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Actus reus: is Latin for "guilty act" and is the physical element of committing a crime.

It may be accomplished by an action, by threat of action, or exceptionally, by an omission to act. Admiralty law: (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. It is a body of both domestic law governing maritime activities, and private international law governing the relationships between private entities which operate vessels on the oceans. is armed enforcement of the laws of commerce(the law merchant) a court that exercises jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries ,or offenses Affidavit: A voluntary declaration of facts written down and sworn to by the declarant before an officer authorized to administer oaths, such as a notary public. Allodial: Free; not holden of any lord or superior; owned without obligation of vassalage or fealty; the opposite of feudal. Allodium: Land held absolutely in one's own right, and not of any lord or superior; land not subject to feudal duties or burdens. An estate held by absolute ownership, without recognizing any superior to whom any duty is due on account thereof. Amend: to change the wording of, to formally alter by striking out, inserting or substituting words Anarchy: a sociopolitical theory holding that the only legitimate form of government is one under which individuals govern themselves free from any collective power structure enforcing compliance with social order. {No Rule or Law} Appear/Appearance: A coming into court as a party or interested person or as a lawyer on behalf of a party or interested person. Artificial person: An entity such as a corporation, created by law and given certain legal rights and duties of a human being. Also termed ficitious,juristic,legal,moral persons

Autocracy: Government by one person with unlimited power and authority unlimited monarchy. BLACK PERSON: "Black person," occurring in Constitution and laws, must be taken in its generic sense as contradistinguished from white. Rice v. Gong Lum, 139 Miss. 760, 104 So. 105, 109. Brief: A written statement setting out the legal contentions of a party in litigation,a document prepared by counsel as the basis for arguing a case, consisting of legal and factual arguments and the authorities in support of them. CESTUI QUE TRUST: He who has a right to a beneficial interest in and out of an estate the legal title to which is vested in another. 2 Washb. Real Prop. 163. The person who possesses the equitable right to property and receives the rents, issues, and profits thereof, the legal estate of which is vested in a trustee. Bernardsville Methodist Episcopal Church v. Seney, 85 N. J. Eq. 271, 96 A. 388, 389 ; Moore v. Shifflett, 187 Ky. 7, 216 S. W. 614, 616. It has been proposed to substitute for this uncouth term the English word "beneficiary,"and the latter, though still far from universally adopted, has come to be quite frequent ly used. It is equal in precision to the an tiquated and unwieldy Norman phrase, and far better adapted to the genius of our'language. Citizen: for diversity-jurisdiction purposes, a corporation that was incorporated within a state or has its principal place or business there. A person by birth or naturalization is a member of a political community. C I V I L: Originally, pertaining or appropriate to a member of a civitas or free political community ; natural or proper to a citizen. Also, relating to the community, or to the policy and government of the citizens and subjects of a state. CIVILIAN: One who is skilled or versed in the civil law. A doctor, professor, or stu dent of the civil law. Also a private citizen, sees and the head places of large distinguished from such

as belong to the army and navy or (in England) the church. Civil Law: Jus civile, one of two prominent legal systems in the western world. The body of law imposed by the state as opposed to moral law. a private contract is or agreement is involved. For an action to be brought there must be a breach of contract and damages. CIVILITER MORTUUS: Civilly dead ; in the view of the law. The condition of one who has lost his civil rights and capacities, and is accounted dead in law. Troup v. Wood, 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 228 ; Platner v. Sherwood, 6 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) 118 ; Quick v. Western Ry. of Alabama, 207 Ala. 376, 92 So. 608. Color of: A legal term meaning the pretense or appearance of" some right; in other words, 'color of', as in 'color of law', means the thing colors (or adjusts) the law; however the adjustment made may either be lawful or it may merely appear to be lawful. Color of Law: Color of law refers to an appearance of legal power to act but which may actually operate in violation of law. Common Law: In Equity common law isnt written law, it cant be changed, it stems from Magna Carta. It is the idea that if you dont injure anyone, then there is no crime. Conversion: the wrongful possession or disposition of anothers property as if it were ones own. Constitutor: One who by simple agreement, becomes responsible for the payment of anothers debt Creditor: A person to whom a debt is owing by another person(debtor) Crime: An act committed or emitted, in violation of a public law De facto Judge: A judge operating under color of law but whose authority is procedurally defective , such as a judge appointed

under an unconstitutional statute. Democracy: Government by the people either directly or by representative. People or community as an organized whole wield sovereignty. {Rule by Majority or Mob Rule} Divine Law: Gods law as distinguished from human law. Common sense Emend: to correct or revise to edit or change FEALTY: In feudal law. Fidelity; allegiance to the feudal lord of the manor; the feudal obligation resting upon the tenant or vassal by which he was bound to be faithful and true to his lord, and render him obedience and service. Feudal:A landholding system in which all are bound by status in a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations of service and defense Fraud in the inducement: Fraud occurring when a misrepresentation leads another to enter into a transaction with a false impression of the risks, duties and obligations involved. General Appearance: a general-purpose appearance that waives a partys ability later to dispute the courts authority to enter a binding judgement against him or her. Habendum: a section of a conveyance which gives details of how the property is to be assigned to the purchaser, using the words to hold HJR 192: House Joint Resolution (HJR) 192: Joint Resolution To Suspend The Gold Standard & Abrogate The Gold Clause, Joint resolution to assure uniform value to the coins & currencies of the United States. Holder in Due Course: A person who in good faith has given value for a negotiable instrument that is complete and regular on its face, is not overdue and to the possessors knowledge has not been dishonored.

HOMAGE: In feudal law. A service (or the ceremony of rendering it) which a tenant was bound to perform to his lord on receiving investiture of a fee, or succeeding to it as heir, in acknowledgment of the tenure. It is described by Littleton as the most honorable service of reverence that a free tenant might do to his lord. The ceremony was as follows: The tenant, being ungirt and with bare head, knelt before the lord, the latter sitting, and held his hands extended and joined between the hands of the lord, and said: "I become your man [homo] from this day forward, of life and limb and earthly honor, and to you will be faithful and loyal, and bear you faith, for the tenements that I claim to hold of you, saving the faith that I owe unto our sovereign lord the king, so help me God." The tenant then received a kiss from the lord. Homage could be done only to the lord himself. IN FULL LIFE: Continuing in both physical and civil existence; that is, neither actuallydead nor c-iviliter mortuus. In Loco Parentis: of relating to or acting as a temporary guardian or caretaker of a child, taking on all or some of the responsibilities of a parent. In Propria Persona: In one's own proper person. Frequently written in abbreviated form, pro per, in pro per, in propria persona, propria persona. In one's own proper person. It was formerly a rule of pleading that pleas to the jurisdiction of the court must be plead in propria persona, because if pleaded by attorney they admit the jurisdiction, as an attorney is an officer of the court, and he is presumed to plead after having obtained leave (permission), which admits the jurisdiction. In Pro Se: For himself; in his own behalf; in person. Appearing for oneself, as in the case of one who does not retain a lawyer and appears for himself in court. Appearing "pro se" is not the same as appearing "in propria persona" as one appearing "pro se" is serving as his own attorney and thereby granting the court

jurisdiction (personam jurisdiction) as all attorneys are officers of the court. Jura: rights; laws Jural: pertaining to natural or positive right Recognized, sanctioned, embraced or covered by positive law Juris: of law, of right Jurisdiction: A governments general power to exercise authority over all persons and things within its territory especially a states power to create interests that will be recognized under common law in other states. Law: a system of principles and rules of human conduct Lex causae:The lex causae is a specific concept of private international law and refers to the law governing the substance of the case, designated by the rules of conflict of laws. See applicable law. Lex fori:The lex fori is a specific concept of private international law and refers to the law of the court in which the action is brought. Where an action is brought in a court and has an international dimension, the court must consider the law applicable to the case. In certain circumstances, the lex fori will apply. Traditionally the lex fori governs questions of procedure, regardless of the lex causae. Lex loci delicti:The lex loci delicti is a specific concept of private international law and refers to the law of the country where, in terms of non-contractual obligations, the harmful event occurred. License: A permission,usu, revocable, to commit some act that would otherwise be unlawful Manumit: to free( a slave)

Martial Law: the law by which the army, instead of the civil authority governs the country usually imposed when rulers think Civil law has failed, going to fail or foresee an invasion, insurrection, economic collapse, or other breakdowns in the the rulers desired social order. MCO: manufacturer's certificate of origin Mens rea: is another Latin phrase, meaning "guilty mind". A guilty mind means an intention to commit some wrongful act. Intention under criminal law is separate from a person's motive. Minor: Not of age, Status in court is not sovereign such as pro se Monarchy: Government in which a single person rules with powers varying from absolute dictatorship to merely ceremonial. {Rule by One} Money laundering: is "the process by which one conceals the existence, illegal source, or illegal application of income, and disguises that income to make it appear legitimate. MOOR: An officer in the Isle of Man, who summons the courts for the several shead ings. The office is similar to the English bailiff of a hundred. Moral Law: A collection of principles defining right and wrong conduct; a standard to which an action must conform to be right and virtuous. Motion: A written or oral application requesting a court to make a specified ruling or order. Nation: A people or aggregation of men, existing in the form of an organize jural society, National: of or related to a nation. A member of a nation. the highest ranking citizen, these are the natural, aboriginal and

indigenous inhabitants of the land. Naturalized: One clothed with certain rights and privileges of a citizenship Natural Person: Positive legal status In Propria Persona latin In Ones own person Netocracy: A perceived global class that bases its power on a technological advantage and networking skills. Nihil dicit: Latin for "he says nothing"; a judgment for want of a plea Non-Assumpsit: He did not undertake I do not agree to this contract. Oligarchy: Government in which a small group of persons exercise control. Elite group {Rule by a few} Paren Patriae: The state in its capacity as provider of protection to those unable to care for themselves. Attorney General as legal guardian People: A state; A nation in its collective and political capacity Person: A human being considered as capable of having rights and of being charged with duties; while a thing is the object over which Rights may be exercised Prefer: To bring before; to prosecute; to try; to proceed with. To give advantage, priority or privilege Privilege: A Special legal right, exemption, or immunity granted to a person or class of persons; Quality of Products Legislation: A statute designed to protect a consumer who buys a substandard automobile usually by

requiring the manufacturer or dealer to replace the vehicle or to refund full purchase price. Republic: Government in which the people hold sovereign power and elect representatives who exercise that power. {Rule by law} Right: justice, ethical correctness or consonance with the rules of law or principles of morals, powers of free action Securitization: to convert(assest)into negotiable securities for resale in the financial market,allowing the issuing financial institution to remove assets from its books and therby improve its capital ratio and liquidity and to make new loans with the security proceeds. Seisin: Possession of real property under claim of freehold estate. The completion of the feudal investiture, by which the tenant was admitted into the feud, and performed the rights of homage and fealty. Black's: Feudal possession. The equivalent of "seisin" under the feudal system. Signature: a persons name or mark written by that person or at the persons direction. Commercial law, any name or writing used with the intention of authenticating a document. Ucc 1-201b37 3-401b Sovereign:Person,body or state vested with independent and supreme authority. Special Appearance: A defendants pleading that either claims the court lacks jurisdiction over the defendant or objects to improper service of process.2 A defendants showing up in court for the sole purpose of contesting the courts assertion of personal jurisdiction. Appearance de bene esse Statute: to ordain, establish or decree; An act of the legislature STRAMINEUS HOMO: A man of straw, one of no substance, put

forward as bail or surety. STRAWMAN: A front, a third party who is put up in name only to take part in a transaction. Nominal party to a transaction; one who acts as an agent for another for the purposes of taking title to real property & executing whatever documents & instruments the principal may direct. Person who purchases property for another to conceal identity of real purchaser or to accomplish some purpose otherwise not allowed. Sui Juris: of ones own rightof Full age and capacity. Possessing full social and civil rights TDA: Treasury Direct Account, go to Title 26 USC & take a look at section 163(h)(3)(B)(ii), $1,000,000 limitation: "The aggregate amount treated as acquisition indebtedness for any period shall not exceed $1,000,000 ($500,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return)." Tenendum: conveyancing. This is a Latin word, which signifies to hold.It was formerly that part of a deed which was used to express the tenure by which the estate granted was holden; but since all freehold tenures were converted into socage, the tenendum is of no further use even in England, and is therefore joined to the habendum in this manner, "to have and to hold." The words "to hold" have now no meaning in our deeds. 2 Bl. Com. 298. Vide Habendum. To Have And To Hold: The words in a conveyance which show the estate intended to be conveyed. Thus, in conveyance of land in fee-simple, the grant is to A. and his heirs, to have and to hold the said[land] unto and to the use of the said A., his heirs and assigns forever. Williams, Real Prop. 198 Strictly speaking, however, the words to have denote the estate to be taken, while the words to hold signify that it is to be held of some superior lord, i.e., by way of tenure,(q.v.) The former clause is called the habendum; the latter, the tenendum. Co. Litt. 6a.

Tort: A civil wrong other than a breach of contract, for which a remedy must be found usually in the form of damages. UCC: Uniform Commercial Code , a uniform law that governs commercial transactions, including sales of goods, secured transactions and negotiable instruments. Unalienable Rights: A right that can not be transferred or surrendered. A natural right. Something that is due by just claim, legal gurantee, or moral principle. United States Notes: Promissory nots, resembling bank-notes, issued by the government of the United States Void Ab Initio: Void from the beginning. If a contract lacks legal merit from the beginning it is null and void. WARD: A person, especially an infant, placed 'by authority of law under the care of a guardian. WAR D E N: A guardian ; a keeper. This is the name given to various officers.