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CHEE 221 Tutorial: Saturation and Steam Tables What do they really mean by Saturation?
1. Saturation conditions are those under which two or more phases of a pure substance can exist together in equilibrium. However, note that a second phase need not actually be present. A phase is considered saturated so long as it is at conditions where another phase could exist in equilibrium. In the case where a single phase is found, it is in a condition where any system changes (temperature, pressure, enthalpy) will cause some material to change phase. Another way of looking at saturation conditions is that a change of phase can occur without a change in pressure or temperature (what occurs is a change in enthalpy). Yet another approach is to consider a saturation state to be the conditions at which a phase .. change begins, takes place, or ends.
Here are some examples. Upon reaching and enthalpy of 2676 only saturated vapour will remain. Further increases in enthalpy will now cause further increases in temperature above 100C and the vapour is a superheated vapour or superheated steam, meaning that the vapour has been heated above its saturation temperature. Important note: 419+2257=2676 saturated liquid water

Question: Why is this important? (this is the change in enthalpy between and saturated vapour at 100C)

Question: If, at I atm and 100C with no vapour present, 1000 KJ of heat is added to I kg of water, what percent is converted to vapour? (no vapour means that the enthalpy is that of liquid water at 419 kJlkg, then we add 1000 kJ which is entirely used to convert a quantity of liquid water into steam. Since it takes a total of 2257 kJ to convert I kg of water, 1000 kJ will convert 1000/2257. 100% = 44.3%) Question: What would you call I kg of water at I atm with the following enthalpies:

2. Liquid water (a single phase) can exist in equilibrium at various temperatures (between slightly above 0 and 100C) while under a pressure Qf I atm. However, liquid water cannot exist at temperatures higher than 100C while at I atm. Water vapour can exist at this pressure only at temperature of 100C and higher. Therefore at I atm, three possible phase compositions can exist: (I) only water; (2) only water vapour; (3) water and water vapour in equilibrium.
Lets take a closer look at these situations.

a) b) c) d) e) I)

4 KJ (cold liquid water) 419.1 KJ (slightly above saturated liquid water) 1500 KJ (a mix ofliquid water and water vapour) 2675 KJ (almost saturated water vapour) 2677 KJ (just above saturation, superheated water vapour) 3000KJ (superheated water vapour)

Suppose we have a system at a temperature below 100C while at I atm, with only I kg ofliquid water. There is no gas phase (we are not considering the presence of air... yet). At this point the water is below its saturation temperature and is called a subcooled liquid. Heat can be added and the temperature will increase. At 100C the following enthalpies are reported (relative to water at its triple point OC, where the relative enthalpy is taken to be 0).

Consider I kg of water with an enthalpy of 3000 KJ at I atm. It is a superheated vapour. Question: What is its temperature? (262C, by interpolation from table B.7) As energy is removed and the temperature decreases it will eventually reach its saturation point (100C with an enthalpy of2676KJ). 11is then a saturated vapour.
As more energy is removed, the temperature will remain constant and saturated and saturated liquid will exist in equilibrium until the enthalpy drops to 419.1 KJ. vapour

Water
Evaporation Steam (Vapour)

## 419.1kJlkg 2257 kJlkg :2676kJlkg

OK this is really great and I'm happy that the water went from superheated to saturated and went through vapour to liquid phase... but what about those steam tables? All right, here we go. (turn the page)

Upon arriving at 100C with an enthalpy of 419.1 kJ,the liquid water is said to be saturated water (there is no water vapour at this point). Additional heat (latent heat of vaporization) will cause no further increase in temperature, but water vapour will begin to form (saturated vapour) and will be in equilibrium with the liquid water so long as the enthalpy is between 419.1 and 2676 kJ.

Conversely

on B.6.

## Saturated Steam tables

Two types: Pressure based and Temperature based Saturated based. Table B.5: TemDerature Steam: (along the Vapour-Liquid is also listed here. Any

- If the temperature is higher the steam is superheated. - If it is the same, you have saturated steam. - If it is lower somebody lied to you and you don't have steam at all but a sub cooled liquid. The temperature saturated steam. must exactly match the given pressure in order to have

For the temperatures listed, we are at saturation conditions Equilibrium Curve). The corresponding saturation pressure change in T, P, or H will cause material to change phases. Information on this table:

Saturation pressure at the listed temperature Specific Volume (inverse of density) Internal Energy

Look at the PT phase diagram on page 327 to convince yourself that this is true.
You can also look on B. 7. If the T and P you are interested in, intersect in

Enthalpy:

Saturatedwater
Evaporation/condensation Saturated Steam

the boxed region, you have a liquid not a vapour and someone lied to you again. If you are right on the line then it's a saturated vapour, and if you are outside the box, you've got superheated steam.

Table B6: Pressure based Saturated Steam: The only difference is that the pressure is the index by which you are looking up conditions. For given pressures, you can look up saturation temperatures. (the range of Table B.6 is more extensive, which can be useful depending on the information sought). Information on the table: Saturation temperature at the listed pressure Specifie Volume (inverse of density) Internal Energy Enthalpy: Saturated water Evaporation/condensation Saturated Steam

4. You are told that you have water at a certain temperature and no pressure is given. Enthalpy is a very weak function of pressure so values from B5 can be used. Even if the water is "subcooled" the values from B5 are close enough.
4. You are told that you have a subcooled liquid. You cannot use the values from B.5 and B.6 because

we are interested

in

the enthalpy difference between the subcooled and the saturation state (this won't happen very often in CHEE22I ). You may just be better off using the Cp integrals. However, you could use the Cp integrals to find the heat needed to get you to saturation conditions and then use the tables. 5. You have superheated steam and the pressure and temperature on how B.5 can help in this situation. values are not in Table

Uses:
I. For a situation where you have saturated steam at a certain T. All properties can be found on B.S.

B.7.

## Superheated Steam Tables

2. For a situation where you have saturated steam at a certain P. All properties. can be found on B.6. 3. May have steam ~t a certain temperature and pressure and need to know if it is saturated.
Look up the temperature from the table. on B.5 and compare your pressure with the one

Table B.7
To be superheated, you are at a temperature in excess of the saturation temperature. table is a little more complicated, so I'll go into more detail on each column. This

ColumnI
This is where you locate the system pressure. The temperature at which the steam will become saturated is listed in brackets. This temperature is also the dew point for the system.

- If your pressure is lower, you have superheated steam. - If it is the same, you have saturated steam. - If it is higher, somebody lied and you have sub cooled liquid.

Columns

2 and 3

The saturated properties are listed. This is the same information you would find on B.5 and B6.. It is here for convenience. You will frequently run into questions where superheated steam is being cooled look on other charts and table. The rest of the table The system temperature is located across the top row. Intersect it with the system pressure and there you find the properties at the system T & P. If the T and P you are at intersect wihtin the boxed region, it's a liquid not a vapour. If you are exactly on the line then it's saturated vapour (check column 2 and 3 for the properties) and if you are outside the box, it's superheated steam! And then you can determine the degrees of superheat (which is the difference between the temperature of your vapour and its dew point... The dew point is the temperature at which this vapour becomes saturated). past saturation. This information saves you having to

Oh NO! the temperature and Pressure I want are not in Table B.7! What ever will I do!
Don't jump just yet, there is still hope. Table BS can save you. If you are at less than 10 bar or if the pressure is not given then use the saturated enthalpy values from Table B5. If the pressure is greater than 10 bar then use the formula H = U+ PV and the values from B5 to get the enthalpy. Terms to Remember, and be able to differentiate Subcooled water Saturated water Saturated stearn Superheated steam Degrees of superheat Superheated water between:

See definitions