question is who makes up most of the renters in comparison to homeowners?

Also, the average household size has increased in the city of Glendale. The cities

explanation is,

“Some of the causes for the increase in household size may include an
increase in the prevalence of extended families due to recent immigration,
an increase in births, and the high cost of housing. A high cost of housing
may cause young adults to continue to live with parents, or unrelated
persons can share a housing unit to cut living expenses such as rent or
utilities” 12

This tells me that an adult could be discouraged of marriage and child bearing

due to the great financial strain. Also, there is a need for both parents to work

which creates a problem for children and teenagers. The church has to find ways

to help relieve their burden with possible low cost child-care, pre-schools and

after church programs. Also, the church can help educate couples and singles on

how to manage money in such an expensive community.


In Glendale 25,871 of the residents are high school graduates, which make up

19.2% of the population. 37,506 have some college, or associate's degree, which

makes up 27.8% of the residents. 28,149 of the resident have a Bachelor's


degree, which makes up 20.8% of the population. Those with Master's,

professional or doctorate degree are 15,139, which is 11.2% of the population.

These statistics show that almost half of the population does not even have a

completed Bachelor’s degree which is essential in our day and time and could be

problematic for the cities future.

Historical & Spiritual Background

In examining the historical data of the city my goal was to find

spiritual patterns that will be helpful for spiritual prayer warfare. Barna


“A church that strives to evangelize its community without saturating

its efforts in prayer is like a race-car driver that jumps into his car at the
stating line and discovers that the tank has not been filled with gasoline”.13

Specifically we were looking for patterns of human behavior, the presence of

aberrant Christian groups or cults, and major historical news that would give us

insight into the activities of Satan and his forces (Ephesians 6:12). Historical

sources reveal that the city of Glendale was conceived in racism and greed.

White racist farmers tried to take away the land through intimidation from the

Mexican landowners of Glendale, Burbank and Eagle Rock. In the book Glendale

Community Book it reads:

“During the pastoral days of California, the land held by Don Jose Verdugo
enjoyed peace but by 1846, the influx of white settlers had become an armed
invasion. The Mexican rulers unified against the invaders, termed Yankees,

George Barna. Evangelism That Works. Ventura, Ca: Regal Books, 1995, pg

but without trained armies, they fought a losing battle. In 1847 Gov. Pio Pico
capitulated and the Days of the Dons were on the wane.” 14

After the covetous attempts of seizure failed a greedy Jewish banker stripped the

Verdugo family of their land by issuing them in a moment of desperation a high

percentage loan. 15 A Glendale Historian explains the details:

“The breakup of the great Rancho Rafeal was attributed to an event which
the owners at the time probably looked on as a minor financial transaction.
As had been emphasized, there was little “cash money” available in those
times. Money was wanted, some report say for the Portosueo house.
Anyway, Julio ad his wife borrowed $3,445.34, such an odd amount hinting
at the sum including the cost which the pair had to pay in conducting the
transaction. They got the loan from Jacob Elias and were allowed two years
to pay. Interest was at 3 percent a month, compounded. Interest of 36
percent a year compounded was a stiff charge for the money secured but it
is doubtful if Julio could have done any better elsewhere. The loan was
abstained in 1861. When the note came due and Julio couldn’t pay, a
foreclosure action was instituted. In 1864, the trial court awarded Elias
$10,795. The judgment also granted Julio a homestead, carved for the
rancho. Elias protested that he should get all and appealed the case. On
retrial the court’s decision, rendered in 1865, gave Elias $15,955.02, plus
interest at 3 percent a month. Julio was willing to accept the first judgment,
partly because he was demanding a homestead and the treatment failed it on
him. The final decision came in 1869-four years later, by which the
accumulated interest, fees and other charges raised the judgment to a grand
total of $58,750 in repayment of a $3,440 loan.”16

On a more religious level, the Masons had a strong influence in the growth of the

city.17 It seems they grew in influencing the cities direction more then the white

protestant churches. So it is clear that the enemy from the beginning of the cities

foundation has been working through the areas of greed, racism, classism and

C. W. Parcher, Glendale Community Book (Glendale: California: John W. Akers, 1957) pg 1.
. Caswell Perry E Parcher & Carroll W.. Glendale Area History (Glendale: California: Eric
Schneirsohn Xanadu Galleries Publishing,1981) pg 27.
Caswell Perry E Parcher & Carroll W, pg 27.
Caswell Perry E Parcher & Carroll W,pg 103.

Masonic influence which tend to neutralize the propagation of the gospel

amongst business men who shape the city.18

Survey Questions

Second aspect of the evangelism plan will also include a survey of a 100

unchurched people ages 25 to 44. The survey will include open ended questions

about religious background, opinions about church, cultural affiliation, styles of

music, dress, entertainment, education, vocation, recreation, and subjects most

concerned about. I did a scouting project of 15 to 20 Armenians ages 25-40

hanging out at a Hookah lounge during the week that was helpful in

understanding their entertainment taste. For my scouting notes please read the

attached report.

Outreach Plan: Based on Context & Theology

As I develop the outreach plans I want to take into consideration the urban

context of the city and clear theological principles we have learned through class

discussions and personal reading.

Tangible Love

Firstly, based on the social context of Glendale it is important for our church to

get involved with the cities social issues.19 Many in our target range are making

income below average, so raising children and affordable housing is a problem.20

John 8:44
Sheryll Cashin, pg 316.

Jill Susanne Shook in her book Making Housing Happen: Faith-based Affordable

Housing Models argues,

“The world is crying out for a church that tangibly demonstrates a love
that breaks across all racial and economic barriers. Affordable housing puts
a tangible and visible structure on love”.21 In this book she also provides
examples of how faith based organizations have gotten involved in their
community to show God’s tangible love.22

Contextual & Socratic

Secondly, we need a highly contextual approach in our communication, art,

worship setting and subject matters.23 Concerning the method of communication

we should employ the Socratic method with this target group. The research I

noted earlier showed that half of the residents have a bachelors degree and

higher. 24 That means that educated people tend to have issues and questions

that sometimes the church’s does not address, because it still uses the lecture

style for analytical modernist thinkers. George Barna research are insightful,

“Busters love to dissect reality, to argue about it, to reflect on the argument
they have heard and to draw conclusion for further debate. Busters, in
general, love to talk”25

Kingdom Initiation

Thirdly we need to initiate these young adults into the kingdom and not just our

churches. We can do this by teaching the people: conversion, baptism, morality,

Shook, Jill Suzanne. Making Housing Happen: Faith-Based Affordable Housing Models St.
Louis, Missouri: Chalice Press, 2006, pg 4.
James 2:14-17
George G. Hunter. Church for the Unchurched. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1996, pg 32.
George Barna, pg 115.

the creed, the gifts of the Spirit and the spiritual practices for personal growth.

When we emphasize “initiation into the kingdom” which is more of a lifestyle then

a one time act, we will see the results leading to a greater quality of committed

disciples.26 Just merely proclaiming the gospel is not enough, we must invite

people into a radical new lifestyle of a community worship were they can grow

and see people like them worshipping God. As Abraham writes concerning the

Apostles work,

“….they were involved in laying the foundations of Christian faith

and practice; they were not content to spread the word as assiduously
as time and talent would permit. They were keen to see that those who
responded became part of a community; and it is difficult to see how
this would be possible without a fair amount of instruction and


I think as we integrate the research about the city, with our field surveys, and

theological principles of evangelism we will see an adult ministry emerge with

great spiritual and social impact upon the city. Jesus was aware of his mission

field and the oppressive sociological and spiritual factors (Luke 4:18; Matthew

9:35-38; Luke 18:2-3). He engaged the people contextually and used language

words that resonated with them (Mark 6:2). As we apply His strategy and obey

His voice we will see great results in the task of “Urban Evangelism”!

"I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting," he replied. "Now get up and
go into the city, and you will be told what you must do" (Acts 9:5-6)

Abraham, William J. The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids, Michigan:
Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989, pg 108.
Abraham, William J, pg 51,52.



Abraham, William J. The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids, Michigan:

Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989.

Barna, George. Evangelism That Works. Ventura, Ca: Regal Books, 1995.

Cashin, Sheryll. The Failures of Integration: How Race and Class Are
Undermining the American Dream. New York, NY: PublicAffairs, 2004.

Hunter, George G. Church for the Unchurched. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press,

Parcher, E. Caswell Perry & Carroll W. Glendale Area History. Second Edition
ed. Glendale: California: Eric Schneirsohn Xanadu Galleries, 1981.

Sherer, John Calvin. History of Glendale and Vicinity. Glendale: California: The
Glendale History Publishing Company, 1922.

Shook, Jill Suzanne. Making Housing Happen: Faith-Based Affordable Housing

Models St. Louis, Missouri: Chalice Press, 2006.

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