Anda di halaman 1dari 144

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional

Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.


War ning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not
already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given,
or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part,
without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering
Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Instrumentation For additional information on this subject, contact
File Reference: PCI10302 J.R. Van Slooten on 874-6412
Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Sizing Control Valves
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
CONTENTS PAGE
MANUALLY SIZING CONTROL VALVES FOR LIQUID APPLICATIONS 1
The Importance Of Sizing 1
Undersizing Problems 1
Oversizing Problems 1
Fluid States 2
Fluid States And Sizing Equations 2
Scope Of Presented Equations 2
Guidelines For Capacity vs. Percent Of Rated Travel 3
Sizing For Maximum, Normal, And Minimum Flow Conditions 3
Tendency To Oversize Valves 3
Valve Manufacturer's Guidelines 3
Saudi Aramco Standards 4
Converting Degrees Rotation To Percent Travel 4
The Basic Liquid Flow Equation 5
Predicting Flow Through A Restriction 5
Solving For Required Valve Cv 5
ISA Standards 6
Recognized Valve Sizing Standards 6
ISA Forms Of The Basic Sizing Equation 6
Terms In The ISA Equation 8
Choked Flow 9
Limits Of The Basic Liquid Sizing Equation 9
Pressure And Velocity Profiles 10
Pressure Recovery 11
Fluid Vapor Pressure 12
Mechanics Of Choked Flow 13
Cavitation 15
Flashing 15
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Implications Of Choked Flow For Sizing 15
Calculating the Allowable Pressure Drop 16
Valve Recovery Coefficient 16
Solving For DP Allowable 18
Implementing Choked Flow Equations 21
Piping Geometry 22
Significance Of Pipe Fittings In Valve Sizing 22
ISA Corrections For Swaged Lines 22
Piping Factors And Choked Flow 27
Limitations Of Calculated FLP 28
Alternate Methods For Calculating Swage Effects 30
Viscosity Corrections 31
Flow Regimes 31
Impact Of Flow Regime On Valve Sizing 32
Reynolds Numbers 32
ISA Equations For Non-Turbulent Flow 33
Other Viscosity Correction Methods 35
Summary Of Valve Sizing Equations 36
ISA Method 36
Equations Used By Fisher Controls And Others 38
COMPUTER SIZING CONTROL VALVES FOR LIQUID APPLICATIONS 39
Introduction to the Fisher Sizing Program 39
Benefits Of Computer Sizing Methods 39
Overview Of The Fisher Sizing Program (FSP 1.4) 39
Overview of Program Operation 40
Booting The Program 40
Project Information 40
Main Menu 40
Selecting Units 41
Selecting A Valve Sizing Method 42
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Selecting Variables And Conditions 43
Valve Sizing Calculation Screen 44
Selecting Calculation Options 45
Other Important Operations 48
COMPUTER SIZING CONTROL VALVES FOR GAS AND STEAM APPLICATIONS49
Introduction 49
Differences In Compressible and Incompressible Fluid Flow 49
Use Of Computer Software 49
The ISA Sizing Equations For Compressible Fluids 49
Popular Standard 49
Saudi Aramco Standards 49
Alternate Forms Of The ISA Equation 49
Nomenclature 51
Numerical Constants 51
Basic Equation 52
Choked Flow 53
Expansion Factor: Y 56
Adapting The Equation For Use With Gasses Other Than Air 61
Real Gas Behavior 63
Piping Effects 65
Final Equation Form 67
Summary Of ISA Equation Terms 67
Computer Sizing Control Valves For Gasses Using The ISA Equations 68
Introduction 68
Valve Sizing Methods Available 68
Selecting The Desired Calculation Type 69
Overview Of Sizing Procedures 69
Selecting Options 70
The Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation 72
Introduction 72
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Fisher And ISA Equation Comparison 72
Equation Basics 73
Equation Limits 74
Pressure Recovery And Critical Flow 75
Blending The Two Equations 76
The C
1
Factor 78
Mechanics Of The Sine Term 80
Alternate Forms Of The Universal Sizing Equation 81
Solving for C
g
84
Comparison Of Fisher And ISA Gas Sizing Equations 85
Computer Sizing Control Valves For Gasses Using The Fisher Controls
Equations 86
Valve Sizing Methods Available 86
Selecting A Calculation Type 87
Overview Of Sizing Procedures 87
F3 Options 88
ENTERING VALVE SIZING DATA ON THE SAUDI ARAMCO ISS 91
Body And Flange Size 91
Control Valve Physical Size Information 91
Capacity Ratings 91
Capacity At Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow Conditions 91
Valve Travel At Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow Conditions 91
WORK AID 1: PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO MANUALLY SIZE
CONTROL VALVES FOR LIQUID APPLICATIONS 93
Work Aid 1A: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Required
Control Valve C
v
93
Work Aid 1B: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Allowable
Pressure Drop (DP
allow
) 94
Work Aid 1C: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Effect Of
Piping Factors On C
v
95
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Work Aid 1D: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Effect Of
Laminar Flow On C
v
96
WORK AID 2: PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO COMPUTER SIZE
CONTROL VALVES FOR LIQUID APPLICATIONS 97
Work Aid 2A: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Water Applications 97
Work Aid 2B: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Choked Flow 100
Work Aid 2C: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Fluids In The Sizing Database 101
Work Aid 2D: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves With Piping Factor Correction 103
Work Aid 2E: Procedures Used To Computer Size Control Valves
With Viscosity Correction 105
Work Aid 2F: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves With Viscosity And Piping Factor Correction 108
Work Aid 2G: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow
Conditions 110
Work Aid 2G: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow
Conditions, cont'd. 112
WORK AID 3: PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO COMPUTER SIZE
CONTROL VALVES FOR GAS AND STEAM
APPLICATIONS 114
Work Aid 3A: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Ideal Gasses With The ISA Method 114
Work Aid 3B: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Real Gasses With The ISA Method 115
Work Aid 3C: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Vapors With The ISA Method 116
Work Aid 3D: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Steam With The ISA Method 117
Work Aid 3E: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Ideal Gasses With The Fisher Method 118
Work Aid 3F: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Real Gasses With The Fisher Method 119
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Work Aid 3G: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Vapors With The Fisher Method 120
Work Aid 3H: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For Steam With The Fisher Method 121
Work Aid 3I: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Effect Of
Compressibility On Valve Size 122
Work Aid 3J: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control
Valves For All Flow Conditions 124
WORK AID 4: PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO ENTER VALVE
SIZING DATA ON THE SAUDI ARAMCO ISS 127
GLOSSARY 128
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
LIST OF FIGURES PAGE
Figure 1 Fluid States as A Function of Pressure And Heat Content 2
Figure 2 Typical Vendor Recommendations For Percent Travel Versus
Flow 3
Figure 3 Guidelines For Percent Travel At Various Flow ConditionsPer
Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 4
Figure 4 Units Constants For The ISA Liquid Sizing Equations 7
Figure 5 Pressure And Flow Relationships 9
Figure 6 Pressure And Velocity Profiles Around A Restriction 10
Figure 7 Comparison Of High And Low Recovery Valves 11
Figure 8 Fluid Vaporization When P
vc
< P
v
12
Figure 9 Pressure And Flow Relationships 13
Figure 10 Pressure Profiles For Flashing And Cavitating Flows 14
Figure 11 Generalized Relationship Of P
vc
To P
v
For High And Low
Recovery Valves At Different Pressure Drops 17
Figure 12 Critical Pressure Ratios For Liquids Other Than Water 19
Figure 13 Critical Pressure Ratios For Water 19
Figure 14 Flow Limiting Influences Of Reducers And Expanders 23
Figure 15 Piping Factor Effect Vs. Travel For Different Valve Styles 26
Figure 16 R Values That Are Used In The Piping Factor Correction
MethodThat Is Included In Section 5.4 Of SAES-J-700 30
Figure 17 Flow Profiles Of Laminar And Turbulent Flow Regimes 31
Figure 18 Viscosity Conversion 34
Figure 19 Valve Reynolds Number Vs. The Reynolds Number Factor F
R
35
Figure 20 Main Menu Of The Fisher Sizing Program 40
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Figure 21 Screen That Appears When The Units Option Under Config Is Selected 41
Figure 22 Drop-Down Menu That Lists Valve Sizing Methods 42
Figure 23 Options For Variables To Solve For 43
Figure 24 Calculation Screen For ISA Liquid Sizing 44
Figure 25 Calculation Options 45
Figure 26 Pull-Down Menu That Lists Units Options For Q 46
Figure 27 Pull-Down Menu That Lists Fluids In The Sizing Database 47
Figure 28 Table Of Values That Is Displayed When The F9 Key Is Pressed 48
Figure 29 Numerical Constants For The ISA Gas Sizing Equations 51
Figure 30 Gas Flow And Pressure Relationships 52
Figure 31 Choked Flow As A Function Of x
T
53
Figure 32 Effects Of k On F
K
x
T
And q
max
55
Figure 33 Pressure And Flow Relationships As x Increases From 0.02 To
x
T
56
Figure 34 Reduced Pressure P
VC
Leads To Reduced Fluid Density And
Reduced Flow 57
Figure 35 Effect of Sonic Velocity On Flow 58
Figure 36 Effect of Vena Contracta Enlargement 59
Figure 37 Relationships Among x, F
k
x
T
, And Y 60
Figure 38 Generalized Compressibility Chart 64
Figure 39 Valve Sizing Method Options 68
Figure 40 Available Calculation Types 69
Figure 41 Valve Sizing Screen For The ISA Gas Valve Sizing Method 69
Figure 42 Calculation Options For The ISA Gas Valve Sizing Method 70
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Figure 43 Line-By-Line Units Options For Flow 71
Figure 44 Actual Flow Versus Predicted Flow 74
Figure 45 Critical Flow For Low And High Recovery Valves 75
Figure 46 Predicting Low Flow And Critical Flow 76
Figure 47 Tested Values Of Flow Compared To A Sine Curve 77
Figure 48 Comparison of C
v
, C
g
, and C
1
Values 79
Figure 49 C
2
Factor Versus k 82
Figure 50 Comparison of ISA and Fisher Sizing Terms 85
Figure 51 Valve Sizing Methods 86
Figure 52 Selection Of A Calculation Type 87
Figure 53 Valve Sizing Screen For The Fisher Real Gas Sizing Method 87
Figure 54 Calculation Options For The Fisher Ideal Gas Sizing Method 88
Figure 55 Calculation Options For The Fisher Real Gas Sizing Method 88
Figure 56 Calculation Options For The Fisher Vapor Sizing Method 89
Figure 57 Calculation Options For The Fisher Steam Sizing Method 89
Figure 58 Pull-Down Menu Options For Temperature 90
Figure 59 The Saudi Aramco ISS 92
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 1
Manually sizing control valves for liquid applications
The Importance Of Sizing
While control valve selection is an "art," control valve sizing is closer to a "science". Valve
sizing procedures are based on accepted mathematical equations that are used to model flow
through ideal restrictions such as orifice plates and flow nozzles. While control valves do not
always resemble ideal restrictions, the mathematical models generally give useful results if the
specifier inputs accurate data. However, if the service conditions and fluid properties that are
used as inputs to the sizing process are not accurate, the specifier may be led to the selection
of a control valve that is either undersized or oversized for the application.
Undersizing Problems
Limited Flow Capacity is the primary concern of control valves that are too small.
Limited capacity may have economic impact, such as the inability to meet production
quotas. Limited capacity may result in process failure because of the inability to
supply needed fluids in sufficient quantity. Inadequate capacity can also result in
safety hazards; for example, an undersized control valve that is used in a relief
application may allow upstream pressure to reach unsafe levels.
Oversizing Problems
Excessive Seat Wear is a common result of oversizing control valves. A valve with
excess capacity may spend most of its life throttling near the seat. Sustained throttling
with the plug near the seat causes high velocity flow that impinges on and around the
seating surfaces. Rapid wear and premature valve failure can result.
Safety is also a key issue; for example, if an oversized valve feeds a relief system, the
relief system may have insufficient capacity to control the excess input to the relief
system.
Stable Contr ol is another problem that is associated with oversized valves. Process gain
is typically quite high when the valve closure member operates near the seat. The high
gain can cause large changes in the process variable, which results in instability. In
addition, any friction or deadband in the valve has a pronounced effect on
performance at extremely low valve lifts.
Basic Economics are a concern because excess capacity generally comes at an increased,
but unnecessary cost.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2
Fluid States
Fluid States And Sizing Equations
Fluid behavior, including flow rate as a function of pressure and temperature conditions,
depends on the fluid state (i.e., whether the fluid is in a liquid, gas, vapor, or other state);
accordingly, several different sizing equations are available that can be used to calculate the
flow rate or to calculate the required control valve C
v
. The chart below (see Figure 1)
illustrates how a fluid state can change as a function of pressure and enthalpy (heat content).
Figur e 1
Fluid States As A Function Of Pressure And Heat Content
Scope Of Presented Equations
Many complexities are involved in predicting either valve capacity (C
v
) or flow rate (q) when
the fluid state is at or near any of the boundaries that are shown in Figure 1 above; therefore,
this Module will present basic sizing methods for fluids that can be defined as liquids, ideal
gasses, and real gasses.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3
Guidelines For Capacity vs. Percent Of Rated Travel
Sizing For Maximum, Normal, And Minimum Flow Conditions
While it is sometimes tempting to select and size control valves for the maximum flow
condition only, it is equally important to calculate C
v
requirements at normal and minimum
flow conditions.
Sizing for maximum flow ensures adequate capacity.
Sizing for normal flow conditions allows the specifier to ensure that the valve will normally
throttle in a range of travel (or percentage of maximum valve C
v
) that provides good control
and sufficient reserve capacity.
Sizing for minimum flow conditions allows the specifier to ensure that the valve is capable of
providing stable control at the low-flow condition. Most valves are designed to provide good
control down to about 10 percent of rated travel. Throttling below 10 percent travel can cause
system instability because of the high valve gain at low lifts, and it can cause high velocity
flow that results in accelerated seat wear.
Tendency To Oversize Valves
In many engineering environments, several individuals or groups may have direct or indirect
input to the valve sizing process. All too often, each individual or group adds a 'safety margin'
when providing information. Specifiers should remain aware that the most common control
valve problem is the oversized valve, and they should strive to use actual service conditions
when sizing control valves.
Valve Manufacturer's Guidelines
Most valve manufacturers use a rule of thumb that establishes acceptable percentages of
travel for the minimum, normal, and maximum flow conditions. The flow versus travel
recommendations that are shown in Figure 2 are common.
Flow Condition Per cent Of Rated Tr avel
Minimum 10
Normal 20-80
Maximum 90
Figur e 2
Typical Vendor Recommendations For Percent Travel Versus Flow
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4
Saudi Aramco Standards
Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 contains guidelines for the percentage of valve travel that
produces the normal and maximum flow rates. The recommended percentages vary with the
inherent valve characteristics as shown in Figure 3.
Flow Char acter istic Per cent Tr avel At Nor mal
Flow
Per cent Tr avel At Maximum
Flow
Equal Percentage 80 93
Linear 70 90
Modified Parabolic 75 90
Figur e 3
Guidelines For Percent Travel At Various Flow Conditions
Per Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700
Converting Degrees Rotation To Percent Travel
The guidelines for travel versus flow are expressed in percent travel and apply directly to
sliding-stem valves; however, travel for rotary-shaft valves is expressed in degrees rotation. In
order to apply the recommended percentages listed above to rotary-shaft control valves,
percentages of travel must be converted to degrees rotation; for example, if the maximum
acceptable travel for a given condition is 93 percent, the equivalent rotation is approximately
84 degrees (0.93% x 90 degrees = 84 degrees).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5
The Basic Liquid Flow Equation
Predicting Flow Through A Restriction
Basic (Fisher ) Flow Equation - Most sizing procedures are based on concepts and
equations that are used to describe flow through orifice plates and flow nozzles. The
most common and basic form of the liquid flow equation is as follows:
Q C
P
G
v

(1)
Where:
Q = The flow rate in gallons per minute (gpm).
C
v
= A coefficient that is assigned by valve manufacturers to describe how
much flow a specific valve will pass under standard conditions (i.e., the
test fluid is water with a specific gravity of 1.0, and the pressure drop
across the valve is 1 psi).
P = The pressure drop across the valve in psi; (P = P
1
-P
2
).
G = The specific gravity of the fluid.
Major Assumption - In reality, the flow rate through a restriction is a function of the
pressure drop between upstream pressure and the pressure at the limiting flow area of
the restriction, which is called the vena contracta; however, Equation 1 provides the
basis for developing the complete equation.
Solving For Required Valve C
v
Rearranging the equation to solve for the control valve C
v

results in the base equation that is
used for sizing valves for non-compressible fluids (liquids).
C Q
G
P
v

(2)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6
ISA Standards
Recognized Valve Sizing Standards
ISA - One organization that publishes standards that are widely accepted for control
valve sizing is the Instrument Society of America (ISA). The ISA standard that
includes the valve sizing equations is ANSI/ISA-S75.01-1985.
Section 5.1 Of SAES-J -700 requires the use of the ISA equations for valve sizing, but it
also allows the use of other methods that are based on the ISA equations.
ISA Forms Of The Basic Sizing Equation
The ISA forms of the basic equations that have been discussed to this point are:
To Pr edict Flow - To predict flow, the basic form of the ISA equation is as follows:
q N C
p p
G
v
f

1
1 2
( 3 )
To Calculate Contr ol Valve C
v
- To calculate the control valve C
v
that is required to pass
a specified flow rate, the equation is as follows:
C
q
N
G
p p
v
f

1 1 2
( 4 )
Where:
q = The volumetric flow rate.
N
1
= A numerical constant for units of measurement (see Figure 4).
C
v
= The control valve flow coefficient.
G
f
= The liquid specific gravity at upstream conditions; the ratio of the fluid
density at the valve inlet to the density of water at 60 degrees F (15.6
degrees C).
p
1
= The upstream absolute pressure, psia.
p
2
= The downstream absolute pressure, psia.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7
Units Constants - The following table includes the values of some of the constants that
are used in the various forms of the ISA sizing equation.
Constant Units That Ar e Used In Equations
N w q p, P d, D 1
N1 0.0865 --- m
3
/h kPa --- --- ---
0.865 --- m
3
/hr bar --- --- ---
1 --- gpm psia --- --- ---
N2 0.00214 --- --- --- mm --- ---
890 --- --- --- in --- ---
N4 76 000 --- m
3
/h --- mm --- centistokes
17 300 --- gpm --- in --- centistokes
N6 2.73 kg/h --- kPa --- kg/m
3
27.3 kg/h --- bar --- kg/m
3
63.3 lb/h --- psia --- lb/ft
3
Figur e 4
Units Constants For The ISA Liquid Sizing Equations.
The constant N
1
is included in Equations 3 and 4 The constants N
2
through N
6
are used in
supplemental equations that will be discussed later in this Module.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8
Terms In The ISA Equation
ISA Equation Compar ed To The Gener ic Equation - The ISA liquid flow sizing equation
(Equation 6) differs in minor ways from the generic form of the equation (Equation 5),
as shown below:
Generic:
C Q
G
P
v

(5)
ISA:
C
q
N
G
p p
v
f

1 1 2
(6)
Minor Differ ences - Note that the ISA equation uses:
a lower case 'q' for flow rate.
the term p
1
-p
2
instead of P to describe pressure drop across the valve.
the term G
f
instead of G for the specific gravity of the fluid.
The term N
1
, which is a units constant. By selecting the proper constant, the
specifier may apply the equation by using either metric or English
measurement units. Conversions are possible with the generic equation as well.
ISA vs. Gener ic Equation Similar ities - Despite minor differences in nomenclature, the two
equation forms are algebraically identical, and as a result, they will give identical
results. The only exception is the use of the N
1
term (units constant) in the ISA
equation; however, a units conversion factor can be applied to any sizing equation.
Common Use Of Equation For ms - When reviewing sizing catalogs, technical articles, and
other documentation, specifiers will commonly encounter both the ISA nomenclature
and minor departures from the ISA nomenclature that some valve manufacturers
employ.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9
Choked Flow
Limits Of The Basic Liquid Sizing Equation
Pr edicted Flow - The basic liquid sizing equations that have been discussed to this point
predict an increase in flow for every increase in the square root of the pressure drop as
shown in Figure 5 below. In reality, the relationship between pressure drop and flow
rate only holds true for a limited range of conditions.
Choked Flow - In every application, it is possible to reach a point at which increasing
the pressure drop by reducing P
2

does not result in a proportional increase in flow. At
some pressure drop limit, a condition of maximum flow is realized in spite of increases
in the pressure drop across the valve. The condition of maximum flow is known as
choked flow and is represented with Q
max
or Q
choked
.
Pr edicting Q
max
and P
choked
- Equations have been developed that can be used to
predict the value of Q
max
(Q
choked
) with relative certainty. The equations that are used
to predict choked flow make use of a computed value that is referred to either as
P
choked
or P
allow.
When the computed value of P
choked
or P
allow
is larger than
the actual P across the valve, the specifier knows that choked flow exists. When
choked flow does exist, the maximum pressure drop that can be used for sizing
purposes is the computed value of P
choked
or p
allow
.
Figur e 5
Pressure And Flow Relationships.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10
Pressure And Velocity Profiles
A plot that shows mean fluid pressure and mean velocity profiles at and around a control
valve helps to explain the mechanics of choked flow. Refer to Figure 6.
Vena Contr acta - Recall that as a fluid passes through a restriction such as a control
valve, the flowstream continues to neck down to a minimum cross-sectional area. The
point of minimum cross-sectional area is known as the vena contracta. The vena
contracta may be located at the control valve port, or it may be located downstream of
the valve, depending on service conditions and valve style.
Pr essur e And Velocity At The Vena Contr acta - At the vena contracta, fluid velocity
increases to a maximum. In accordance with Bernoulli's equation, the increase in
velocity is accompanied by a decrease in pressure. The low pressure at the vena
contracta is referred to as P
vc
.
Figur e 6
Pressure And Velocity Profiles Around A Restriction
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11
Pressure Recovery
Pr essur e Recover y Defined - The difference between P
vc

and P
2

is referred to as pressure
recovery. P
2

is a fixed value that is dictated by the process, while the pressure at the
vena contracta (P
vc
) is a function of valve style and geometry.
High Recover y vs. Low Recover y Contr ol Valves - Low recovery (globe style) control
valves produce a relatively small pressure dip at the vena contracta. High recovery
valves (ball and butterfly valves) produce a greater pressure dip at the vena contracta.
Refer to Figure 7 below. Whether a valve is a high recovery or low recovery type has a
significant bearing on the pressure drop at which choked flow occurs.
Figur e 7
Comparison Of High And Low Recovery Valves
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12
Fluid Vapor Pressure
Defined - All subcritical, single-species fluids have a vapor pressure (P
v
). Vapor
pressure is the pressure at which a fluid at a stated temperature will begin to change
state from the liquid to the vapor phase. The liquid-to-vapor change of state can be
thought of as causing a liquid to boil by reducing the fluid pressure, as opposed to
increasing the fluid temperature.
P
vc
vs P
v
- As the pressure at the vena contracta is reduced to the vapor pressure of the
fluid (see Figure 8), the fluid will begin to vaporize. The fluid now consists of a
mixture of a liquid and vapor. The fluid is no longer incompressible (a liquid);
therefore, the basic liquid flow equation is no longer valid.
Figur e 8
Fluid Vaporization When P
vc
< P
v
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13
Mechanics Of Choked Flow
Incr easing Pr essur e Dr op And Fluid Density - Once the P
vc
has fallen below the P
v
, further
increases in the pressure drop result in additional vapor bubble formation and a further
reduction in the density of the fluid mixture. The decrease in fluid density offsets any
increase in the velocity of the mixture; as a result, no additional mass flow is realized.
Refer to Figure 9. Vapor formation and the subsequent reduction in fluid density help
to explain the phenomenon of choked flow.
Figur e 9
Pressure And Flow Relationships
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14
Associated Phenomenon - Whenever the fluid pressure at the vena contracta falls below
the fluid vapor pressure, one of two other phenomena will occur in conjunction with
choked flow. The fluid will either be cavitating or flashing, depending, as shown in
Figure 10, on the value of P
2
.
Figur e 10
Pressure Profiles For Flashing And Cavitating Flows
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15
Cavitation
Cavitation Defined - If downstream pressure (P
2
) recovers to a pressure that is greater
than the local vapor pressure (P
v
) of the fluid, the vapor cavities collapse and the fluid
mixture reverts to a liquid. The entire liquid-vapor-liquid phase change is known as
cavitation.
Cavitation Damage results from the collapse of millions of tiny vapor cavities on
boundary surfaces. Depending on cavitation intensity, proximity to critical surfaces,
and time of exposure, the micro-jets and the shock waves that are associated with the
collapse of vapor cavities can produce extreme damage to valves and other
components. Cavitation damage has a characteristic appearance that is rough and
cinderlike.
Anti-Cavitation Tr im is available for many valves to reduce or eliminate cavitation
damage. These special trim designs will be discussed in another module in this course.
Flashing
Flashing Defined - If downstream pressure remains at or below the local vapor pressure
of the fluid, the vapor remains in the fluid stream, and the mixture is said to be
flashing.
Flashing Damage results from liquid droplets impinging on metal surfaces at high
velocity. Flashing damage has a smooth and polished appearance.
Selection Of Valves For Flashing Fluids follows the same general strategy as valve
selection for other erosive applications, including the selection of harder body
materials, hard trim, flow-down angle bodies, and replaceable liners.
Implications Of Choked Flow For Sizing
It is important for the specifier to identify the presence of choked flow. If the presence of
choked flow is not identified and accounted for, the basic flow equation can grossly over
predict the flow capacity of the control valve. In addition, choked flow is always accompanied
by either flashing or cavitation, which must be considered during valve selection and sizing.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16
Calculating the Allowable Pressure Drop
All sizing methods include provisions for determining the onset of choked flow. The onset of
choked flow is determined by calculating the maximum flow-producing pressure drop
(P
allow
or P
choked
).
Valve Recovery Coefficient
Pr essur e Recover y Coefficient Defined - The valve pressure recovery coefficient (or
simply, recovery coefficient) plays a major role in calculating the P
allow
or the
P
choked
. The recovery coefficient accounts for the influence of the valve's internal
geometry on its capacity at the choked flow condition. The equations that are included
in ISA Standard S75.01 use the term F
L
to express the recovery coefficient. Some
manufacturers also use the coefficient K
m
. Manufacturers determine the value of F
L
and/or K
m
for each valve style by test, and they publish the coefficients along with
other sizing information.
Equation For Deter mining The Valve Recover y Coefficient - The valve recovery coefficient
relates the valve pressure drop to the drop at the vena contracta as follows:
ISA:
F
P P
P P
L
vc

1 2
1
(7)
Fisher:
K
P P
P P
m
vc

1 2
1
(8)
Note that F
L
2
= K
m
.
Where:
F
L
= The valve recovery coefficient (ISA).
K
m
= An alternate form of the valve recovery coefficient (Fisher Controls and
others).
P
vc
= The fluid pressure at the vena contracta.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17
Inter pr eting Values of K
m
or F
L
- Typically, values of K
m
and F
L
are much larger for low
recovery globe style valves than for high recovery ball and butterfly valves. Refer to
Figure 11 and note that high recovery valves tend to choke at lower pressure drops
than low recovery valves do because high-recovery valves produce a greater pressure
dip at the vena contracta. Low recovery valves produce a smaller drop at the vena
contracta; therefore, more pressure drop can be taken across the valve before P
vc
approaches P
v
.
Figur e 11
Generalized Relationship Of P
vc
To P
v
For High And Low
Recovery Valves At Different Pressure Drops
Recover y Coefficients For Globe Valves - Most manufacturers usually publish only one
pressure recovery coefficient for each style and size of globe valve. The recovery
coefficient applies to all percentages of travel. Typical recovery coefficients for sliding
stem valves are K
m
= 0.7 to 0.8 or F
L
= 0.8 to 0.9. (Remember that F
L
2
= K
m
)
Recover y Coefficients Rotar y-Shaft Valves - For ball, butterfly, and other high-efficiency
(high recovery) valves, the value of the recovery coefficient can vary significantly
with the percent of valve travel; therefore, the recovery coefficient for a specific angle
of opening must be used in the sizing equations. Typical values are K
m
= 0.4 to 0.6
and F
L
= 0.6 to 0.8.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18
Solving For P Allowable
Rear r anging The Equation - The usefulness of the equations to calculate the recovery
coefficient (Equations 7 and 8) becomes more apparent when the equations are
rearranged to solve for the flow limiting pressure drop, as shown in Equations 9 and
10.
ISA:
F
P P
P P
L
vc

1 2
1
arranges to P
choked

= F
L
2
(P
1
-P
vc
) (9)
Fisher Controls:
K
P P
P P
m
vc

1 2
1
arranges to P
allow
= K
m
(P
1
-P
vc
) (10)
From the above, it becomes clear that the value of the recovery coefficient can be used
to predict P
choked
for a specific set of service conditions.
Pr oblems In Deter mining P
vc
- While Equations 9 and 10 allow the specifier to calculate
P
choked
, the problem of how to determine the pressure at the vena contracta (P
vc
)
remains.
Calculating P
vc
- It has been theoretically established
(1)
that the P
vc
at the choked flow
condition can be estimated as a nonlinear function of the fluid vapor pressure
multiplied by the value of the critical pressure ratio. This hypothesis is included in the
Appendix of the ISA Standard S75.01 - 1985. The critical pressure ratio is identified in
the Fisher nomenclature as r
c,
and it is identified in the ISA nomenclature as F
F
.
Refer to Equations 11 and 12.
Fisher: P
vc
=r
c
P
v
(11)
ISA: P
vc
=F
F
P
v
(12)
Where:
F
F
= r
c
= The critical pressure ratio.
P
v
= The vapor pressure of the fluid.
Although the value of r
c
(F
F
) is actually a unique function for each fluid and the
prevailing conditions, it has been established that data for a variety of fluids can be
generalized, thereby allowing the use of r
c
(F
F
) in a wide range of sizing applications.
The value of r
c
can be determined from plots or with the use of a simple equation.
1. Stiles, G.F., "Development of a Valve Sizing Relationship for Flashing and Cavitation Flow", proceedings of the
First Annual Final Control Elements Symposium, Wilmington, Delaware, USA, Delivered May 14-16, 1970.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19
Deter mining The Value Of r
c
For Non-Water Liquids - For liquids other than water, the plot
that is shown in Figure 12 is used. The ratio of the fluid vapor pressure to the fluid
critical pressure is shown on the X axis. At the point where the vapor pressure to
critical pressure ratio intersects the curve, the critical pressure ratio (r
c
) is read from
the Y axis.
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0 .10 .20 .30 .40 .50 .60 .70 .80 .90 1.00
Vapor Pressure - PSIA
Critical Pressure - PSIA
C
i
t
i
c
a
l

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
a
t
i
o

-

r
c
A4148
Figur e 12
Critical Pressure Ratios For Liquids Other Than Water
Calculating The Value Of r
c
For Water - A special r
c
curve allows the straightforward
determination of r
c
for water (see Figure 13). Vapor pressure is shown on the X axis.
At the point where the vapor pressure intersects the curve, the critical pressure ratio
(r
c
) is read from the Y axis.
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
a
t
i
o
-
-
r
c
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Vapor Pressure---PSIA
A4147
Figur e 13
Critical Pressure Ratios For Water
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20
Locating Values - The vapor pressure and critical pressure of the fluid may be
supplied to the valve specifier in a description of the process, or they may be found in
any one of a number of references that give properties of fluids.
Equation For r
c
- An equation has also been developed that allows the specifier to
calculate an approximate value of r
c
for a variety of fluids
(1)
.
r
c
= F
F
= 0.96 - 0.28 (P
v
/P
c
)
1/2
(13)
Calculating P
choked

( P
allow
) - Because the pressure at the vena contracta (P
vc
) can be
calculated, the equations to calculate the flow-limiting pressure drop can be
completed. The ISA equations are as follows:
P
choked

= F
L
2
(P
1
-P
vc
) (14)
and P
vc
=F
F
P
v
(15)
so P
choked

= F
L
2
(P
1
-F
F
P
v
) (16)
The Fisher equations (as shown below) are similar in appearance and are functionally
identical to the ISA equations.
P
allow
= K
m
(P
1
-P
vc
) (17)
and P
vc
=r
c
P
v
(18)
so P
allow

= K
m
(P
1
-r
c
P
v
) (19)
Where:
F
L
= The valve recovery coefficient, dimensionless (ISA).
F
F
= The liquid critical pressure ratio factor, dimensionless (ISA).
P
v
= The liquid vapor pressure, psia.
P
vc
= The fluid pressure at the vena contracta, psia.
K
m
= The valve recovery coefficient, dimensionless (Fisher and others).
r
c
= The liquid critical pressure ratio, dimensionless (Fisher and others).
1. Reference ISA Standard S75.01-1985
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21
Implementing Choked Flow Equations
ISA Sizing Equation For Choked Flow - The ISA standard includes the following
equations:
q NF C
p F p
G
L v
F v
f
max

1
1
and
C
q
N F
G
p F p
v
L
f
F v

max
1 1
(20)
Two options are available for use of the equations. If it is known that flow is choked,
the equations that are shown above may be used directly. If it has not yet been
determined if choked flow exists, the specifier may first calculate the P
choked
by
using Equation 16. Then, the lesser of either the actual P or the P
choked
is used in
the basic sizing equations.
C
q
N
G
p p
v
f

1 1 2
and
q N C
p p
G
v
f

1
1 2
(21)
Fisher Contr ols Sizing Equation - The standard procedure for use of the Fisher equation is
to first calculate the allowable pressure drop with:
P
allow

= K
m
(P
1
-r
c
P
v
) (22)
The smaller of either the P
actual
or the P
allow
is then used in the basic sizing
equations.
C Q
G
P
v

and
Q C
P
G
v

(23)
Iter ative Natur e Of Sizing Calculations - The procedures that are used to calculate C
v
through the use of the P
allow
are as follows:
1. Using an estimated value of K
m
(F
L
), calculate the P
allow
.
2. Use the lesser of the P
allow
or P
actual
to calculate the required C
v
.
3. Select a valve size, and determine the percent of travel that will provide the
required C
v
. Observe the actual K
m
(F
L
) of the selected valve size at the travel
that was just determined.
4. If the actual K
m
(F
L
) is different than the estimated K
m
(F
L
), use the actual
value of K
m
(F
L
) to recalculate the P
allow
, and recalculate the required C
v
.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 until the estimated K
m
(F
L
) is the same as the actual
K
m
(F
L
).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22
Piping Geometry
Significance Of Pipe Fittings In Valve Sizing
ISA Standar ds For Testing Valve C
v
- Valve manufacturers determine control valve C
v
ratings according to ISA test standards. These standards specify the use of test piping
that is the same diameter as the nominal valve size. In many applications, the valve
size is smaller than the pipe size, and reducers and expanders (swages) are used.
Swages can have a considerable effect on valve capacity.
Fittings, Pr essur e Dr op, And Flow Rate - The net effect of a reducer, an expander, or the
combination of a reducer and an expander is a reduction in the apparent pressure drop
and a corresponding reduction in flow rate. The reduction in flow capacity that results
from the use of swages results in decreased flow and increased valve C
v
requirements.
ISA Corrections For Swaged Lines
Piping Geometr y Factor F
P
- The ISA equation uses the piping geometry factor F
P
to
account for the flow-limiting effect of swages. For maximum accuracy, F
P
values must
be determined by test.
Use of F
P
Factor - The piping geometry factor F
P
is included in the ISA equations as
follows:
q N F C
p p
G
P v
f

1
1 2
(24)
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
P
f

1 1 2
(25)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23
ISA Standar ds For Calculating F
P
- The ISA standard states that when tested values of F
P
are not available, F
P
may be estimated as follows:
F
P

K C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(26)
Where:
F
P
= The piping geometry factor, dimensionless.
K = The sum of all loss coefficients, dimensionless.
N
2
= A dimensionless units constant for pipe and valve size (N
2
= 890 for
inches; N
2
= 0.00214 for mm); see Figure 4.
d = The inside diameter of the valve inlet, specified in inches or mm
according to the value of N
2
.
Calculating K - K is the algebraic sum of all the loss coefficients that influence flow
through the fittings that are attached to the control valve. The coefficients are:
Friction coefficients that account for turbulence and friction (K
1
and K
2
)
Bernoulli coefficients that account for pressure and velocity changes (K
B1
and
K
B2
)
Refer to Equations 26 and 27, and to Figure 14.
K K K K K
B B
+ +
1 2 1 2
(27)
Figur e 14
Flow Limiting Influences Of Reducers And Expanders
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24
Resistance Coefficients K
1
and K
2

account for the pressure that is lost to turbulence and
friction in the inlet and outlet fittings respectively. K
1
and K
2
values may be found in
standard piping references such as Crane Company's Flow of Fluids Through Valves,
Fittings, and Pipe. Alternatively, K
1
and K
2
can be calculated by means of the
following equations:
K
1
0. 5 1
d
2
D
1
2



_
,

2
and
K
2
1. 0 1
d
2
D
2
2



_
,

2
or when D
1
= D
2
K
1
+K
2
1. 5 1
d
2
D
1
2



_
,

2
(28)
Where:
K
1
= The resistance coefficient of the inlet fitting(s).
K
2
= The resistance coefficient of the outlet fitting(s).
d = The inside diameter of the valve inlet.
D
1
= The inside diameter of the upstream pipe.
D
2
= The inside diameter of the downstream pipe.
Equation 28 illustrates that the ratio of d to D (valve inlet diameter to pipe diameter) is
the key flow-limiting influence. As D increases relative to d, the flow limiting effects
increase.
Note that the combined equation (to solve for K
1
+ K
2
) can be used only when inlet
and outlet piping are the same size. Note also that all the K terms are dimensionless.
Ber noulli Coefficients
K K B B 1 2 and
are used to compensate for changes in pressure that
result from differences in flow stream area and fluid velocity. Each term is calculated
by means of the following equations:
K
B1
1
d
D
1



_
,

4
and K
B2
1
d
D
2



_
,

4
(29)
Refer to Equations 27 and 29, and note that for equal size inlet and outlet piping, K
B1
and K
B2
cancel out; therefore, only the terms K
1
and K
2

are needed.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25
Valve Geometr y - Refer to Equation 30, and note the relationship between the valve C
v
and the valve inlet diameter d.
F
P

K C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(30)
When isolated from the remainder of the equation, the Cv and d terms can be seen as
an indicator of relative valve efficiency, (i.e., a large C
v
and a small valve inlet
diameter (d) indicates a high efficiency valve such as a ball or butterfly valve).
Relative Valve Efficiency
C
d
v

2
(31)
Note also that high recovery (high efficiency) valves will result in lower values of F
P.
Many experienced specifiers examine the ratio of the C
v
to inlet diameter to determine
whether or not to account for swage effects. One rule of thumb is expressed by the
following:
If
C
d
account for piping factors
v
2
20 ,
(32)
If
C
d
ignore piping factors
v
2
20 ,
(F
P
= 1.0) (33)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26
Equation Analysis - Given the mathematical relationship of the C
v
and d terms, it follows
that F
P
will have the largest impact on high efficiency (high recovery) valves such as
rotary valves. Refer to Figure 15 and note that F
P
will have the greatest effect on flow
when high efficiency valves are operated near their full rated capacity. Generally
speaking, swage effects diminish rapidly as valve position is reduced to about 50% of
rated travel.
For sliding-stem valves, the impact of swages on control valve sizing is generally in
the range of 2-5 percent. This margin of error is within the accuracy limits of the sizing
equation; therefore, swage effects are commonly ignored for low recovery, sliding-
stem valves.
Figur e 15
Piping Factor Effect Vs. Travel For Different Valve Styles
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27
Piping Factors And Choked Flow
Calculating F
LP
- When a valve is used with swages, the pressure recovery coefficient
(F
L
or K
m
) is not the same as the coefficient for the valve alone. Section 5.3 of ISA
Standard S75.01-1985 describes the use of an additional coefficient F
LP.
F
LP
is a
coefficient that is the product of the recovery coefficient that has been corrected for
piping factors (F
L
)
P
and the piping geometry factor F
P
as shown in the following
equations:
C
q
N F F
G
p p
v
P L P
f

1 1 2
( )
(34)
and, combining terms:
F F F
LP P L P
( )
(35)
therefore:
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
LP
f

1 1 2
(36)
Where:
F
P =
The piping factor.
(F
L
)
P =
F
L
corrected for piping factor.
F
LP
= The combined coefficient for pressure recovery and piping factors.
The ISA Standard states that, for maximum accuracy, the value of F
LP
should be
determined by test. The standard also states that if tested values are not available,
reasonable accuracy can be achieved with the use of Equation 37.
F
LP
F
L
K
i
F
L
2
C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(37)
The new term K
i
includes the loss coefficient (K
1
) and the Bernoulli coefficient (K
B1
)
on the inlet side of the valve only.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28
F
LP
And Choked Flow - The factor F
LP
is used to calculate P
choked
as shown in
Equation 38.
P
choked

F
LP
F
P



_
,

2
P
1
F
F
P
v
( )
(38)
Note that the sizing equation (Equation 39) is modified to account for F
LP
only if flow
is choked.
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
LP
f

1 1 2
(39)
Limitations Of Calculated F
LP
Impr ecise Results - For maximum accuracy, the value of F
LP
must be determined by test.
The value of F
LP
that is calculated through the use of the ISA equation indicates only
an approximation of swage effects, and it generally over-predicts the impact of
reducers and expanders. The lack of precision is caused by several factors, including
the following:
Difficulty in obtaining precise values for the K terms.
The equations are based on liquid flow across abrupt transitions (as opposed to
the smooth transitions of most expanders and reducers).
The combined effects of swages and specific valve geometry are not accounted
for.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29
Iter ative Natur e Of F
P
, F
LP
, And C
v
Calculations - When calculating control valve C
v
requirements, the F
P
and F
LP
terms are used in the equation to size for C
v;
however,
the unknown C
v
also appears in the equations to solve for F
P
and F
LP
. Refer to
Equations 40 and 41.
When P
actual
< P
choked
:
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
P
f

1 1 2
but
F
P

K C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+1



_
,

1
2
(40)
When P
actual
> P
choked
:
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
LP
f

1 1 2
but
F
LP
F
L
K
i
F
L
2
C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(41)
Therefore, several iterations of both equations must be performed as follows:
1. Using an estimated F
L
(K
m
) or F
LP
, calculate the required C
v
.
2. Using the C
v
that was calculated above,

calculate F
P
or F
LP
.
3. Using the calculated value of F
P
or F
LP
and the actual F
L
(or K
m
) of the
selected valve, solve for C
v
again.
4. Using actual values for F
L
(K
m
) and the calculated values for C
v
and F
P
or
F
LP
, repeat steps 2 and 3 until the results converge on a final value of C
v
.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30
Alternate Methods For Calculating Swage Effects
Swage Effects That Ar e Tested By Manufactur er s - According to the ISA standard,
maximum accuracy is achieved when the effect of fittings on valve C
v
and F
L
(K
m
) is
determined by test for each valve type and line-to-valve size ratio. Many
manufacturers publish rotary valve F
L
, K
m
, and C
v
values that have been corrected for
swage effects.
Calculating Swage Effects With Sizing Softwar e - Most valve sizing software includes
options for calculating F
P
and F
LP
factors. The computer can quickly perform the
iterations of the calculation that are necessary to arrive at useful (though approximate)
results.
Section 5.4 of SAES-J -700 states that when no specific vendor data is available for valves
that are mounted between pipe reducers, a correction factor will be used. The standard
includes a table of correction factors (R) for D/d ratios (pipe diameter to valve size) of
1.5 and 2.0 for a variety of valve styles. Refer to Figure 16. The R factors are applied
as follows:
Required C
v

Calculated C
v
R
(42)
Valve Type
D/d = 1.5 D/d = 2.0
R R
Globe Valves (Flow To Close) 0.96 0.94
Globe Valves (Flow To Open) 0.96 0.94
Angle Valves (Flow To Close) 0.85 0.77
Angle Valves (Flow To Open) 0.95 0.91
Ball Valves 0.84 0.80
Butterfly Valves 90 Degrees Open 0.77 0.67
Butterfly Valves 60 Degrees Open 0.91 0.85
Figur e 16
R Values That Are Used In The Piping Factor Correction Method
That Is Included In Section 5.4 Of SAES-J-700
R-Value Consider ations - Because R factors are derived without consideration for valve
C
v
or the percent of rated travel, the correction will not be as accurate as a correction
that is calculated with the ISA method. (Recall the significance of C
v
/d
2
). In spite of
this consideration, the method can provide useful, if approximate, results.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31
Viscosity Corrections
Flow Regimes
The sizing equations that have been presented to this point are based on the assumption that
the flowing fluid is turbulent, as opposed to laminar.
Laminar Flow - In laminar flow, the fluid flows in smooth, ordered layers. Refer to
Figure 17 below. Fluid velocity is highest in the layers in the center of the pipe, while
drag forces cause a reduction in the fluid velocity nearer the pipe wall. Laminar flow is
also referred to as viscous flow. Although effects other than fluid viscosity may cause
laminar flow, most laminar flow occurs with high viscosity fluids.
Tur bulent Flow - In turbulent flow, the uniform layers disappear and the flowstream is
made up of turbulent eddies that occur randomly in the fluid stream as shown in Figure
17. The flow profile is more blunt, and the velocity at the center of the pipe and the
velocity near the pipe wall are nearly equal.
Tr ansitional Flow - Between laminar and turbulent flow, a condition of transitional flow
exists. The transitional flow regime has characteristics of both laminar and turbulent
flow.
Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow
A5615
Figur e 17
Flow Profiles Of Laminar And Turbulent Flow Regimes
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32
Impact Of Flow Regime On Valve Sizing
Pr essur e Dr op Vs. Flow Rate - The valve specifier's interest in flow regimes centers on the
relationship between energy losses in the valve (pressure drop) and flow rate. For
turbulent flow, the standard sizing equation describes a relationship in which the flow
rate is proportional to the square root of the pressure drop across the valve as follows:
For Turbulent Flow:
Q P
(43)
In the laminar flow regime, tests confirm that the flow rate is directly proportional to
pressure drop as described with the following:
For Laminar Flow:
Q P
(44)
For fluids in the laminar regime, either a larger valve or a larger pressure drop will be
required to produce a flow rate that is equal to the flow rate of a fluid flowing in the
turbulent regime.
Depending on the magnitude of the viscous effects, the flow rate of a fluid in the
transitional regime will fall somewhere between the flow rate of a fluid in the laminar
regime and a fluid in the turbulent flow regime.
Reynolds Numbers
Iner tial And Viscous Influences - The physical quantities that determine the flow regime
can be represented as a ratio of inertial to viscous forces. This ratio is a dimensionless
parameter that is known as the Reynolds number, R. To illustrate the concept, the
Reynolds number for a straight piece of piping is represented with the following:
R
VD

(45)
Inertial influences are:
V - fluid velocity
D - pipe inside diameter

- fluid density
The viscous influence is:

- fluid absolute viscosity


Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33
Influences On Reynolds Number s - Note that a decrease in fluid velocity, pipe diameter, or
fluid density will result in a lower Reynolds number and a tendency toward laminar
flow. Also, note that increasing fluid viscosity will result in a lower Reynolds number
and a tendency toward laminar flow.
ISA Equations For Non-Turbulent Flow
Reynolds Number Factor F
R
- The ISA Standard uses a Reynolds number factor F
R
to
account for the effects of viscous flow. The factor F
R
is included in the basic sizing
equation as follows:
q N F C
p p
G
R v
f

1
1 2
(46)
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
R
f

1 1 2
(47)
The F
R
factor expresses the ratio of the nonturbulent flow rate to the turbulent flow
rate that is predicted by the basic sizing equation. Note also that Equations 46 and 47
do not include the piping correction factor F
P
. The effect of valve fittings and swages
on nonturbulent flow is currently not well understood; therefore, when the ISA
equations are used, the specifier may correct for piping factors or viscous effects, but
not for both.
Reynolds Number Vs. Flow Regime - A chart that relates the valve Reynolds number to the
value of F
R
helps to illustrate the effect that laminar flow can have on the calculated
flow rate or the control valve C
v
. The plot that is shown in Figure 19 illustrates that
when the valve Reynolds is 12 000 or larger, the flow is fully turbulent; accordingly,
there is no flow limiting effect and the value of F
R
is 1.0. As the Reynolds number
falls below 12 000, the flow-limiting effects of laminar flow increase, and the value of
F
R
decreases.
Section 5.5 Of SAES-J -700 requires an evaluation of viscous effects whenever the
Reynolds number is below 12 000.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34
Calculating F
R
- Calculating the value of F
R
is a two step process.
1. The first step is to calculate a valve Reynolds number, Re
v
, as shown below:
Re
v

N
4
F
d
q
F
L
1
2 C
v
1
2
F
L
2
C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+1



_
,

1
4
(48)
Note that the equation is iterative because Re
v
, C
v
, and F
L
are all unknown at the
beginning of the process. Estimates must be made for all values, and, then, several
iterations are performed to arrive at useful results.
Note also the use of the term F
d
. F
d
is a valve style modifier. Currently, the ISA
Standard recognizes only two values of F
d.
A value of 0.7 is used for double ported
globe valves and for butterfly valves. For all other valve styles, F
d
is 1.0.
Kinematic viscosity,

, is expressed in centistokes. If fluid viscosity is specified in


terms other than centistokes, it is necessary to convert the viscosity to centistokes with
the use of the methods that are shown in the table below:
Viscosity Expr essed As: Conver t to Centistokes by:
m
2
/s Multiply m
2
/s by 10
6
centipoise divide centipoise by G
f
Figur e 18
Viscosity Conversion
2. The calculated valve Reynolds number (Re
v
) is used to enter a plot (see Figure
19) that relates Re
v

to a value of F
R
. The value of F
R
is used as shown in
Equations 46 and 47.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35
Figur e 19
Valve Reynolds Number Vs. The Reynolds Number Factor F
R
Other Viscosity Correction Methods
Viscosity Cor r ection Nomogr aph - To avoid time-consuming calculations, valve
manufacturers provide simplified approaches to obtain low Reynolds number (viscous
liquid) correction factors. Fisher Controls provides a simple nomograph that allows the
specifier to compensate for viscous effects when performing flow, pressure drop, and
C
v
calculations. The nomograph uses known inputs of valve C
v
, flow rate, and fluid
viscosity to arrive at a Reynolds number N
R
. The value of N
R
is then used to identify a
correction factor F
v
. F
v
is used to correct the initial C
v
calculation to arrive at a
corrected value of C
vr
(C
v
required ). For purposes of selecting an appropriately sized
control valve, the value of C
vr

is used instead of C
v
.
C
vr
= F
v

C
v

(49)
Where:
C
vr
= The C
v
that has been adjusted for fluid viscosity.
F
v
= A correction factor, dimensionless, from the Fisher nomograph.
C
v
= The uncorrected C
v
.
Sizing Softwar e such as the Fisher Sizing Program and other sizing programs include
options that automatically check for the effects of viscous (laminar) flow. The specifier
enters the fluid viscosity along with other service conditions, and the software
performs all of the necessary calculations.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36
Summary Of Valve Sizing Equations
ISA Method
Basic Flow Equation - For nonchoking, turbulent fluids, C
v
is calculated with:
C
q
N
G
p p
v
f

1 1 2
(50)
Choked Flow Sizing Equation - To determine if choked flow exists, the specifier
calculates the P
choked
, compares P
choked
to the actual P, and uses the lesser of the
two drops for sizing purposes. The P
choked
is calculated as follows:
P
choked
= F
L
2
(P
1
- F
F
P
v
) (51)
If choked flow exists (P
actual
> P
choked
), the required valve C
v
is calculated with the
use of the following equation:
C
v

q
max
N
1
F
L
G
f
p
1
F
F
p
v
(52)
Alternatively, the basic flow equation (Equation 50) may be used for choked flow
sizing if the P
choked
is used as the sizing pressure drop.
Piping Cor r ection For Non-Choked Flow Applications - In applications where the flow is not
choked, the flow limiting effect of piping reducers and expanders is calculated with the
use of the piping correction factor F
P
as follows:
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
P
f

1 1 2
where
F
P

K C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(53)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37
Piping Cor r ection For Choked Flow Applications - To compensate for piping factors under
conditions of choked flow, a single coefficient F
LP
is used to compensate for both
choked flow and piping factors as follows:
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
LP
f

max
1 1 2
where
F
LP
F
L
K
i
F
L
2
C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(54)
Viscosity Cor r ections F
R
- The effect of nonturbulent (laminar) flow is included in the
sizing equation with the Reynolds number factor, F
R
, as shown in Equation 55.
C
q
N F
G
p p
v
R
f

1 1 2
(55)
The value of F
R
is determined by first calculating the valve Reynolds number with the
use of Equation 56 and, then, locating a value of F
R
from the chart that was shown
previously in Figure 19.
Re
v

N
4
F
d
q
F
L
1
2 C
v
1
2
F
L
2
C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+1



_
,

1
4
(56)
Only one of the correction factors F
R
or F
P
may be used.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38
Equations Used By Fisher Controls And Others
Basic Flow Equation - The basic flow equation that is used by many manufacturers (refer
to Equation 57) is similar in form to the ISA equation.
Q C
P
G
v

(57)
Checking for Choked Flow - The potential for choked flow is investigated by calculating
the P
allow
and comparing the result with the actual P across the valve. If the actual
P is greater than the P
allow
, choked flow exists and the P
allow
is used as the sizing
pressure drop in Equation 57.
The P
allow
is calculated with:
P
allow

= K
m
(P
1
-r
c
P
v
) (58)
K
m
values are published in manufacturers' literature. The value of r
c
can be found
from tables or calculated with a simple equation.
Piping Cor r ections - The effect of reducers and expanders on valve capacity is
determined by testing each type and size of valve with different line-to-body size
ratios. Corrected C
v
's are then published for rotary valves. Corrected values of K
m
are
also published. The effect of reducers and expanders on globe valve capacity and
recovery characteristics is negligible; therefore, no corrections are published or are
necessary.
Viscosity Cor r ections - During a manual sizing procedure, viscosity corrections are easily
made with the use of a nomograph that relates valve C
v
, flow rate, and viscosity to a
correction factor F
v
. The C
v
required (C
VR
) is calculated by taking the product of the
correction factor times the calculated C
v
(i.e., C
VR
= F
v
C
v
).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39
Computer sizing control valves for liquid applications
Introduction to the Fisher Sizing Program
Benefits Of Computer Sizing Methods
Valve specifiers generally make use of available sizing software that runs on PC's. The many
advantages of computer sizing include the following:
Ease and speed of computation
Computational accuracy
Elimination of need to remember numerous sizing equations
The ability to construct a database of fluids and fluid properties
The ability to save data and sizing calculations on disk
The ability to generate various reports and specification sheets
Overview Of The Fisher Sizing Program (FSP 1.4)
Sizing Equations - The sizing software that is used in this Module has the ability to
perform sizing calculations according to the ISA sizing equations and the equations
that are used by Fisher Controls and by other manufacturers. The ability to perform
calculations with the use of either method will be helpful in demonstrating various
sizing approaches.
Gener ic Sizing Engine - The Fisher Sizing Program uses accepted equations, does not
rely on proprietary valve specifications, and calculates results that are useful during
the selection of any valve - regardless of manufacturer - provided that valve recovery
coefficients are expressed in terms of F
L
or K
m
. The flexibility of the software
becomes most apparent in special sizing applications.
Other Capabilities - The program allows the specifier to select a system of units, to build
a database of common fluids and fluid properties, and to print both standard and
custom reports and specification sheets; however, only those features that directly
relate to valve sizing will be discussed in this Module. Participants with ongoing
responsibility for valve sizing will benefit from exploring other options that are
included in this software.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40
Overview of Program Operation
Booting The Program
After the PC is set to the appropriate directory, the program is launched by typing the
executive (exec) file "FSP" and, then, pressing the ENTER key.
Project Information
After launching the program, a main menu and identification screen appears as shown in
Figure 20. This screen allows for specifier identification, project identification, equipment tag
number, and other information.
Figur e 20
Main Menu Of The Fisher Sizing Program
Main Menu
A menu at the top of this screen lists several different sizing activities and functions. The
specifier selects a specific sizing activity by moving the cursor to the desired selection and
pressing the ENTER key or by pressing the capitalized letter of the desired activity.
Valve is selected to size control valves, calculate flow rate, or calculate pressure drop.
Ssact is selected to size sliding-stem actuators.
Rotact is selected to size rotary-shaft actuators.
sTr oking is selected to calculate actuator stroking time.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41
r Epor t is selected to print a report of the service conditions, fluid properties, and the
results of the sizing calculations.
sPecsheet - is selected to print out a standard or custom specification sheet.
File is selected to import or export text files to or from a specification sheet.
Other is selected to gain access to a notepad and other miscellaneous options.
Config is selected to change units from English to metric, to select printers, to set
atmospheric pressure, and to establish other system and sizing defaults.
eXit is selected to quit the program.
Selecting Units
The specifier may select the default engineering units by selecting Config from the main menu
and, then, selecting the Units option. See Figure 21. Each entry may be changed individually
by highlighting it and pressing ENTER. Also, notice the option at the bottom of the screen to
make all units either English (by pressing the F2 key) or metric (by pressing the F3 key).
Pressing the F10 key exits this screen.
Figur e 21
Screen That Appears When The Units Option Under Config Is Selected
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42
Selecting A Valve Sizing Method
When the menu item Valve is selected, the specifier is presented with several options for sizing
gasses, liquids, and vapors. Each option uses different equations within the computer
program. The three available methods for liquid sizing are shown in Figure 22 and are
described below.
Figur e 22
Drop-Down Menu That Lists Valve Sizing Methods
ISA Liquid - When the ISA Liquid method is selected, the software uses the ISA sizing
equations.
Fisher Liquid - When the Fisher Liquid method is selected, the software uses the same
fundamental equations that are used in the ISA method, except that the terms K
m
and
r
c
are used instead of F
L
and F
F
, respectively. In the Fisher Liquid method, there is no
option for calculating F
P
because piping effects are included in the valve C
v
's that are
published by Fisher Controls.
Fisher Water - The Fisher Water method takes advantage of the fact that the SG
(specific gravity) and P
v
(vapor pressure) for water can be calculated from other
information that is entered by the specifier. The Fisher Water method saves time
because it eliminates the need for the specifier to input values for SG and P
v
; however,
there is an option that allows manual entry of SG for special circumstances.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43
Selecting Variables And Conditions
Selecting Var iables To Solve For - After a sizing method has been selected, the specifier
selects the variable to solve for. Refer to Figure 23. The choices are as follows:
Valve Sizing and LpA (noise prediction)
Velocity
LpA vs. Q (Noise prediction at various flow rates)
C
v
Simple (for estimating C
v
with no corrections for choked flow, viscosity,
piping, etc.)
Selecting Conditions - On the same screen, the specifier selects whether the sizing
calculations will be performed for the minimum, normal, or maximum flow
conditions, or for some other condition (identified by the column header 'OTH').
Copying Conditions - The software performs calculations for one service condition (min,
norm, max, or OTH) at a time, and the active condition is indicated with a check mark.
Parameters for one condition can be copied to another to eliminate redundant entry of
inputs. Copying parameters from one condition to another is performed by pressing the
cursor keys until the cursor is on the target condition, pressing ALT C, and selecting
the condition from which data will be copied.
Figur e 23
Options For Variables To Solve For
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44
Valve Sizing Calculation Screen
Selecting the Valve Sizing and LpA option of the ISA Liquid sizing method brings up the actual
sizing screen (shown in Figure 24). This screen is divided into several sections.
Figur e 24
Calculation Screen For ISA Liquid Sizing
Liquid Pr oper ties And State - This section is where the specifier enters the fluid and fluid
properties such as the fluid critical pressure (P
c
), vapor pressure (P
v
), and specific
gravity (SG).
Ser vice Conditions - In this section, the specifier enter pressure, flow, and temperature
information.
Inter mediate Results - Any intermediate results such as the calculated values of F
F
, F
R
,
Re
v
, or F
P
are displayed in this area.
Valve Specification - In this section, the specifier enters any needed valve data such as
the value of F
L
. When pipe and valve size are required for calculating F
P
or F
R
, they
are also entered in this section.
Calculated Results - After all data have been entered, the specifier presses the function
key F2 to calculate the required valve C
v
. The results of the sizing calculations appear
in the Calculated Results section. In addition to valve C
v
, other important information
such as the P
choked
is also shown.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45
Selecting Calculation Options
The F3 Options Key - At any time, the specifier may choose from several different sizing
options (see Figure 25) by pressing the function key F3. Options are toggled by
highlighting the appropriate line and pressing ENTER. The option that is visible when
the option menu is stored (by pressing the ESCAPE key) is the option that will be used
in sizing. The options menu for the ISA liquid sizing method includes the following:
Line 1: Solve for Cg, Cs, or Cv - Other options: Solve For Flow Rate, Solve
For Pressure Drop
Line 2: LpA (SPL) OFF - Option: Calculate LpA (SPL)
Line 3: Omit Fp - Other options: Calculate Fp, input Fp
Line 4: Viscous Correction OFF - Option: Viscous Correction ON
Line 5: Pipe: Size/Sched - Option: Pipe: Diameter/Thickness
Line 6: Input Pv - Option: Calculate Pv (Note that the software can only
calculate the P
v
for fluids for which data have been included in the permanent
database; for other fluids, the specifier must enter the P
v
.)
Line 7: Warnings ON - Option: Warnings OFF
Figur e 25
Calculation Options
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46
As various options are selected, the fields for inputs and for calculated results will
change; for example, if the Viscous Correction option is set to ON, the program will
require the specifier to input fluid viscosity and valve inlet diameter. In addition, the
calculated values of Re
v
and F
R
will be displayed in the Intermediate Results section.
Line-By-Line Units Selection - F8 Key - The specifier may change units of measurement for
any input parameter by placing the cursor on that parameter and pressing F8. Pressing
F8 produces a sub-menu that lists all possible choices. Refer to Figure 26. A choice is
made by positioning the cursor on the desired unit and pressing the ENTER key. The
option that is visible when the option menu is stored (by pressing the ENTER key) is
the option that is used in the program.
Figur e 26
Pull-Down Menu That Lists Units Options For Q
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47
Pull-Down Menus - F4 Key - Pull-down menu options for several of the input fields can
be accessed by pressing the F4 key; for example, if the cursor is on the field for
"Liquid", pressing the F4 key brings down a menu of several different options as
shown in Figure 27. Fluids that are preceded with a tilde character () are included in a
fixed database. The fixed database also includes sufficient data to allow automatic
calculation of the fluid vapor pressure at the service conditions. The fixed database
cannot be edited; however, the software does allow the specifier to construct a separate
database of fluids and fluid properties that can be edited.
Figur e 27
Pull-Down Menu That Lists Fluids In The Sizing Database
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48
Other Important Operations
For basic operation of the software, knowledge of a few special keystrokes is helpful.
Escape Key - The escape key serves several functions. When menus are present,
pressing the ESCAPE key has the effect of selecting an option and, then, returning to
the calculation screen. Pressing the escape key also allows the specifier to step
backwards through the various screens.
Clear ing An Entr y Field - F5 - Pressing the F5 key clears the field at the cursor location.
Clear ing An Entir e Scr een - ALT F5 - To clear all data on the screen, the specifier presses
the ALT key together with the F5 key.
On-Line Help - F1 - The first time F1 is pressed, a context sensitive help screen appears.
The help screen displays information about the procedure that was being performed
when F1 was pressed. Pressing F1 again brings up an index of topics for which on-line
help is available. A topic is selected by moving the cursor and, then, pressing the
ENTER key.
Table Of Values - F9 - Pressing F9 displays a table of input parameters and calculated
results for all flow conditions as shown in Figure 28 below.
Figur e 28
Table Of Values That Is Displayed When The F9 Key Is Pressed
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49
Computer Sizing control valves for gas and Steam applications
Introduction
Differences In Compressible and Incompressible Fluid Flow
Valve sizing for compressible fluids (gasses and vapors) differs from sizing for non-
compressible fluids (liquids) in several ways. The most important difference is that the density
of a gas or vapor cannot be assumed to be constant as it passes through the valve. Instead,
density is a strong function of pressure and temperature conditions; therefore, the equations
that are used to size control valves use several additional terms to account for fluid density.
Use Of Computer Software
Because of the complexity of the sizing equations that are used for compressible fluids,
specifiers typically make use of computer programs to perform sizing calculations; however,
to ensure the use of proper sizing techniques, specifiers should develop an understanding of
the terms that are used in the sizing equations.
The ISA Sizing Equations For Compressible Fluids
Popular Standard
The equations that are included in Section 6 of ISA Standard S75.01 are broadly accepted
both by valve manufacturers and by valve users. The ISA equations are used in virtually all
industries, and they are endorsed in most world areas.
Saudi Aramco Standards
Section 5.1 of SAES-J-700 states that valve sizing procedures shall be based on the equations
that are included in the ISA standard that is referenced above. Section 5.1 of SAES-J-700 also
allows the use of vendor-supplied, computer-based sizing software that is based on the ISA
equations.
Alternate Forms Of The ISA Equation
The specifier may select from many forms of the ISA equation. The choice of equation form
depends on:
whether the objective is to calculate fluid flow rate or valve C
v
whether fluid flow is expressed in terms of volumetric flow or mass flow
the terms that are used to express fluid density
the units of measurement (SI or English unit systems)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50
Mass Flow - To solve for mass flow (w), equations that account for fluid density with
specific weight () or molecular weight (M) are used. These equations are sometimes
referred to as the 'vapor' forms of the equation.
w N F C Y xp
p v

6 1 1

or
w N F C p Y
xM
T Z
p v

8 1
1
(59)
Volumetr ic Flow - To solve for volumetric flow (q), either specific gravity (G
g
) or
molecular weight (M) can be used to account for fluid density.
q N F C p Y
x
G T Z
p v
g

7 1
1
or
q N F C p Y
x
MT Z
p v

9 1
1
(60)
Contr ol Valve C
v
- For valve sizing, the equations above are rearranged to solve for C
v.
When the fluid flow rate is specified in terms of mass flow (w) and density is specified
in terms of specific weight () or in terms of molecular weight (M), C
v
is calculated
with the use of one of the following equations:
C
w
N F Y xp
v
p

6 1 1

or
C
w
N F p Y
T Z
xM
v
p

8 1
1
(61)
When the flow rate is specified in terms of volumetric flow (q) and fluid density is
specified in terms of specific gravity (G
g
) or molecular weight (M), C
v
is calculated
with the use of one of the following equations:
C
q
N F p Y
G T Z
x
v
p
g

7 1
1
or
C
q
N F p Y
MT Z
x
v
p

9 1
1
(62)
Units Systems - The various N terms in the equations allow the specifier to use the
desired engineering units such as psi or bar for pressure, and scfm or kg/m
3
for flow
rate.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51
Nomenclature
The terms that are used in Equations 59 through 62 are described below.
C
v
control valve flow coefficient
F
p
piping geometry factor; dimensionless
G
g
gas specific gravity; dimensionless (i.e., density of gas to density of air at reference
conditions, or ratio of molecular weight of a gas to molecular weight of air)
M molecular weight; atomic mass units
N
x
constants for units of measure; see table below
p
X
p
1
= static fluid pressure upstream of the valve; p
2
= static fluid pressure downstream
of the valve; see the table below for units
T
1
absolute temperature of fluid at valve inlet; degrees K or R
w mass flow rate; kg/h or lb/h - see the table below for units
x pressure drop ratio
p p
1; dimensionless
Y expansion factor; dimensionless
Z compressibility factor; dimensionless
1
specific weight of the fluid at valve inlet; see the table below for units
Numerical Constants
The values of the various N terms are shown below.
Constant Units
N w q* p
1
, p
2
, p T
1
d, D
N
5
0.00241 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - mm
1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - in
N
6
2.73 kg/h - - - kPa kg/m
3
- - - - - -
27.3 kg/h - - - bar kg/m
3
- - - - - -
63.3 lb/h - - - psia lb/ft
3
- - - - - -
N
7
4.17 - - - m
3
/h kPa - - - K - - -
417 - - - m
3
/h bar - - - K - - -
1360 - - - scfh psia - - - R - - -
N
8
0.948 kg/h - - - kPa - - - K - - -
94.8 kg/h - - - bar - - - K - - -
19.3 lb/h - - - psia - - - R - - -
N
9
22.5 - - - m
3
/hr kPa - - - K - - -
2250 - - - m
3
/hr bar - - - K - - -
7320 - - - scfh psia - - - R - - -
* cubic feet per hour at 14.73 psia and 60 degrees F, or cubic meters per hour at 101.3 kPa and 15.6
degrees C
Figur e 29
Numerical Constants For The ISA Gas Sizing Equations
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52
Basic Equation
To help develop an understanding of the ISA sizing equations, the complete equation for
volumetric flow (Equation 63) will be stripped to its most basic form, and each term will be
explained as it is added to the basic equation.
q N F C p Y
x
G T Z
p v
g

7 1
1
(63)
Flow Rate: A Function Of Pr essur e Dr op Ratio - Recall that for liquid flow, q is a function
of the square root of the pressure drop, as shown below.
q C
P
G
v

(64)
Similarly, gas flow is a function of pressure conditions and C
v
. Over a limited set of
conditions, tests show that the basic relationship between gas flow, C
v
, and pressure
conditions is as follows:
q C p x
v

1
(65)
Where:
x
P
p

1
(66)
Equation 65 predicts a flow rate that is a linear function of
x
as shown in Figure 30.
Figur e 30
Gas Flow And Pressure Relationships
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53
Choked Flow
Over view Of Choked Flow - The equation that was just shown predicts an increase in flow
for every increase in the value of x; however, when the value of the square root of x
becomes greater than about 0.02, the observed increases in flow rate become less than
the equation predicts. Refer to Figure 31. Ultimately, there is a point of choked flow.
At the choked flow condition, increases in x (by reducing downstream pressure) do not
produce any increase in flow rate. Choking occurs when the jet stream at the vena
contracta achieves sonic velocity. The choked flow rate is associated with a flow
limiting value of x, which is known as x
T
.
Pr essur e Dr op Ratio Factor x
T
- The flow limiting value of x (refer to Figure 31) is called
the pressure drop ratio factor, or x
T

(
T
stands for terminal). The value of x
T
is related
to valve style and geometry; therefore, valve manufacturers determine x
T
values by
test, and they publish them in sizing catalogs and other documents. The values of x
T
are different for every different valve style and size. x
T
values also change as a
function of the percentage of valve travel.
Figur e 31
Choked Flow As A Function Of x
T
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54
x
T
And The Ratio Of Specific Heats Factor - Manufacturers test valves for x
T
values at
standard conditions and with standard fluids. The test fluid is air. To make the value of
x
T
meaningful with fluids other than air, the sizing equations account for properties of
flowing fluids that are different than the properties of air. One of the significant fluid
properties of any compressible fluid is its specific heat ratio, which is expressed as k. k
represents the ratio of a fluid's specific heat at a constant pressure to its specific heat at
a constant volume. When a valve is used with a fluid other than air, the value of x
T
value should be corrected for the specific heat of the flowing gas. The correction factor
is called the ratio of specific heats factor and it is referred to as F
k
. F
k
is simply the
specific heat ratio for the flowing gas (k) divided by the specific heat ratio (k) of air,
which is 1.4. Refer to Equation 67.
F
k
k

14 .
(67)
Where:
F
k
= The ratio of specific heats factor.
k = The specific heat ratio of the flowing gas.
1.4 = The specific heat ratio (k) of air at standard conditions.
To correct the value of x
T
for the ratio of specific heats of the flowing gas, the value of
x
T
becomes F
k
x
T
. The value of x
T
that is used in any sizing equation should be limited
to the value of F
K
x
T
.
Locating k Values - k values are included in many standard references such as the Gas
Processor's Handbook, and they are also included in the fluid databases of many
sizing programs. Specifiers should note that k values vary with service temperature,
and that these values can change dramatically (generally increase) at high
temperatures.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55
Use Of F
K
x
T
- To prevent overpredicting flow or undersizing valves, the value of x that
is used in any of the sizing equations must not exceed the value of F
K
x
T
. Refer to
Equation 68.
q C p x
v

1
becomes
q C p F x
v K T

1
(68)
Effect Of F
k
on X
T
- Refer to Figure 32 and note that larger values of k result in higher
values of F
K
x
T
, and vice versa. The values of q
max
are similarly affected. Note that the
effects that are shown are exaggerated to help illustrate the concept.
Figur e 32
Effects Of k On F
K
x
T
And q
max
Us Of F
K
In Valve Sizing - Many hydrocarbon gasses and vapors have k values that range
from 1.2 to 1.5 at moderate temperatures. k values in this range typically have a very
small impact on valve sizing; therefore, many specifiers ignore the specific heat
correction when k is between 1.2 and 1.5, and they assume that F
K
is equal to 1.0.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56
Expansion Factor: Y
Application of x and x
T
- At the beginning of this discussion, the basic gas flow equation
was presented as:
q C p x
v

1
, where
x
p
p

1
(69)
It has been shown that the x can be used to predict flow when x < 0.02, that choked
flow can be predicted when x is limited to x
T
, and that x
T
can be further modified to
account for the thermodynamic properties of the fluid. Refer to Equation 70.

q C p F x
v K T

1
(70)
The equations above do not express the non-linear relationship between
x
and q in
the region where x>0.02 and x<F
k
x
T
. Refer to Figure 33.
q Ver sus x When x > 0.02 and x < F
K
x
T
- The expansion factor, Y, is included in the ISA
equations to account for the relationship of q to x when x > 0.02 and x < F
K
x
T
. The
expansion factor (Y) helps to account for the following:
Changes in fluid density that result from increased fluid velocity and reduced
fluid pressure at the vena contracta.
The effect of vena contracta enlargement.
These conditions are discussed in the following sections.
Figur e 33
Pressure And Flow Relationships As x Increases From 0.02 To x
T
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57
Density Changes - As the value of x increases, fluid velocity at the vena contracta increases and
fluid pressure decreases. See Figures 33 and 34. The reduction in local fluid pressure causes
the fluid to expand, which results in a reduction in fluid density. Because fluid density
decreases with each incremental increase in x, incremental increases in x no longer produce
proportional increases in flow rate.
Figur e 34
Reduced Pressure P
VC
Leads To Reduced Fluid Density And Reduced Flow
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58
Vena Contr acta Enlar gement - When the fluid velocity becomes sonic, a shock wave is
created that limits velocity to a maximum (terminal) value. Flow rate becomes a
function of sonic (terminal) velocity and the effective flow area at the vena contracta.
Refer to Figures 33 and 35.
Figur e 35
Effect of Sonic Velocity On Flow
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59
After the fluid attains sonic velocity, a decrease in P
2
may produce a limited increase
in flow rate, depending on the valve style. The increase in flow rate occurs because an
increase in x reduces backpressure and causes the vena contracta to move upstream to
the valve throat as shown in Figure 36. The flow area at the valve throat is typically
larger than the flow area of an unconstrained vena contracta that is located in the
piping downstream of the control valve; therefore, some increase in flow rate may
occur.
Figur e 36
Effect of Vena Contracta Enlargement
Inclusion Of Y In Sizing Equations - The ISA equation accounts for the conditions listed
above by means of the expansion factor Y. The Y term is used in the sizing equation
as follows:
q C p Y x
v

1
(71)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60
Calculating Y - Y can be taken as a linear function of x. The equation to calculate Y is
as follows:
Y
x
F x
K T
1
3
(72)
Relationships of x, x
T
, F
k
, And Y - The relationships between the values of x, x
T
, and Y
are best shown graphically as in Figure 37. Note that the value of Y will always fall in
a range between 0.67 and 1.0.
Figur e 37
Relationships Among x, F
k
x
T
, And Y
Basis For Y - For compressible fluids, the expansion factor can be defined as the ratio of
the flow coefficient for a gas to the flow coefficient for a liquid. When the value of Y
is 1.0, there is no difference in the liquid and gas flow coefficients. Values of Y that
are less than 1.0 indicate a flow limiting effect due to density changes that result from
fluid expansion.
In other words, as x approaches zero (very low pressure drop ratios), flow resembles
that of an incompressible fluid (a liquid); accordingly, fluid expansion has a small
effect on flow, and Y approaches 1.0. As x approaches x
T
, the fluid becomes less
dense. The expansion factor Y becomes smaller to account for the reduction in density.
As x approaches x
T
, Y approaches 0.67, thereby signaling the maximum flow-limiting
effect of fluid expansion and the presence of choked flow.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61
Dimensionless Ter ms - Refer to Equation 72 and note that all of the terms that are used to
calculate Y are dimensionless; therefore, Y is also dimensionless.
Equation Development - At this point of discussion, the flow equation takes the form:
q C p Y x
v

1
(73)
This equation:
predicts flow at low pressure drop ratios (
p x
1
)
predicts critical flow (with the use of x
T
)
predicts the effect of density changes that result from fluid expansion due to
low pressure at the vena contracta.
Adapting The Equation For Use With Gasses Other Than Air
Ideal Gasses - The equation that has been discussed to this point (Equation 73) is based
on the flow of air at standard conditions. It can be generalized for any gas at any
temperature with a simple modification to account for fluid specific gravity and
temperature as shown in Equation 74.
q C p Y
x
G T
v
g

1
1
(74)
Where:
G
g
= The specific gravity of the flowing gas; the ratio of the density of the gas
at the valve inlet to the density of air, where both the flowing gas and the
reference fluid (air) are at standard conditions of 60 degrees F and 14.7
psia.
T
1
= The absolute temperature of the fluid at the valve inlet in degrees Rankine
or in Kelvin.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62
The manner in which fluid density is included in the gas sizing equations is different
than the method that is used for liquid sizing. Recall that for liquid sizing, fluid density
is included in the equation as the actual SG of the liquid at the valve inlet; that is, the
SG of the liquid must be corrected for temperature before the sizing equations are
used.
For gas sizing, the fluid density that is used in the sizing equations is the fluid density
at standard conditions (i.e., 14.7 psia and 60 degrees F). The sizing equation corrects
the density for the flowing conditions according to the ideal gas law, which states that:
pV = RT (75)
Where:
p = The absolute fluid pressure, psia.
V = The specific volume (e.g., m
3
/kg, ft
3
/lb, etc.).
R = A gas constant that is unique for each fluid.
T = The fluid's absolute temperature, Kelvin, degrees Rankine, etc.
The relationships that are shown in Equation 75 are valid only for gasses that follow
the ideal gas law.
Note also that the correction is not necessary when the mass flow forms of the
equation are used, and density is expressed in terms of specific weight () at the valve
inlet (e.g., lbs/ft
3
, kg/m
3
, etc.).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 63
Real Gas Behavior
Real Ver sus Ideal Gasses - Many gasses and vapors do not behave according to ideal gas
law of pV = RT, and those gasses that do not exhibit ideal gas behavior are referred to
as real gasses. The most significant aspect of real gas behavior is that specific volume
(V) may not change as a linear function of either temperature or pressure, i.e.:
V
RT
p

(76)
Non-linear changes in the relationships between p, V, and T are a result of a
phenomenon known as compressibility. Valve specifiers are interested in
compensating for the effects of fluid compressibility because of the direct relationship
of fluid specific volume to fluid density and because of the impact of fluid density on
flow and C
v
calculations. To obtain precise results when calculating C
v
or flow rates,
the compressibility factor Z must be included in any equation where the specific
weight is a computed value. The correction for fluid compressibility is not necessary
when density is expressed in terms of specific weight at the valve inlet (e.g., lbs/ft
3
,
kg/m
3
, etc.).
Compr essibility Factor Z - For real gasses at a specific set of service conditions, the
effects of compressibility can be calculated with the use of the compressibility factor,
Z.
pV = ZRT (77)
The compressibility factor is included in the basic flow equation to correct for the
behavior of a non-ideal gas as follows:
q C p Y
x
G T Z
v
g

1
1
(78)
Note that a compressibility factor of 1.0 indicates ideal gas behavior (i.e., there are no
compressibility effects), whereas a lower value of Z (e.g., Z= 0.8) would indicate a
tendency toward incompressible (liquid) flow. Also, note that lower values of Z will
result in an increase in flow (q).
Application Of Z Factor - The correction for fluid compressibility is not necessary when
the flowing gas displays ideal gas behavior or when fluid density is expressed in terms
of specific weight.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64
Calculating Z - Z can be determined in many ways. One popular approach is to calculate
the reduced pressure (p
r
) and the reduced temperature (T
r
) and, then, to locate the
value of Z from a generalized compressibility chart (refer to Figure 38). As shown in
Equation 79, the reduced pressure (p
r
) is the ratio of inlet pressure to the fluid critical
pressure, and the reduced temperature (T
r
) is the ratio of inlet temperature to the fluid
critical temperature. All values are expressed in absolute units.
p
p
p
r
c

1
and
T
T
T
r
c

1
(79)
To determine the value of Z, the value of p
r
is located on the X axis. At the point
where p
r
intersects the appropriate T
r
plot, the value of Z is read at the Y axis of the
chart.
Figur e 38
Generalized Compressibility Chart
Maximum Impact Of Z - Refer to Figure 38 and note that compressibility effects become
most significant when the inlet pressure approaches the fluid critical pressure (i.e., as
p
r
approaches 1.0), and/or as the inlet temperature approaches or falls below the fluid
critical temperature.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65
Piping Effects
Piping Factor F
P
- When expanders and reducers are used, the piping factor F
P
is
included in the equation as shown below:
q F C p Y
x
G T Z
p v
g

1
1
(80)
The following equation is used to calculate F
p
. The equation is the same equation that
is used for liquids.
F
p

K C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
(81)
X
T
Plus Piping Factor F
P
= x
TP
- The value of X
T
is also affected by inlet reducers.
Outlet expanders are considered as part of the valve for purposes of determining X
T
.
When the factor X
T
is modified to account for an inlet reducer, it becomes x
TP
, and it
is calculated with the following:
x
TP

x
T
F
p
2
x
T
K
i
C
v
2
N
5
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
(82)
Where:
K
i
= The inlet loss coefficients only (K
1
+ K
B1
).
Effect of X
TP
On Valve Sizing - The use of inlet reducers rarely affects the value of x
T
significantly; therefore, it is often ignored, except in the case of large, highly efficient
valves. Experienced specifiers often ignore the effect of inlet reducers on x
T
except
when the ratio of C
v
to d (ratio of valve capacity to valve size) becomes very large (as
it does with ball and butterfly valves), and the valve inlet is much smaller than the pipe
size. In these situations, the value of x that is used in the sizing equations should be
limited to the value of x
TP
.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 66
Calculating X
TP
- The equation that is used to calculate control valve C
v
through the use
of the x
TP
factor (see Equation 83) is highly iterative. Note that the equation to
calculate C
v
requires the terms F
p
and x
TP;
however, the equations that are used to
calculate F
p
and x
TP
both include the C
v
term. Therefore, an estimated value of C
v
must be calculated (without consideration of F
p
and with the use of x
T
instead of x
TP
).
The estimated C
v
is then used to initially solve for both F
p
and x
TP
. The calculated
values F
p
and x
TP
are then used to solve for C
v
. Several iterations of the equations
must be solved until the solutions converge on a useful result. Generally speaking,
only two or three iterations are necessary to arrive at a useful result. When successive
iterations of the calculations result in very small differences in the calculated C
v,
the
specifier knows that accuracy has been achieved
C
q
N F p Y
G T Z
x
v
p
g
TP

7 1
1
(83)
but
F
p

K C
v
2
N
2
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
2
and
x
TP

x
T
F
p
2
x
T
K
i
C
v
2
N
5
d
4
+ 1



_
,

1
(84)
Although manual sizing involves the use of many calculations, the necessary
calculations are performed easily and quickly with personal computers and appropriate
software.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 67
Final Equation Form
Numer ical Constants - The final term in the ISA equation is the term N
7
, or the units
constant. The specifier selects a units constant that allows use of either the metric or
the English units system.
q N F C p Y
x
G T Z
p v
g

7 1
1
(85)
Solving For C
v
- For purposes of valve sizing, Equation 85 is arranged to solve for C
v
as
follows:
C
q
N F p Y
G T Z
x
v
p
g

7 1
1
(86)
Summary Of ISA Equation Terms
Following is a quick review of terms in the equation.
q flow rate (scfh, lbs/hr, kg/hr depending on the units constant, N
7
)
N
2
units constant that is used in the equation to calculate F
p
; N
2
allows pipe and valve
inside diameters to be expressed in mm (N
2
=0.00214) or in inches (N
2
=890); refer to
Figure 4
N
5
units constant that is used in the equation to calculate X
TP
; N
5
allows pipe and valve
inside diameters to be expressed in mm (N
2
=0.00214) or in inches (N
2
=890); refer to
Figure 29
N
7
units constant to determine units for pressure, flow, and temperature measurements;
refer to Figure 29
F
p
piping geometry factor, dimensionless
C
v
control valve flow coefficient
p
1
inlet pressure, absolute
Y expansion factor.
Y
x
F x
k T
1
3
where F
k
= ratio of specific heats factor
G
g
gas specific gravity (ratio of the density of the flowing gas to the density of air, with
both at standard conditions)
T
1
inlet temperature, absolute
Z compressibility factor, dimensionless
x pressure drop ratio (
P p /
1
); limited to x
T
for choked flow, F
K
x
T
to account for
specific heat ratio, and x
TP
to correct for piping factors
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 68
Computer Sizing Control Valves For Gasses Using The ISA Equations
Introduction
The procedures that are used to operate the Fisher Sizing Program when sizing control valves
for compressible fluids are similar to the procedures that are used with the liquid sizing
method. The major differences are the required inputs, the entries in the Intermediate Results
section, and the results that are displayed in the Calculated Results section.
Valve Sizing Methods Available
When the main menu item Valves is selected, the specifier is presented with several sizing
options as shown in Figure 39. The ISA options are as follows:
ISA Gas - Selecting the ISA Gas method causes the software to use the equations in
which fluid density is expressed in terms of SG or M.
ISA Vapor - Selecting the ISA Vapor method causes the software to use the equations in
which fluid density is expressed in terms of specific weight (e.g., lbs/ft
3
. kg/m
3
, etc.)
The Vapor method calculates the most accurate results with the fewest inputs.
Figur e 39
Valve Sizing Method Options
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 69
Selecting The Desired Calculation Type
After a valve sizing method has been selected, the specifier selects the type of calculation that
will be performed. Refer to Figure 40. Choices include valve sizing, fluid velocity
calculations, and various noise calculations.
Figur e 40
Available Calculation Types
Overview Of Sizing Procedures
Valve Sizing Scr een - Selecting the Valve Sizing & LpA option brings up the sizing
screen. This screen is divided into several sections as shown in Figure 41 below.
Figur e 41
Valve Sizing Screen For The ISA Gas Valve Sizing Method
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 70
Fluid And Ser vice Conditions - In this section, the specifier enters the fluid type, and fluid
properties such as critical pressure, critical temperature, and F
k
.

Service conditions are
also entered in this section.
Inter mediate Results - Any intermediate results that the software calculates are displayed
in the Intermediate Results section. Examples include the calculated values of Y and Z.
Valve Specification - In this section, the specifier enters any needed valve data such as x
T
and sizing data for the valve and piping if piping corrections are necessary.
Calculated Results - After all fluid properties, service conditions, and valve data are
entered in the appropriate locations, the specifier presses the function key F2 to
calculate the required control valve C
v.
The results of the sizing calculations appear in
the calculated results section. In addition to valve C
v
, other important information such
as the P
choked
and the pressure drop ratio (x) is also shown.
Selecting Options
F3 Options - During the sizing procedure, the specifier may choose from several
different sizing options by pressing the function key F3. The options menu for the ISA
Gas method is shown in Figure 42. Options are toggled by highlighting the appropriate
line and pressing enter. The option that is visible when the option menu is stored (by
pressing the escape key) is the option that will be used.
Figur e 42
Calculation Options For The ISA Gas Valve Sizing Method
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 71
F3 Options For The ISA Gas Sizing Method - Options for the gas sizing method are as
follows:
Line 1: Solve for Cg, Cs, or Cv. Other options: Solve For Flow, Solve For dP
(pressure drop)
Line 2: Calculate Z. Option: Input Z
Line 3: Calculate Fp. Other options: Input Fp & Xtp, Omit Fp & Xtp
Line 4: LpA (SPL) OFF. Option: Calculate LpA (SPL)
Line 5: Pipe: Size/Sched. Option Pipe: Diameter/Thickness
Line 6 Warnings ON. Option: Warnings OFF
F3 Options For The ISA Vapor Sizing Method - Options for the vapor sizing method are the
same as for the gas method, except that there is no option for calculating Z. Recall that
compressibility effects are not considered when the vapor form of the equation.
Options And Input Fields - As various options are selected, the input fields on the sizing
screen will change; for example, if the option to calculate Z is selected, the software
will require values for critical pressure and temperature, and it will display the
calculated value of Z.
Units-Selection - As explained previously, engineering units can be changed globally
through the selection of Units from the Config heading on the main menu. The specifier
may also change units for any input parameter by placing the cursor on that parameter
and pressing F8. Pressing F8 produces a sub-menu (refer to Figure 43) of available
options.
Figur e 43
Line-By-Line Units Options For Flow
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 72
The Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation
Introduction
Many valve specifiers use the Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation as an alternative to the
ISA equations. The Fisher Universal Gas Sizing Equation gained popularity immediately after
its introduction in 1951 because it was easier to use than other techniques that were available
at that time. During this era, specifiers sized valves manually, either by calculation or with
slide rules. At a later date, the programmable calculator gained popularity for valve sizing.
The Universal Gas Equation was easily adapted for use with the programmable calculator
because of its straightforward, non-iterative nature. Today, control valve specifiers size valves
with computers and sizing software; accordingly, equation complexity is less of an issue.
Fisher And ISA Equation Comparison
While the Fisher and ISA equations differ in many ways, they both model the gas flow
process in a similar fashion and they give nearly identical results. With rare exception, any
discrepancies in calculated results are within the limits of accuracy of any sizing technique. In
virtually all instances, either equation will direct the specifier to the same valve size.
Key differences between the Fisher and ISA equations include the following:
For gasses and vapors, the Fisher equation uses the flow coefficient C
g
, rather than C
v
.
C
g
relates critical flow to absolute inlet pressure.
The Fisher equation uses a sine term to account for fluid expansion in the region
between linear flow and choked flow. This approach eliminates the need to calculate
the value of an expansion factor (Y).
Terms to account for the influences of piping factors, compressibility, and specific
heat ratios other than 1.0 are not included in the basic equation; instead, they are
considered on an as-needed basis.
The Fisher Universal Sizing equation for an ideal gas is as follows:
Q
520
GTZ
C
g
P
1
C
2
SIN
3417
C
1
C
2



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(87)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 73
Equation Basics
To gain an understanding of equation mechanics and the terms that are used in the equation,
the equation will be discussed by starting with its most basic form.
Basic Liquid Flow Equation - All early efforts to derive a useful gas sizing equation began
with the basic liquid sizing equation (see Equation 88).
Q C
P
G
GPM v ( )

(88)
Adding A Constant To Change Fr om GPM To SCFH - The first step in adapting the
equation for use with compressible fluids is to add a conversion factor to change units
from gallons-per-minute to cubic-feet-per-hour. In addition, specific gravity is related
in terms of pressure, which is more meaningful for gas flow. Refer to Equation 89.
Note that the ratio of P to P
1
is known as the pressure drop ratio and that the pressure
drop ratio is identical to the x term in the ISA equation. The result is as follows:
Q C P
P
P
scfh v
59 64
1
1
.

(89)
Pr ovisions For Any Specific Gr avity And Temper atur e - With the inclusion of a modification
that is based upon Charles' Law for gasses, the equation is generalized to account for
any gas at any temperature as shown in Equation 90.
Q C P
P
P GT
scfh v
59 64
520
1
1
.

(90)
Where:
520 = The product of the specific gravity and the absolute temperature of air at
standard conditions (i.e., the specific gravity is 1.0 and the temperature is
520 degrees Rankine, which corresponds to 60 degrees F).
G = The specific gravity of the flowing gas at standard conditions (60 degrees
F and 14.7 psia).
T = The temperature of the flowing gas in degrees Rankine.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 74
Equation Limits
Pr essur e Dr op Ratio Limits - Equation 90 predicts a flow rate that is a linear function of
the square root of the pressure drop ratio (the same as the flow rate that is predicted by
the x term in the ISA equation); however, at pressure drop ratios that are greater than
approximately 0.02, tests show smaller and smaller incremental increases in actual
flow for every incremental increase in the pressure drop ratio. Refer to Figure 44.
Cr itical Flow - Tests also indicate a point of critical flow, which is the same as choked
flow in ISA terminology. Critical flow is defined as the point where increasing the
pressure drop ratio by reducing downstream pressure does not produce any increase in
flow rate.
Figur e 44
Actual Flow Versus Predicted Flow
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 75
Pressure Recovery And Critical Flow
The next challenge was to determine a method that could be used to predict the critical flow
rate. As it turns out, critical flow is a function of valve geometry. A comparison of plots that
relate critical flow to the pressure drop ratio for two different valve styles illustrates the
concept. Refer to Figure 45. Note that the two valves have identical C
v
ratings, but one of the
valves is a high recovery type and the other valve is a low recovery type.
Figur e 45
Critical Flow For Low And High Recovery Valves
Low Recover y Valves (or globe style valves) reach critical flow at a pressure drop ratio
of approximately 0.5.
High Recover y Valves reach critical flow at much lower pressure drop ratios.
Flow Coefficient C
g
and Cr itical Flow - Because of the problems in using C
v
to predict
critical flow in both high and low recovery valves, Fisher Controls developed a
standard for testing flow capacity with air as well as with water. From these tests, a gas
sizing coefficient C
g
was defined that relates gas critical flow to the absolute inlet
pressure. C
g
is experimentally determined for each valve style and size; therefore, C
g
can be used to accurately predict critical flow (using air as a test fluid) with the
following:
Q C P
critical g

1
(91)
To make the critical flow equation useful for any gas at any temperature, the
correction factor that was shown previously is applied:
Q C P
GT
critical g

1
520
(92)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 76
Blending The Two Equations
Impr acticality Of Using Two Equations - At this point, Fisher had two equations. See
Figure 46.
Equation A (see Equation 93) accurately predicted flow at very low pressure drop
ratios only. Note that this equation uses the flow coefficient C
v
.
Q C P
P
P GT
v
59 64
520
1
1
.

(93)
Equation B (see Equation 94) predicted critical flow only. Note that this equation uses
the flow coefficient C
g
.
Q C P
GT
critical g

1
520
(94)
Although the equations provided utility, neither equation accounted for the transition
region between low flow conditions and critical flow; i.e.,
when P/P
1
> 0.02 and Q < Q
critical
. In addition, the process of using two equations
and two flow coefficients was inefficient.
Figur e 46
Predicting Low Flow And Critical Flow
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 77
Tests And Data Plotting - To arrive at a single equation, Fisher Controls completed an
extensive testing procedure to analyze flow versus pressure relationships in the region
between low pressure drop ratios and critical (choked) flow. Tests were performed on
high recovery valves, low recovery valves, and valves that can be called intermediate
recovery valves. Test results were normalized with respect to critical flow, and data
was plotted.
Sine Cur ve - Analysis revealed that the test points in the transition region between low
flow and critical flow fell on a curve that closely approximates the first quarter cycle
of a standard sine curve. See Figure 47 below.
Figur e 47
Tested Values Of Flow Compared To A Sine Curve
Combining The Equations - Capitalizing on this finding, Fisher Controls used a sine
function to mathematically model flow in the transition region. The sine function
effectively blends Equation 93 and Equation 94 into one, as shown in Equation 95.
Note that the result of the sine function must be limited to a maximum of 90 degrees
so that the equation does not predict decreasing flow after critical flow is achieved.
Q
520
GT
C
g
P
1
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

DP
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(95)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 78
The C
1
Factor
Note the inclusion of the C
1
factor in Equation 96.
Q
520
GT
C
g
P
1
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(96)
Role of C
1
- The role of C
1
is to allow the use of a single sizing coefficient (C
g
) in a
universal equation that combines the equation that is used to calculate the flow of
incompressible fluids (Equation 97) with the equation that is used to calculate the
critical flow of a gas (Equation 98). A fundamental obstacle in blending Equations 97
and 98 is that the liquid flow equation uses the flow coefficient C
v
, while the gas flow
equation uses the flow coefficient C
g
.
Liquid Flow
Q C P
P
P GT
v
59 64
520
1
1
.

(97)
Gas Flow
Q
GT
C P
g

520
1
(98)
Equations 97 and 98 could have been combined in their original forms; however, the
specifier would have to supply both the C
v
coefficient and the C
g
coefficient. During
the development of the Fisher equation, the decisions were made that a single
coefficient would be used and that a factor to account for the differences in liquid and
gas flow through a particular valve would be included in the equation. The factor C
1
is
used for this purpose. As shown in Equation 99, C
1
is defined simply as the ratio of
the gas flow coefficient, C
g
to the liquid flow coefficient, C
v
.
C
C
C
g
v
1

(99)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 79
Differ ences In Gas And Liquid Capacity - In order to better understand the significance of
the C
1
term, consider a comparison of the C
g
and C
v
flow coefficients for a high
recovery valve, and the Cg and Cv flow coefficients for a low recovery valve that are
shown in Figure 48.
Liquid flow (C
v
) is heavily influenced by valve geometry (i.e., whether the flow path
is tortuous or streamlined). Gas flow (C
g
) is largely a function of the flow area of the
valve. The difference in the factors that determine capacity for liquid flow and for gas
flow explain why two valves with identical C
g
's can have substantially different C
v
's
(and why two valves with identical C
v
's can have substantially different C
g
's).
TYPICAL C
1
VALUES FOR HIGH AND LOW RECOVERY VALVES
High Recover y Valve Low Recover y Valve
C
g
= 4680 C
g
= 4680
C
v
= 254 C
v
= 135
C
1
= C
g
/C
v
= 4680/254
=18.4
C
1
= C
g
/C
v
=4680/135
=34.7
Figur e 48
Comparison of C
v
, C
g
, and C
1
Values
Locating C
1
Values - Manufacturers that use C
1
values determine them by test, and they
publish them in sizing catalogs along with other sizing information. For globe valves,
the value of C
1
is the same at all percentages of travel. For rotary-shaft control valves,
the value of C
1
depends on the degrees of rotation.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 80
Mechanics Of The Sine Term
Concept - A close look at the sizing equation reveals that the quantity of the sine
function is essentially used as a multiplier with the simple equation for critical flow.
Refer to Equation 100.
Q
520
GT
C
g
P
1
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(100)
Pr edicts Q
cr itical
Ser ves as a multiplier
Low Pr essur e Dr op Ratio Example - Assuming a C
1
value of 35 and a pressure drop ratio
of 0.02, the value of the bracketed terms is as follows:
SIN
3417
35


_
,
0. 02



1
]
1
Degrees

SIN 98 0.141 [ ]
Degrees

SIN 13 0 225 .
(101)
The flow rate that is predicted by the critical flow equation is multiplied by 0.225;
therefore, the calculated value of Q will be relatively small.
Higher Pr essur e Dr op Ratios - As the pressure drop ratio increases, the sine function, at
the end of the first quarter cycle, tends towards its maximum value of 1.0. If the result
of the sine function is 1.0, the equation is functionally reduced to the equation for
critical flow as illustrated in the following equation.
If
Q
520
GT
C
g
P
1
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
and
P
P
1
1 0 .
102)
then
SIN
3417
35


_
,
1



1
]
1
SIN90 1. 0
and
Q
GT
C P
g

520
1
(103)
Inter mediate Pr essur e Dr op Ratios - At intermediate pressure drop ratios, the sine function
models flow in the transition region between low flow and critical flow.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 81
Alternate Forms Of The Universal Sizing Equation
Ideal (Per fect) Gas Law Assumptions - The equation that has been discussed to this point is
based on the ideal gas laws. As was discussed previously, real gas behavior can differ
markedly from ideal behavior.
Real Gasses - The real gas form of the Fisher equation uses two correction factors. The
corrections are for compressibility and for the ratio of specific heats. Both corrections
are similar to the real gas corrections that are used in the ISA sizing equations.
The Z Factor And Real Gas Compr essibility - When the compressibility of a real gas
does not follow the ideal gas law of pV = RT, the term Z is used to correct the
ideal gas equation.
pV = ZRT (104)
The value of Z can be determined from generalized compressibility charts
(refer back to Figure 38) after establishing the reduced pressure and
temperature with the use of the following equations:
P
P
P
and T
T
T
reduced
actual
critical
reduced
actual
critical

(105)
The Z term is included in the equation as follows:
Q
520
GTZ
C
g
P
1
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(106)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 82
C
2
And The Ratio Of Specific Heats - In the Fisher equation, allowance is made for
thermodynamic properties (the ratio of specific heats) with the term C
2
. C
2
serves the same function as the F
k
factor in the ISA equations. C
2
is included in
the equation as follows:
Q
520
GTZ
C
g
P
1
C
2
SIN
3417
C
1
C
2



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(107)
In the ISA equation, the F
k

factor suggests a linear relationship between k and
F
k
(i.e., F
k
= k/1.4). This relationship is typically valid for k values between 1.2
and 1.6 only. The Fisher equation uses a somewhat more precise correction.
Although C
2
values are found to be a strong function of k, the relationship is
not precisely linear. For a specific value of k, the specific value of C
2
can be
determined from the chart that is shown in Figure 49.
Figur e 49
C
2
Factor Versus k
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 83
Density For m Of Equation (Mass Flow/Vapor ) - When the specific weight (weight per unit
of volume) of the fluid at the valve inlet is known, a more generalized form of the
equation can be used. The density form of the equation, (see Equation 108) eliminates
the need to correct for the effects of pressure and temperature on density, and it also
eliminates the need for the Z term.
Q1. 06 d
1
P
1
C
g
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(108)
Where:
Q = Gas, steam, or vapor flow (lbs/hr, kg/hr, etc.).
d
1
= The density of the gas at the valve inlet (lbs/ft
3
, kg/m
3
, etc.).
The density form of the equation is commonly used for steam and other vapor
applications.
Special Steam Equation (Below 1000 PSIG) - Because steam applications are quite
common, a special form of the equation, which is shown in Equation 109, is also
available.
Q
LB/HR

C
s
P
1
1+ 0. 00065T
sh



1
]
1
SIN
3417
C
1



_
,

P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(109)
Where:
C
s
= The steam sizing coefficient.
T
sh
= The degrees of superheat (degrees F).
Note that Equation 109 uses the flow coefficient C
s
(s is for steam). Fisher Controls
publishes C
s
values for most valves. The relationship between C
s
, C
g
, and C
v
is as
follows:
C
C
s
g

20
therefore
C C x
g s
20
(110)
Note also that Equation 109 can be used only for steam below 1000 psig.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 84
Solving for Cg
Rear r anging The Equations - While the equations have been discussed in forms that
predict flow rate, any of the equations that are used to predict flow can be arranged to
solve for the required control valve C
g
as shown in Equation 111.
C
g

Q
scfh
520
GTZ
P
1
C
2
SIN
3417
C
1
C
2
P
P
1



1
]
1
Degrees
(111)
Initial Assumptions For C
1
Values - When solving for C
g
, the specifier must initially
select a valve style and estimate a value of C
1
. After calculating C
g
and selecting a
specific valve type and size, the actual C
1
values for the selected valve are used in the
equation to ensure maximum accuracy. Specifiers typically use initial (estimated) C
1
values of approximately 35 for standard globe style valves, and C
1
values of
approximately 15 to 20 for ball and butterfly valves.
Conver ting C
g
To C
v
- It may occasionally be desirable to convert a flow coefficient
from C
g
to C
v
; for example, it may be useful to size non-Fisher valves by means of the
Fisher Sizing Program, or it may be useful to convert C
g
to C
v
for comparative studies
of capacity or other valve attributes. Recall that C
1
is calculated as follows:
C
C
C
g
v
1

(112)
Therefore, after a C
g
has been calculated, it can be converted to C
v
as follows:
C
C
C
v
g

1
(113)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 85
Comparison Of Fisher And ISA Gas Sizing Equations
Both the ISA and the Fisher equations model the same process and typically produce nearly
identical results. Although minor differences in the calculated flow coefficient may occur, the
use of either equation will virtually always lead the specifier to the same valve size. The table
below summarizes how the two equations account for various aspects of flow through the
control valve.
Par ameter ISA Equation Fisher Equation
Flow equation
q N F C p Y
x
G T Z
p v
g

7 1
1
Q
520
GTZ
C
g
P
1
C
2
SIN
3417
C
1
C
2




_
,


P
P
1




1
]
1
1
Degrees
Flow Coefficient C
v
(water test) C
g
(air test)
C
C
C
v
g

1
Flow when
P p / .
1
0 02
C
P
p
v

1
(liquid equation)
C
P
p
v

1
(liquid equation)
Critical Flow For
Specific Valve
Style
p x
T 1
Published x
T
tested by
manufacturer
p
1
C
g
Published Cg tested at critical
flow
Fluid Expansion
Y x
Sine function
Piping Factor F
P

factor
Calculated by specifier or
tested and published by
manufacturer
Swaged capacities for rotary-
shaft valves published in sizing
information
Can use F
P
Compressibility
(real gasses)
Z
pV
RT
Z
pV
RT

Thermodynamic
behavior (k)
F
k

x
T
C
2
Figur e 50
Comparison of ISA And Fisher Sizing Terms
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 86
Computer Sizing Control Valves For Gasses Using The Fisher Controls Equations
Valve Sizing Methods Available
When the main menu item Valves is selected, the specifier is presented with several sizing
methods as shown in Figure 51. The available methods are:
Fisher Ideal Gas - The Fisher Ideal Gas method assumes ideal gas behavior; accordingly,
the corrections for compressibility (Z) and for non-ideal thermodynamic properties
(C
2
) are not used. In this sizing method, Z is assumed to be 1.0, and k is assumed to be
1.4. Fluid density is expressed in terms of SG or M.
Fisher Real Gas - The Fisher Real Gas method includes options for the use of Z factors
and C
2
coefficients. This method is similar to the ISA Gas method.
Fisher Vapor - The Fisher Vapor method is similar to the ISA Vapor method except that
there is no option for the piping factor correction. Fluid density is entered in terms of
lbs/ft
3
or kg/m
3
, and there are options for the use of Z and C
2
factors. The vapor
method is also commonly used for steam.
Fisher Steam - The Fisher Steam method uses the special equation for steam
applications under 1 000 psig.
Figur e 51
Valve Sizing Methods
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 87
Selecting A Calculation Type
After a specific valve sizing method has been selected, the specifier can choose the type of
information that is being sought. As shown in Figure 52, choices include valve size, fluid
velocity, and various noise calculations.
Figur e 52
Selection Of A Calculation Type
Overview Of Sizing Procedures
Valve Sizing Scr een - Selecting the Valve Sizing & LpA option brings up the actual
sizing screen, which is illustrated in Figure 53. The sizing screen is divided into four
distinct sections.
Figur e 53
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 88
Valve Sizing Screen For The Fisher Real Gas Sizing Method
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 89
F3 Options
Fisher Ideal Gas - As shown in Figure 54 below, there are no sizing options for the Ideal
Gas Method that affect how the flow coefficient is determined.
Figur e 54
Calculation Options For The Fisher Ideal Gas Sizing Method
Fisher Real Gas - The calculation options for the Fisher Real Gas Method (see Figure
55) present the specifier with several choices for the use of Z and C
2
factors. The
choices are as follows:
Input Z, omit C
2
Input Z, calculate C
2
(C
2
is calculated from k)
Calculate Z, C
2
(Z is calculated from P
c
and T
c
)
Figur e 55
Calculation Options For The Fisher Real Gas Sizing Method
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 90
Fisher Vapor - As shown in Figure 56, there are no sizing options for the Fisher Vapor
Method that affect the calculation of the flow coefficient.
Figur e 56
Calculation Options For The Fisher Vapor Sizing Method
Fisher Steam - The only option in the Fisher Steam Method is the choice of whether the
specifier will input steam temperature or assume that the steam is saturated. See Figure
57.
Figur e 57
Calculation Options For The Fisher Steam Sizing Method
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 91
Options And Input Fields - As various options are selected, the input fields on the sizing
screen will change; for example, if the option to calculate Z is selected, the software
will require values for critical pressure and temperature. Refer to Figure 58.
Units-Selection - As explained previously, engineering units can be changed globally by
selecting Units from the Config heading on the main menu; in addition, the specifier
may change the units for any input parameter by placing the cursor on that parameter
and pressing F8. Figure 58 illustrates the available units options for fluid temperature.
Figur e 58
Pull-Down Menu Options For Temperature
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 92
eNTERING VALVE SIZING DATA ON THE SAUDI ARAMCO ISS
To complete a Saudi Aramco Instrument Specification Sheet (ISS), the specifier must
calculate and enter information that describes both the physical size of the valve and
information that describes the capacity of the valve. For purposes of illustration, the
discussion that follows is based on the ISS for globe and angle control valves (Refer to Saudi
Aramco Form 8020-711-ENG.)
Body And Flange Size
Control Valve Physical Size Information
Body And Por t Size - After a particular valve size is selected, the body size and port size
are entered on line 49.
Flange Sizes and Ratings - The inlet flange size, rating, and style are specified on line 50.
The outlet flange size, rating, and style and rating are specified on line 51.
Face-To-Face Dimensions - are entered on line 72. The face-to-face dimension for a
particular valve style and size is included in the appropriate valve specification
bulletin.
Capacity Ratings
Capacity At Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow Conditions
C
v
At Minimum, Nor mal, And Maximum Flow Conditions is specified on lines 62 through
64.
Maximum Rated C
v
of the valve is specified on line 65.
Per cent of Rated C
v
At Min, Nor m, and Max Flow Conditions is also entered on lines 62
through 64. Each value is simply the calculated C
v
at each flow condition divided by
the maximum rated C
v
of the selected valve.
Valve Travel At Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow Conditions
Thr ottling Range is shown on line 66. The lower value of the range is defined by the
percent of valve travel that provides the minimum C
v
requirement, and the upper value
of the range is the percent of valve travel that provides the maximum C
v
requirement.
Valve Opening At Nor mal Flow is the percent of valve travel that provides the required C
v
at normal flow conditions.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 93
Figur e 59
The Saudi Aramco ISS
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 94
WORK AID 1: PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO MANUALLY SIZE
CONTROL VALVES FOR LIQUID APPLICATIONS
Work Aid 1A: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Required Control Valve C
v
1. Use the following ISA and Fisher equations to solve for C
v.
Fisher:
C Q
G
P
v

ISA:
C
q
N
G
p p
v
f

1 1 2
To determine the appropriate value N
1
, refer to the table below.
Constant Units That Ar e Used In Equations
N w q
p, P
d, D 1
N1 0.0865 --- m
3
/h kPa --- --- ---
0.865 --- m
3
/hr bar --- --- ---
1 --- gpm psia --- --- ---
2. Refer to Fisher Catalog 10 or to other manufacturer's catalog and locate the
appropriate pages for the valve types that are described in the Exercise. For each valve
type, browse through the C
v
table and locate a valve size that will provide the required
capacity. Ensure that you select a valve size that will provide the required C
v
at a
percentage of travel that is consistent with the guidelines that are given in Section 5.2
of SAES-J-700. The guidelines are summarized in the table below.
Extrapolate the degrees of rotation or the percent of travel that provides the required
C
v
.
For rotary-shaft valves, convert the degrees of rotation to percent of travel by dividing
the degrees of rotation that provide the required C
v
by 90 degrees.
Guidelines For Per cent Tr avel At Var ious Flow Conditions Per Section 5.2 of SAES-J -700
Flow Char acter istic
Per cent Tr avel At Nor mal
Flow
Per cent Tr avel At Maximum
Flow
Equal Percentage 80 93
Linear 70 90
Modified Parabolic 75 90
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 95
Work Aid 1B: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Allowable Pressure Drop
(P
allow
)
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 1B.
1. Locate the required fluid properties from the Fisher Control Valve Handbook as
follows:
SG Properties of Water table, page 135
P
v
Properties of Water table, page 135 (given as Saturation Pressure)
P
c
Physical Constants of Various Fluids table, page 134
2. Using the following equation, calculate the P
allow
.
P
allow

= K
m
(P
1
-r
c
P
v
)
Locate the values that are required to solve the equation as follows:
K
m
Use the value that is listed in the Exercise under the heading "Valve
Specifications."
P
1
Use the value that is listed in the Exercise under the heading "Service
Conditions."
P
v
Use the value that was recorded during step 1. of this Exercise.
r
c
Refer to Fisher Catalog 10, section 2, page 10, Figure 1.
3. Using the Fisher Sizing equation that is included in Work Aid 1A, calculate the
required C
v
. Use the lesser of the actual P or the P
allow
.
Refer to the page in Fisher Catalog 10 that lists the C
v
's for the selected valve and
select the smallest valve size that will provide the required C
v
at a percentage of travel
that is consistent with the guidelines that are given in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 (refer
to Work Aid 1A). Extrapolate and record the percent of travel at which the C
v
requirements are met. Note and record the K
m
of the selected valve.
4. Using the value of K
m
that was determined in step 2, recalculate the P
allow
.
5. Using the new value of P
allow
, recalculate the required C
v
.
6. Select a valve size that will meet the C
v
requirements.
7. Extrapolate and record the percent of travel at which C
v
requirements are met.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 96
Work Aid 1C: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Effect Of Piping Factors On
C
v
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 1C.
1. Locate the appropriate pages in Fisher Catalog 10 for the valve that is described in the
Exercise. Ensure that you locate the page for the line-to-body size ratio that is given in
the Exercise. Browse through the C
v
column and locate a valve that provides the
maximum C
v
at less than the percent of travel guideline that is included in Section 5.2
of SAES-J-700. Note: For rotary valves, the percentages of travel that are listed in
Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 can be converted to degrees of rotation as follows:
% travel x 90 degrees
2. Refer to Section 5.4 of SAES J-700. Locate the value of R for the valve type that is
described in the Exercise. Calculate the required C
v
through use of the following
equation:
Re quired C
v

Calculated C
v
R
Using the required C
v
that was just calculated, refer to the appropriate page in Fisher
Catalog 10, and select a valve size. Note: The required C
v
has already been corrected;
therefore, ensure that you select a valve size from the page for the 1:1 line-to-body
size ratio. Also, ensure that the selected valve provides the maximum required C
v
at a
travel that is consistent with the guidelines that are listed in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-
700. (Refer to the note in step 1, above.)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 97
Work Aid 1D: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Effect Of Laminar Flow On C
v
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 1D.
1. Without attempting to compensate for fluid viscosity, calculate the required C
v
for the
application that is described. Use the following equation.
C Q
G
P
v

2. To compensate for viscous effects, locate the Viscosity Correction Nomograph in


Fisher Catalog 10, Section 2, pages 26 and 27 and follow the instructions that are
included in the nomograph. Use the value of C
v
that was calculated in step 1.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 98
Work Aid 2: Procedures That Are used to Computer size con trol valves for
liquid Applications
Work Aid 2A: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Water
Applications
1. Use the following procedures to complete part 1.
a. If necessary, press ESCAPE to return to the main menu.
b. From the main menu, select Valve.
c. Press and hold the ALT key and press F5 to clear all sizing inputs.
d. Select the Fisher Water method.
e. From the menu that appears, select the C
v
Simple method.
f. Ensure that the engineering units on the calculation screen match the units that
are used to describe the application. If the units do not match for any field,
move the cursor to that field, press the F8 key, and select the desired units.
Press ESCAPE.
g. Enter the pressure drop (dP). dP = P
1
minus P
2
.
h. Locate the SG of water at 100 degrees F from the table on page 135 of the
Fisher Control Valve Handbook. Enter the value of SG in the appropriate field.
i. Enter the flow rate.
j. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the values that are
requested in the Exercise.
2. Use the following procedures to complete part 2.
a. Press ESCAPE.
b. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
c. Press F3 and ensure that the options are selected as follows:
Solve for Cg, Cs, or Cv
LpA (SPL) OFF
Calculate SG
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 99
Cavitation Check OFF
Warnings OFF
d. Ensure that all of the fluid properties and the service conditions are accurately
entered.
e. Enter an estimated value of K
m
. Select a value from the table below.
Typical Values Of K
m
and F
L
Valve Style Typical K
m
Typical F
L
Globe And Angle 0.75 .87
Rotary-Shaft 0.45 0.67
f. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the values that are
requested in the Exercise.
3. Use the following procedures to complete part 3.
a. Press ESCAPE twice.
b. Select the Fisher Liquid method.
c. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press F3 and ensure that the Input P
v

option is selected.
e. Enter the value of P
v
that was recorded during step 2 above.
f Obtain the value of P
c
from the table on page 134 of the Control Valve
Handbook
g. Ensure that all service conditions and fluid properties are accurately entered.
h. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the values that are
requested in the Exercise.
4. Use the following procedures to complete part 4.
a. Press ESCAPE twice.
b. Select the ISA Liquid method.
c. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 100
d. Determine an estimated value of F
L
through the use of the equation that
follows or by selecting a value from the table below.
Estimated F
L
Estimated K
m
Typical Values Of K
m
and F
L
Valve Style Typical K
m
Typical F
L
Globe And Angle 0.75 .87
Rotary-Shaft 0.45 0.67
e. Enter the estimated F
L
.
f. Ensure that all service conditions and fluid properties are accurately entered.
g. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the values that are
requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 101
Work Aid 2B: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Choked
Flow
Use the following procedures to complete Exercise 2B.
1. Return to the main menu.
2. From the main menu, select Valve.
3. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Liquid method.
4. Press and hold the ALT key and press F5 to clear any sizing inputs.
5. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
6. Press F3 and ensure that the option Input P
v
is selected.
7. Enter the fluid name as "HC liquid."
8. Enter the fluid properties and the service conditions.
9. Enter the estimated K
m
. (Refer to the table in step 4 of Work Aid 2A.)
10. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
11. Refer to the appropriate page in Catalog 10 and select a valve size that will provide the
maximum C
v
at a percentage of travel that is consistent with the guidelines that are
listed in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700. (Refer to the table in Work Aid 1A).
12. Record the information that is requested under the heading "Initial Calculations and
Valve Selection."
13. Using the K
m
of the initially selected, recalculate the valve sizing information. Note
that the calculated C
v
may now allow the selection of a smaller valve. To determine if
a smaller valve will pass the required flow, use the K
m
of the smaller valve to
recalculate the sizing information.
14. Record the information that is requested under the heading "Final Calculations and
Valve Selection."
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 102
Work Aid 2C: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Fluids In
The Sizing Database
1. Use the following procedures to complete part 1.
a. Return to the main menu.
b. From the main menu, select Valve.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Liquid method.
d. Press and hold the ALT key and press F5 to clear any sizing inputs.
e. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
f. Press F3 and ensure that the option Input P
v
is selected.
g. Enter the fluid name as "Liquid Propane."
h. Refer to page 130 of the Fisher Control Valve Handbook, and locate the values
of P
c
, P
v
, and SG for the liquid. Enter these values in the proper fields on the
calculation screen. Note: The value of P
v
that is included in the table is for the
fluid at a temperature of 100 degrees F; however, this value of P
v
will be used
because it is the only value that is available.
i. Enter all of the service conditions.
j. Enter an estimated value of K
m
. (Refer to the table in part 4 of Work Aid 2A.)
k. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the information that
is requested under the heading Calculated Results.
2. Use the following procedures to complete part 2.
a. Place the cursor on the appropriate fields and press the F5 key to clear the
values that were previously entered for P
v
and P
c
.
b. Press F3 and select the Calculate P
v
option.
c. Place the cursor in the Fluid field and press F4 to display a list of fluids. From
the pull-down menu, select Pr opane.
d. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the information that
is requested under the heading Calculated Results.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 103
3. Use the following procedures to complete part 3.
a. Without clearing the calculation screen, change the temperature and the SG to
to the values that are stated in part 3.
b. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the information that
is requested under the heading Calculated Results.
4. Use the following procedures to complete part 4.
a. Without clearing the calculation screen, change the K
m
to 0.75.
b. Press the F2 key to calculate the valve sizing information. Record, under the
heading Calculated Results on the Exercise Sheet, the information that is
requested.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 104
Work Aid 2D: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves With Piping
Factor Correction
1. Use the following procedures to complete part 1.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the menu that gives choices of sizing methods.
b. Select the Fisher Water sizing method.
c. Press and hold the ALT key, and press the F5 key to clear all sizing inputs.
d. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
e. Press F3. Ensure that the option Calculate SG is selected.
f. Enter the service conditions.
g. Enter an estimated value of K
m
. (To determine an estimated K
m
, refer to the
table in step 4 of Work Aid 2A).
h. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the calculated C
v
.
2. Use the following procedures to complete part 2.
a. Locate the page in Fisher Catalog 10 that describes the valve that is specified.
Ensure that you locate the page that lists capacities for the appropriate line-to-
body size ratio.
b. Select a valve size that provides the maximum required C
v
at a percentage of
travel (or degrees of rotation) that is consistent with Section 5.2 of SAES-J-
700. (Refer to the table in part 2 of Work Aid 1A.)
c. Record the information that is requested in the Exercise.
3. Use the following procedures to complete part 3.
a. Locate the page in Fisher Catalog 10 that describes the valve that is specified.
Ensure that you use the page that lists capacities for the appropriate line-to-
body size ratio.
b. Select a valve size that provides the maximum required C
v
at a percentage of
travel (or degrees of rotation) that is consistent with Section 5.2 of SAES-J-
700. (Refer to the table in part 2 of Work Aid 1A.)
c. Record the information that is requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 105
4. Use the following procedures to complete part 4.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the menu that gives choices of sizing methods.
b. Select the ISA Liquid sizing method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press F3. Ensure that the options Calculate F
P,
Viscous Cor r ection OFF, and Input
P
v
, are selected.
e. Ensure that fluid properties and the service conditions are accurately entered.
f. Enter an estimated F
L
. Determine an estimated value of F
L
through the use of
the equation that follows or by selecting a value from the table below.
Estimated F
L
Estimated K
m
Typical Values Of K
m
and F
L
Valve Style Typical K
m
Typical F
L
Globe And Angle 0.75 .87
Rotary-Shaft 0.45 0.67
g. Enter an assumed valve inlet size, d. Use the valve size that was previously
selected.
h. Enter the appropriate values for D
1
and D
2
.
i. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information. Record the value of C
v
.
j. Select an appropriate valve size. Note: Because the calculated C
v
includes the
necessary correction for piping factors, ensure that you select a valve size from
the table that lists capacities for a 1:1 line-to-body size ratio. Also, ensure that
you select a valve size that is consistent with the percentage of travel guidelines
that are listed in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700. (Refer to the table in part 2 of
Work Aid 1A.)
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 106
Work Aid 2E: Procedures Used To Computer Size Control Valves With Viscosity
Correction
1. Use the following procedures to complete part 1.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the menu that gives choices of sizing methods.
b. Select the Fisher Liquid sizing method.
c. Press and hold the ALT key, and press F5 to clear any sizing inputs.
d. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
e. Press F3. Ensure that the options Viscous Cor r ection OFF and Input P
v
are
selected.
f. Enter the fluid name.
g. Ensure that the engineering units that are displayed on the calculation screen
match the units that are used in the description of the application. If necessary,
change the units for any field by moving the cursor to the field, pressing F8,
and selecting the desired units.
h. Enter the fluid properties and the service conditions.
i. Enter an estimated value of K
m
. (Refer to the table in part 4 of Work Aid 2A.)
j. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
k. Locate the page in Fisher Catalog 10 that describes the valve that is specified in
the Exercise.
l. Select a valve size that satisfies the C
v
requirement according to the travel
guidelines that are given in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700. (Refer to the table in
part 2 of Work Aid 1A.)
m. Record the requested values.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 107
2. Use the following procedures to complete part 2.
a. Do NOT clear the calculation screen.
b. Press F3. Ensure that the options Input P
v
, and Viscous Cor r ection ON are
selected.
c. Ensure that the engineering units that are displayed on the calculation screen
match the units that are used in the description of the application. If necessary,
change the units for any field by moving the cursor to the field, pressing F8,
and selecting the desired units.
d. Ensure that all fluid properties and service conditions are accurately entered.
e. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
f. Refer to the appropriate page in Fisher Catalog 10, and select a valve size that
satisfies the C
v
requirement according to the travel guidelines that are given in
Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700. (Refer to the table in part 2 of Work Aid 1A.)
g. Record the requested values.
3. Use the following procedures to complete part 3.
a. Do NOT clear the calculation screen.
b. Press ESCAPE twice to return to the sizing methods menu.
c. Select the ISA Liquid sizing method.
d. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
e. Press F3. Ensure that the options Omit F
P
,

Viscous Cor r ection ON, and Input P
v
are
selected.
f. Note that the software may have calculated a value of F
L
from the K
m
that was
included in the previous calculation. If the software has not calculated this
value, calculate F
L
from the value of K
m
that was used previously; i.e., F
L
=
square root of K
m
. Alternatively, an estimated value of F
L
may be obtained
from the table that is included in part 4 of Work Aid 2A.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 108
g. Enter the appropriate value of F
d
for a globe valve. To view a Help Screen that
explains F
d
values, press the F1 key twice, press "v" to view a list of valve
sizing Help Screens, select Valve Sizing: Sizing Parameters, and press Page
Down until the explanation of F
d
appears. (Note that for most globe valves, F
d
= 1.0).
h. Assume that the valve size is equal to the line size, and enter an appropriate
value for d.
i. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information, and note the C
v
.
j. Refer to Fisher Catalog 10, and ensure that the valve size that is assumed above
can provide the required capacity. If it appears that a smaller valve can provide
the need capacity, change the value of d, calculate C
v
, and again refer to the
sizing tables. Ensure that you select a valve that is consistent with the
guidelines in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 (see the table in part 2 of Work Aid
1A).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 109
Work Aid 2F: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves With
Viscosity And Piping Factor Correction
1. Use the following procedures to complete part 1.
Calculating Cv with Viscous Correction
a. Press ESCAPE until the valve sizing method menu appears.
b. Select the ISA Liquid sizing method.
c. Clear all values by pressing ALT-F5.
d. Select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
e. Press F3. Ensure that the options Omit F
P
, Viscous Cor r ection ON and Input Pv are
selected.
f. Ensure that the engineering units that are displayed on the calculation screen
match the units that are used in the description of the application. If necessary,
change the units for any field by moving the cursor to the field, pressing F8,
and selecting the desired units.
g. Enter the fluid properties and the service conditions.
h. Enter an estimated value of F
L
. An estimated value of F
L
can be obtained from
the table in part 4 of Work Aid 2A.
i. Enter the appropriate value of F
d
. Refer to step g. in part 3. of Work Aid 2E.
j. Assume that the valve size is equal to the line size, and enter the appropriate
value for d.
k. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information, and note the C
v
.
l. Refer to the appropriate page in Fisher Catalog 12, and select a control valve
size that provides the required C
v
at a percentage of travel that is consistent
with Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700. Refer to the table in part 2 of Work Aid 1A.
m. Record the selected valve size and the degrees of rotation at which the valve
will provide the maximum C
v
requirement.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 110
Calculating C
v
with Piping Factor Correction
a. Press F3. Ensure that the options Calculate F
P
and Viscous Cor r ection OFF are
selected.
b. Initially assume that the required valve size is equal to line size, and enter the
appropriate value of d.
c. Enter the appropriate values for D
1
and D
2
.
d. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information, and note the C
v
.
e. Refer to the appropriate page in Fisher Catalog 12, and select a control valve
size. Evaluate the assumed valve size as well as smaller sizes. If a smaller than
initially selected valve size appears to have sufficient capacity, recalculate the
valve sizing information with the use of the appropriate value of d and the
actual value of F
L
.
f. Record the selected valve size and the degrees of rotation at which the valve
provides the maximum C
v
requirements.
2. Use the following procedures to complete part 2.
a. If the calculations that consider piping factors lead to the selection of one valve
size and the calculations that consider the effects of laminar flow lead to the
selection of another valve size, select the larger valve.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 111
Work Aid 2G: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For
Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow Conditions
Use the following procedures to complete Exercise 2G.
Setup
a. Press ESCAPE until the valve sizing method menu appears.
b. Select the ISA Liquid sizing method.
c. Press ALT-F5 to clear all of the data.
d. With the cursor on the Valve Size and LpA Option, press F3 and ensure that the options
are set to LpA (SPL) OFF, Omit F
P,
Viscous Cor r ection OFF, Pipe: Size, Sched., Input P
v
, and
War nings OFF. Note that the F
P
option will not be used to initially select a valve size.
Initial Sizing
a. Select the MIN (minimum) condition. Enter the fluid properties and the service
conditions. To determine an estimated value of F
L
, browse through the F
L
values that
are listed on the Catalog 12 page that describes the selected valve type. Select a value
of F
L
that is typical for the valve type and size.
b. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
c. Press ESCAPE. On the screen that appears, move the cursor to the NRM (normal)
flow condition column.
d. Press ALT-C. From the menu that appears, select 1 to copy the sizing information
from the minimum flow calculation screen to the normal flow calculation screen. Press
ENTER.
e. Change the pressure and flow conditions to the values that are given for the normal
flow condition.
f. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
g. Press ESCAPE. On the screen that appears, move the cursor to the MAX (maximum)
flow condition column.
h. Press ALT-C. From the menu that appears, select 2 to copy the sizing information
from the normal flow calculation screen to the maximum flow calculation screen.
Press ENTER.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 112
i. Change the pressure and flow conditions to the values that are given for the maximum
flow condition.
j. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
Display The Calculated Results And Select A Valve Size
a. Press F9 to display a table of calculated values.
b. Note the minimum and maximum C
v
values. Refer to the Catalog 12 page for the
selected valve. Locate the smallest valve size that can provide the maximum C
v
according to the guidelines in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 (refer to the table in part 2 of
Work Aid 1A).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 113
Work Aid 2G: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For
Minimum, Normal, And Maximum Flow Conditions, cont'd.
Inter mediate Sizing With The Calculate F
P
Option
a. Press ESCAPE twice to return to the menu screen from which the Valve Sizing And
LpA calculations are selected.
b. Press F3 and select the Calculate F
P
option. (Note that selecting an option from this
screen invokes the option for all calculation screens (MIN, NRM, and MAX);
selecting an option from a particular sizing screen invokes the option for that specific
condition only.)
c. Select the minimum flow condition. Enter the appropriate values for d, D
1
, and D
2
.
Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
d. Repeat the step immediately above for the normal and the maximum flow conditions.
e. Press F9 to display a table of calculated C
v
's that have been corrected for piping
factors. Refer to the appropriate Catalog 12 page, and compare the corrected C
v
's that
are displayed on the screen to the C
v
's that are published for the initially selected
valve. Ensure that the selected valve can provide the C
v
's that are required at the
minimum and maximum flow conditions according to the guidelines in Section 5.2 of
SAES-J-700 (refer to the table in part 2 of Work Aid 1A). Record the valve size as
requested on the Exercise Sheet.
Final Sizing and Selection
a. Select the minimum flow condition sizing screen and note the calculated C
v
.
b. Refer to the appropriate page in Catalog 12 and estimate the degrees of rotation at
which the C
v
requirement will be met.
c. Extrapolate a value of F
L
for the degrees of rotation that were estimated in step b.
Enter the extrapolated value of F
L
in the appropriate field on the sizing screen, and
press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
d. If the C
v
that was calculated in step c. is different than the C
v
that was calculated in
step b., the degrees of rotation at which the required C
v
is obtained will be different
and the value of F
L
may have also changed; therefore, steps b. and c. must be
repeated. If the C
v
's that were calculated in steps b. and c. are the same (or nearly the
same), record the information that is requested on the Exercise Sheet, and proceed to
the next step.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 114
e. Select the normal flow condition and note the value of the calculated C
v
. Perform
steps b., c., and d. for the normal flow condition.
f. Select the maximum flow condition and note the calculated C
v
. Perform steps b., c.,
and d. for the maximum condition.
g. Ensure that you have recorded all the information that is requested on the Exercise
Sheet.
h. If it is necessary to review the calculated results, press F9.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 115
work aid 3: Procedures that are used to Computer size control valves for
gas and steam applications
Work Aid 3A: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Ideal
Gasses With The ISA Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3A.
a. If necessary, press ESCAPE to return to the main menu.
b. From the main menu, select Valve.
c. From the menu that appears, select the ISA Gas method.
d. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
e. Press F3, and select the Input Z option.
f. Enter the service conditions, the fluid properties, and the value of x
T
.
Note that F
k
= k divided by 1.4. If k is unknown, enter 1.0 for F
K
.
Because T
c
and p
c
are not included in the description of the fluid properties, Z
cannot be calculated; therefore, enter a value of 1.0 for Z.
g. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
h. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 116
Work Aid 3B: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Real
Gasses With The ISA Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3B.
Note: It is not necessary to clear the existing sizing inputs.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the ISA Gas method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press F3, and select the Calculate Z option.
e. Ensure that the correct information is entered in the fields for the service conditions,
fluid properties, and the value of x
T
. Remember that F
k
= k divided by 1.4.
f. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
g. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 117
Work Aid 3C: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Vapors
With The ISA Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3C.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the ISA Vapor method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Ensure that the engineering units on the calculation screen match the units that are
used to describe the service conditions. If the units do not match for any field, move
the cursor to that field, press the F8 key, and select the desired units.
e. Enter the fluid properties, the service conditions, and x
T
. Remember that F
K
= k/1.4.
f. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
g. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 118
Work Aid 3D: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Steam
With The ISA Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3D.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the ISA Vapor method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press and hold the ALT key, and press F5 to clear all sizing inputs.
e. Ensure that the engineering units on the calculation screen match the units that are
used to describe the service conditions. If the units do not match for any field, move
the cursor to that field, press the F8 key, and select the desired units.
f. Using the chart in Fisher Catalog 10, Section 2, page 39, determine the density of the
steam.
g. Enter the fluid properties, the service conditions, and the value of x
T
.
h. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
i. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 119
Work Aid 3E: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Ideal
Gasses With The Fisher Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3E.
1. Fisher Ideal Gas sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the main menu.
b. From the main menu, select Valve.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Ideal Gas method.
d. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
e. Press and hold the ALT key, and press F5 to clear any sizing inputs.
f. Ensure that the engineering units on the calculation screen match the units that
are used to describe the service conditions. If the units do not match for any
field, move the cursor to that field, press the F8 key, and select the desired
units.
g. Enter the required service conditions, the fluid properties, and the value of C
1
.
h. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
i. To convert the C
g
to C
v
, divide the value of C
g
by the value of C
1
.
j. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
2. Fisher Real Gas sizing method
Note: It is not necessary to clear the existing sizing inputs.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Real Gas method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press F3. If there is insufficient to calculate Z and C
2
, select the option Input Z,
Omit C
2
.
e. Enter the service conditions, the fluid properties, and the value of C
1
.
f. To ignore the effects of real gas compressibility, enter a value of 1.0 for Z.
g. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
h. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
i. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 120
Work Aid 3F: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Real
Gasses With The Fisher Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3F.
1. Fisher Real Gas sizing method
Note: It is not necessary to clear the existing sizing inputs.
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Real Gas method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press F3, and select the Calculate Z, C
2
option.
e. Enter the service conditions, the fluid properties, and the value of C
1
.
f. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
g. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
h. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 121
Work Aid 3G: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Vapors
With The Fisher Method
Perform the following procedures to complete Exercise 3G.
1. Fisher Vapor sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Vapor method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Ensure that the service conditions and the value of C
1
are entered correctly.
e. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
f. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
g. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 122
Work Aid 3H: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For Steam
With The Fisher Method
Use the following procedures to complete Exercise 3H.
1. Fisher Vapor sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Vapor method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Ensure that the service conditions and C
1
are entered correctly.
e. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
f. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
g. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
2. Fisher Steam sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Steam method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Ensure that the service conditions and C
1

are entered correctly.
e. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
f. To convert C
s
to C
g
, multiply C
s
by 20.
g. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
h. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 123
Work Aid 3I: Procedures That Are Used To Calculate The Effect Of Compressibility On
Valve Size
Use the following procedures to perform the sizing calculations for Exercise 3I.
1. Fisher Ideal Gas sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the valve sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Ideal Gas method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. Press and hold the ALT key, and press F5 to clear any sizing inputs.
e. Move the cursor to the Gas entry field, and press F4. From the menu that
appears, select N-Butane.
f. Enter the service conditions and the value of C
1
.
g. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
h. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
i. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
2. Fisher Real Gas sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the Fisher Real Gas method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. It is not necessary to clear existing sizing inputs.
e. Press F3, and select the Calculate Z, C
2
option.
f. Ensure that the sizing inputs are entered correctly.
g. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
h. To convert C
g
to C
v
, divide C
g
by C
1
.
i. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 124
3. ISA Gas sizing method
a. Press ESCAPE to return to the sizing method menu.
b. From the menu that appears, select the ISA Gas method.
c. From the menu that appears, select the Valve Sizing and LpA option.
d. It is not necessary to clear existing sizing inputs.
e. Press F3, and select the Calculate Z option.
f. Ensure that the sizing inputs are entered correctly.
g. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
h. Record the values that are requested in the Exercise.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 125
Work Aid 3J: Procedures That Are Used To Computer Size Control Valves For All Flow
Conditions
Setup
a. Press ESCAPE until the valve sizing method menu appears.
b. Select the ISA Gas sizing method.
c. Press ALT-F5 to clear all data.
d. With the cursor on the Valve Sizing and LpA Option, press F3 and ensure that the options
are set to Input Z, Omit F
P
and x
TP
, LpA (SPL) OFF, and War nings OFF. Note that the F
P
option will not be used to initially select a valve size.
e. If it is necessary to change engineering units for any of the input fields, ensure that the
screen that is displayed is the screen from which Valve Sizing and LpA are selected.
Press F8 to display a list of sizing parameters. Move the cursor to the parameters for
which units must be changed. To display a list of options for a particular parameter,
place the cursor on the parameter, and, then, press ENTER. Move the cursor to the
desired option, and press ENTER. After the units for the appropriate parameters have
been selected, press ESCAPE.
Initial Sizing
a. Select the MIN (minimum) condition and enter the required sizing inputs. Assume
ideal gas behavior; i.e., set F
k
to 1.0, and set Z to 1.0. To determine an estimated x
T
,
browse through the x
T
values that are listed on the Catalog 12 page that describes the
selected valve and select a value of x
T
that is typical for the selected valve type.
b. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
c. Press ESCAPE. On the screen that appears, move the cursor to the NRM (normal)
flow condition column.
d. Press ALT-C. From the menu that appears, select 1 to copy the sizing information
from the minimum flow calculation screen to the normal flow calculation screen. Press
ENTER.
e. Change the pressure and the flow conditions to the values that are included in the
application description.
f. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 126
g. Press ESCAPE. On the screen that appears, move the cursor to the MAX (maximum)
flow condition column.
h. Press ALT-C. From the menu that appears, select 2 to copy the sizing information
from the normal flow calculation screen to the maximum flow calculation screen.
Press ENTER.
i. Change the pressure and the flow conditions to the values that are included in the
application description.
j. Press F2 to calculate the valve sizing information.
Display The Calculated Results And Select A Valve Size
a. Press F9 to display a table of calculated values.
b. Note the minimum and maximum C
v
values. Refer to the appropriate Catalog 12 page,
and locate the smallest valve size that can provide the required C
v
at the maximum
flow condition. Ensure that you observe the percentage of travel guidelines that are
included in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700. Refer to the table in part 2 of Work Aid 1A.
Inter mediate Sizing With The Calculate F
P
Option
a. Press ESCAPE twice to return to the menu screen from which the Valve Sizing And
LpA calculations are selected.
b. Press F3 and select the Calculate F
P
option. (Note that selecting an option from this
screen invokes the option for all calculation screens (MIN, NRM, and MAX);
selecting an option from a particular sizing screen invokes the option for that specific
condition only.)
c. Select the minimum flow condition. Enter the appropriate values for d, D
1
, and D
2
.
Press F2 to calculate the C
v
.
d. Repeat step c. for both the normal and maximum flow conditions.
e. Press F9 to display a table of calculated C
v
's that have been corrected for piping
factors. Refer to the appropriate Catalog 12 page, and compare the corrected C
v
's that
are displayed on the screen to the C
v
's that are published for the initially selected
valve. Ensure that the initially selected valve has adequate capacity and that it
conforms to the guidelines in Section 5.2 of SAES-J-700 (refer to the table in part 2 of
Work Aid 1A). Record the valve size on the Exercise Sheet.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 127
Final Sizing and Selection
a. Select the minimum flow condition. Note the calculated C
v
.
b. Refer to appropriate page in Catalog 12, and estimate the percentage of travel at which
the C
v
requirement will be met.
c. Extrapolate a value of x
T
for the percent travel that was estimated in step b. Enter the
extrapolated value of X
T
in the appropriate field on the sizing screen, and press F2 to
calculate the sizing information.
d. If the C
v
that was calculated in step c. is different than the C
v
that was calculated in
step b., the percent of travel at which the required C
v
is obtained will be different and
the value of X
T
may have also changed; therefore, steps b. and c. must be repeated. If
the C
v
's that were calculated in steps b. and c. are the same (or nearly the same),
record the information that is requested and proceed to the next step.
e. Select the normal flow condition and note the value of the calculated C
v
. Perform
steps b., c., and d. for the normal flow condition.
f. Select the maximum flow condition and note the calculated C
v
. Perform steps b., c.,
and d. for the maximum condition.
g. Ensure that you have recorded the information that is requested on the Exercise Sheet.
Press F9 to review the calculated results if necessary.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 128
WORK AID 4: PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO Enter Valve Sizing Data
on the saudi Aramco ISS
Enter the information on the ISS as follows:
Line 49: Enter the valve body size and the valve port size.
Line 50: Enter the inlet flange size, the inlet flange ANSI Class rating, and the flange
style (enter the abbreviation RF for a raised-face flange style).
Line 51: Enter outlet flange size, the ANSI Class rating, and the flange style.
Line 61: Circle the entry that indicates whether flow tends to close or open the valve.
Line 62: Enter the minimum flow C
v
. Divide the C
v
at the minimum flow condition by
the maximum C
v
rating of the valve. Enter the result as a percentage.
Line 63: Enter the normal flow C
v
. Divide the C
v
at the normal flow condition by the
maximum C
v
rating of the valve. Enter the result as a percentage.
Line 64: Enter the maximum flow C
v
. Divide the C
v
at the maximum flow condition by
the maximum C
v
rating of the valve. Enter the result as a percentage.
Line 65: Enter the maximum C
v
rating of the valve.
Line 66: Enter the percentages of travel at which the valve provides the C
v
's that are
required at the minimum and maximum flow conditions.
Line 67: Enter the percentage of travel at which the valve provides the C
v
that is
required at the normal flow condition.
Line 72: Refer to the appropriate specification bulletin and determine the face-to-face
dimension of the selected valve. Enter the dimension on the ISS, and circle the
appropriate units of measurement (mm or inches).
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 129
GLOSSARY
1 Specific weight of the fluid at the valve inlet.
P
allow
Pressure drop at which choked flow limits flow to Qmax; same
as P
choked
.
P
choked
Pressure drop at which choked flow limits flow to Qmax; same
as P
allow
.
C
1
Term that is used in the Fisher Gas Sizing Equation to account
for differences in liquid and gas coefficients for high and low
recovery valve types.
C
2
Term that is used in the Fisher Gas Sizing Equation to account
for the ratio of specific heats. C
2
serves the same function as F
k
in the ISA equations.
capacity Rate of flow through a valve under stated conditions.
cavitation In liquid service, the noisy and potentially damaging
phenomenon that accompanies bubble formation and collapse
in the flowstream.
centipoise Unit of measure of viscosity (C
s
).
centistokes Unit of measure of viscosity (C
p
).
C
g
Gas flow coefficient that is used by Fisher Controls.
choked flow Maximum flow rate through a restriction. Choked flow results
in liquid flows as pressure reductions cause decreases in fluid
density and thus offset any increase in velocity. In gasses,
choked flow is achieved when fluid velocity is sonic.
compr essibility Condition that occurs in gasses as increasing pressure compacts
molecules of the flowing gas.
cr itical flow Condition when gas flow is at sonic velocity and further
reductions in downstream pressure produce no increase in flow
rate.
cr itical pr essur e The pressure of the liquid-vapor point.
cr itical pr essur e r atio Ratio that is used in liquid sizing to calculate P
vc
and allowable
pressure drop (P
choked
).
cr itical temper atur e Temperature of the liquid-vapor critical point (i.e., the
temperature above which the fluid has no liquid-vapor
transition.
C
s
Steam flow coefficient that is used by Fisher Controls.
C
v
Flow coefficient that is commonly used for liquids.
C
vr
C
v
required; a value of C
v
that has been corrected to account
for the effects of fluid viscosity on the calculated C
v
. This term
is used in conjunction with the Fisher Controls nomograph that
is used to determine viscosity corrections.
D Term that represents nominal pipeline diameter.
d Term that represents nominal valve size (generally the valve
inlet diameter).
D
1
Diameter of the piping that is connected to the valve inlet.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 130
D
2
Diameter of the piping that is connected to the valve outlet.
density Weight per unit of volume of a fluid. May be given as relative
density (specific gravity SG, molecular weight M, or in terms
of specific weight (weight per unit of volume, such as kgs/m
3
,
lbs/ft
3
, etc.).
downstr eam Any point that is located away from a reference point in the
direction of fluid flow.
P The pressure drop. in psi, across the valve (P = P
1
-P
2
).
F
d
Valve style modifier that is used in ISA equation to calculate
valve Reynolds number.
F
F
ISA term for critical pressure ratio; same as r
c
, which is used by
Fisher and others.
F
L
Term that is used in ISA equations to describe valve recovery
coefficient. Similar to K
m
, which is used by Fisher.
F
LP
F
L
corrected for piping factor.
flashing A phenomenon that is observed in liquid service when the
pressure of the fluid falls below its vapor pressure and it does
not recover to a pressure above its vapor pressure. Flashing
commonly produces, in control valve components, damage that
has the appearance of erosion damage (smooth, polished
cavities on the affected components).
flow char acter istic Relationship between flow through the valve and percent of
rated travel as the latter is varied from 0 to 100 percent. This
term is a special term. It should always be designated as either
inherent flow characteristic or installed flow characteristic.
Common flow characteristics are linear, equal percentage, and
quick opening.
flow coefficient (C
v
) The number of U.S. gallons per minute of 60 degree F water
that will flow through a valve with a pressure drop of one
pound per square inch.
flow r ate The amount (mass, weight, or volume) of fluid flowing through
a regulator per unit of time.
F
LP
ISA term that represents a recovery coefficient (liquid flow)
that is corrected for piping factors.
F
R
Reynolds number factor that is used in the ISA equations.
F
P
Piping factor that is used in the ISA equations.
F
v
Viscosity correction factor that is used by Fisher Controls to
compensate for the effects of viscous flow. The value of F
v
is
determined from a nomograph, and it is applied as follows: C
vr
(C
v
required) = F
v
C
v
, where C
v
is an initially calculated value.
fluid Substance in a liquid, gas, or vapor state.
fluid expansion Expansion that results from a decrease in pressure as a gas
flows through a control valve.
F
P
ISA term that represents the piping factor. See Piping Factor.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 131
FSP Fisher Sizing Program
G The specific gravity of the fluid. Identical to the SG and the
ISA terms G
f
and G
g
.
G
f
Liquid specific gravity at upstream conditions; ratio of fluid
density at flowing temperature to density of water at 60 degrees
F (15.6 degrees C).
G
g
Gas specific gravity; ratio of density of gas at flowing
conditions to density of air at reference conditions; ratio of
molecular weight of a gas to molecular weight of air;
dimensionless.
high-r ecover y valve A valve design that dissipates relatively little flow-stream
energy because of streamlined internal contours and minimal
flow turbulence. Valves, such as rotary-shaft ball and butterfly
valves, are typically high-recovery valves. In these designs, the
pressure dip at the vena contracta is larger than in low-recovery
valves.
ideal gas A gas that obeys the ideal gas law of pV=RT.
ISA Instrument Society of America.
K
m
Liquid flow valve recovery coefficient that is used by Fisher
Controls; similar to F
L
in ISA equations.
laminar flow A flow regime characterized by smooth, ordered layers. The
layers in the center of the pipe have the highest velocity, while
drag forces result in reduced velocity nearer the pipe wall.
Laminar flow is also referred to as viscous flow. The term
viscous flow is somewhat of a misnomer because effects other
than fluid viscosity can cause laminar flow.
low-r ecover y valve A valve design that dissipates a considerable amount of
flowstream energy because of turbulence created by the
contours of the flowpath. Globe valves are typical. In these
designs, the pressure dip at the vena contracta is not as great as
in high-recovery valves.
M molecular weight, atomic mass units.
N
x
Used in ISA equations, N terms are numerical constants that
allow the use of the equations with different engineering units.
p
1
Fluid pressure upstream of the valve.
p
2
Fluid pressure downstream of the valve.
piping factor Ratio of flow through a valve with swaged connections to flow
through a valve with a 1:1 line-to-body size ratio. Represented
in the ISA equations with term F
P
.
p
r
The reduced pressure, determined by dividing the actual
pressure of the fluid (psia) by the fluid's critical pressure psia).
The value of P
r
and the value of T
r
(the reduced temperature)
may be used to determine the value of the compressibility
factor, Z.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 132
pr essur e Force exerted per unit of area.
pr essur e differ ential The difference in pressure between two locations in a fluid
system.
pr essur e dr op The difference between upstream pressure and downstream
pressure that represents the amount of flow stream energy that
the control valve must be able to withstand.
pr essur e dr op r atio Ratio of inlet pressure P
1
to pressure drop across the valve.
pr essur e dr op r atio
factor
The limiting value of x that is used in the ISA sizing equations.
Referred to with x
T

(t stands for terminal). The value of x
T
is
related to valve style and geometry. It is determined by test and
published with other valve sizing information.
pr essur e dr op, allowable The pressure drop at which choked flow limits flow to Q
max
.
This term is used by Fisher Controls and others. It is equivalent
to the term "choked pressure drop" that is used in the ISA
equations.
pr essur e dr op, choked The pressure drop at which choked flow limits flow to Q
max
.
This term is used in the ISA equations. It is equivalent to the
term "allowable pressure drop" that is used by Fisher and
others.
PSI or psi Pounds per square inch.
P
v
For a liquid, the pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with the
liquid.
P
vc
Pressure at the vena contracta.
Q or q flow rate
R Gas constant that is used in the equation to describe pressure,
volume, and temperature relationships of ideal gasses. R =
1545/molecular weight (M) of the fluid.
Re
v
Reynolds number for valve.
r ated C
v
The value of C
v
at the rated full-open position.
r atio of specific heat
factor
The factor that is used in the ISA gas sizing equations to
account for thermodynamic fluid behavior. It is represented by
F
k
. F
k

is equal to the ratio of the specific heat for the flowing
gas to the specific heat of air, which is 1.4 (i.e., F
k
= k/1.4).
r
c
A term that is used by Fisher Controls and others to represent
the critical pressure ratio. The term r
c
is equivalent to the term
F
F
in the ISA sizing equations. The critical pressure ratio and
the fluid vapor pressure (P
v
) are used to estimate the fluid
pressure at the vena contracta according to: P
vc
= r
c
P
v
.
r eal gas A gas for which deviations form the ideal gas law are taken into
account.
SG specific gravity
sonic velocity The upper velocity limit of a flowing gas. It is equal to the
speed of sound in the flowing gas.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 133
specific gr avity Measure of density, generally expressed as SG or M. See SG
and M.
specific heat r atio Represented with the term k. The ratio of the amount of heat
that is required to raise a mass of material 1 degree in
temperature to the amount of heat that is required to raise an
equal mass of a reference substance (usually water) 1 degree in
temperature. Both measurements are made at a specific
temperature and at constant volume or pressure.
swage A piping expander or reducer that allows the installation of a
control valve in a pipeline whose diameter is greater than the
diameter of the control valve inlet and outlet fittings.
T or T
1
Temperature of the fluid at the valve inlet.
thr ottling r ange The range defined by the percent valve travel that provides the
minimum C
v
requirement and the percent valve travel that
provides the maximum C
v
requirement.
T
r
The reduced temperature, determined by dividing the actual
temperature of the fluid by the fluid's critical temperature. The
value of T
r
and the value of P
r
(the reduced pressure) may be
used to determine the value of the compressibility factor, Z.
tr ansitional flow A flow regime with characteristics of both laminar and
turbulent flow.
tr avel The amount of movement (linear or rotational) of the valve
closure member between the closed and open positions,
generally expressed in degrees of rotation for rotary-shaft
valves and in percent of travel for sliding-stem valves.
tur bulent flow A flow regime characterized by turbulent eddies that occur
randomly in the fluid stream. Fluid velocity at the center of the
pipe and the velocity near the pipe wall are nearly equal.
vena contr acta The location where cross-sectional area of the flowstream is at
its minimum size, where fluid velocity is at its highest level,
and fluid pressure is at its lowest level. (The vena contracta
normally occurs just downstream of the actual physical
restriction in a control valve.)
w Mass flow rate (lbs/hr, kg/s, etc.)
x
Pressure drop ratio (
P p / 1
); limited to value of x
T
for choked
flow and x
TP
to correct for piping factors, dimensionless.
x
T
Flow limiting pressure drop that is used in ISA gas sizing
equations.
Y
Expansion factor
Y
x
F x
k T
1
3
, where F
k
= ratio of specific
heats.
Z Compressibility factor; dimensionless.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Sizing Control Valves
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 134