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RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ABBOTT

Term Report
1. M. HASSAAN AHMED KHAN (1948) 2. BILAL AHMED PARACHA(2228) 3. WAQAS SALEEM (2142) 4. M. SAAD KHAN (2074) 5. ABDUL RASHEED SONIJA (2066)

IQRA UNIVERSITY GULSHAN CAMPUS

Submitted to:
MR. SOHAIL MAJEED

Relationship Management Abbott

Abstract
In this report the process of supply chain management, supply chain management structure, material flow of the Abbott laboratories Pakistan Ltd is being discussed, furthermore supply chain relationship is also discussed in details with having context of building relationship on long-run basis. In the lights of significance of relationship among the management and suppliers of certain issues and remedies are also being included in this report. Distribution of ABBOTT, import material and export of product with respect to role of indenter and benefits of indenter which also facilitate the buyers and suppliers with mutual gain or win win respective. Policies are also being discussed in details and recommendation is also considered in this report.

Relationship Management Abbott

We dedicate this report to our Faculty Mr. Sohail Majeed Iqra University Gulshan Campus. Mr. Sohail challenged us to do work on an organization in context of supply chain management and successfully we collect information, gather and present the information in professional way. With clear vision and

determination plus the support of Mr. Sohail, we able to make report on a centralized organization namely as ABBOTT, therefore we all group members like to dedicate this report to Mr. Sohail Majeed.

Relationship Management Abbott

CONTENTS

Abstract ...........................................................................................................................................2 Table of Figures..............................................................................................................................6 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................7 COMPANY PROFILE .........................................................................................7 SUPPLY CHAIN MISSION ................................................................................7 ABBOTTS SUPPLY CHAIN STRUCTURE .............................................................................8 SUPPLY CHAIN PROCESS ................................................................................................9 MATERIAL MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT .....................................................................11 APPROVED DEMAND FORECAST ..............................................................13 APPROVED SUPPLY PLAN ............................................................................13 MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE ..........................................................13 MATERIAL MANAGEMENT PLANNING ...................................................13 BID SHEET .........................................................................................................14 BID SHEET + INDENT TO IMPORT LC ......................................................14 APPLICATION FOR OPENING LC: ......................................................................15 INDENT OR PERFORMA INVOICE .............................................................16 DELIVERED FORMS BY BANKER TO IMPORTER ..........................................16 PREPARATION OF L/C BY BANKER .................................................................16 WORKING OF MATERIAL FLOW ...............................................................17 RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ..........................................................................................19 DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPPLIERS ................................20 Supplier performance evaluation tools .....................................................................21 ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS ...............................................................................21

Relationship Management Abbott

MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION .....................................................................24 LOCAL PURCHASING ....................................................................................24 IMPORT PURCHASING ..................................................................................25 INDENTER .........................................................................................................25 IMPORTED RAW MATERIALS ....................................................................25 ADVISING BANKS of ABBOT PAKISTAN...................................................26 FEW SHIPPING COMPANIES THROUGH WHICH ABBOT PAKISTAN IMPORTS RAW MATERIALS ..................................................................26 EXPORT ..............................................................................................................26 ABBOT DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL ......................................................................................27 ABBOTT POLICY FOR SUPPLIERS ......................................................................................28 DOCUMENTATION AND INVOICING ........................................................28 RESTRICTIONS ................................................................................................28 RETURN ......................................................................................................................29 CONDITIONS FOR RETURNING RAW MATERIALS ..............................29 RETURN OF MATERIAL ORDERS (MOS) ................................................29 WASTAGE HANDLING ...................................................................................29 RETURN OF FINISHED ORDERS (FOS) ....................................................30 OBSERVATION AND RECOMMENDATION .......................................................................31 References .....................................................................................................................................33

Relationship Management Abbott

Table of Figures Figure 1. Supply Chain Structure. .................................................................................................. 8 Figure 2. ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Figure 3 Supply Chain Process (cont.) ......................................................................................... 10 Figure 4. Material Flow. ............................................................................................................... 12 Source Reportbd.com.. . ................................................................................................................ 15 Source: Gartner Consulting; 2001. ............................................................................................... 20 Figure 5 Abbot Distribution Channel. . ........................................................................................ 27

Relationship Management Abbott

INTRODUCTION

COMPANY PROFILE
Abbot Laboratories (Pakistan) Ltd, The firms main core activities are to trade in, produce and market based pharmaceutical, dietary, indicative, medical (hospital) and consumer products and facilitates toll-manufacturing services. It functions in two divisions Pharmaceutical and other. Pharmaceutical division produce, trade in and markets research based pharmaceutical products registered with the ministry of health and provides toll-manufacturing services. Other divisions includes importing, manufacturing and marketing diagnosing equipment, testing kits, consumer healthcare, nutritional and hospital products. The companys pharmaceutical products include Kalaricid, Erthrocin, Hytrin, Epival, Brufen, Entamizole, protium and Forane. The other products include Ensure, Pediasure, Pedialyte, Formance etc (Abbott Company Info, 2010).

SUPPLY CHAIN MISSION


ABBOTTs SCM mission is to configure, coordinate and improve all the sequentially related activities and set of operations with the idea of satisfying the entire chain of suppliers suppliers and customers customers by providing right product, at the right time, in the right quantity and becoming highly recognized by our employees, customers and shareholders and abiding by Government regulations by adhering to strict ethical and moral standards.

Relationship Management Abbott

ABBOTTS SUPPLY CHAIN STRUCTURE

Figure 1. Supply Chain Structure.

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SUPPLY CHAIN PROCESS

Vendors

Price

Sample

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Institution

Distributors

Export

Figure 3 Supply Chain Process (cont.)

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MATERIAL MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT


As a group we visited the material management department and after having the conversation with the officials of particular department we figure out that it is one of the significant departments amongst the other departments in Abbott Laboratories. Material managements department comprises of different sections for example: Exports, Local purchase and Warehouse. Planning, Imports,

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Figure 4. Material Flow.

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APPROVED DEMAND FORECAST


In ABBOTT Pakistan the demand is forecasted by the Marketing department. The Marketing department provides 24 months rolling aggregate demand forecast, which is known as ADS (Approved Demand Statement). This statement shows individual demands for all product lines demanded by end users to whom we are providing quality healthcare products.

APPROVED SUPPLY PLAN


This plan is made on the bases of ADS and is approved once the supply department has made the initial supply plan. Then after the supply plan has been made it is forwarded it to the MM (Material Management Department.)

MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE


This is the inventory, which is going to arrive in bulk, and it is the job of Master Production Scheduler to arrange the bulk. This bulk can either be for export or for the market demand done through forecast. He also sets up when to make the required batch on which date.

MATERIAL MANAGEMENT PLANNING


ABBOTT Pakistan is using MRP II to effectively and efficiently handle the Material issues, which is based on the informations provided by MPS, It has been adopted by ABBOTT Pakistan due to the imposition posted by ABBOTT International, Chicago. This requirement tells us on the system what is the quantity required according to the Master Production Schedule. All transactions are made electronically into BPCS known as Business Planning & Control System. If there is an additional requirement due to abnormal demand then there are some changes made in MRP.

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BID SHEET
A bid sheet is a low cost effective sheet in which there are quotations from different suppliers and on the bases of that low cost suppliers are selected comparing their LANDED COST.

It includes: Representative/Agent Name of manufacturer and country Vendor status Quotation date Foreign currency Duty Landed cost/kg Local currency Exchange rates Cost and freight

Then after getting the bid sheet orders are finalized and there is a request for an indenter. After the request of an indenter the bid sheet along with the approved indenter is send for approval to the finance department.

BID SHEET + INDENT TO IMPORT LC


Import section of any bank deals with Letter of Credit opening and post import financing. Now the procedure from opening LC to disbursement against LC is given below

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APPLICATION FOR OPENING LC:


At first, an importer will request banker to open LC along with the following documents.

Source Reportbd.com.. .

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INDENT OR PERFORMA INVOICE


Indent or Performa invoice is the sale contract between seller and buyer in import-export business. There is minor difference between indent and Performa invoice. The sales contract, which is direct communication between importer and exporter, is called Performa invoice. There is no intermediary between them. On the other hand, there may be an agent of exporter in importers country. In this regard, if the sale contract is occurred between the agent of exporter and importer then it is called indent.

DELIVERED FORMS BY BANKER TO IMPORTER


After scrutinizing above-mentioned documents carefully, officer delivers the following forms to be filled up by importer and banker should check: The forms are: 1. 2. 3. Import merchandised Permit Form (IMP) LC Application Form (L/CAF) LC Authorization Form (L/CAF) Whether the goods to be imported is permissible or not. Whether the goods to be imported is demandable or not

PREPARATION OF L/C BY BANKER


Banks officer prepares LC when above mentioned forms are to be submitted by customer or importer. Before preparing LC SIBL officer scrutinizes the application in the following manner. The terms and conditions of the LC must be complied with UCPDC 500 and Exchange Control & Import Trade Regulation.

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Eligibility of the goods to be imported. The L/C must not be opened in favor of the importer. Radioactivity report in case of food item.

Survey reports or certificate in case of old machinery is required. Bank of the importer is called LC Issuing Bank. Then issuing bank inform its corresponding bank, called Advising Bank or Confirming Bank located in exporters country to advice and the credit forward to the exporter and simultaneously officer makes LC opening vouchers (Import Procedure., 20042010).

WORKING OF MATERIAL FLOW


The marketing department submits their forecast. The production department sends the forecast for approval to the S&OP (Sales and Operation Planning) committee, after being approved then it is said to be known as Approved Demand Statement (ADS). Then ADS is entered in to BPCS (business planning and control system), a system that every department in Abbott Labs uses. Information regarding the raw materials and packaging materials are all fed into this system and easily viewed or accessible by the production department as well as the material management department. After the ADS have been entered into BPCS then it is known as MAS (master arrival schedule), which is sent to the headquarters in Chicago where it is entered into manugistics. MAS is available at family level in manugistics. The capacity planner performs rough-cut capacity checks in manugistics and sets the supply plan at family level for 24 months keeping in view seasonality shut down period and capacity constraints. After that, MPS (master production schedule) is run by the production department, on which MRP (material requirement planning) is

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based and is run afterwards by the material planning section. Availability of raw materials and packaging materials is checked. Inventory is checked and if there is shortage of items than they are locally purchased. For items, which are to be imported, have a different procedure to follow. Inquiries are sent to all the local suppliers who then forward the request to the approved and unapproved vendors. After the quotations have been received, a bid sheet is made consisting of all the approved vendors along with their quotations and selection is made on the basis of low price, past record and them being approved. If the price quotation of an unapproved vendor is more to our liking than that vendors items are to be first approved by the Quality Assurance, which usually takes up to 5 to 6 months. After, the vendor has been approved than he is likely to be selected if his price quotations are according to our requirement. An indent is received by the supplier, which shows the confirmation of the orders and contains terms, which are to be followed. The bid sheet and the indent are then sent to the imports section for letter of credit.

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RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
Relationship management is a feasible tactic to the industry in terms of social, environmental and economic feasibility and can facilitate a positive role to sustainability and also help to satisfy customers and stakeholder likings (Blau, 1963; Darwin 1994; (Darwin, J. Duberley, and P. Johnson, 20000;MacNeil, 1978; MacNeil, 1985; Rousseau and J. M. Parks, 1993). It provides the understanding to accomplish sustainable, continuing relationships in long and difficult contracts by a modification process (Kumaraswamy and J. Matthews, 2000). Although there are some possible benefits of relational tactics (for instance, relationship management) have received recommendable strong likings (see (Phua, 2006 for example). According to Gartner Consulting, Supply relationship management can be stated as a set of methodologies and practices needed for interacting with suppliers of products and services of varied criticality to the profitability of the enterprise. (Gartner: 2001, p.2) In context of supply relationship management we observed and like to describe the supply relationship management as understanding of developing mutual instant relationships with preferred strategic suppliers, the rationale is to add certain features that could boost the relationship while business performance can be improved as the companies employed themselves in a network atmosphere for shared benefit and enhance the possibility of making profitable new earnings together.

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Source: Gartner Consulting; 2001.

As far as Abbott is concerned, they understand the significance and by means the relationship between the buyer and supplier is one of the most important aspects of the activity structure for them. Therefore, in this relationship various buyer operations entail in the course of action with the supplier relationship with the purchasing department, R&D, logistics, after market, finance and managerial functions. It is significant that a buyer chooses those suppliers which provide maximum value to the industry and therefore, it is essential for a buyer to check the compatibility issues of suppliers and assess them respectively (Megan E. Bross & Guangbin Zhao, 2004).

DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPPLIERS


Relationship is seems to be significant facets of supplier selection, especially in the pharmaceutical market. Therefore, in this industry most of the buyers generally create different sorts of relationships with its suppliers. The various types of buyer-supplier relationships are

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most of the time depends on mechanism, which the supplier facilitates (Megan E. Bross & Guangbin Zhao, 2004). Relationship is a two way process in which communication coordination entailed both suppliers and company therefore, ABBOTT is using tools which help the firms to identify the performance and level of coordination of the suppliers with ABBOTT.

SUPPLIER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION TOOLS


KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR) KPI is a tool used to measure the performance of the suppliers and within the organization internally. Internal organization means departments performance, how one department is significantly performing either they meet with the organizational goal or not, from the supplier side, KPI is use to measure the total performance of the suppliers, for instance lets suppose, ABBOTT has decided to purchase 12 lots from the supplier for the year and ABBOTT purchase the lot size on monthly bases (1 lot size in one month). By using KPI; ABBOTT generates report about the supplier performance; it includes lot size fluctuation, price fluctuation, delivery time and quality etc. on the bases of these monthly report ABBOTT published suppliers yearly report and on the bases of this yearly report ABBOTT gives rewards and incentives if the supplier performance is good for the year for example supplier awarded in terms of SUPPLIER OF THE YEAR.

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


Route cause analysis, generally done for inquiry of errors, that particular analysis shows whether ABBOTT is on the error or suppliers possesses the error. If suppliers found to be on error side then the ABBOTT uses the CAPA system for the suppliers.

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CORRECTIVE ACTIONS AND PREVENTIVE ACTIONS (CAPA) If suppliers found to be having errors, then ABBOTT by employ CAPA and CAPA provide feedback by which suppliers can correct the wrong actions or for any instance if uncertainty occurs with the suppliers then ABBOTT generate a report of supplier which is known as CAPA report and then evaluates the performances of the suppliers after tenure of 3 months. If supplier consistently do mistakes and various errors occurs in between process then ABBOTT terminate that particular supplier from its Supplier List. ABBOTT employs this tool for problem solving issues of supplier and in order to build longer relationships. According to (CAPA / Remediation, 2010) CAPA involve in performing the following functions in ABBOTT: Stock of All remedial and Preventive Actions Created Internally Manage Different Types of remedial Actions Identify by Part #, Supplier, Specific NCMs, etc. Allocate Employees, Due Dates, and Approvals Customer Configurable Corrective Action text Report Types Closed Loop Corrective Action ISO 900X Compliant Corrective Action Records Revision Control of All Document Status Reversals Automatic Approval Requirements On-line Tracking and Electronic Approval Signature Capability Automated Input of Standard Text for Discrepancies or Audit Findings Code Segregation Capability by Document Type

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Unique Data Collection Capability via Customer Driven Pop-Up Screens Assure Effectiveness Through Scheduled Follow-ups Automatic Re-generation of Failed Corrective Actions Inventory of All Corrective and Preventive Actions Identify by Part #, Supplier, Specific NCMs, etc. Assure Effectiveness Through Scheduled Follow-ups Automatic Re-generation of Failed Corrective Actions Lessons Learned Database

ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC)


There are several various supplier selection methods and a number of selection criteria but to bring efficiency in selecting the suppliers. Therefore, importantly to understand suppliers strength and weakness Abbott adopt the ABC Method. The ABC method is the method which is most focused on cost. The ABC method usually used these days to assess the direct and indirect availability of resources of firm and then compare with the actions which are based on the consumption. In the ABC method, resource costs are figure-out by recognizing the amount of resources, which are essential or consumed in performing a particular activity (La Londe, 1999). ABBOTT employs this method in terms by classifying the suppliers with reference to availability of suppliers and relationship. Although company is not directly evolved in one-toone dealings with suppliers but role of indenter comes here, indenter helps ABBOTT to classify the supplier in three categories by implying the ABC method.

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MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION
ABBOTT Pakistan classifies its materials according to the values or the cost of materials; basically they have allotted three grades or types to their materials: Grade A (very costly materials, e.g. erythromycin) Grade B (moderate cost, e.g. clathromycin) Grade C (least cost, e.g. bubble gum and artificial flavors like mint)

LOCAL PURCHASING
Local purchasing department of Abbott Laboratories Pakistan deals with local vendors concerning:

Designing FP Plastics, Al-Ahad Plastics, Thermoplas (Korangi) > Lead Time 30 Days

PrintingAmmara Commercial Printing (Memon Goth, Malir) > Lead Time 30 Days Packaging Saima Packaging (Korangi Industrial Area) > Lead Time 30 Days Slicing Aluminum foils - Muhammad Corporations, Gulshan -e- Iqbal Cartons Sultan Packages (Dalmiya, Karachi) > Lead time 7 Days Cartons King Packages (Lalukhait, Karachi) > Lead Time 7 Days Cartons - Decent packages (S.I.T.E Area) > Lead time 7 Days Dextrose Rafhan Industries (Faisalabad) Pseudo - Alpha Chemicals (Lahore) Essential Chemicals (Lahore)

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IMPORT PURCHASING
ABBOTT Pakistan has indenters through which they place their orders to the respective manufacturers of raw materials Some of the Indenters of ABBOTT Pakistan are: .Rasheedsons - KHI Munico Associates - KHI S. Aijazuddinn - KHI Arfeen - KHI

INDENTER
An indenter is a local supplier or the middle party, we also call them as an agent who gives information to the manufacturer and tells then to arrange the material. They have link with the manufacturer and paid commission by them. Basically the benefits of having indenter as compared to have direct dealing with suppliers is that Time Saving Less risk Easy to push locally available agents Easy to find variety of manufacturers

IMPORTED RAW MATERIALS


Dy Red Sencient UK Potassium chloride Merck, Germany Sodium Citrate Sanfu, Taiwan Sodium chloride Dominon salt, New Zealand Acid Citric Jungvuzlaur, Austria

Relationship Management Abbott Aluminum Seals and PV Vaasen, Flexible Packaging Holland Artificial bubble gum IFF Holland Supplier for Sugar - Malayam Malaysics, Malayasia Sodium Sulphate Merck, Germany

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ADVISING BANKS of ABBOT PAKISTAN


Detuche Bank Standard Chartered Bank ABN AMBRO HSBC

Then after this process the LC is send to the concern suppliers and indenters and then they set the raw material to be shipped, shipment is done through different shipping company and this part is dealt by the imports department.

FEW SHIPPING COMPANIES THROUGH WHICH ABBOT PAKISTAN IMPORTS RAW MATERIALS
P&O NEDLLOYD MAERSK SEALAND HOPAG LLOYD

EXPORT
ABBOTT Pakistan fulfills the demand of countries like: South Africa Sri Lanka Thailand Bangladesh Malaysia Indonesia Syria

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ABBOT DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL

Figure 5 Abbot Distribution Channel. .

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ABBOTT POLICY FOR SUPPLIERS

DOCUMENTATION AND INVOICING


There are some legal formalities that need to be fulfilled before making a contract with distributors. Delivery Chalaan Customer Invoice Merchandise Receiving Report (MRR) o Product Name o Quantity o Delivered by o Received by o Condition (sound or spoiled) o Date of receiving

RESTRICTIONS
There are few rules and regulations that are very important for the company and distributors to abide by them in order to avoid any mishap or confusion.

Distributors cant go out of their area for sale. Discount policy should be followed according to companys instructions. Distributors should carry 6 weeks inventory at their side.

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RETURN
There are two types of returns, one associated with Finished Orders and the other associated with Material Orders.

CONDITIONS FOR RETURNING RAW MATERIALS


Raw Materials are returned either at the time when they are being unloaded or after they have been tested by the QA and found to be defective.

RETURN OF MATERIAL ORDERS (MOS)


This can occur if the batch size is found to be wrong i.e. ABBOTT suppliers mistakenly supplied the wrong quantity of materials or the materials were of incorrect specifications or the product is found contaminated. In either case, the material is not allowed to be kept in the warehouse and is returned immediately. Another type of Source Return takes place after disapproval from the Quality Assurance Department. The inferior material along with the entire batch with which it was delivered at ABBOTT is sent to the Rejection Room which is located in a separate building located far away from the manufacturing plant. ABBOTT also has an approved policy of disposing these materials which is in accordance with the EPA ACT 2003.

WASTAGE HANDLING
There is only one dumping side in Karachi, Surjani town which is owned by the Government of Pakistan but it is not up to the standards set by the Parent Company (Abbott Int) that is why ABBOTT Pakistan does the dumping through a Private organization name ABASEEN (Pvt) Ltd which is a more costly as compare to the traditional process (Rs 30/= per Kilogram)

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RETURN OF FINISHED ORDERS (FOS)


Finished Orders are returned due to excess supply or supply of incorrectly specified products. Another condition for returning finished orders occurs when the product is just 90 days away from its expiration date. In this case, ABBOTT grants a full refund to customers and donates all those drugs to hospitals that the drugs are used as soon as possible before its expiry date.

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RECOMMENDATION
There are no bar code sensors or any computerized system to count the Material arrival from consignment, all the counting is done manually by the supervisors. They should adopt any computerized customized software to do the counting procedure so it will save the time and there will far less chances of error. Contract among the suppliers and ABBOTT should be based on mutual consensus having flexibility with context of fixed pricing and no change in quantity. VMI (Vendor Manage Inventory) is an information system which help in managing inventory therefore, by employing this system ABBOTT can benefited with this system as if they lack inventory in urgency of demand then via this information system supplier can fulfill or satisfied the need of ABBOTT. Supplier can evaluate the inventory level periodically with the help of this information system. Reward System should base on half yearly basis. This will motivate the suppliers and helps in building stronger relation among suppliers and ABBOTT. Vendor Conference meeting should be held and so that they can share their problems on quarterly basis. Exchange of information In the stage of the new product development single info should be shared with suppliers. Provide ownership to the suppliers in terms developing new products.

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Finally, Abbott needs to implement e-purchasing system to improve the performance of the Supply chain. By implement the e-purchasing system Abbott will able to save the material cost up to 10% and improves efficiency by enabling the suppliers online.

And as the world is moving fast toward globalization, Abbott should try to implement

online selling.

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References
Abbott Company Info. (2010). Retrieved July 27, 2010, from http://companydatabase.org/c/ services-commercial-physical-biological-research/pharmaceutical-research-laboratories/ diagnostic-laboratories/medical-laboratories-research/services-testing-laboratories/healthcare-health/laboratories-limited/pharmaceutical-segment/abbott-laboratories-pakistanltd.html Blau, P. M. (1963). The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CAPA / Remediation Management. (2010). Retrieved July 28, 2010, from http://www.iqs.com/ main/products/CAPARemediationMgmt Darwin, J. 1994. Networks, partnerships and strategic alliances. In unpublished working paper. Sheffield Hallam University: Sheffield Business School. Darwin, J., J. Duberley, & P. Johnson. (2000). Contracting in ten English local authorities: preferences and practice. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 13(1), 38-57. Gartner Consulting SRM, Enterprises Drive Competitive Advantage through SRM, White paper prepared for PeopleSoft, San Jose, CA, April 16, 2001, pp. 1 14 Import Procedure. Import Process against LC. (2004-2010). Retrieved July 28, 2010, from http:/ /www.reportbd.com/articles/85/1/Import-Procedure-Import-Process-against-LC/ Page1.html Kumaraswamy, M. M., & J. Matthews. (2000). Improved subcontractor selection employing partnering principles. Asce Journal of Management in Engineering, 16, 47-57. La Londe, B. J. (1999). Activity Based Costing Best Practices. Retrieved July 28, 2010, from http:// fisher.osu.edu/supplychain/pdf_files/1999%20ABC%20Best%20Practices.pdf

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MacNeil, I. R. (1978). Contracts: adjustment of long-term economic relations under classical,neoclassical and relation contract law. Northwestern University Law Review, 854-905. MacNeil, I. R. (1985). Relational contract: what we do and do not know. Wisconsin Law Review, 483-525. Megan E. Bross, & Guangbin Zhao. (2004). SUPPLIER SELECTION PROCESS IN EMERGING MARKETS. Dissertation Abstracts, 3, 1-129. Phua, F. T. T. (2006). When is construction partnering likely to happen? An empirical examination of the role of institutional norms. Construction Management and Economics, June(24), 615-624. Rousseau, D. M., & J. M. Parks. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in Organizations' Behaviour, 55, 1-43.